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Brazilian soccer prodigy, Neymar.
Born on February 5, 1992, in São Paulo, Brazil, Neymar drew attention for his impressive soccer abilities
at an early age. He emerged as a star for Santos FC as a teenager, winning four straight Player of the Year
awards while becoming one of Brazil's most popular public figures. Neymar made the leap to Europe to
join FC Barcelona for the start of the 2013-14 season, and became a fixture for a club that claimed
numerous domestic and international titles. After leading the Brazilian men to their first Olympic gold
medal in 2016, the star forward transferred to France's Paris Saint-Germain the following year. Neymar
and former girlfriend Carolina Dantas had a son in August 2011 whom they named David Lucca.
Neymar is a Pentecostal Christian and has sometimes been seen sporting a headband that says: "100%
The son of a former professional soccer player, Neymar followed in his father's footsteps by playing street
games and futsal, an indoor version of the game. He joined the Portuguesa Santista youth club in 1999,
and within a few years was one of the most highly regarded young talents in the country.
Neymar joined the youth system of Santos FC at age 11. News of his abilities spread to Europe, and he
was offered the chance to continue his development with Real Madrid C.F. at age 14, but the Santos
team's management reportedly convinced Neymar to stay put with a large bonus.
Neymar made his senior debut for Santos in 2009 and lived up to the hype by earning the league's Best
Young Player award. He emerged as a full-blown star in 2010, helping Santos claim the league and Copa
do Brasil championships en route to the first of three straight scoring titles and four straight Player of the
Year awards. That season he also made his debut for the senior national team and debuted a Mohawkstyle haircut, which quickly became popular among younger fans
Who Is Neymar?
What did he do after he got a golden medal?
How can you describe his early life?
When did he start his rising star?
English lessons and exercises > English test #24228: Past time expressions
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Past time expressions
Choose the right word.
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1. I was born in Africa
2. My parents moved back to England
3. We lived in Bristol
4. I left college three years
5. I found a flat on my own
6. I usually go home
7. I didn't go home
8. They arrived
I was five.
three years.
last year.
the weekend.
weekend because some friends came to stay.
three o'clock in the afternoon.
Saturday evening we went out to a concert.
we got home, we listened to some music.
11. We got up late
Sunday morning.
the afternoon, we went for a walk.
13. I bought a car a few weeks
14. I had an accident
15. It happened
last night.
seven o'clock in the evening.
16. I took my car to the garage
17. It will be ready
this morning.
two weeks.
Speaking practice. Here you are the cues and make a conversation with your partner.
 Graduation from high school
 Graduation from college/university
 Moving out of your parents’ house
 First day of work
 Marriage engagement
 Wedding
 Birth of child
 Every decade (age 20, 30, 40, etc.)
 Career milestones (promotions, job changes, etc.)
 Marriage milestones (1 year anniversary, 5 years, etc.)
 First home
That’s only a short list of possibilities. You might want to do some just for a bad day, or some general ones for
important days you might not expect.
Changes in the world
As we get closer and closer to 2019, it's hard not to look back on the years past and reflect on how different
everything is now. Twenty years ago, in 1999, the world was a completely different place than it is today.
We were on the dawn of a new millennium, stressed and unsure about what Y2K would bring. Cell phones were only
just beginning to become popular, social media was not yet the number one topic of conversation, Britney Spears
had just dropped her first album, and newspapers and magazines were still going strong.
Although 1999 might not feel that far away sometimes, when you think about how much the world has changed
since then, it feels like it happened a million years ago. Here are a few more examples of how different our lives are
You're now on the internet more than you aren't on the internet, instead of just using it for school or work.
Today, you can talk on the phone and use the internet at the same time.
You no longer have to worry about breathing in secondhand smoke when going out to eat.
You now get more excited about television than you do about movies.
You no longer have to sit around hoping your Napster song download goes through.
You rent movies off Amazon Prime instead of heading to Blockbuster.
Eating at a restaurant has become a social experience.
You can no longer go on vacation and truly take a break from everything.
Many people see terrorist attacks a more of a looming threat today.
You probably also have a much bigger fear of mass shootings today than you did 20 years ago.
You now get updates from the president of the United States on Twitter.
You no longer have to memorize anyone's phone numbers.
You text instead of leaving voicemails.
Everyone has a smartphone, and most people don't even know what a Nokia is.
You have to take your shoes off when you fly now.
Online dating is the norm today.
You have the option to watch television without commercials.
You now take photos on your cell phone instead of a film camera.
You use Google Chrome instead of Internet Explorer.
You make playlists instead of burning CDs.
Which one is the most important to you? Why?
Write a descriptive composition.
Productive Reading Practice. Events that has changed the world.
70 years later: How World War II changed America
Rick Hampson
Even as World War II was ending 70 years ago, Americans already knew it transformed their country. What they
didn’t know was just how much or for how long.
In that last wartime summer of 1945, the seeds1 of a new America started to grow up. Not just postwar America —
the Baby Boom, the Cold War, the Affluent Society, the sprawling suburbs — but the one in which we live today.
Look closely at the war years, and you can see those seeds.
•Two brothers who opened a drive-in restaurant in San Bernardino, Calif., were struck by working families’ desire
for cheap meals served fast — faster than their carhops could serve them2. Their name was McDonald.
•While building homes for federal war workers, a family-owned Long Island construction company had learned how
to lay dozens of concrete foundations in a single day, and preassemble uniform walls and roofs. The firm’s name was
Levitt & Sons.
What do you understand by seeds?
Use you own words and describe this expression. faster
•A young, black Army lieutenant was court-martialed in 1944 after he refused to sit in the back of a military bus at
Camp Hood, Texas. The trial prevented him from serving overseas, but he was acquitted. His name was Jackie
•In 1944, an Army Air Forces photographer discovered a beautiful young woman working on an aircraft assembly
line in Burbank, Calif. One of his photos helped land her a modeling job. Her name was Norma Jean Baker. Later she
would change it to Marilyn Monroe.
•In 1945, engineers were finishing a sort of “electronic brain” 3 for the Army. Equipped with 18,000 vacuum tubes
instead of the usual electrical switches, it could do about 5,000 computations per second — 4,996 more than the
best electric calculator. They called it an Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. Only the last word stuck. In
the next decade, the Levitts would build Levittown, N.Y., the most famous postwar suburb. McDonald’s, focusing on
assembly line hamburgers, would begin its ascent to global fast-food dominance4. Robinson would integrate Major
League Baseball.
Use only one word to explain the mening of “electronic brain”
Use your own words and explain the mening of this expression. its ascent to global fast-food dominance
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#108575: Should or shouldn't for your health
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Should or shouldn't for your health
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The 8 Health Habits Experts Say You Need in Your 20s
CreditKim Murton
This article is part of a series aimed at helping you navigate life’s opportunities and challenges. What else should we
write about? Contact us: [email protected]
If you had just one piece of health advice for people in their 20s, what would it be?
That’s the question we posed to a number of experts in nutrition, obesity, cardiology and other health disciplines.
While most 20-year-olds don’t worry much about their health, studies show the lifestyle and health decisions we
make during our third decade of life have a dramatic effect on how well we age.
Staying healthy in your 20s is strongly associated with a lower risk for heart disease in middle age, according to
research from Northwestern University. That study showed that most people who adopted five healthy habits in
their 20s – a lean body mass index, moderate alcohol consumption, no smoking, a healthy diet and regular physical
activity – stayed healthy well into middle age.
And a disproportionate amount of the weight we gain in life is accumulated in our 20s, according to data from the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The average woman in the United States weighs about 150 when she’s
19, but by the time she’s 29, she weighs 162 pounds – that’s a gain of 12 pounds. An average 19-year-old man weighs
175 pounds, but by the time he hits 29 he is nine pounds heavier, weighing in at 184 pounds.
But it can be especially difficult for a young adult to focus on health. Young people often spend long hours at work,
which can make it tough to exercise and eat well. They face job pressure, romantic challenges, money problems and
family stress. Who has time to think about long-term health?
To make it easier, we asked our panel of experts for just one simple piece of health advice. We skipped the obvious
choices like no smoking or illegal drug use – you know that already. Instead we asked them for simple strategies to
help a 20-something get on the path to better health. Here’s what they had to say.
(Related: Why you should skip health websites and just see a doctor)
Weigh yourself often.
- Susan Roberts, professor of nutrition at Tufts University and co-founder of the iDiet weight management program
Buy a bathroom scale or use one at the gym and weigh yourself regularly. There is nothing more harmful to longterm health than carrying excess pounds, and weight tends to creep up starting in the 20s. It is pretty easy for most
people to get rid of three to five pounds and much harder to get rid of 20. If you keep an eye on your weight you
can catch it quickly.
Learn to cook.
- Barbara J. Rolls, professor and Guthrie Chair of Nutritional Sciences at Penn State
Learning to cook will save you money and help you to eat healthy. Your focus should be on tasty ways to add variety
to your diet and to boost intake of veggies and fruits and other nutrient-rich ingredients. As you experiment with
herbs and spices and new cooking techniques, you will find that you can cut down on the unhealthy fats, sugar and
salt, as well as the excess calories found in many prepared convenience foods. Your goal should be to develop a
nutritious and enjoyable eating pattern that is sustainable and that will help you not only to be well, but also to
manage your weight.
(Related: The foods you should stop buying and start making yourself)
Cut back on sugar.
- Steven E. Nissen, chairman of cardiovascular medicine at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation
I suggest that young people try to avoid excessive simple sugar by eliminating the most common sources of
consumption: 1) sugared soft drinks 2) breakfast cereals with added sugar and 3) adding table sugar to foods.
Excessive sugar intake has been linked to obesity and diabetes, both of which contribute to heart disease. Sugar
represents “empty calories” with none of the important nutrients needed in a balanced diet. Conversely, the
traditional dietary villains, fat, particularly saturated fat, and salt, have undergone re-examination by many
thoughtful nutrition experts. In both cases, the available scientific evidence does not clearly show a link to heart
Live an active life.
- Walter Willett, chairman of the nutrition department at the Harvard School for Public Health
While many people can’t find time for a scheduled exercise routine, that doesn’t mean you can’t find time to be
active. Build physical activity into your daily life. Find a way to get 20 or 30 minutes of activity each day, including
riding a bike or briskly walking to work.
(Related: Learn how to run like a pro.)
Eat your veggies.
- Marion Nestle, professor of nutrition, food studies and public health at New York University
Nutrition science is complicated and debated endlessly, but the basics are well established: Eat plenty of plant foods,
go easy on junk foods, and stay active. The trick is to enjoy your meals, but not to eat too much or too often.
Practice portion control.
- Lisa R. Young, adjunct professor of nutrition at New York University
My tip would be to not to ban entire food groups but to practice portion control. Portion control doesn’t mean tiny
portions of all foods - quite the opposite. It’s okay to eat larger portions of healthy foods like vegetables and fruit.
No one got fat from eating carrots or bananas. Choose smaller portions of unhealthy foods such as sweets, alcohol
and processed foods. When eating out, let your hand be your guide. A serving of protein like chicken or fish should
be the size of your palm. (Think 1-2 palms of protein.) A serving of starch, preferably a whole grain such as brown
rice or quinoa should be the size of your fist. Limit high-fat condiments like salad dressing to a few tablespoons – a
tablespoon is about the size of your thumb tip.
Adopt a post-party exercise routine.
- Barry Popkin, professor of global nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
If you engage in a lot of drinking and snacking, ensure you exercise a lot to offset all those extra calories from Friday
to Sunday that come with extra drinking and eating. We found in a study that on Friday through Sunday young adults
consumed about 115 more calories than on other days, mainly from fat and alcohol
Future world fairs must focus on green technology which can help conserve the natural environment. They can also
negate the impact of industrialization. They should focus on recycling, water purification, remediation and
renewable energy sources. The environment is a major issue for all world nations. They can be highlighted in future
world fairs (Schell, 1982). Alternate energy sources like solar energy and wind energy can create fewer problems
than fossil fuels. They are much cleaner and do not damage the environment.
Global warming will be a major theme of futuristic world expositions. The reduction of greenhouse gases and
pollution will be addressed. Futuristic technology which can sustain both human development and the environment
will be the features of such expositions (Schell, 1982). The menace of world conflicts will also be addressed in future
world expositions. Most of the citizens of the world desire a world which is prosperous, peaceful and free from
conflicts. A future world exposition will generate new ideas about conflict resolution and to use pacifist means to
prevent war.
A global anti war movement could effectively utilize a future world fair to enable its views to be heard in all parts of
the globe. Other problems of the world like illiteracy, hunger, poverty, terrorism, environment destruction, low
standard of living, lack of access to clean water and social problems will be the themes of future world expositions.
New technologies of the future like nanotechnology, stem cell research, growing of human organs in animals and
genetically modified crops will also be introduced in such futuristic world expositions.
The internet has created a new revolution for human beings. The huge accessibility of information is amazing given
that a person can access it from anywhere in the globe. The concept of world fairs has not become obsolete by the
advent of the internet. The internet can be successfully used to host a world fair. It would be an amazing introduction
to the entire world. The world fairs can be based on different themes. They would focus on the issues confronting
human beings (Schurman, 2006). The best type of future world fair would be one which is both in cyberspace and in
real society
Visitors who can travel to the country hosting the exposition can see the pavilions, concepts, themes and stalls.
People who are unable to travel to the host country can access it from the internet. While the internet is a huge
portal of information not every person has the time or resources to access the information. An internet based world
exposition would centralize the concepts and themes of the 21st century. It would provide easy accessibility for the
people who want to access it and understand the issues confronted by human beings.
The future world fair will not be hosted by countries but instead would be a collection of concepts and ideas by
individuals and private organizations. This would facilitate the exchange of cultural ideas and help promote global
peace. Future world fairs must focus on the social issues of the 21st century. The threat of terrorism and warfare
must be countered by facilitating a dialogue between individuals representing various civilizations. World fairs have
been the third largest world events since the nineteenth century.
Read this essay. What other problems will happen in the city after 40 years?
Write a composition about it.
Yale College Writing Center Adapted from Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL)
The graduate school personal statement is your opportunity to convey what you might be like as a future colleague
and professional within your discipline. It is your chance to articulate the passion that will make you a motivated
scholar and teacher, as well as your familiarity with the field and your potential research interests. An interesting,
well-written, and polished personal statement represents the confident, intelligent, and grounded professional you
will become. Initial Preparation:
• Thoroughly research the schools and departments to which you plan to apply. Other than business, law, medical
or other professional schools, most graduate programs enroll twenty or fewer students each year. Graduate
admissions committees want to know why you are the best fit for their program/department. Each department is
unique, and your statement should reflect your knowledge of the department’s research strengths.
• Clarify your motivations and goals for pursuing a graduate degree. Keep in mind that graduate school prepares you
for a specific profession: why do you want to join that profession?
• Talk to current graduate students and professors about the environment and expectations of the field you want
to enter. Consider how your skills and experience have prepared you for success in this field. • Read recent journal
articles and other scholarship in the field that is close to your scholarly interests. Goals for the Personal Statement:
• Demonstrate your intellectual passion for the field—what thrills or excites you about the research you’ve done or
you would like to do?
• Provide concrete examples of your skills, interests, and previous research in the field, and how they might inform
the research you would like to pursue in your graduate studies.
• Show that you are familiar with the procedures and expectations of scholarship and professional training in your
field, and that you have the character, qualities and experience to thrive. Use the professional language of the field
to describe your scholarly interests.
• Graduate school is extremely challenging—intellectually, emotionally, and financially. Convey that you have the
energy and perseverance to succeed through examples of challenges you’ve faced and how you’ve overcome them.
What to avoid: • Cliché: Statements like, “I’ve always wanted to help people,” “I have always loved reading novels,”
etc., are both overused and uninteresting to graduate admissions committees. Using vague, clichéd phrases to
explain your interest in the field undermines the seriousness and professionalism of the scholarly endeavor. Instead,
try to provide a specific anecdote that illustrates what sparked and sustains your passion.
• Personal statements can have moments of humor that reflect your character/personality, but the primary purpose
isn’t to show how clever you are in composing the essay; it’s to present yourself as an interesting and potentially
inspiring future colleague. For example, writing a humorous piece about how you want to study psychology because
you were inspired by watching The Sopranos (which might be acceptable for an undergraduate personal statement)
wouldn’t be useful for the graduate school application.
• Lists of accomplishments: This is what the rest of the application is for. Instead, focus on just one or two
experiences that illustrate the qualities and interests that will make you a good potential scholar. Drafting the
Personal Statement Questions to prompt your writing:
• What event or experience inspired your decision to seriously pursue studies in your field?
• What research, scholarship, or experience in the last few years reflects your future scholarly interests? How does
it show your knowledge, skills, and passion about the field?
• What specific line of inquiry or areas of research would you like to pursue as a graduate student/future scholar?
Why are those issues of particular interest to you? Why might they be important to the field as a whole?
• What experience illustrates your ability to meet the rigors and challenges of graduate study? General suggestions
for organization:
• Begin with a story: Use the first paragraph to tell a narrative that illustrates your intellectual passion and personal
commitment to the field.
• Use the middle section of your essay to focus on your intellectual experience with the field and your goals for
future research.
• Conclude with why you would excel in your studies, especially at the particular institution to which you are
applying. Revising and polishing your statement:
• After writing an initial draft, set up an appointment with a Residential College Writing Tutor to discuss the content
and organization of the draft.
• Revise the draft and then arrange a meeting with a professor/mentor in the field to look over your statement and
offer suggestions.
• Revise your draft again and meet with a Residential College Writing Tutor to polish the essay in terms of structure,
style, and grammar. Other things to keep in mind:
• Tailor each statement to the question asked by each graduate school.
• Tailor each statement to reflect your knowledge of that particular program and professors. For example, is there
an archive at the university that you would like to take advantage of? Are there particular laboratories or specialties
among the graduate faculty that would give you an opportunity to pursue your interests?
Career Advice»
Getting Ahead at Work»
Five Steps for Success After Graduating From College
by Sara Mahuron
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1Use a Master's Degree to Change Jobs
2Write a Personal Mission Statement in Career Goals
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4Use Transferable Skills to Make a Career Change
Graduating from college is a big milestone for many adults. It marks success for many and opens doors. New
graduates have high expectations for the future they have worked so hard for. Use the enthusiasm graduation brings
to jump start your career and post-graduate success. Re-evaluate your goals and align your efforts to achieve them.
It's time to stop living like a college student and become a professional.
Evaluate Your Finances
Your finances became more complicated when you graduated. While you may no longer have a tuition bill, you will
need housing, transportation, health insurance, food and professional clothing. If you relied heavily on financial aid,
your financial situation may change drastically when you graduate. Limited funds can quickly turn to no funds. And
on top of that, your student loans will soon become due. Plan for how you will make payments until you get a job.
Avoid living beyond your means and pay important expenses first.
Set Goals
Now that you have accomplished the goal of graduation, it is time to set new goals to serve as your framework for
post-graduate success. Create a big picture of what success means to you. Do you want to work for a particular
company? Do you want marriage and children? Do you dream of home ownership, or do you already dream of
retirement? Your goals should be based on what you want for your life so you can plan the actions you need to take
to get what you want.
Update Your Look
It is time to look professional. Pack away your college wardrobe and t-shirt collection. To get the job you want, you
will need to look the part. Think beyond your wardrobe and create a professional image all around. Make sure you
present a professional image on social networking sites, trade your backpack in for a briefcase and get a makeover.
While your expectations changed when you graduated, so did others' expectations of you. Dress to impress and
remember the value of a great first impression every time you meet someone new.
Update Your Resume
Your resume should no longer look a like a student resume. Make it one page for an entry level resume. Keep
everything direct and to the point, making sure it is not over-crowded. Use keywords. Replace the objective
statement with a brief profile or inventory of your related skills. Use friendly formatting and make sure your resume
is well-proofread. Get feedback from peers before you seek it from employers. Use professional language and write
accomplishments in an objective, measurable format. Include a cover letter with your resume and send a follow-up
letter and thank you note.
Find a Job
Define a career path, but be open to different opportunities. Create a professional image but expect an entry-level
job. Expect this to take some work and effort. Focus on using social opportunities to network and actively seek out
a mentor in your field. Look for opportunities to get involved in your field -- even if you haven't found a job yet. Don't
let your graduation be the end of your learning -- stay up-to-date in your field. Take advantage of your college's
career center and attend career fairs