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Manual Zyxel P-2302R-P1C version 3.60

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P-2302R-P1C
VoIP Station Gateway
Support Notes
Version 3.60
Oct. 2007
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
INDEX
Application Notes ......................................................................................................... 6
General Application Notes .....................................................................................6
Internet Connection ........................................................................................ 6
Setup the the ZyXEL Device as a DHCP Relay .......................................... 11
Configure an Internal Server Behind SUA .................................................. 13
Configure a PPTP server Behind SUA ........................................................ 14
About Filter & Filter Examples ................................................................... 18
Using the Dynamic DNS (DDNS) ............................................................... 41
Network Management Using SNMP ........................................................... 42
Using SysLog ............................................................................................... 49
Using IP Alias .............................................................................................. 52
Using IP Multicast ....................................................................................... 56
Using Traffic Redirect Feature ..................................................................... 58
Using Universal Plug n Play (UPnP) ........................................................... 61
VoIP Application Notes ........................................................................................67
Setup SIP Account ....................................................................................... 67
Advanced voice settings configuration ........................................................ 71
Voice QoS .................................................................................................... 77
Phone port settings ....................................................................................... 78
Common Phone............................................................................................ 79
Country Code ............................................................................................... 80
Call Forwarding ........................................................................................... 81
Call Hold ...................................................................................................... 84
Call Waiting ................................................................................................. 85
Three Way Conference ................................................................................ 86
Call Transfer ................................................................................................ 88
Internal Call ................................................................................................. 91
MWI ............................................................................................................. 91
Music on hold .............................................................................................. 92
Early Media .................................................................................................. 93
Call Park / Call Pickup................................................................................. 94
Phone book Speed dial ................................................................................. 96
FAQ ............................................................................................................................. 99
ZyNOS FAQ ........................................................................................................99
What is ZyNOS? .......................................................................................... 99
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How do I access the embedded web configurator? ...................................... 99
What is the default LAN IP address and Password? Moreover, how do I
change it? ..................................................................................................... 99
How do I upload the ZyNOS firmware code via embedded web
configurator? .............................................................................................. 100
How do I upgrade/backup the ZyNOS firmware by using FTP client
program via LAN? ..................................................................................... 100
How do I upload or backup ROMFILE via web configurator? ................. 100
How do I backup/restore configurations by using FTP client program via
LAN?.......................................................................................................... 101
Why can't I make Telnet to The ZyXEL Device from WAN? .................. 101
What should I do if I forget the system password? .................................... 101
What is SUA? When should I use SUA? ................................................... 102
What is the difference between NAT and SUA? ....................................... 102
How many network users can the SUA/NAT support? ............................. 102
What are Device filters and Protocol filters? ............................................. 103
Why can't I configure device filters or protocol filters? ............................ 103
Product FAQ ......................................................................................................103
What is the ZyXEL Device Internet Access Sharing Router? ................... 103
Will the ZyXEL Device work with my Internet connection? .................... 103
What do I need to use the ZyXEL Device? ............................................... 104
What is PPPoE? ......................................................................................... 104
Does the ZyXEL Device support PPPoE? ................................................. 104
How do I know I am using PPPoE? ........................................................... 104
Why does my provider use PPPoE?........................................................... 104
Which Internet Applications can I use with the ZyXEL Device? .............. 104
How can I configure the ZyXEL Device? ................................................. 105
What network interface does the ZyXEL Device support? ....................... 105
What can we do with the ZyXEL Device? ................................................ 105
Does the ZyXEL Device support dynamic IP addressing? ........................ 105
What is the difference between the internal IP and the real IP from my ISP?
.................................................................................................................... 105
How does e-mail work through the ZyXEL Device? ................................ 105
What is the difference between the 'Standard' and 'RoadRunner' service? 106
Is it possible to access a server running behind SUA from the outside
Internet? If possible, how? ......................................................................... 106
What DHCP capability does the ZyXEL Device support? ........................ 106
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How do I used the reset button, more over what field of parameter will be
reset by reset button? ................................................................................. 106
What network interface does the new ZyXEL Device support? ................ 106
How does the ZyXEL Device support TFTP? ........................................... 107
Can the ZyXEL Device support TFTP over WAN? ................................... 107
How can I upload data to outside Internet over the one-way cable? ......... 107
How fast can the data go? .......................................................................... 107
My ZyXEL Device can not get an IP address from the ISP to connect to
the Internet, what can I do? ........................................................................ 108
What is BOOTP/DHCP?............................................................................ 110
What is DDNS?.......................................................................................... 110
When do I need DDNS service? ................................................................ 111
What DDNS servers does the ZyXEL Device support? ............................ 111
What is DDNS wildcard?........................................................................... 111
Does the ZyXEL Device support DDNS wildcard? .................................. 111
Can the ZyXEL Device SUA handle IPsec packets sent by the VPN
gateway behind ZyXEL Device? ............................................................... 111
How do I setup my ZyXEL Device for routing IPsec packets over SUA? 112
VoIP FAQ ........................................................................................................... 112
What is Voice over IP? .............................................................................. 112
How does Voice over IP work? ................................................................. 112
Why use VoIP? .......................................................................................... 112
What is the relationship between codec and VoIP? ................................... 113
What advantage does Voice over IP can provide?..................................... 113
What is the difference between H.323 and SIP?........................................ 113
Can H.323 and SIP interoperate with one another? ................................... 113
What is voice quality? ................................................................................ 113
How are voice quality normally rated? ...................................................... 113
What is codec? ........................................................................................... 114
What is the relation of codec and VoIP? ................................................... 114
What codec does the ZyXEL Device support? .......................................... 114
Which codec should I choose? ................................................................... 114
What do I need in order to use SIP? .......................................................... 114
Unable to register with the SIP server?...................................................... 115
I can register but can not establish a call?.................................................. 115
I can make a call but the voice only goes one way not in both ways?....... 115
I can receive a call but the voice only goes one way not bothway? .......... 115
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If all the about have been tried, but register still fail what should I do? .... 115
I suspect there is a hardware problem with my ZyXEL Device what should
I do? ........................................................................................................... 116
Trouble Shooting ...................................................................................................... 116
Unable to Get WAN IP from ISP ....................................................................... 116
Using Embedded Packet Trace .......................................................................... 119
Debug PPPoE Connection .................................................................................134
CLI Command List .................................................................................................. 145
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Application Notes
General Application Notes
Internet Connection
A typical Internet access application of the ZyXEL Device is shown below. For a small office, there are some
components needs to be checked before accessing the Internet.


Before you begin
Setting up the Windows
Setting up the ZyXEL Device
Troubleshooting

Before you begin


The ZyXEL Device is shipped with the following factory default:
1. IP address = 192.168.1.1, subnet mask = 255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
2. DHCP server enabled with IP pool starting from 192.168.1.33
3. Default SMT menu password = 1234

Setting up the PC (Windows OS)
1. Ethernet connection
All PCs must have an Ethernet adapter card installed.
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

If you only have one PC, connect the PC's Ethernet adapter to the ZyXEL Device's LAN port with
a crossover (red one) Ethernet cable.
If you have more than one PC, both the PC's Ethernet adapters and the ZyXEL Device's LAN port
must be connected to an external hub with straight Ethernet cable.
2. TCP/IP Installation
You must first install TCP/IP software on each PC before you can use it for Internet access. If you have already
installed TCP/IP, go to the next section to configure it; otherwise, follow these steps to install:



In the Control Panel/Network window, click Add button.
In the Select Network Component Type windows, select Protocol and click Add.
In the Select Network Protocol windows, select Microsoft from the manufacturers, then select
TCP/IP from the Network Protocols and click OK.
3. TCP/IP Configuration
Follow these steps to configure Windows TCP/IP:


In the Control Panel/Network window, click the TCP/IP entry to select it and click Properties
button.
In the TCP/IP Properties window, select obtain an IP address automatically.
Note: Do not assign arbitrary IP address and subnet mask to your PCs, otherwise, you will not be able to access
the Internet.






Click the WINS configuration tab and select Disable WINS Resolution.
Click the Gateway tab. Highlight any installed gateways and click the Remove button until there
are none listed.
Click the DNS Configuration tab and select Disable DNS.
Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP properties window
Click OK to close the Network window. You will be prompted to insert your Windows CD or disk.
When the drivers are updated, you will be asked if you want to restart the PC. Make sure your
ZyXEL Device is powered on before answering Yes to the prompt. Repeat the above steps for
each Windows PC on your network.
Setting up the ZyXEL Device
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
The following procedure is for the most typical usage of the ZyXEL Device where you have a single-user
account (SUA). The ZyXEL Device supports embedded web server that allows you to use Web browser to
configure it. Before configuring the router using Browser please be sure there is no Telnet or Console login.
1. Retrieve ZyXEL Device Web
Please enter the LAN IP address of the ZyXEL Device in the URL location to retrieve the web screen from the
ZyXEL Device. The default LAN IP of the ZyXEL Device is 192.168.1.1. See the example below. Note that
you can either use http://192.168.1.1 or https://192.168.1.1
2. Login first
The default password is the default SMT password, '1234'.
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3. Configure the ZyXEL Device for Internet access by using WIZARD SETUP
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The Web screen shown below takes PPPoE as the example.
Select “Dynamic" if the ISP provides the IP dynamically, otherwise select “Use Fixed IP address" and
enter the static IP given by ISP in the box following“MY WAN IP Address"field.
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Setup the the ZyXEL Device as a DHCP Relay

What is DHCP Relay?
DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. In addition to the DHCP server feature, the P2302
supports the DHCP relay function. When it is configured as DHCP server, it assigns the IP addresses to the
LAN clients. When it is configured as DHCP relay, it is responsible for forwarding the requests and responses
negotiating between the DHCP clients and the server. See figure 1.
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
Setup the ZyXEL Device as a DHCP Client
1. Toggle the DHCP to Relay in menu 3.2 and enter the IP address of the DHCP server in the 'Relay Server
Address' field.
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
DHCP= Relay
TCP/IP Setup:
Client IP Pool:
Starting Address= N/A
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
Size of Client IP Pool= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
First DNS Server= N/A
IP Address= N/A
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Second DNS Server= N/A
IP Address= N/A
Multicast= None
Edit IP Alias= No
Third DNS Server= N/A
IP Address= N/A
DHCP Server Address= 192.168.1.2
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Configure an Internal Server Behind SUA

Introduction
If you wish, you can make internal servers (e.g., Web, ftp or mail server) accessible for outside users, even
though SUA makes your LAN appear as a single machine to the outside world. A service is identified by the
port number. Also, since you need to specify the IP address of a server in the ZyXEL Device, a server must
have a fixed IP address and not be a DHCP client whose IP address potentially changes each time it is powered
on.
In addition to the servers for specific services, SUA supports a default server. A service request that does not
have a server explicitly designated for it is forwarded to the default server. If the default server is not defined,
the service request is simply discarded.

Configuration
To make a server visible to the outside world, specify the port number of the service and the inside address of
the server in 'Menu 15.2.1', Multiple Server Configuration. The outside users can access the local server using
the ZyXEL Device's WAN IP address which can be obtained from menu 24.1.

For example (Configuring an internal Web server for outside access) :
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
Port numbers for some services
Service
Port Number
FTP
21
Telnet
23
SMTP
25
DNS (Domain Name Server)
53
www-http (Web)
80
Configure a PPTP server Behind SUA

Introduction
PPTP is a tunneling protocol defined by the PPTP forum that allows PPP packets to be encapsulated within
Internet Protocol (IP) packets and forwarded over any IP network, including the Internet itself.
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In order to run the Windows 9x PPTP client, you must be able to establish an IP connection with a tunnel server
such as the Windows NT Server 4.0 Remote Access Server.
Windows Dial-Up Networking uses the Internet standard Point-to-Point (PPP) to provide a secure, optimized
multiple-protocol network connection over dial-up telephone lines. All data sent over this connection can be
encrypted and compressed, and multiple network level protocols (TCP/IP, NetBEUI and IPX) can be run
correctly. Windows NT Domain Login level security is preserved even across the Internet.
Window98 PPTP Client / Internet / NT RAS Server Protocol Stack
PPTP appears as new modem type(Virtual Private Networking Adapter) that can be selected when setting up a
connection in the Dial-Up Networking folder. The VPN Adapter type does not appear elsewhere in the system.
Since PPTP encapsulates its data stream in the PPP protocol, the VPN requires a second dial-up adapter. This
second dial-up adapter for VPN is added during the installation phase of the Upgrade in addition to the first
dial-up adapter that provides PPP support for the analog or ISDN modem.
The PPTP is supported in Windows NT and Windows 98 already. For Windows 95, it needs to be upgraded by
the Dial-Up Networking 1.2 upgrade.

Configuration
This application note explains how to establish a PPTP connection with a remote private network in the ZyXEL
Device SUA case. In ZyNOS, all PPTP packets can be forwarded to the internal PPTP Server (WinNT server)
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behind SUA. The port number of the PPTP has to be entered in the SMT Menu 15 for ZyXEL Device to
forward to the appropriate private IP address of Windows NT server.

Example
The following example shows how to dial to an ISP via the ZyXEL Device and then establish a tunnel to a
private network. There will be three items that you need to set up for PPTP application, these are PPTP server
(WinNT), PPTP client (Win9x) and the ZyXEL Device.

o
PPTP server setup (WinNT)
 Add the VPN service from Control Panel>Network
 Add an user account for PPTP logged on user
 Enable RAS port
 Select the network protocols from RAS such as IPX, TCP/IP NetBEUI
 Set the Internet gateway to ZyXEL Device
o
PPTP client setup (Win9x)
 Add one VPN connection from Dial-Up Networking by entering the correct
username & password and the IP address of the ZyXEL Device's Internet IP
address for logging to NT RAS server.
 Set the Internet gateway to the router that is connecting to ISP
o
ZyXEL router setup
Before making a VPN connection from Win9x to WinNT server, you need to connect ZyXEL
router to your ISP first.
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
Enter the IP address of the PPTP server (WinNT server) and the port number for PPTP as shown
below.
When you have finished the above settings, you can ping to the remote Win9x client from
WinNT. This ping command is used to demonstrate that remote the Win9x can be reached across the
Internet. If the Internet connection between two LANs is achieved, you can place a VPN call from the
remote Win9x client.
For example:
C:\ping 203.66.113.2
When a dial-up connection to ISP is established, a default gateway is assigned to the router traffic
through that connection. Therefore, the output below shows the default gateway of the Win9x client
after the dial-up connection has been established.
Before making a VPN connection from the Win9x client to the NT server, you need to know the exact
Internet IP address that the ISP assigns to ZyXEL router in SUA mode and enter this IP address in the
VPN dial-up dialog box. You can check this Internet IP address from PNC Monitor or SMT Menu
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24.1. If the Internet IP address is a fixed IP address provided by ISP in SUA mode, then you can
always use this IP address for reaching the VPN server.
In the following example, the IP address '140.113.1.225' is dynamically assigned by ISP. You must
enter this IP address in the 'VPN Server' dialog box for reaching the PPTP server. After the VPN link is
established, you can start the network protocol application such as IP, IPX and NetBEUI.
About Filter & Filter Examples
How does ZyXEL filter work?

Filter Structure
The ZyXEL Device allows you to configure up to twelve filter sets with six rules in each set, for a total of 72
filter rules in the system. You can apply up to four filter sets to a particular port to block multiple types of
packets. With each filter set having up to six rules, you can have a maximum of 24 rules active for a single port.
The following diagram illustrates the logic flow when executing a filter rule.
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
Filter Types and SUA
Conceptually, there are two categories of filter rules: device and protocol. The Generic filter rules belong to the
device category; they act on the raw data from/to LAN and WAN. The IP and IPX filter rules belong to the
protocol category; they act on the IP and IPX packets.
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In order to allow users to specify the local network IP address and port number in the filter rules with SUA
connections, the TCP/IP filter function has to be executed before SUA for WAN outgoing packets and after the
SUA for WAN incoming IP packets. But at the same time, the Generic filter rules must be applied at the point
when the ZyXEL Device is receiving and sending the packets; i.e. the ISDN interface. So, the execution
sequence has to be changed. The logic flow of the filter is shown in Figure 1 and the sequence of the logic flow
for the packet from LAN to WAN is:

LAN device and protocol input filter sets.

WAN protocol call and output filter sets.
If SUA is enabled, SUA converts the source IP address from 192.168.1.33 to 203.205.115.6 and
port number from 1023 to 4034.
WAN device output and call filter sets.


The sequence of the logic flow for the packet from WAN to LAN is:




WAN device input filter sets.
If SUA is enabled, SUA converts the destination IP address from 203.205.115.6 to 92.168.1.33 and port
number from 4034 to 1023.
WAN protocol input filter sets.
LAN device and protocol output filter sets.
Generic and TCP/IP (and IPX) filter rules are in different filter sets. The SMT will detect and prevent the
mixing of different category rules within any filter set in Menu 21. In the following example, you will receive
an error message 'Protocol and device filter rules cannot be active together' if you try to activate a TCP/IP (or
IPX) filter rule in a filter set that has already had one or more active Generic filter rules. You will receive the
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same error if you try to activate a Generic filter rule in a filter set that has already had one or more active
TCP/IP (or IPX) filter rules.
Menu 21.1.1:
Menu 21.1.1 - Generic Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,1
Filter Type= Generic Filter Rule
Active= Yes
Offset= 0
Length= 0
Mask= N/A
Value= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Check Next Rule
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Menu 21.1.2:
Menu 21.1.2 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,2
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 0
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 0
Port # Comp= None
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 0
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= N/A
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More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Check Next Rule
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Saving to ROM.
Please wait...
Protocol and device rule cannot be active together
To separate the device and protocol filter categories; two new menus, Menu 11.5 and Menu 13.1, have been
added, as well as some changes made to the Menu 3.1, Menu 11.1, and Menu 13. The new fields are shown
below.
Menu 3.1:
Menu 3.1 - General Ethernet Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Menu 11.1:
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= LAN
Route= IP
Active= Yes
Bridge= No
Encapsulation= PPP
Edit PPP Options= No
Incoming:
Rem IP Addr= ?
Rem Login= test
Edit IP/IPX/Bridge= No
Rem Password= ********
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Outgoing:
Session Options:
My Login= testt
Edit Filter Sets= Yes
My Password= *****
Authen= CHAP/PAP
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Menu 11.5:
Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
SMT will also prevent you from entering a protocol filter set configured in Menu 21 to the device filters field in
Menu 3.1, 11.5, or entering a device filter set to the protocol filters field. Even though SMT will prevent the
inconsistency from being entered in ZyNOS, it is unable to resolve the intermixing problems existing in the
filter sets that were configured before. Instead, when ZyNOS translates the old configuration into the new
format, it will verify the filter rules and log the inconsistencies. Please check the system log (Menu 24.3.1)
before putting your device into use.
In order to avoid operational problems later, the ZyXEL Device will disable its routing/bridging functions if
there is an inconsistency among its filter rules.
filter for blocking the web service

Configuration
Before configuring a filter, you need to know the following information:
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1. The outbound packet type (protocol & port number)
2. The source IP address
Generally, the outbound packets for Web service could be as following:
a. HTTP packet, TCP (06) protocol with port number 80
b. DNS packet, TCP (06) protocol with port number 53 or
c. DNS packet, UDP (17) protocol with port number 53
For all workstation on the LAN, the source IP address will be 0.0.0.0. Otherwise, you have to enter an IP
Address for the workstation you want to block. See the procedure for configuring this filter below.
o
o
Create a filter set in Menu 21, e.g., set 1
Create three filter rules in Menu 21.1.1, Menu 21.1.2, Menu 21.1.3

o
Rule 1- block the HTTP packet, TCP (06) protocol with port number 80
 Rule 2- block the DNS packet, TCP (06) protocol with port number 53
 Rule 3- block the DNS packet, UDP (17) protocol with port number 53
Apply the filter set in menu 4
1. Create a filter set in Menu 21
Menu 21 - Filter Set Configuration
Filter
Filter
Set #
Comments
Set #
Comments
------
-----------------
------
-----------------
1
Web Request
7
_______________
2
_______________
8
_______________
3
_______________
9
_______________
4
_______________
10
_______________
5
_______________
11
_______________
6
_______________
12
_______________
Enter Filter Set Number to Configure= 1
Edit Comments=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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2. Rule one for (a). http packet, TCP(06)/Port number 80
Menu 21.1.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 80
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
3.Rule 2 for (b).DNS request, TCP(06)/Port number 53
Menu 21.1.2 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,2
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 53
Port # Comp= Equal
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Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
4. Rule 3 for (c). DNS packet UDP(17)/Port number 53
Menu 21.1.2 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,2
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 17
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 53
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Forward
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
5. After the three rules are completed, you will see the rule summary in Menu 21.
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Menu 21.1 - Filter Rules Summary
# A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- - ---- -------------------------------------- - - 1 Y IP
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=80
N D N
2 Y IP
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=53
N D N
3 Y IP
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0,DP=53
N D F
6. Apply the filter set to the 'Output Protocol Filter Set' in the remote node setup.
A filter for blocking a specific client
Configuration
1. Create a filter set in Menu 21, e.g., set 1
Menu 21 - Filter Set Configuration
Filter
Filter
Set #
Comments
Set #
Comments
------
-----------------
------
-----------------
1
Block a client
7
_______________
2
_______________
8
_______________
3
_______________
9
_______________
4
_______________
10
_______________
5
_______________
11
_______________
6
_______________
12
_______________
Enter Filter Set Number to Configure= 0
Edit Comments=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
2. One rule for blocking all packets from this client
Menu 21.1.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 0
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
Source: IP Addr= 192.168.1.5
IP Mask= 255.255.255.255
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Forward
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Key Settings:
Source IP addr................Enter the client IP in this field
IP Mask..........................here the IP mask is used to mask the bits of the IP address given in the
Addr=' field, for one workstation it is 255.255.255.255.
Action Matched................Set to 'Drop' to drop all the packets from this client
Action Not Matched.........Set to 'Forward' to allow the packets from other clients
'Source IP
3. Apply the filter set number '1' to the 'Output Protocol Filter Set' field in the remote node setup.
A filter for blocking a specific MAC address
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
This configuration example shows you how to use a Generic Filter to block a specific MAC address of the
LAN.
Before you Begin
Before you configure the filter, you need to know the MAC address of the client first. The MAC address can be
provided by the NICs. If there is the LAN packet passing through the ZyXEL Device you can identify the
uninteresting MAC address from the ZyXEL Device's LAN packet trace. Please have a look at the following
example to know the trace of the LAN packets.
ras> sys trcp channel enet0 bothway
ras> sys trcp sw on
Now a client on the LAN is trying to ping Prestige………
ras> sys trcp sw off
ras> sys trcp disp
TIME:
37c060
enet0-RECV len:74 call=0
0000: [00 a0 c5 01 23 45] [00 80 c8 4c ea 63] 08 00 45 00
0010: 00 3c eb 0c 00 00 20 01 e3 ea ca 84 9b 5d ca 84
0020: 9b 63 08 00 45 5c 03 00 05 00 61 62 63 64 65 66
0030: 67 68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76
0040: 77 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
TIME:
37c060
enet0-XMIT len:74 call=0
0000: [00 80 c8 4c ea 63] [00 a0 c5 01 23 45] 08 00 45 00
0010: 00 3c 00 07 00 00 fe 01 f0 ef ca 84 9b 63 ca 84
0020: 9b 5d 00 00 4d 5c 03 00 05 00 61 62 63 64 65 66
0030: 67 68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76
0040: 77 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
The detailed format of the Ethernet Version II:
+ Ethernet Version II
- Address: 00-80-C8-4C-EA-63 (Source MAC) ----> 00-A0-C5-23-45
(Destination MAC)
- Ethernet II Protocol Type: IP
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+ Internet Protocol
- Version (MSB 4 bits): 4
- Header length (LSB 4 bits): 5
- Service type: Precd=Routine, Delay=Normal, Thrput=Normal, Reli=Normal
- Total length: 60 (Octets)
- Fragment ID: 60172
- Flags: May be fragmented, Last fragment, Offset=0 (0x00)
- Time to live: 32 seconds/hops
- IP protocol type: ICMP (0x01)
- Checksum: 0xE3EA
- IP address 202.132.155.93
(Source IP address) ---->
202.132.155.99(Destination IP address)
- No option
+ Internet Control Message Protocol
- Type: 8 - Echo Request
- Code: 0
- Checksum: 0x455C
- Identifier: 768
- Sequence Number: 1280
- Optional Data: (32 bytes)
Configurations
From the above first trace, we know a client is trying to ping request the ZyXEL router. And from the second
trace, we know the ZyXEL router will send a reply to the client accordingly. The following sample filter will
utilize the 'Generic Filter Rule' to block the MAC address [00 80 c8 4c ea 63].
1. First, from the incoming LAN packet we know the uninteresting source MAC address starts at the 7th Octet
TIME:
37c060
enet0-RECV len:74 call=0
0000: [00 a0 c5 01 23 45] [00 80 c8 4c ea 63] 08 00 45 00
0010: 00 3c eb 0c 00 00 20 01 e3 ea ca 84 9b 5d ca 84
0020: 9b 63 08 00 45 5c 03 00 05 00 61 62 63 64 65 66
0030: 67 68 69 6a 6b 6c 6d 6e 6f 70 71 72 73 74 75 76
0040: 77 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69
2. We are now ready to configure the 'Generic Filter Rule' as below.
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Menu 21.1.1 - Generic Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,1
Filter Type= Generic Filter Rule
Active= Yes
Offset= 6
Length= 6
Mask= ffffffffffff
Value= 0080c84cea63
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Forward
Key Settings:

Generic Filter Ruls
Set the 'Filter Type' to 'Generic Filter Rule'

Active
Turn 'Active' to 'Yes'

Offset (in bytes)
Set to '6' since the source MAC address starts at 7th octets we need to skip the first octets of the
destination MAC address.

Length (in bytes)
Set to '6' since MAC address has 6 octets.

Mask (in hexadecimal)
Specify the value that the ZyXEL Device will logically qualify (logical AND) the data in the
packet.
Since the Length is set to 6 octets the Mask for it should be 12 hexadecimal numbers. In this case,
we intent to set to 'ffffffffffff' to mask the incoming source MAC address, [00 80 c8 4c ea 63].

Value (in hexadecimal)
Specify the MAC address [00 80 c8 4c ea 63] that the ZyXEL Device should use to compare with
the masked packet. If the result from the masked packet matches the 'Value', then the packet is
considered matched.
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
Action Matched=
Enter the action you want if the masked packet matches the 'Value'. In this case, we will drop it.

Action Not Matched=
Enter the action you want if the masked packet does not match the 'Value'. In this case, we will
forward it. If you want to configure more rules please select 'Check Next Rule' to start configuring
the next new rule. However, please note that the 'Filter Type' must be also 'Generic Filter Rule' but
not others. Because the Generic and TCPIP (IPX) filter rules must be in different filter sets.
Menu 21.1.2 - Generic Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,2
Filter Type= Generic Filter Rule
Active= Yes
Offset= 6
Length= 6
Mask= ffffffffffff
Value= 0080c810234a
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Forward
You can now apply it to the 'General Ethernet Setup' in Menu 3.1. Please note that the 'Generic Filter' can only
be applied to the 'Device Filter' but not the 'Protocol Filter' that is used for configuring the TCPIP and IPX
filters.
Menu 3.1 - General Ethernet Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters= 1
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
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A filter for blocking the NetBIOS packets

Introduction
The NETBIOS protocol is used to share a Microsoft comupter of a workgroup. For the security concern, the
NetBIOS connection to a outside host is blocked by ZyXEL router as factory defaults. Users can remove the
filter sets applied to menu 3.1 and menu 4.1 for activating the NetBIOS services. The details of the filter
settings are described as follows.

Configuration
The packets need to be blocked are as follows. Please configure two filter sets with 4 and 2 rules respectively
based on the following packets in SMT menu 21.
Filter Set 1:
o
o
o
o
o
o
Rule 1-Destination port number 137 with protocol number 6 (TCP)
Rule 2-Destination port number 137 with protocol number 17 (UDP)
Rule 3-Destination port number 138 with protocol number 6 (TCP)
Rule 4-Destination port number 138 with protocol number 17 (UDP)
Rule 5-Destination port number 139 with protocol number 6 (TCP)
Rule 6-Destination port number 139 with protocol number 17 (UDP)
Filter Set 2:
o
o
Rule 1-Source port number 137, Destination port number 53 with protocol number 6
(TCP)
Rule 2-Source port number 137, Destination port number 53 with protocol number 17
(UDP)
Before starting to set the filter rules, please enter a name for each filter set in the 'Comments' field first.
Menu 21 - Filter Set Configuration
Filter
Filter
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Set #
------
Comments
-----------------
Set #
Comments
------
-----------------
1
NetBIOS_WAN
7
_______________
2
NetBIOS_LAN
8
_______________
3
_______________
9
_______________
4
_______________
10
_______________
5
_______________
11
_______________
6
_______________
12
_______________
Enter Filter Set Number to Configure= 1
Edit Comments=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Configure the first filter set 'NetBIOS_WAN' by selecting the Filter Set number 1.

Rule 1-Destination port number 137 with protocol number 6 (TCP)
Menu 21.1.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 137
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 0
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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
Rule 2-Destination port number 137 with protocol number 17 (UDP)
Menu 21.1.2 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,2
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 17
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 137
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 0
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:

Rule 3-Destination port number 138 with protocol number 6 (TCP)
Menu 21.1.3 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,3
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
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IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 138
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 0
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:

Rule 4-Destination port number 138 with protocol number 17 (UDP)
Menu 21.1.4 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,4
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 17
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 138
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 0
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= N/A
More= No
Log= None
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:

Rule 5-Destination port number 139 with protocol number 6 (TCP)
Menu 21.1.5 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,5
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 139
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 0
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:

Rule 6-Destination port number 139 with protocol number 17 (UDP)
Menu 21.1.6 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,6
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 17
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 139
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 0
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Forward
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:

After the first filter set is finished, you will get the complete rules summary as below.
Menu 21.2 - Filter Rules Summary
# A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- - ---- --------------------------------------------- - - 1 Y IP
Pr=6,
SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=137
N D N
2 Y IP
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=137
N D N
3 Y IP
Pr=6,
SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=138
N D N
4 Y IP
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=138
N D N
5 Y IP
Pr=6,
SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=139
N D N
6 Y IP
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=139
N D F
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes

Apply the first filter set 'NetBIOS_WAN' to the 'Output Protocol Filter' in the remote node
setup.
Configure the second filter set 'NetBIOS_LAN' by selecting the Filter Set number 2.

Rule 1-Source port number 137, Destination port number 53 with protocol number 6 (TCP)
Menu 21.2.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 2,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 53
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 137
Port # Comp= Equal
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:

Rule 2-Source port number 137, Destination port number 53 with protocol number 17 (UDP)
Menu 21.2.2 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 2,2
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
IP Protocol= 17
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 53
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 137
Port # Comp= Equal
TCP Estab= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Forward
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
1. After the first filter set is finished, you will get the complete rules summary as below.
Menu 21.2 - Filter Rules Summary
# A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- - ---- ---------------------------------------------- - - 1 Y IP
Pr=6,
SA=0.0.0.0, SP=137, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=53
N D N
2 Y IP
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, SP=137, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=53
N D F
1. Apply the filter set 'NetBIOS_LAN' in the 'Input protocol filters=' in the Menu 3 for blocking
the packets from LAN
Menu 3.1 - General Ethernet Setup
Input Filter Sets:
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
protocol filters= 2
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Using the Dynamic DNS (DDNS)
1. What is DDNS?
The DDNS service, an IP Registry provides a public central database where information such as email
addresses, hostnames, IPs etc. can be stored and retrieved. This solves the problems if your DNS server uses an
IP associated with dynamic IPs.
Without DDNS, we always tell the users to use the WAN IP of the ZyXEL Device to access the internal server.
It is inconvenient for the users if this IP is dynamic. With DDNS supported by the ZyXEL Device, you apply a
DNS name (e.g., www.zyxel.com.tw) for your server (e.g., Web server) from a DDNS server. The outside users
can always access the web server using the www.zyxel.com.tw regardless of the WAN IP of the ZyXEL
Device.
When the ISP assigns the ZyXEL Device a new IP, the ZyXEL Device must inform the DDNS server the
change of this IP so that the server can update its IP-to-DNS entry. Once the IP-to-DNS table in the DDNS
server is updated, the DNS name for your web server (i.e., www.zyxel.com.tw) is still usable.
The DDNS server stores password-protected email addresses with IPs and hostnames and accepts queries based
on email addresses. So, there must be an email entry in the ZyXEL Device menu 1.
The DDNS servers the ZyXEL Device supports currently is WWW.DYNDNS.ORG where you apply the DNS
from and update the WAN IP to.

Setup the DDNS

Before configuring the DDNS settings in the ZyXEL Device, you must register an account from
the DDNS server such as WWW.DYNDNS.ORG first. After the registration, you have a hostname
for your internal server and a password using to update the IP to the DDNS server.
Visit 'Dynamic DNS' in the 'Maintenance>System' in the WEB GUI to configure the settings.

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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Key Settings for using DDNS function:
Option
Description
Service Provider
Enter the DDNS server
WWW.DYNDNS.ORG.
Host
Enter the hostname you subscribe from the above DDNS server. For example,
zyxel.com.tw.
User
Enter the user name that
Password
Enter the password that the DDNS server gives to you.
Enable Wildcard
Enter the hostname for the wildcard function that the WWW.DYNDNS.ORG
supports. Note that Wildcard option is available only when the provider is
WWW.DYNDNS.ORG.
in
this
field.
Currently,
we
support
Network Management Using SNMP
1. SNMP Overview
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an applications-layer protocol used to exchange the
management information between network devices (e.g., routers). By using SNMP, network administrators can
more easily manage network performance, find and solve network problems. The SNMP is a member of the
TCP/IP protocol suite, it uses the UDP to exchange messages between a management Client and an Agent,
residing in a network node.
There are two versions of SNMP: Version 1 and Version 2. ZyXEL supports SNMPv1. Most of the changes
introduced in Version 2 increase SNMP's security capabilities. SNMP encompasses three main areas:
1. A small set of management operations.
2. Definitions of management variables.
3. Data representation.
The operations allowed are: Get, GetNext, Set, and Trap. These functions operate on variables that exist in
network nodes. Examples of variables include statistic counters, node port status, and so on. All of the SNMP
management functions are carried out through these simple operations. No action operations are available, but
these can be simulated by the setting of flag variables. For example, to reset a node, a counter variable named
'time to reset' could be set to a value, causing the node to reset after the time had elapsed.
SNMP variables are defined using the OSI Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1). ASN.1 specifies how a
variable is encoded in a transmitted data frame; it is very powerful because the encoded data is self-defining.
For example, the encoding of a text string includes an indication that the data unit is a string, along with its
length and value. ASN.1 is a flexible way of defining protocols, especially for network management protocols
where nodes may support different sets of manageable variables.
The net of variables that each node supports is called the Management Information Base (MIB). The MIB is
made up of several parts, including the Standard MIB, specified as part of SNMP, and Enterprise Specific MIB,
which are defined by different manufacturer for hardware specific management.
The current Internet-standard MIB, MIB-II, is defined in RFC 1213 and contains 171 objects. These objects are
grouped by protocol (including TCP, IP, UDP, SNMP, and other categories, including 'system' and 'interface.'
The Internet Management Model is as shown in figure 1. Interactions between the NMS and managed devices
can be any of four different types of commands:
6. Reads
Read is used to monitor the managed devices, NMSs read variables that are maintained by the devices.
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
7. Writes
Write is used to control the managed devices, NMSs write variables that are stored in the managed
devices.
8. Traversal operations
NMSs use these operations to determine which variables a managed device supports and to sequentially
gather information from variable tables (such as IP routing table) in managed devices.
9. Traps
The managed devices to asynchronously report certain events to NMSs use trap.
2. SNMPv1 Operations
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol. 4 SNMPv1 operations are defined as below.
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
Get
Allows the NMS to retrieve an object variable from the agent.

GetNext
Allows the NMS to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list within an agent. In
SNMPv1, when a NMS wants to retrieve all elements of a table from an agent, it initiates a Get
operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.

Set
Allows the NMS to set values for object variables within an agent.

Trap
Used by the agent to inform the NMS of some events.
The SNMPv1 message contains two parts. The first part contains a version and a community name. The second
part contains the actual SNMP protocol data unit (PDU) specifying the operation to be performed (Get, Set, and
so on) and the object values involved in the operation. The following figure shows the SNMPv1 message
format.
The SNMP PDU contains the following fields:




PDU type Specifies the type of PDU.
Request ID Associates requests with responses.
Error status
Error index
Indicates an error and an error type.
Associates the error with a particular object variable.
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
Variable-bindings
Associates particular object with their value.
3. ZyXEL SNMP Implementation
ZyXEL currently includes SNMP support in some ZyXEL routers. It is implemented based on the SNMPv1, so
it will be able to communicate with SNMPv1 NMSs. For SNMPv1 operation, ZyXEL permits one community
string so that the router can belong to only one community and allows trap messages to be sent to only one
NMS manager.
Some traps are sent to the SNMP manager when anyone of the following events happens:

coldStart (defined in RFC-1215) :
If the machine coldstarts, the trap will be sent after booting.

warmStart (defined in RFC-1215) :
If the machine warmstarts, the trap will be sent after booting.

linkDown (defined in RFC-1215) :
If any link of IDSL or WAN is down, the trap will be sent with the port number . The port number is its
interface index under the interface group.

linkUp (defined in RFC-1215) :
If any link of IDSL or WAN is up, the trap will be sent with the port number . The port number is its
interface index under the interface group.

authenticationFailure (defined in RFC-1215) :
When receiving any SNMP get or set requirement with wrong community, this trap is sent to the manager.
1. whyReboot (defined in ZYXEL-MIB) :
When the system is going to restart (warmstart), the trap will be sent with the reason of restart before rebooting.
(i) For intentional reboot:
In some cases (download new files, CI command "sys reboot", ...), reboot is done intentionally. And traps with
the message "System reboot by user !" will be sent.
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
(ii) For fatal error :
System has to reboot for some fatal errors. And traps with the message of the fatal code will be sent.
4. Configure the ZyXEL Device for SNMP
The SNMP related settings in the ZyXEL Device are configured in menu 22, SNMP Configuration. The
following steps describe a simple setup procedure for configuring all SNMP settings.
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Key Settings:
Option
Descriptions
Get Community
Enter the correct Get Community. This Get Community must match the 'Get-' and
'GetNext' community requested from the NMS. The default is 'public'.
Set Community
Enter the correct Set Community. This Set Community must match the
'Set-community requested from the NMS. The default is 'public'.
Enter the IP address of the NMS. The ZyXEL Device will only respond to SNMP
Trusted Host
messages coming from this IP address. If 0.0.0.0 is entered, the ZyXEL Device will
respond to all NMS managers.
Trap
Community
Trap Destination
Enter the community name in each sent trap to the NMS. This Trap Community must
match what the NMS is expecting. The default is 'public'.
Enter the IP address of the NMS that you wish to send the traps to. If 0.0.0.0 is
entered, the ZyXEL Device will not send trap any NMS manager.
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Using SysLog
4. ZyXEL Device Setup
Configuration:
1. Active, use the space bar to turn on the syslog option.
2. Syslog IP Address, enter the IP address of the UNIX server that you wish to send the syslog.
3. Log Facility, use the space bar to toggle between the 7 different local options.

UNIX Setup
1. Make sure that your syslogd starts with -r argument.
-r, this option will enable the facility to receive message from the network using an Internet domain socket with
the syslog services. The default setting is not enabled.
2. Edit the file /etc/syslog.conf by adding the following line at the end of the /etc/syslog.conf file.
local1.*
/var/log/zyxel.log
Where /var/log/zyxel.log is the full path of the log file.
3. Restart syslogd.

CDR log(call messages)
Format:
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sdcmdSyslogSend( SYSLOG_CDR, SYSLOG_INFO, String );
String = board xx line xx channel xx, call xx, str
board = the hardware board ID
line = the WAN ID in a board
channel = channel ID within the WAN
call = the call reference number which starts from 1 and increments by 1 for each new call
str = C01 Outgoing Call dev xx ch xx (dev:device No. ch:channel No.)
C01 Incoming Call xxxxBps xxxxx (L2TP,xxxxx means Remote Call ID)
C01 Incoming Call xxxx (means connected speed) xxxxx (means Remote Call ID)
L02 Tunnel Connected(L2TP)
C02 OutCall Connected xxxx (means connected speed) xxxxx (means Remote Call ID)
C02 CLID call refused
L02 Call Terminated
C02 Call Terminated
Example:
Feb 14 16:57:17 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 18, C01 Incoming
Call OK
Feb 14 17:07:18 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: board 0 line 0 channel 0, call 18, C02 Call Terminated

Packet triggered log
Format:
sdcmdSyslogSend( SYSLOG_PKTTRI, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String );
String = Packet trigger: Protocol=xx Data=xxxxxxxxxx
Protocol: (1:IP 2:IPX 3:IPXHC 4:BPDU 5:ATALK 6:IPNG)
Data: We will send forty-eight Hex characters to the server
Example:
Jul 19 11:28:39 192.168.102.2 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=4500003c100100001f010004c0a86614ca849a7b08004a5c020001006162636465666768696a6b6c6d6e6f7071727374
Jul 19 11:28:56 192.168.102.2 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: Packet Trigger: Protocol=1,
Data=4500002c1b0140001f06b50ec0a86614ca849a7b0427001700195b3e00000000600220008cd40000020405b4
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
Filter log
This message is available when the 'Log' is enabled in the filter rule setting. The message consists of the packet
header and the log of the filter rules.
Format:
sdcmdSyslogSend(SYSLOG_FILLOG, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String );
String = IP[Src=xx.xx.xx.xx Dst=xx.xx.xx.xx prot spo=xxxx dpo=xxxx]S04>R01mD
IP[...] is the packet header and S04>R01mD means filter set 4 (S) and rule 1 (R), match (m) drop (D).
Src: Source Address
Dst: Destination Address
prot: Protocol (TCP,UDP,ICMP)
spo: Source port
dpo: Destination port
Example:
Jul 19 14:44:09 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: IP[Src=202.132.154.1 Dst=192.168.1.33 UDP
spo=0035
dpo=05d4]}S03>R01mF
Jul 19 14:44:13 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: IP[Src=192.168.1.33 Dst=202.132.154.1
ICMP]}S03>R01mF

PPP Log
Format:
sdcmdSyslogSend( SYSLOG_PPPLOG, SYSLOG_NOTICE, String );
String = ppp:Proto Starting / ppp:Proto Opening / ppp:Proto Closing / ppp:Proto Shutdown
Proto = LCP / ATCP / BACP / BCP / CBCP / CCP / CHAP/ PAP / IPCP /IPXCP
Example:
Jul 19 11:43:25 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:LCP Starting
Jul 19 11:43:29 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:IPCP Starting
Jul 19 11:43:34 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:CCP Starting
Jul 19 11:43:38 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:BACP Starting
Jul 19 11:43:43 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:IPCP Opening
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Jul 19 11:43:51 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:CCP Opening
Jul 19 11:43:55 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:BACP Opening
Jul 19 11:44:00 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:LCP Closing
Jul 19 11:44:05 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:IPCP Closing
Jul 19 11:44:09 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:CCP Closing
Jul 19 11:44:14 192.168.1.1 ZyXEL Communications Corp.: ppp:BACP Closing
Using IP Alias

What is IP Alias?
In a typical environment, a LAN router is required to connect two local networks. The ZyXEL Device can
connect three local networks to the ISP or a remote node, we call this function as 'IP Alias'. In this case, an
internal router is not required. For example, the network manager can divide the local network into three
networks and connect them to the Internet using ZyXEL Device's single user account. See the figure below.
The ZyXEL Device supports three virtual LAN interfaces via its single physical Ethernet interface. The first
network can be configured in menu 3.2 as usual. The second and third networks that we call 'IP Alias 1' and 'IP
Alias 2' can be configured in menu 3.2.1-IP Alias Setup.
There are three internal virtual LAN interfaces for the ZyXEL Device to route the packets from/to the three
networks correctly. They are enif0 for the major network, enif0:0 for the IP alias 1 and enif0:1 for the IP alias 2.
Therefore, three routes are created in the ZyXEL Device as shown below when the three networks are
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configured. If the ZyXEL Device's DHCP is also enabled, the IP pool for the clients can be any of the three
networks.
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2004 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
ras> ip ro st
Dest
FF Len Interface
Gateway
Metric stat Timer
Use
192.168.3.0
00 24
enif0:1
192.168.3.1
1
041b 0
0
192.168.2.0
00 24
enif0:0
192.168.2.1
1
041b 0
0
192.168.1.0
00 24
enif0
192.168.1.1
1
041b 0
0
ras>
Two new protocol filter interfaces in menu 3.2.1 allow you to accept or deny LAN packets from/to the IP alias
1 and IP alias 2 go through the ZyXEL Device. The filter set in menu 3.1 is used for main network configured
in menu 3.2.

IP Alias Setup
1. Edit the first network in menu 3.2 by configuring the ZyXEL Device's first LAN IP address.
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
DHCP= Server
TCP/IP Setup:
Client IP Pool:
Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
Size of Client IP Pool= 32
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
First DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Second DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Multicast= None
Edit IP Alias= Yes
Third DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
DHCP Server Address= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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Key Settings:
DHCP Setup
If the ZyXEL Device's DHCP server is enabled, the IP pool for the clients can be any of
the three networks.
TCP/IP Setup
Enter the first LAN IP address for the ZyXEL Device. This will create the first route in
the enif0 interface.
Edit IP Alias
Toggle to 'Yes' to enter menu 3.2.1 for setting up the second and third networks.
2. Edit the second and third networks in menu 3.2.1 by configuring the ZyXEL Device's second and third LAN
IP addresses.
Menu 3.2.1 - IP Alias Setup
IP Alias 1= Yes
IP Address= 192.168.2.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= None
Version= RIP-1
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
IP Alias 2= Yes
IP Address= 192.168.3.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= None
Version= RIP-1
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Key Settings:
IP Alias 1
Toggle to 'Yes' and enter the second LAN IP address for the ZyXEL Device. This will
create the second route in the enif0:0 interface.
IP Alias 2
Toggle to 'Yes' and enter the third LAN IP address for the ZyXEL Device. This will
create the third route in the enif0:1 interface.
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
Time Service in ZyXEL Device
There is no RTC (Real-Time Clock) chip so the ZyXEL Device should launch a mechanism to get current time
and date from external server in boot time. Time service is implemented by the Daytime protocol(RFC-867),
Time protocol(RFC-868), and NTP protocol(RFC-1305). You have to assign an IP address of a time server and
then, the ZyXEL Device will get the date, time, and time-zone information from this server.
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Using IP Multicast

What is IP Multicast ?
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in two ways - unicast or broadcast. Multicast is a third way to
deliver IP packets to a group of hosts. Host groups are identified by class D IP addresses, i.e., those with
"1110" as their higher-order bits. In dotted decimal notation, host group addresses range from 224.0.0.0 to
239.255.255.255. Among them, 224.0.0.1 is assigned to the permanent IP hosts group, and 224.0.0.2 is
assigned to the multicast routers group.
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is the protocol used to support multicast groups. The latest
version is version 2 (see RFC2236). IP hosts use IGMP to report their multicast group membership to any
immediate-neighbor multicast routers so the multicast routers can decide if a multicast packet needs to be
forwarded. At start up, the ZyXEL Device queries all directly connected networks to gather group membership.
After that, the ZyXEL Device updates the information by periodic queries. The ZyXEL Device implementation
of IGMP is also compatible with version 1. The multicast setting can be turned on or off on Ethernet and remote
nodes.

IP Multicast Setup
Enable IGMP in ZyXEL Device's LAN in menu 3.2:
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
DHCP= Server
TCP/IP Setup:
Client IP Pool:
Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
Size of Client IP Pool= 32
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
First DNS Server= From ISP
RIP Direction= Both
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IP Address= N/A
Version= RIP-1
Second DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Multicast= IGMP-v2
Edit IP Alias= No
Third DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
DHCP Server Address= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Enable IGMP in ZyXEL Device's remote node in menu 11.3:
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
Rem IP Addr= N/A
Rem Subnet Mask= N/A
My WAN Addr= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Metric= 1
Private= No
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-2B
Multicast= IGMP-v2
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Key Settings:
Multicast
IGMP-v1 for IGMP version 1, IGMP-v2 for IGMP version 2.
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Using Traffic Redirect Feature

What is Traffic Redirect?
Traffic redirect forwards WAN traffic to a backup gateway when ZyXEL Device cannot connect to the Internet
through it's normal gateway. Thus make your backup gateway as an auxiliary backup of your WAN
connection. Once ZyXEL Device detects it's WAN connectivity is broken, ZyXEL Device will try to forward
outgoing traffic to backup gateway that users specify in traffic redirect configuration menu.

How to deploy backup gateway?
You can deploy the backup gateway on the WAN or LAN of ZyXEL Device. However, if you would like to
deploy the backup gateway on the WAN of ZyXEL Device, please make sure that your ZyXEL Device has a
static WAN IP address at first. Otherwise, we recommend you to deploy the backup gateway on the LAN of
ZyXEL Device.
Traffic Redirect on WAN port
When the ZyXEL Device has a dynamic IP address on it's WAN port, it may be easier to connect backup
gateway to the LAN of the ZyXEL Device.
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Traffic Redirect on LAN port

Traffic Redirect Setup
Configure parameters that determine when The ZyXEL Device will forward WAN traffic to the backup
gateway using SMT Menu 11.6-Traffic Redirect Setup.
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Menu 11.6 - Traffic Redirect Setup
Active= Yes
Configuration:
Backup Gateway IP Address= 192.168.1.50
Metric= 14
Check WAN IP Address= 202.13.154.1
Fail Tolerance= 5
Period(sec)= 30
Timeout(sec)= 3
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Key Settings:
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Press [Space BAR] and select Yes (to enable) or No (to disable) traffic redirect setup.
Active
Backup
Gateway
Address
IP
Metric
Check WAN IP
The IP address of your backup gateway. The ZyXEL Device automatically forwards
outgoing traffic to this IP address if The ZyXEL Device's Internet connection terminates.
Enter a number from 1 to 15 to give your traffic redirect route a priority number. The
smaller the number, the higher priority the route has.
Configure a reliable server on Internet (for example, your ISP's DNS server address) for
Address
The ZyXEL Device to check it's WAN connectivity periodically. If you leave this field
as 0.0.0.0, The ZyXEL Device will check it's default gateway IP address instead.
Fail Tolerance
Specify the number of times your ZyXEL Device may attempt and fail to connect to
Internet before triggering traffic redirect connection.
Period
Specify the period that The ZyXEL Device would check it's WAN connectivity.
Timeout
Specify the seconds that The ZyXEL Device would wait for a response from the reliable
server.
You can also configure traffic redirect via web configuration. The configuration page is in
ADVANCED/WAN/Traffic Redirect.
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Using Universal Plug n Play (UPnP)

1. What is UPnP
UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) makes connecting PCs of all form factors, intelligent appliances, and wireless
devices in the home, office, and everywhere in between easier and even automatic by leveraging TCP/IP and
Web technologies. UPnP can be supported on essentially any operating system and works with essentially any
type of physical networking media – wired or wireless.
UPnP also supports NAT Traversal which can automatically solve many NAT unfriendly problems. By UPnP,
applications assign the dynamic port mappings to Internet gateway and delete the mappings when the
connections are complete.
The key components in UPnP are devices, services, and control points.

Devices: Network devices, such as networking gateways, TV, refrigerators, printers...etc, which
provides services.

Services: Services are provided by devices, such as time services provided by alarm clocks. In
UPnP, services are described in XML format. Control points can set/get services information from
devices.

Control points: Control points can manipulate network devices When you add a new control
point (in this case, a laptop) to a network, the device may ask the network to find UPnP-enabled
devices. These devices respond with their URLs and device descriptions.
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UPnP Operations

Addressing: UPnPv1 devices MAY support IPv4, IPv6, or both. For IPv4, each devices should have DHCP
client, when the device gets connected to the network, it will discover DHCP server on network to get an IP
address. If not, then Auto-IP mechanism should be supported so that the device can give itself an IP
address.(169.254.0.0/16)






Discovery: Whenever a device is added on the network, it will advertise it's service over the network.
Control point can also discover services provided by devices.
Description: Control points can get more detailed service information from devices' description in XML
format. The description may include product name, model name, serial number, vendor ID, and
embedded services...etc.
Control: Devices can be manipulated by control points through Control message.
Eventing: Devices can send event message to notify control points if there is any update on services
provided.
Presentation: Each device can provide their own control interface by URL link. So that users can go to
the device's presentation web page by the URL to control this device.
2. Using UPnP in ZyXEL devices
In this example, we will introduce how to enable UPnP function in ZyXEL devices. Currently, Microsoft MSN
is the most popular application exploiting UPnP, so we take Microsoft MSN application as an example in this
support note. You can learn how MSN benefit from NAT traversal feature in UPnP in this application note.
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In the diagram, suppose PC1 and PC2 both sign in MSN server, and they would like to establish a video
conference. PC1 is behind PPPoE dial-up router which supports UPnP. Since the router supports UPnP, we
don't need to setup NAT mapping for PC1. As long as we enable UPnP function on the router, PC1 will assign
the mapping to the router dynamically. Note that since PC1 must support UPnP, we presume that it's OS is
Microsoft WinME or WinXP.
Device: ZyXEL Router
Service: NAT function provided by Prestige Router
Control Point: PC1
1. Enable UPnP function in the ZyXEL device
Go to Management->UPnP, check two boxes, Enable UPnP service and Allow users to make configuration
changes through UPnP.
The first check box enables UPnP function in this device.
The second check box allow users' application to change configuration in this device. For instance, if you
enable this item, then user's MSN application can assign dynamic port mapping to the router. So that network
administrator don't need to setup SUA port mapping in the router.
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2. After getting IP address, you can go to open MSN application on PC and sign in MSN server.
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3. Start a Video conversation with one online user.
4. On the opposite side, your partner selects Accept to accept your conversation request.
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5. Finally, your video conversation is achieved.
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VoIP Application Notes
Setup SIP Account
VoIP is the sending of voice signals over the Internet Protocol. This allows you to make phone calls and send
faxes over the Internet at a fraction of the cost of using the traditional circuit-switched telephone network.
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol that handles the setting
up, altering and tearing down of voice and multimedia sessions over the Internet. SIP signaling is separate from
the media for which it handles sessions. The media that is exchanged during the session can use a different path
from that of the signaling. SIP handles telephone calls and can interface with traditional circuit-switched
telephone networks.
The ZyXEL Device can hold up to two SIP account simultaneously please follow the below instruction to
configure the SIP account properly.
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Note: You should have a voice account already set up and have VoIP information from your VoIP service
provider prior to configure SIP account on to the unit.
With the account information your ITSP provided now you may start.
Step 1. Open the web browser from your workstation to connect to the ZyXEL Device by entering the
Management IP address of the ZyXEL Device (LAN IP address). The default management IP of The ZyXEL
Device is 192.168.1.1.
Step 2. Enter the administrator password (The default is '1234') on the login page and click on login.
Step 3. Click VoIP/SIP on the tree menu to bring you to SIP setting page. In the SIP Settings page, use the
account selector on right upper corner of the page to select the SIP account you will like to configure.
Step 4. Check Active Sip Account if you would like to activate this account. After that, fill in the account
information provided by ITSP. Normally that includes SIP number, SIP local port, SIP server address, SIP
server port, Register server port, Register server address, SIP service domain.
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Step 5. Fill in the User ID and password provided by ITSP in the Authentication session.
Step 6. Check Caller ID box if you wish to send caller ID.
Step 7. Associate each phone port with SIP account(s) for both outgoing call and incoming call. The ZyXEL
Device allows you to associate either one or both phone port to single SIP account. Base on SIP account, user
can decide which phone(s) should ring when an incoming call arrives.
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Step 8. Click on Apply to save the setting and take effect. If you would like to configure the 2nd SIP account,
please select SIP2 by using the SIP account selector than follow step 1 to 8 to complete the 2nd account setup.
Note: If more than both SIP number are associated both phone port you will not be able to identify which
account is being called for the incoming call.
Each field's detail description on this page is listed below.
Label
Description
SIP Account
You can configure the ZyXEL Device to use multiple SIP accounts. Select
one to configure its settings on the ZyXEL Device.
SIP Number
A SIP account's Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) identifies the SIP
account in a way similar to the way an e-mail address identifies an e-mail
account. It is also known as a SIP identity or address. The format of a SIP
identity is [email protected]
A SIP number is the part of the SIP URI that comes before the "@" symbol.
Enter your SIP number in this field. You can use up to 31 ASCII
characters.
SIP Local Port Use this field to configure the ZyXEL Device’s listening port for SIP. Leave
this field set to the default if you were not given a local port number for SIP.
SIP
Server
Type the IP address of the SIP server in this field.
Address
SIP
Port
Server Enter the SIP server’s listening port for SIP in this field. Leave this field set
to the default if your VoIP service provider did not give you a local port
number for SIP.
REGISTER
Server
Address
A SIP register server maintains a database of SIP identity-to-IP address
(or domain name) mapping. The register server checks your user name
and password when you register.
Enter the SIP register server’s address in this field.
If you were not given a register server address, then enter the
address from the SIP Server Address field again here.
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REGISTER
Server Port
Enter the SIP register server’s listening port for SIP in this field.
If you were not given a register server port, then enter the port from
the SIP Server Port field again here.
SIP
Service A SIP service domain is the domain name that comes after the @ symbol
in a full SIP URI.
Domain
Enter the SIP service domain name in this field.You can use up to 127
ASCII Extended set characters.
Authentication This is the user name for registering this SIP account with the SIP register
server. Type the user name exactly as it was given to you. Use ASCII
User ID
characters.
Authentication Type the password associated with the user name above. Use ASCII
Extended set characters.
Password
Block
ID
Caller Select this check box to not show identification information when you make
the VoIP calls. Clear this check box to show identification information when
you make VoIP calls.
Apply to
Phone 1 and Phone 2 correspond to the ZyXEL Device’s physical PHONE
1 and 2 ports, respectively. Select whether you want to receive calls for
this SIP account on Phone 1, Phone 2 or both. If you select both, you will
not know which SIP account a call is coming in on.
Advanced
Settings
Click Settings to open a screen where you can configure the ZyXEL
Device’s advanced VoIP settings like SIP server settings, the RTP port
range and the coding type.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Advanced voice settings configuration
Advanced voice settings configuration allows user to modify SIP server related settings, RTP port range,
preferred compression type (codec), DTMF type and Message Waiting Indication (MWI).Click VoIP in the
navigation panel and then SIP to open the SIP Settings. Select a SIP account and then click Advanced Settings
to display the following screen.
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Each field is described in the following table.
Label
Description
SIP Account
You can configure the ZyXEL Device to use multiple SIP accounts. Select
one to configure its settings on the ZyXEL Device.
SIP Server
Settings
URL Type
Select whether or not to include the SIP service domain name when the
ZyXEL Device sends the SIP number.
SIP - include the SIP service domain name
TEL - do not include the SIP service domain name.
Expiration
Enter the number of seconds your SIP account is registered with the SIP
register server before it is deleted. The ZyXEL Device automatically tries to
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Duration
re-register your SIP account when one-half of this time has passed. (The
SIP register server might have a different expiration.)
Register Re-send
Timer
Enter the number of seconds the ZyXEL Device waits before it tries again to
register the SIP account, if the first try failed or if there is no response.
Session Expires
Enter the number of seconds the conversation can last before the call is
automatically disconnected. Usually, when one-half of this time has passed,
the ZyXEL Device or the other party updates this timer to prevent this from
happening.
Min-SE
Enter the minimum number of seconds the ZyXEL Device accepts for a
session expiration time when it receives a request to start a SIP session. If
the request has a shorter time, the ZyXEL Device rejects it.
RTP Port Range
Start Port
End Port
Enter the listening port number(s) for RTP traffic, if your VoIP service
provider gave you this information. Otherwise, keep the default values.
To enter one port number, enter the port number in the Start Port and End
Port fields.
To enter a range of ports,
• Enter the port number at the beginning of the range in the Start Port field
• Enter the port number at the end of the range in the End Port field.
Voice
Compression
Select the type of voice coder/decoder (codec) that you want the ZyXEL
Device to use. G.711 provides higher voice quality but requires more
bandwidth (64 kbps).
• G.711A is typically used in Europe.
• G.711u is typically used in North America and Japan.
In contrast, G.729 only requires 8 kbps.
The ZyXEL Device must use the same codec as the peer. When two SIP
devices start a SIP session, they must agree on a codec.
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Primary
CompressionType Select the ZyXEL Device’s first choice for voice coder/decoder.
Secondary
Compression
Select the ZyXEL Device’s second choice for voice coder/decoder. Select
None if you only want the ZyXEL Device to accept the first choice.
Type
Third
Compression
This field is disabled if Secondary Compression Type is None.
Select the ZyXEL Device’s third choice for voice coder/decoder. Select
Type
None if you only want the ZyXEL Device to accept the first or second
choice.
Control how the ZyXEL Device handles the tones that your telephone
makes when you push its buttons. You should use the same mode your
DTMF Mode
VoIP service provider uses.RFC 2833 - send the DTMF tones in RTP
packets PCM - send the DTMF tones in the voice data stream. This method
works best when you are using a codec that does not use compression (like
G.711). Codecs that use compression (like G.729) can distort the tones.SIP
INFO - send the DTMF tones in SIP messages
STUN
Select this if all of the following conditions are satisfied.
There is a NAT router between the ZyXEL Device and the SIP server
Active
The NAT router is not a SIP ALG.
Your VoIP service provider gave you an IP address or domain name for a
STUN server. Otherwise, clear this field.
Server Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of the STUN server provided by your
VoIP service provider.
Server Port
Enter the STUN server’s listening port, if your VoIP service provider gave
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you one.Otherwise, keep the default value.
Use NAT
Active
Select this if you want the ZyXEL Device to send SIP traffic to a specific
NAT router. You must also configure the NAT router to forward traffic with
the specified port to the ZyXEL Device. This eliminates the need for STUN
or a SIP ALG.
Server Address
Enter the public IP address or domain name of the NAT router.
Server Port
Enter the port number that your SIP sessions use with the public IP address
of the NAT router.
Outbound Proxy
Active
Select this if your VoIP service provider has a SIP outbound server to
handle the voice calls. This allows the ZyXEL Device to work with any type
of NAT router and eliminates the need for STUN or a SIP ALG. Turn off any
SIP ALG on a NAT router in front of the ZyXEL Device to keep it from
retranslating the IP address (since this is already handled by the outbound
proxy server).
Server Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of the SIP outbound proxy server.
Server Port
Enter the SIP outbound proxy server’s listening port, if your VoIP service
provider gave you one. Otherwise, keep the default value.
NAT Keep Alive
Active
Select this to stop NAT routers between the ZyXEL Device and SIP server
(a SIP proxy server or outbound proxy server) from dropping the SIP
session. The ZyXEL Device does this by sending SIP notify messages to
the SIP server based on the specified interval.
Keep Alive with
Select this if the SIP server is a SIP proxy server.
SIP Proxy
Keep Alive with Select this if the SIP server is an outbound proxy server. You must enable
Outbound Proxy Outbound Proxy to use this.
Keep Alive
Interval
Enter how often (in seconds) the ZyXEL Device should send SIP notify
messages to the SIP server.
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MWI
(Message
Waiting
Indication)
Select this if you want to hear a waiting (beeping) dial tone on your phone
when you have at least one voice message. Your VoIP service provider
must support this feature.
Enable
Keep the default value, unless your VoIP service provider tells you to
Expiration Time
Fax Option
G
.
change it.Enter the number of seconds the SIP server should provide the
message waiting service each time the ZyXEL Device subscribes to the
service. Before this time passes, the ZyXEL Device automatically
subscribes again.
This field controls how the ZyXEL Device handles fax messages.
711
Fax Select this if the ZyXEL Device should use G.711 to send fax messages.
The peer devices must also use G.711
Passthrough
Select this if the ZyXEL Device should send fax messages as UDP or
T.38 Fax Relay
TCP/IP packets through IP networks. This provides better quality, but it may
have interoperability problems. The peer devices must also use T.38
Call Forward
Call Forward
Select which call forwarding table you want the ZyXEL Device to use for
Table
incoming calls. You set up these tables in VoIP > Phone Book > Incoming
Call Policy.
Caller Ringing
Enable
Select the check box if you want to specify what tone people hear when
they call you. The ZyXEL Device provides a default tone
On Hold
Enable
Select the check box if you want to specify what tone people hear when you
put them on hold. The ZyXEL Device provides a default tone
<Back
Click this to return to the SIP Settings screen without saving your changes.
Apply
Click this to save your changes and to apply them to the ZyXEL Device.
Reset
Click this to set every field in this screen to its last-saved value.
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Voice QoS
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay, and the
networking methods used to provide bandwidth for real-time multimedia applications.
You can click VoIP -> SIP -> QoS to configure it.
Each field is described in the following table.
Label
Description
SIP
TOS Enter the priority for SIP voice transmissions. The ZyXEL Device creates
Priority Setting Type of Service priority tags with this priority to voice traffic that it
transmits.
RTP
TOS Enter the priority for RTP voice transmissions. The ZyXEL Device creates
Priority Setting Type of Service priority tags with this priority to RTP traffic that it
transmits.
Voice VLAN ID
Select this if the ZyXEL Device has to be a member of a VLAN to
communicate with the SIP server. Ask your network administrator, if you
are not sure. Enter the VLAN ID provided by your network administrator
in the field on the right. Your LAN and gateway must be configured to use
VLAN tags.Otherwise, clear this field.
Apply
Click this to save your changes and to apply them to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click this to set every field in this screen to its last-saved value.
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Phone port settings
The ZyXEL Device allows you to configure the volume and echo cancellation setting for each individual phone
port.
To configure the phone port setting, please follow the below steps:
Step 1. Open the web browser on your workstation and connect to the ZyXEL device by entering the
management IP address of the ZyXEL device. The default management IP of the ZyXEL device is 192.168.1.1.
Step 2. Enter the administrator password on the page of login and click on login. The default is '1234'
Step 3. Select VoIP / Phone in the tree menu to navigate you to the Phone setting page.
Step 4. Select the phone port you wish to configure by using the phone port selector located on top right of the
phone port configuration page.
Step 5. Change the phone port parameter as desired and click Apply when you finish configuration and want to
apply the settings. To configure the 2nd phone port, use the phone port selector and select phone2 and follow
the steps 1 to 5 to complete the 2nd phone port setup.
Each field's detail description is listed below.
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Label
Description
Phone Port Use this field to select the phone port that you want to configure.
Settings
Speaking
Volume
Use this field to set the loudness that the ZyXEL Device uses for the speech
signal that it sends to the peer device. -1 is the quietest and 1 is the loudest.
Listening
Volume
Use this field to set the loudness that the ZyXEL Device uses for the speech
signal that it receives from the peer device and sends to your phone. -1 is the
quietest and 1 is the loudest.
G.168 Active Select this check box to cancel the echo caused by the sound of your voice
reverberating in the telephone receiver while you talk.
Dialing
Interval
Enter the number of seconds the ZyXEL Device should wait after you stop
dialing numbers before it makes the phone call. The value depends on how
Select
quickly you dial phone numbers. If you select Active Immediate Dial in VoIP
> Phone > Common, you can press the pound key (#) to tell the ZyXEL
Device to make the phone call immediately, regardless of this setting.
VAD
Support
Select this check box to use Voice Activity Detection (VAD) to reduce the
bandwidth that a call uses. The ZyXEL Device will generate and send comfort
noise when you are not talking.
Dialing
Interval
When you are dialing a telephone number the ZyXEL Device waits this long
after you stop pressing the buttons before initiating the call. Select how many
seconds you want the ZyXEL Device to wait after the last input on the
telephone’s keypad before dialing (making) a call.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
<Back
Click this to return to the Analog Phone screen without saving your changes.
Cancel
Click this to set every field in this screen to its last-saved value.
Common Phone
You can use the pound key (#) to tell the ZyXEL Device to make the phone call immediately, instead of waiting
the number of seconds you selected in the dialing interval.
Go to VoIP> Phone > Common. Where you can activate it.
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Each field is described in the following table.
Label
Description
Active
Immediate
Select this if you want to use the pound key (#) to tell the ZyXEL Device to
make the phone call immediately, instead of waiting the number of seconds
Dial
you selected in the Dialing Interval Select in VoIP > Phone > Analog
Phone.If you select this, dial the phone number, and then press the pound
key. The ZyXEL Device makes the call immediately, instead of waiting. You
can still wait, if you want.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click this to set every field in this screen to its last-saved value.
Country Code
Use this screen to maintain settings that often depend on which region of the world the ZyXEL device is in.
To access this screen, click VoIP > Phone > Region.
Each field is described in the following table.
Label
Description
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Region
Settings
Select the place in which the ZyXEL Device is located. Do not select Default.
Call Service Select the mode for supplementary phone services (call hold, call waiting, call
transfer and three-way conference calls) that your VoIP service provider
Mode
supports.Europe Type - use supplementary phone services in European
mode USA Type - use supplementary phone services American mode You
might have to subscribe to these services to use them. Contact your VoIP
service provider.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click this to set every field in this screen to its last-saved value.
Call Forwarding
Call forwarding function allows users to determine handling of the incoming calls. For example, a user may
decide that all incoming calls will ring his cell phone as well. The following screenshot shows how users can
use this screen to configure the Prestige to block or redirect calls. You can configure a different call forwarding
table for each SIP account or use the same call forwarding table for both.
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Unconditional Forward to Number
Enable this feature to have the Prestige forward incoming calls to the number that you configure.
Busy Forward to Number
Enable this feature to have the Prestige forward incoming calls to the number, which you configure when your
SIP account has a call connected.
No Answer Forward to Number
Enable this feature to have the Prestige forward the incoming calls to the number that you configure whenever
you do not answer the call after a specific time period.
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Each field's detail description of the page is listed below.
Label
Description
Table Number Select the call-forwarding table you want to see in this screen. If you change
this field, the screen automatically refreshes.
Forward
Number
Setup
to The ZyXEL Device checks these rules, in the order in which they appear,
after it checks the rules in the Advanced Setup section.
Unconditional Select this if you want the ZyXEL Device to forward all incoming calls to the
Forward
Number
specified phone number, regardless of other rules in the Forward to
to Number section. Specify the phone number in the field on the right.
Busy Forward Select this if you want the ZyXEL Device to forward incoming calls to the
specified phone number if the phone port is busy. Specify the phone number
to Number
in the field on the right. If you have call waiting, the incoming call is
forwarded to the specified phone number if you reject or ignore the second
incoming call.
No
Answer Select this if you want the ZyXEL Device to forward incoming calls to the
Forward
Number
to specified phone number if the call is unanswered. (See No Answer Waiting
Time.) Specify the phone number in the field on the right.
No Answer
This field is used by the No Answer Forward to Number feature and No
Answer conditions below. Enter the number of seconds the ZyXEL Device
Waiting Time should wait for you to answer an incoming call before it considers the call is
unanswered.
Advanced
Setup
The ZyXEL Device checks these rules before it checks the rules in the
Forward to Number section.
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#
This field is a sequential value, and it is not associated with a specific rule.
The sequence is important, however. The ZyXEL Device checks each rule in
order, and it only follows the first one that applies.
Activate
Select this to enable this rule. Clear this to disable this rule.
Incoming Call
Enter the phone number to which this rule applies.
Number
Forward to
Number
Enter the phone number to which you want to forward incoming calls from
the Incoming Call Number. You may leave this field blank, depending on
the Condition.
Select the situations in which you want to forward incoming calls from the
Condition
Incoming Call Number, or select an alternative action.
Unconditional - The ZyXEL Device immediately forwards any calls from the
Incoming Call Number to the Forward to Number.
Busy - The ZyXEL Device forwards any calls from the Incoming Call
Number to the Forward to Number when your SIP account already has a
call connected.
No Answer - The ZyXEL Device forwards any calls from the Incoming Call
Number to the Forward to Number when the call is unanswered. (See No
Answer Waiting Time.)
Block - The ZyXEL Device rejects calls from the Incoming Call Number.
Accept - The ZyXEL Device allows calls from the Incoming Call Number.
You might create a rule with this condition if you do not want incoming calls
from someone to be forwarded by rules in the Forward to Number section.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click this to set every field in this screen to its last-saved value.
Call Hold
Prestige allows user agent to interrupt on the flow of an existing call.
Call hold allows you to put a call (A) on hold by pressing the flash key.
If you have another call, press the flash key to switch back and forth between the callers A and B by putting
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either one on hold.
Call Waiting
This allows you to place a call on hold while you answer another incoming call on the same telephone number.
If there is a second call to your telephone number, you will hear a call waiting tone.
Scenario
A calls B and they start conversation
C calls A
In this scenario, there are 3 kinds of actions available:
Below call flow graphs could help you better understand the call waiting working mechanism.
Scenario 1: If A presses flash key + 0, A will reject C.
Scenario 2: If A presses flash key + 1, A will disconnect B and answer C.
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Scenario 3: If A presses flash key + 2, A will put B on hold and answer C.
Three Way Conference
Three Way Conference function that makes it possible to set up a conference call with three subscribers being
all able to participate at the same time.
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To configure Three Way Conference, please follow the below steps:
Step -1. A is on the phone talking with C, A presses the flash key to put the caller on hold and gets a dial
tone.
Step -2. Dial B phone number directly to make another call.
Step -3. When the second call is answered, press the flash key and then press “3" to create a three-way
conversation.
Step -4. Hang up the phone to drop the connection.
Step -5. If you want to separate the activated three-way conference into two individual connections (one is
on-line, the other is on hold), press the flash key and press “2".
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Call Transfer
This feature allows transferring an incoming call (that you have answered) to another phone.
Note: The primary call between user A and user B must be answered before transfer can be initiated.
Three kinds of call transfer service available:
Blind Transfer
Consult On - Hold Transfer
Attendant Transfer
Application scenario 1: Blind Transfer
A dials to B
B off hooks
A and B start conversation
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If user A does not want to communicate with user B or user C after call is transferred, user A could choose
Blind Transfer.
To activate Blind Transfer please follow the steps below:
Step 1: A flashes, B MOH (Music On Hold).
Step 2: A dials *98# + C’s number.
Step 3: A hears the ring back tone
Step 4: A on hooks
Step 5: C rings, B hears the ring back tone
Step 6: C off hooks, B and C start conversation
Application scenario 2: Consult On - Hold Transfer
A dials to B
B off hooks
A and B conversation
If user A wants to communicate with user C for a while, then drop the connection to let user B and user C keep
communicating, user A could choose Consult Transfer.
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To activate Consult On - hold Transfer please follow the steps below:
Step 1: A flashes, B MOH (Music On Hold).
Step 2: A dials *98# + C’s Number.
Step 3: C rings, A hears the ring back tone.
Step 4: C off hooks, A and C start conversation.
Step 5: A on-hooks.
Step 6: B and C start conversation.
Application scenario 3: Attendant Transfer
A dials to B
B off hooks
A and B start Conversation
If user A wants to communicate with user C for a while, then drop the connection to let user B and user C keep
communicating, user A could also choose Attendant Transfer.
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To activate Attendant Transfer please follow the steps below:
Step
Step
Step
Step
Step
Step
1: A flashes, B MOH (Music On Hold).
2: A dials to C.
3: C rings, A hears the ring back tone.
4: C off hooks, A and C start Conversation.
5: A flashes + *98#.
6: B and C start conversation, A hears the busy tone.
Internal Call
This feature is ZyXEL proprietary implementation.
When you have two phones attached to the P2602HWLx phone ports, you just dial "####" on one of the two
phones, another phone will ring.
MWI
Message Waiting Indication is a common feature of telephone networks. It typically involves an audible or
visible indication that messages are waiting, such as playing a special dial tone (which in telephone networks is
called message-waiting dial tone), lighting a light or indicator on the phone, displaying icons or text, or some
combination.
Enable Message Waiting Indication (MWI) enables your phone to give you a message–waiting (beeping) dial
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tone when you have a voice message(s). Your VoIP service provider must have a messaging system that sends
message waiting status SIP packets as defined in RFC 3842.
MWI Call flow:
You may configure MWI feature easily on P2302RL-P1 web GUI: VoIP > Advanced Settings
Music on hold
This feature allows you to put a call on hold and have the other person hear a piece of audio (music, speech, etc.)
you previously recorded.
Application Scenarios:
When one side (A) presses flash or reserve key to put a call on hold, the peer side (B) will receive INVITE
packet with zero IP address in SDP to inform there is no need to send RTP out any more (RFC2543) or change
the attribute field in SDP to recvonly (RFC3261). Phone A generates pre-recorded music from IVR to phone B
directly.
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You may enable Music on Hold feature easily on P2302R-P1C web GUI: VoIP > Advanced Settings
In this graph, Device A has enabled Music on Hold function. Thus when A and B are on a call, and if A holds
the call, B will hear the music tone.
Early Media
Early media allows the Caller to listen to some music being played from the remote side (Can be from the
media server or from the callee) instead of a locally generated ringback tone before the callee answers the
phone.
Early media call flow:
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Enable early media in web configuration: VOIP>Advanced Settings
Call Park / Call Pickup
Call Park/Pickup function allows you to place a call on hold first, then it can be retrieved from another phone in
the system.
For example, if you are on an active call at your phone, you can park the call by press *97# + park number.
Someone on another phone in the system can then dial the call park number to pick-up the call.
Note:
The caller must still pay while the call is parked.
When you park the call, you enter a number of your choice (Up to eight digits), which you must enter again
when you pick up the call. If you do not enter the correct number, you cannot pickup the call. This means that
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only someone who knows the number you have chosen can pick up the call.
You can have more than one call on hold at the same time, but you must give each call a different number.
This example show you how to configure the Call Park and Call Pickup
Phone Configuration:
Press *97# + park number to park the call
Press #97# + park number to pick-up the call
Call Park Call Flow
When a call has established between A and the caller:
To Call Park the call please follow the below steps:
Step
Step
1:
2:
User A Press *97# + park number (5000) to park the call
Then A hang up the phone
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Call Pickup Call Flow
To pick up the call please only need to input #97# and the park number:
In below graph, user B press #97# + park number (5000) to pick up the call.
Phone book Speed dial
The ZyXEL Device allows you to configure up to 10 SIP numbers in the phone book for speed dial.
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To configure phone book for speed dial, please follow the below steps:
Step 1. Open the web browser from your workstation to connect to the ZyXEL Device by entering the
Management IP address of the ZyXEL Device. The default management IP of the ZyXEL Device is
192.168.1.1.
Step 2. Enter the administrator password appear on the page of login and click on login. The default is '1234'
Step 3. On the left column click on PHONEBOOK to bring you to Speed Dial page to enter phone book
configuration page.
Step 4. Select the entry number you wish to add the to the phone book by the entry selector located under add
new entry category on the speed dial field.
Step 5. Fill in the SIP number of the remote party and a descriptive name and click on the radio button to select
either to use proxy or entering static IP or URL remote peer.
Step 6. Click on Add button when you are finish to add the entry to the phone book.
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Each field's detail description of the page is listed below.
Label
Add
Entry
Description
New Use this section of the screen to edit and save new or existing speed dial
phone book entries.
Speed Dial
Select a speed dial key combination from the drop-down list box.
SIP Number Enter the SIP number of the party that you will call (use the number or text
that comes before the @ symbol in a full SIP URI). You can use up to 127
ASCII characters.
Name
Enter a descriptive name to identify the party that you will use this entry to
call. You can use up to 127 ASCII characters.
Type
Select Use Proxy if calls to this party use your SIP account configured in the
VoIP screen.
Select Non-Proxy (Use IP or URL) if calls to this party use a different SIP
server or go directly to the callee’s VoIP phone (IP-to-IP). Enter the SIP
server’s or the party’s IP address or domain name (up to 127 ASCII
Extended set characters).
Add
Click this button to save the entry in the speed dial phone book. The speed
dial entry displays in the Speed Dial Phone Book section of the screen.
Speed Dial This section of the screen displays the currently saved speed dial entries.
Phone Book You can configure up to 10 entries and use them to make calls.
This is the entry’s speed dial key combination. Press this key combination on
Speed Dial
Name
a telephone attached to the ZyXEL Device in order to call the party named in
this entry.
This is the descriptive name of the party that you will use this speed dial
entry to call.
SIP Number This is the SIP number of the party that you will call.
Type
This field displays Use Proxy if calls to this party use one of your SIP
accounts. This field displays the SIP server’s or the party’s IP address or
domain name if calls to this party do not use one of your SIP accounts.
Delete
Click this button to remove an entry from the speed dial phonebook.
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Edit
Clear
Click this button to change the speed dial entry. The speed dial entry
displays in the Add New Entry section of the screen where you can edit it.
Click this button to remove all of the entries from the speed dial phonebook.
FAQ
ZyNOS FAQ
What is ZyNOS?
ZyNOS is ZyXEL's proprietary Network Operating System. It is the platform on all ZyXEL routers that delivers
network services and applications. It is designed in a modular fashion so it is easy for developers to add new
features. New ZyNOS software upgrades can be easily downloaded from our FTP sites and public Web
download site as they become available.
How do I access the embedded web configurator?
The Web configurator, a user friendly configuration interface via user's web browser, which can be access by
typing in the LAN IP address of the The ZyXEL Device in user’s web browser. To access the ZyXEL
Device's web configurator via web browser, the configuration PC must be in the same IP segment of The
ZyXEL Device and The ZyXEL Device must be reachable to the configuration station. (By default the The
ZyXEL Device LAN IP is 192.168.1.1)
What is the default LAN IP address and Password? Moreover, how do I change it?
The default LAN IP address is "192.168.1.1" and you can change the LAN IP in web configuration menu under
"LAN"->LAN TCP/IP, the default password is 1234.
You can change the password once you enter the web
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configuration menu under "SYSTEM" and press the Password tab. At the password screen type in the old
password and the new password and retype to confirm than press "Apply" button to save the change.
How do I upload the ZyNOS firmware code via embedded web configurator?
The procedure for uploading ZyNOS via embedded web configurator is as follows.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Log on into the web configurator.
Press "MAINTENANCE" from the left menu.
Press "F/W Upload" tab.
Press "browse" button and point to the directory where the firmware you want to upload is kept and
press "Upload" button.
e. It will prompt you the firmware is uploading successful and The ZyXEL Device will reboot.
How do I upgrade/backup the ZyNOS firmware by using FTP client program via LAN?
The ZyXEL Device allows you to transfer the firmware from/to The ZyXEL Device by using FTP program via
LAN. The procedure for uploading ZyNOS via FTP is as follows.
a. To upgrade firmware, use FTP client program to put firmware in file 'ras' in the ZyXEL Device. After
data transfer is finished, the ZyXEL Device will program the upgraded firmware into FLASH ROM and
reboot itself. Note: Do not power off the unit after upload the file via ftp until the system LED have
become steady light up. Fail to due so may result in update fail and require RMA.
b. To backup your firmware, use the FTP client program to get file 'ras' from the ZyXEL Device.
How do I upload or backup ROMFILE via web configurator?
In some situations, you may need to upload the ROMFILE, restore to previous saved configuration, orthe
need of resetting SMT to factory default.
The procedure for uploading ROMFILE via the web configurator is as follows.
a. Log on into the web configurator.
b. Press "MAINTENANCE" from the left menu.
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c. Press "Configuration" tab.
d. Press "Restore" tab and press browse button point to the directory where the rom file you want to
upload is stored.
e. Press "Upload" button.
The procedure for backup ROMFILE via the web configurator is as follow
a. Log on into the web configurator.
b. Press "MAINTENANCE" from the left menu.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Press "Configuration" tab.
Press "Backup" button, a pop up windows will ask you where to store the back up rom file.
Press "Save file" and browse to where you want the file be save.
Press "Save" button.
How do I backup/restore configurations by using FTP client program via LAN?
a. Use the FTP client program in your PC (such as cuteftp, wsftp client) to login to your ZyXEL Device.
b. To backup the configurations, use FTP client program to get file 'rom-0' from the ZyXEL Device.
c. To restore the configurations, use the FTP client program to put your configuration in file ROM-0 in the
ZyXEL Device.
Why can't I make Telnet to The ZyXEL Device from WAN?
There are three possible reasons that Telnet from WAN is blocked.
a. You have not enable Telnet service on WAN interface in Menu 24.11.
b. Telnet service is enabled but your host IP is not the secured host entered in Menu 24.11. In this case, the
error message 'Client IP is not allowed!' will appear on the Telnet screen.
c. The default filter rule 3 (Telnet_FTP_WAN) is applied in the Input Protocol field in menu 11.5.
What should I do if I forget the system password?
In case you forget the system password. You can reset the unit back to factory default. You can reset the
unit by using a sharp pointed object such as a pen and press and hold down the “reset" button for 5 second or
until the power LED starts to blink than release. The unit is than reset back to factory default. The reset
button is located near by the power jack on the unit back panel.
Note: By reset the unit back to factory default you will lost all your previous settings.
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What is SUA? When should I use SUA?
SUA (Single User Account) is a unique feature supported by the ZyXEL Device which allows multiple people
to access Internet concurrently for the cost of a single user account.
When The ZyXEL Device acting as SUA receives a packet from a local client destined for the outside Internet,
it replaces the source address in the IP packet header with its own address and the source port in the TCP or
UDP header with another value chosen out of a local pool. It then recomputed the appropriate header
checksums and forwards the packet to the Internet as if it is originated from The ZyXEL Device using the IP
address assigned by ISP. When reply packets from the external Internet are received by The ZyXEL Device, the
original IP source address and TCP/UDP source port numbers are written into the destination fields of the
packet (since it is now moving in the opposite direction), the checksums are recomputed, and the packet is
delivered to its true destination. This is because SUA keeps a table of the IP addresses and port numbers of the
local systems currently using it.
What is the difference between NAT and SUA?
NAT is a generic name defined in RFC 1631 'The IP Network Address Translator (NAT)'.
SUA (Internet
Single User Account) is ZyXEL's implementation and trade name for functioning PAT which is a specific type
of NAT. SUA (or PAT for NAT) translates address into port mapping.
The primary motivation for RFC 1631 is that there is not enough IP address to go around. In addition, many
corporations simply did not bother to obtain legal (globally unique) IP addresses for their networks and now
finding themselves unable to connect to the Internet.
Basically, NAT is a process of translating one address to another. A NAT implementation can be as simple as
substituting an IP address with another. This allows a network to rectify the illegal address problem mentioned
above without going through each and every host.
The design goal of ZyXEL's SUA is to minimize the Internet access cost in a small office environment by using
a single IP address to represent the multiple hosts inside. It does more than IP address translation, so that
multiple hosts on the LAN can access the Internet at the same time.
How many network users can the SUA/NAT support?
The ZyXEL Device does not limit the number of the users but the number of the sessions. The ZyXEL Device
supports 1024 sessions that you can use the 'ip nat iface enif0 disp' command in menu 24.8 to view the current
active sessions.
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What are Device filters and Protocol filters?
In ZyNOS, the filters have been separated into two groups. One group is called 'device filter group', and the
other is called 'protocol filter group'. Generic filters belong to the 'device filter group', TCP/IP and IPX filters
belong to the 'protocol filter group'.
Why can't I configure device filters or protocol filters?
In ZyNOS, you can not mix different filter groups in the same filter set.
Product FAQ
What is the ZyXEL Device Internet Access Sharing Router?
The ZyXEL Device fulfills a range of application environments, from small and medium businesses, SOHO, or
Telecommuters, to home user or education applications. The ZyXEL Device provides a robust Firewall to
protect your network, and the IPSec VPN function allows you to create a secure connection for e-business.
ZyXEL Device's design helps users to save expenses, minimize maintenance, and simultaneously provide a high
quality networking environment.
The ZyXEL Device is a robust solution complete with everything needed for providing Internet access to
multiple workstations through your cable or ADSL modem. The router equipped with 2 auto-MDI/MDIX
10/100Mbps Ethernet WAN port, 1 auto-MDI/MDIX 10/100Mbps Ethernet LAN port, 4 auto-MDI/MDIX
10/100Mbps DMZ port and 802.11b wireless capability. It is the most simple and affordable solution for
multiple and instant broadband Internet access router with 802.11 wireless support.
Virtually all-popular applications over Internet, such as Web, E-Mail, FTP, Telnet, Gopher, are supported. The
ZyXEL Device is designed for SOHO, branch offices, workgroups, and educational users.
Will the ZyXEL Device work with my Internet connection?
The ZyXEL Device is designed to be compatible with cable and ADSL modems. Most external Cable and
ADSL modems use an Ethernet port to connect to your computer so the ZyXEL Device is placed in the line
between the computer and the External modem. As long as your Internet Access device has an Ethernet port,
you can use the ZyXEL Device. Besides, if your ISP supports PPPoE you can also use the ZyXEL Device,
because PPPoE had been supported in the ZyXEL Device.
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What do I need to use the ZyXEL Device?
You need an ADSL modem or cable modem with an Ethernet port to use the ZyXEL Device. The ZyXEL
Device has two Ethernet ports: LAN port and WAN port. You should connect the computer to the LAN port
and connect the external modem to the WAN port. If the ISP uses PPPoE or Roadrunner Authentication you
need the user account to enter in the ZyXEL Device.
What is PPPoE?
PPPoE stands for Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet that is an IETF draft standard specifying how a
computer interacts with a broadband modem (i.e. xDSL, cable, wireless, etc.) to achieve access to the
high-speed data networks via a familiar PPP dialer such as 'Dial-Up Networking' user interface. PPPoE supports
a broad range of existing applications and service including authentication, accounting, secure access and
configuration management. There are some service providers running of PPPoE today. Before configuring
PPPoE in the ZyXEL Device, please make sure your ISP supports PPPoE.
Does the ZyXEL Device support PPPoE?
Yes. The ZyXEL Device supports PPPoE since ZyNOS 2.50.
How do I know I am using PPPoE?
PPPoE requires a user account to login to the provider's server. If you need to configure a user name and
password on your computer to connect to the ISP you are probably using PPPoE. If you are simply connected to
the Internet when you turn on your computer, you probably are not. You can also check your ISP or the
information sheet given by the ISP. Please choose PPPoE as the encapsulation type in the ZyXEL Device if the
ISP uses PPPoE.
Why does my provider use PPPoE?
PPPoE emulates a familiar Dial-Up connection. It allows your ISP to provide services using their existing
network configuration over the broadband connections. Besides, PPPoE supports a broad range of existing
applications and service including authentication, accounting, secure access and configuration management.
Which Internet Applications can I use with the ZyXEL Device?
Most common applications include MIRC, PPTP, ICQ, Cu-SeeMe, NetMeeting, IP/TV, RealPlayer, VDOLive,
Quake, QuakeII, QuakeIII, StarCraft, & Quick Time.
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How can I configure the ZyXEL Device?
a. Telnet remote management- Menu driven user interface for easy remote management
b. Web browser- web server embedded for easy configurations
What network interface does the ZyXEL Device support?
The ZyXEL Device supports 10/100M Ethernet to connect to the computer and 10/100M Ethernet to connect to
the external cable or ADSL modem.
What can we do with the ZyXEL Device?
Browse the World Wide Web (WWW), send and receive individual e-mail, and download software. These are
just a few of many benefits you can enjoy when you put the whole office on-line with the ZyXEL Device
Internet Access Sharing Router.
Does the ZyXEL Device support dynamic IP addressing?
The ZyXEL Device supports either a static or dynamic IP address from ISP.
What is the difference between the internal IP and the real IP from my ISP?
Internal IPs is sometimes referred to as virtual IPs. They are a group of up to 255 IPs that are used and
recognized internally on the local area network. They are not intended to be recognized on the Internet. The real
IP from ISP, instead, can be recognized or pinged by another real IP. The ZyXEL Device Internet Access
Sharing Router works like an intelligent router that route between the virtual IP and the real IP.
How does e-mail work through the ZyXEL Device?
It depends on what kind of IP you have: Static or Dynamic. If your company has a domain name, it means that
you have a static IP address. Suppose your company's e-mail address is [email protected] Joe and Debbie
will be able to send e-mail through the ZyXEL Device Internet Access Sharing Router using
[email protected] and [email protected] respectively as their e-mail addresses. They will be able
to retrieve their individual private and secure e-mail, if they have been assigned the proper access right.
If your company does not have a domain name, it means that your ISP provides you with a dynamic IP address.
Suppose your company's e-mail address is [email protected] Jane and John will be able to send
e-mail through The ZyXEL Device Internet Access Sharing Router using "jane"<[email protected]>
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and "john"<[email protected]> respectively as their e-mail addresses. Again, they will be able to
retrieve their individual private and secured e-mail, if they have been assigned the proper access right.
What is the difference between the 'Standard' and 'RoadRunner' service?
The US Road Runner service requires the user to "log in" to the service before it can send any packets to the
outside network. This is apparently implemented in the TAS (Toshiba Authentication System) with a packet
filtering firewall in the upstream direction. Before login, one can send ICMP packets (e.g., ping) to the outside
Internet, but nearly all other upstream TCP and UDP packets are blocked. The user can only speak to the local
DNS/login server. Downstream packets do not appear to be filtered or blocked at any time.
While Standard service means the cable services which have no login requirement. The ZyXEL Device supports
both Road Runner & Standard services in menu 4 for connecting to cable ISPs.
Is it possible to access a server running behind SUA from the outside Internet? If possible,
how?
Yes, it is possible because The ZyXEL Device delivers the packet to the local server by looking up to a SUA
server table. Therefore, to make a local server accessible to the outside users, the port number and the inside IP
address of the server must be configured in Menu 15 - SUA Server Setup.
What DHCP capability does the ZyXEL Device support?
The ZyXEL Device supports DHCP client on the WAN port and DHCP server on the LAN port. The ZyXEL
Device's DHCP client allows it to get the Internet IP address from ISP automatically. The ZyXEL Device's
DHCP server allows it to automatically assign IP and DNS addresses to the clients on the local LAN.
How do I used the reset button, more over what field of parameter will be reset by reset
button?
You can used a sharp pointed object insert it into the little reset hole beside the power connector. Press down
the reset button and hold down for approx 5 second, the unit will be reset. When the reset button is pressed the
devices all parameter will be reset back to factory default include, password, and IP address.
The default IP address is 192.168.1.1, Password 1234.
What network interface does the new ZyXEL Device support?
The new ZyXEL Device support auto MDX/MDIX 10/100M Ethernet LAN/WAN port to connect to the
computer on LAN and 10/100M Ethernet to connect to the external cable or ADSL modem on WAN.
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How does the ZyXEL Device support TFTP?
In addition to the direct console port connection, the ZyXEL Device supports the uploading/download of the
firmware and configuration file using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) over LAN.
Can the ZyXEL Device support TFTP over WAN?
Although TFTP should work over WAN as well, it is not recommended because of the potential data corruption
problems.
How can I upload data to outside Internet over the one-way cable?
A workaround is to use an alternate path for your upstream path, such as a dialup connection to an Internet
service provider. So, if you can find another way to get your upstream packets to the Internet you will still be
able to receive downstream packets via the ZyXEL Device.
How fast can the data go?
The speed of the cable modem is only one part of the equation. There are a combination of factors starting with
how fast your PC can handle IP traffic, then how fast your PC to cable modem interface is, then how fast the
cable modem system runs and how much congestion there is on the cable network, then how big a pipe there is
at the head end to the rest of the Internet.
Different models of PCs and Macs are able to handle IP traffic at varying speeds. Very few can handle it at 30
Mbps.
Ethernet (10baseT) is the most popular cable modem interface standard for the PC. This automatically limits the
speed of the connection to under 10 Mbps even if the cable modem can receive at 30 Mbps. Most Local Area
Networks use 10baseT Ethernet, and although they are 10 Mbps networks, it takes a LOT longer than one
second to transmit 10 megabits (or 1.25 megabytes) of data from one terminal to another.
Cable modems on the same node share bandwidth, which means that congestion is created when too many
people are on simultaneously. One user downloading large graphic or video files can use a significant portion of
shared bandwidth, slowing down access for other users in the same neighborhood.
Most independent Internet Service Providers today connect to the Internet using a single 1.5 Mbps "T1"
telephone line. All of their subscribers share that 1.5 Mbps pipeline. Cable head-ends connecting to the Internet
backbone using a T1 limit their subscribers to an absolute maximum of 1.5 Mbps.
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To create the appearance of faster network access, service companies plan to store or "cache" frequently
requested web sites and Usenet newsgroups on a server at their head-end. Storing data locally will remove some
of the bottleneck at the backbone connection.
How fast can they go? In a perfect world (or lab) they can receive data at speeds up to 30 Mbps. In the real
world, with cost conscious cable companies running the systems, the speed will probably fall to about 1.5
Mbps.
My ZyXEL Device can not get an IP address from the ISP to connect to the Internet, what
can I do?
Currently, there are various ways that ISPs control their users. That is, the WAN IP is provided only when the
user is checked as an authorized user. The ISPs currently use three ways:
1. Check if the 'MAC address' is valid
2. Check if the 'Host Name' is valid, e.g., @home
3. Check if the 'User ID' is valid, e.g., RR-Toshiba Authentication Service, RR-Manager Authentication
Service
If you are not able to get the Internet IP from the ISP, check which authentication method your ISP uses and
troubleshoot the problem as described below.
1. Your ISP checks the 'MAC address'
Some ISPs only provide an IP address to the user with an authorized MAC address. This authorized MAC can
be the PC's MAC which is used by the ISP for the authentication. So, if a new network card is used or the
ZyXEL Device is attached to the cable modem directly, the ISP will reject the DHCP discovery from this MAC,
thus no IP is assigned by the ISP.
The ZyXEL Device supports to clone the MAC from the first PC the ISP installed to be its WAN MAC. To
clone the MAC from the PC you need to enter that PC's IP in menu 2. Once the MAC is received by the
ZyXEL Device, the WAN MAC in menu 24.1 will be updated and used for the ISP's authentication.
MAC Address:
Assigned By= IP address attached on LAN
IP Address= 192.168.1.33
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Key settings:
a. Assigned By, Choose 'IP address attached on LAN'.
b. IP Address, Enter the IP address of the PC which is installed by the ISP at the first installation.
2. Your ISP checks the 'Host Name'
Some ISPs take advantage of the 'host name' message in a DHCP packet such as @home to do the
authentication. When first installing, the ISP's tech people configure the host name as the 'Computer Name' of
the PC in the 'Networking' settings. When the ZyXEL Device is attached to the cable modem to connect to the
ISP, we should configure this host name in the ZyXEL Device's system (menu 1).
Menu 1 - General Setup
System Name= zyxel
Key Setting:

System Name= the system name must be the same as the PC's computer name.
3. Your ISP checks 'User ID'
This authentication type is used by RoadRunner ISP; currently they use RR-TAS (Toshiba Authentication
Service) and RR-Manager authentications. You must configure the correct 'Service Type', username and
password for your ISP in menu 4.
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= MyISP
Encapsulation= Ethernet
Service Type= RR-Toshiba
My Login= [email protected]
My Password= ********
Retype to Confirm= N/A
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Login Server= 0.0.0.0
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Address= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Key settings:
a. Service Type.......Currently, there are two authentication types that Road Runner supports,
RR-TAS and RR-Manager. Choose the correct one for your local ISP.
b. Server IP.............The ZyXEL Device will find the Road Runner server IP if this field is blank,
otherwise enter the authentication server IP address if you know it.
c. My Login Name...Enter the login name given to you by your ISP
d. My Password.......Enter the password associated with the login name
e. WAN IP Address Assignment...If the ISP did not assign you an explicit IP, select Dynamic,
otherwise, select Static.
f. IP Address & Subnet Mask & Gateway IP Address...Enter the IP address, subnet mask & gateway
IP when Static Assignment is selected above.
What is BOOTP/DHCP?
BOOTP stands for Bootstrap Protocol. DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Both are
mechanisms to dynamically assign an IP address for a TCP/IP client by the server. In this case, the ZyXEL
Device Internet Access Sharing Router is a BOOTP/DHCP server. Win95 and WinNT clients use DHCP to
request an internal IP address, while WFW and WinSock clients use BOOTP. TCP/IP clients may specify their
own IP or utilize BOOTP/DHCP to request an IP address.
What is DDNS?
The Dynamic DNS service allows you to alias a dynamic IP address to a static hostname, allowing your
computer to be more easily accessed from various locations on the Internet. To use the service, you must first
apply an account from several free Web servers such as WWW.DYNDNS.ORG.
Without DDNS, we always tell the users to use the WAN IP of the 312 to reach our internal server. It is
inconvenient for the users if this IP is dynamic. With DDNS supported by the ZyXEL Device, you apply a DNS
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name (e.g., www.zyxel.com.tw) for your server (e.g., Web server) from a DDNS server. The outside users can
always access the web server using the www.zyxel.com.tw regardless of the WAN IP of the 312.
When the ISP assigns the ZyXEL Device a new IP, the ZyXEL Device updates this IP to DDNS server so that
the server can update its IP-to-DNS entry. Once the IP-to-DNS table in the DDNS server is updated, the DNS
name for your web server (i.e., www.zyxel.com.tw) is still usable.
When do I need DDNS service?
When you want your internal server to be accessed by using DNS name rather than using the dynamic IP
address we can use the DDNS service. The DDNS server allows to alias a dynamic IP address to a static
hostname. Whenever the ISP assigns you a new IP, the ZyXEL Device sends this IP to the DDNS server for its
updates.
What DDNS servers does the ZyXEL Device support?
The DDNS servers the ZyXEL Device supports currently is WWW.DYNDNS.ORG where you apply the DNS
from and update the WAN IP to.
What is DDNS wildcard?
Some DDNS servers support the wildcard feature which allows the hostname, *.yourhost.dyndns.org, to be
aliased to the same IP address as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful when there are multiple servers
inside and you want users to be able to use things such as www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach your
hostname.
Does the ZyXEL Device support DDNS wildcard?
Yes, the ZyXEL Device supports DDNS wildcard that WWW.DynDNS.ORG supports. When using wildcard,
you simply enter yourhost.dyndns.org in the Host field in Menu 1.1.
Can the ZyXEL Device SUA handle IPsec packets sent by the VPN gateway behind ZyXEL
Device?
Yes, the ZyXEL Device's SUA can handle IPsec ESP Tunneling mode. We know when packets go through
SUA, SUA will change the source IP address and source port for the host. To pass IPsec packets, SUA must
understand the ESP packet with protocol number 50, replace the source IP address of the IPsec gateway to the
router's WAN IP address. However, SUA should not change the source port of the UDP packets which are used
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for key managements. Because the remote gateway checks this source port during connections, the port thus is
not allowed to be changed.
How do I setup my ZyXEL Device for routing IPsec packets over SUA?
For outgoing IPsec tunnels, no extra setting is required. For forwarding the inbound IPsec ESP tunnel, A
'Default' server set in menu 15 is required. It is because SUA makes your LAN appear as a single machine to
the outside world. LAN users are invisible to outside users. So, to make an internal server for outside access, we
must specify the service port and the LAN IP of this server in Menu 15. Thus SUA is able to forward the
incoming packets to the requested service behind SUA and the outside users access the server using the ZyXEL
Device's WAN IP address. So, we have to configure the internal IPsec as a default server (unspecified service
port) in menu 15 when it acts a server gateway.
VoIP FAQ
What is Voice over IP?
Voice over IP is an emerging technology based on open standards of IEEE, fundamentally the Internet Protocol,
that allows voice data to travel across the Internet. There are many method to used this technology, the most
common and well known are SIP, and H.323.
How does Voice over IP work?
Basically VoIP is a technic to send voice information in digital form in discrete packets over digital network
rather than by using traditional circuit switch (PSTN). To do so we will need an analog to digital converter on
sender side to translate the voice (analog signal) to digital than transmit it, and on the receiver end it will also
need an analog to digital converter to covert the digital signal back to analog to the person being called can
heard the voice.
Why use VoIP?
Traditionally telephony carrier use circuit switching for carrying voice traffic. As circuit switching is designed
to carry voice and it does it very well. Than why use IP for voice? As broadband booms, and technology
evolve. People now want to communicate through various way not just voice such as email, instant
messaging, video and so on. Traditional telephony can not evolve as quickly as the demand and develop new
feature on circuit switch takes much time and money. IP is an already exist standard and many type of service
already runs on IP, by using IP as a platform integrate service is now possible and low cost where traditional
circuit may take long time to achieve.
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What is the relationship between codec and VoIP?
In order to transfer voice (analog signal) over IP it first need to be digitized. Codec is a technic to digitize
analog signal to digital and vice versa. There are various speech codec available and can be used with VoIP
each with it's advantage and disadvantage.
What advantage does Voice over IP can provide?
The advantage of VoIP is it can provide advance services such as joining e-mail, instant messaging, video,
voice mail all together. Where current circuit switching (PSTN) can not.
What is the difference between H.323 and SIP?
H.323 and SIP are proposed by different group Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a standard introduced by the
Internet Engineering Task Force in 1999 to carry voice over IP. Since it was created by the IETF, it approaches
voice and multimedia from the Internet, or IP, perspective of view. Where as H.323 emerged around 1996, and
as an International Telecommunication Union standard it was designed from a telecommunications perspective.
Both standards have the same objective - to enable voice and multimedia convergence with IP protocols.
Can H.323 and SIP interoperate with one another?
In interoperability between the two, the industry is making slow but sure progress.
Interoperability must first
happen between vendor implementations of the same protocol (SIP-to-SIP and H.323-to-H.323) and then
between protocols. Currently in order for SIP client to talk to H.323 client the ITSP must have a trunking
gateway act as a translator between the two protocols without the truncking gateway the two protocols are not
able to communicate to one another.
What is voice quality?
Voice quality is how well an person can hear the voice on the opposite end.
How are voice quality normally rated?
Voice quality is most commonly rated through a voice quality metric called the Mean Opinion Score (MOS)
which is recommendation by ITU-T.
and 1 represent bad voice quality.
The
MOS is a 5 point scale where 5 represent excellent voice quality
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What is codec?
Codec is a algorithm which converts analog signal into digital signal and vice versa.
There are three main type
of waveform codec, source codec, and hybrid codec. Each consume different amount of bandwidth and provide
different voice quality level.
What is the relation of codec and VoIP?
As VoIP is a general term send voice information in digital form in discrete packets over digital network and
this digital network is public network, thus there maybe other packet such data packet uses network at the same
time. The codec choose is related to how much bandwidth voice packet will consume. In bandwidthwise
aspect the smaller amount of bandwidth used the better. But in voice aspect the higher quality the better.
What codec does the ZyXEL Device support?
The ZyXEL Device supports the following commonly used codec.

G.729 voice codec


G.711u-law voice codec
G.711a-law voice codec
Which codec should I choose?
As which codec choose is depending on what codec is supported on both end of the VoIP host.
codec with low bandwidth consumption and high voice quality is a good codec .
Generally a
What do I need in order to use SIP?
The minimum required to use VoIP is as follow.
1. A high-speed Internet connection. This can be a cable modem, or a high-speed network services such as
ISDN, DSL or a T-1 link. The need of the bandwidth required will depend on the amount of telephone traffic
will be in your network.
2. A PC with VoIP software installed or a hardware VoIP box such as ATA or device like P-2302 VoIP station
gateway.
3. An account with a VoIP provider such as an ITSP. The account can be configured to recognize your calls
automatically, or you can require the users to enter their unique account numbers issued.
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Unable to register with the SIP server?
If you are unable to register with the SIP server.
1. Make sure the Internet is reachable and the SIP register server is reachable. If your register server uses
domain name make sure DNS name can be resolved. If you are using static WAN IP make sure DNS server is
configured correctly on your ZyXEL Device.
2. Make sure the SIP account is correct and the password is key in correctly.
3. Check if there is NAT router before it. Prestige is a VoIP station gateway. We do not suggest to have an
NAT router before it as it may cause many unexpected problem. If you have an NAT router before it we
suggest to use a VoIP ATA (VoIP Analog Telephone Adapter) such as Prestige ATA series.
I can register but can not establish a call?
If you can register to server but can not make a call very likely there is NAT router or firewall before it which is
blocking it. We do not suggest to have an NAT router before it as it may cause many unexpected problem.
If you have an NAT router before it we suggest to use a VoIP ATA (VoIP Analog Telephone Adapter) such as
Prestige ATA series.
If the problem is a firewall before it. Please check with the firewall manager, make sure the SIP protocol is
allow to pass-through firewall, and the range of RTP port is allowed through firewall.
I can make a call but the voice only goes one way not in both ways?
If you can register to server and I can make a call signal establishment but the voice only goes one way. In this
case it is very likely there are NAT router or firewall before it, please see NAT/firewall related question above.
I can receive a call but the voice only goes one way not bothway?
If you can register to server but can only make out going call but can not receive incoming calls or the incoming
call signal establishment can be made but voice only goes one way very likely there is NAT/firewall router
before it, please see NAT/firewall related question above for tips to troubleshoot.
If all the about have been tried, but register still fail what should I do?
In such case, please contact your local vendor for support. If they can't help out the problem they will escalate
your problem to ZyXEL tech center. To report a problem please prepared below info.
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
1. Serial number of the device.
2. SIP Call server type and vendor.
3. Your device firmware version and romfile with password.
4. Detail information what you have tried to resolve the problem.
I suspect there is a hardware problem with my ZyXEL Device what should I do?
Please follow the troubleshooting section in the user’s guide for brief hardware troubleshooting and
diagnostic tips. If you are sure there is a hardware problem after following the hardware diagnostic tips
in the user’s guide. Please contact your ZyXEL local vendor to send the device in for RMA service.
Trouble Shooting
Unable to Get WAN IP from ISP
My ZyXEL Device can not get an IP address from the ISP to connect to the Internet, what can I
do?
Currently, there are various ways that ISPs control their users. That is, the WAN IP is provided only when
the user is checked as an authorized user. The ISPs currently use three ways:
1. Check if the 'MAC address' is valid
2. Check if the 'Host Name' is valid, e.g., @home
3. Check if the 'User ID' is valid, e.g., RR-Toshiba Authentication Service, RR-Manager
Authentication Service
If you are not able to get the Internet IP from the ISP, check which authentication method your ISP uses
and troubleshoot the problem as described below.
1. Your ISP checks the 'MAC address'
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Some ISPs only provide an IP address to the user with an authorized MAC address. This authorized MAC
can be the PC's MAC which is used by the ISP for authentication. So, if a new network card is used or the
ZyXEL Device is attached to the cable modem directly, the ISP will reject the DHCP discovery from this
MAC, thus no IP is assigned by the ISP.
The problem can be simply solved if the ISP allows you to use a new MAC, and you just tell them the
WAN MAC of the ZyXEL Device. The WAN MAC of the ZyXEL Device can be obtained from menu
24.1.
In case the ISP does not allow you to use a new MAC, the ZyXEL Device can clone the MAC from the
first PC you installed as the WAN MAC and send it to the ISP. To clone the MAC from the PC you need
to enter that PC's IP in menu 2. Once the MAC is received by the ZyXEL Device, the WAN MAC in
menu 24.1 will be updated.
Menu 2 - WAN Setup
MAC Address:
Assigned By= IP address attached on LAN
IP Address= 192.168.1.33
Key settings:


Assigned By=,
IP Address=,
installation.
Choose 'IP address attached on LAN'.
Enter the IP address of the PC which is installed by the ISP at the first
2. Your ISP checks the 'Host Name'
Some ISPs take advantage of the 'host name' message in a DHCP packet such as @home to do the
authentication. When first installing, the ISP's tech people configure the host name as the 'Computer
Name' of the PC in the 'Networking' settings. When the ZyXEL Device is attached to the cable modem to
connect to the ISP, we should configure this host name in the ZyXEL Device's system (menu 1).
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Menu 1 - General Setup
System Name= zyxel
Domain Name=
First System DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Second System DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Third System DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Edit Dynamic DNS= No
Key Setting:

System Name=,
The system name must be the same as the PC's computer name.
3. Your ISP checks 'User ID'
This authentication type is used by RoadRunner ISP, currently they use RR-TAS(Toshiba Authentication
Service) and RR-Manager authentications. You must configure the correct 'Service Type', username and
password for your ISP in menu 4.
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= MyISP
Encapsulation= Ethernet
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Service Type= RR-Toshiba
My Login= [email protected]
My Password= ********
Retype to Confirm= N/A
Login Server= 0.0.0.0
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Address= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Key settings:

Service Type.......Currently, there are two authentication types that Road Runner supports,

RR-TAS and RR-Manager. Choose the correct one for your local ISP.
Server IP.............The ZyXEL Device will find the Road Runner server IP if this field is blank,
otherwise enter the authentication server IP address if you know it.
My Login Name...Enter the login name given to you by your ISP

My Password.......Enter the password associated with the login name

WAN IP Address Assignment...If the ISP did not assign you an explicit IP, select Dynamic,
otherwise, select Static.
IP Address & Subnet Mask & Gateway IP Address...Enter the IP address, subnet mask & gateway
IP when Static Assignment is selected above.


Using Embedded Packet Trace
Embedded Packet Trace
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
The ZyXEL Device packet trace records and analyzes packets running on LAN and WAN interfaces. It is
designed for users with technical backgrounds who are interested in the details of the packet flow on LAN or
WAN end of the ZyXEL Device. It is also very helpful for diagnostics if you have compatibility problems with
your ISP or if you want to know the details of a packet for configuring a filter rule.
The format of the display is as following:
Packet:
0
11880.160 ENET0-R[0062] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
[index] [timer/second][channel-receive/transmit][length] [protocol] [sourceIP/port] [destIP/port]
There are two ways to dump the trace:
1. Online Trace--display the trace real time on screen
2. Offline Trace--capture the trace first and display later
The details for capturing the trace in SMT menu 24.8 are as follows.
Online Trace
1. Trace LAN packet
2. Trace WAN packet
1. Trace LAN packet
1.1 Disable to capture the WAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet1 none
1.2 Enable to capture the LAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet0 bothway
1.3 Enable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw on & sys trcl sw on
1.4 Display the brief trace online by entering: sys trcd brief
or
1.5 Display the detailed trace online by entering: sys trcd parse
Example:
Prestige> sys trcp channel enet1 none
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Prestige> sys trcp channel enet0 bothway
Prestige> sys trcp sw on
Prestige> sys trcl sw on
Prestige> sys trcd brief
0
11880.160 ENET0-R[0062] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
1
11883.100 ENET0-R[0062] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
2
11883.330 ENET0-T[0058] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1108
3
11883.340 ENET0-R[0060] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
4
11883.340 ENET0-R[0339] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
5
11883.610 ENET0-T[0054] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1108
6
11883.620 ENET0-T[0102] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1108
7
11883.630 ENET0-T[0054] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1108
8
11883.630 ENET0-R[0060] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
9
11883.650 ENET0-R[0060] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
10
11883.650 ENET0-R[0062] TCP 192.168.1.2:1109->192.31.7.130:80
Prestige> sys trcd parse
---<0000>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET0-RECV
Size:
62/
62
Time: 12089.790 sec
Frame Type: TCP 192.168.1.2:1116->192.31.7.130:80
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921311
Source MAC Addr
= 0080C84CEA63
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x0030 (48)
Idetification
= 0x330B (13067)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0x80 (128)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0x3E71 (15985)
Source IP
= 0xC0A80102 (192.168.1.2)
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Destination IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x045C (1116)
Destination Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Sequence Number
= 0x00BD15A7 (12391847)
Ack Number
= 0x00000000 (0)
Header Length
= 28
Flags
= 0x02 (....S.)
Window Size
= 0x2000 (8192)
Checksum
= 0xBEC3 (48835)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
Options
=
0000: 02 04 05 B4 01 01 04 02
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 A0 C5 92 13 11 00 80-C8 4C EA 63 08 00 45 00
.........L.c..E.
0010: 00 30 33 0B 40 00 80 06-3E 71 C0 A8 01 02 C0 1F
[email protected]>q......
0020: 07 82 04 5C 00 50 00 BD-15 A7 00 00 00 00 70 02
...\.P........p.
0030: 20 00 BE C3 00 00 02 04-05 B4 01 01 04 02
.............
---<0001>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET0-XMIT
Size:
58/
58
Time: 12090.020 sec
Frame Type: TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1116
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 0080C84CEA63
Source MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921311
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x002C (44)
Idetification
= 0x57F3 (22515)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Time to Live
= 0xED (237)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0xAC8C (44172)
Source IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
Destination IP
= 0xC0A80102 (192.168.1.2)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Destination Port
= 0x045C (1116)
Sequence Number
= 0x4AD1B57F (1255257471)
Ack Number
= 0x00BD15A8 (12391848)
Header Length
= 24
Flags
= 0x12 (.A..S.)
Window Size
= 0xFAF0 (64240)
Checksum
= 0xF877 (63607)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
Options
=
0000: 02 04 05 B4
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 80 C8 4C EA 63 00 A0-C5 92 13 11 08 00 45 00
...L.c........E.
0010: 00 2C 57 F3 40 00 ED 06-AC 8C C0 1F 07 82 C0 A8
.,[email protected]
0020: 01 02 00 50 04 5C 4A D1-B5 7F 00 BD 15 A8 60 12
...P.\J.......`.
0030: FA F0 F8 77 00 00 02 04-05 B4
...w......
---<0002>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET0-RECV
Size:
60/
60
Time: 12090.210 sec
Frame Type: TCP 192.168.1.2:1116->192.31.7.130:80
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921311
Source MAC Addr
= 0080C84CEA63
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Total Length
= 0x0028 (40)
Idetification
= 0x350B (13579)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0x80 (128)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0x3C79 (15481)
Source IP
= 0xC0A80102 (192.168.1.2)
Destination IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x045C (1116)
Destination Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Sequence Number
= 0x00BD15A8 (12391848)
Ack Number
= 0x4AD1B580 (1255257472)
Header Length
= 20
Flags
= 0x10 (.A....)
Window Size
= 0x2238 (8760)
Checksum
= 0xE8ED (59629)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
TCP Data: (Length=6, Captured=6)
0000: 20 20 20 20 20 20
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 A0 C5 92 13 11 00 80-C8 4C EA 63 08 00 45 00
.........L.c..E.
0010: 00 28 35 0B 40 00 80 06-3C 79 C0 A8 01 02 C0 1F
.([email protected]<y......
0020: 07 82 04 5C 00 50 00 BD-15 A8 4A D1 B5 80 50 10
...\.P....J...P.
0030: 22 38 E8 ED 00 00 20 20-20 20 20 20
"8....
2. Trace WAN packet
1.1 Disable to capture the LAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet0 none
1.2 Enable to capture the WAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet1 bothway
1.3 Enable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw on & sys trcl sw on
1.4 Display the brief trace online by entering: sys trcd brief
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
or
1.5 Display the detailed trace online by entering: sys trcd parse
Example:
Prestige> sys trcp channel enet0 none
Prestige> sys trcp channel enet1 bothway
Prestige> sys trcp sw on
Prestige> sys trcl sw on
Prestige> sys trcd brief
0
12367.680 ENET1-R[0070] UDP 202.132.155.95:520->202.132.155.255:520
1
12370.980 ENET1-T[0062] TCP 202.132.155.97:10261->192.31.7.130:80
2
12373.940 ENET1-T[0062] TCP 202.132.155.97:10261->192.31.7.130:80
3
12374.930 ENET1-R[0064] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->202.132.155.97:10261
4
12374.940 ENET1-T[0054] TCP 202.132.155.97:10261->192.31.7.130:80
5
12374.940 ENET1-T[0438] TCP 202.132.155.97:10261->192.31.7.130:80
6
12375.320 ENET1-R[0064] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->202.132.155.97:10261
7
12375.360 ENET1-R[0090] UDP 202.132.155.95:520->202.132.155.255:520
Prestige> sys trcd parse
---<0000>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET1-RECV
Size:1181/
96
Time: 12387.260 sec
Frame Type: TCP 192.31.7.130:80->202.132.155.97:10270
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921312
Source MAC Addr
= 00A0C5012345
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x048B (1163)
Idetification
= 0xB139 (45369)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0xEE (238)
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0xA9AB (43435)
Source IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
Destination IP
= 0xCA849B61 (202.132.155.97)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Destination Port
= 0x281E (10270)
Sequence Number
= 0xD3E95985 (3555285381)
Ack Number
= 0x00C18F63 (12685155)
Header Length
= 20
Flags
= 0x19 (.AP..F)
Window Size
= 0xFAF0 (64240)
Checksum
= 0x3735 (14133)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
TCP Data: (Length=1127, Captured=42)
0000: DF 33 AF 62 58 37 52 3D-79 99 A5 3C 2B 59 E2 78
.3.bX7R=y..<+Y.x
0010: A7 98 8F 3F A9 09 E4 0F-26 14 9C 58 3E 95 3E E7
...?....&..X>.>.
0020: FC 2A 4C 2F FB BE 2F FE-EF D0
.*L/../...
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 A0 C5 92 13 12 00 A0-C5 01 23 45 08 00 45 00
..........#E..E.
0010: 04 8B B1 39 40 00 EE 06-A9 AB C0 1F 07 82 CA 84
[email protected]
0020: 9B 61 00 50 28 1E D3 E9-59 85 00 C1 8F 63 50 19
.a.P(...Y....cP.
0030: FA F0 37 35 00 00 DF 33-AF 62 58 37 52 3D 79 99
..75...3.bX7R=y.
0040: A5 3C 2B 59 E2 78 A7 98-8F 3F A9 09 E4 0F 26 14
.<+Y.x...?....&.
0050: 9C 58 3E 95 3E E7 FC 2A-4C 2F FB BE 2F FE EF D0
.X>.>..*L/../...
---<0001>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET1-XMIT
Size:
54/
54
Time: 12387.490 sec
Frame Type: TCP 202.132.155.97:10270->192.31.7.130:80
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 00A0C5012345
Source MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921312
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x0028 (40)
Idetification
= 0x7A0C (31244)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0x7F (127)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0x543C (21564)
Source IP
= 0xCA849B61 (202.132.155.97)
Destination IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x281E (10270)
Destination Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Sequence Number
= 0x00C18F63 (12685155)
Ack Number
= 0xD3E95DE9 (3555286505)
Header Length
= 20
Flags
= 0x10 (.A....)
Window Size
= 0x1DD5 (7637)
Checksum
= 0x7A12 (31250)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 A0 C5 01 23 45 00 A0-C5 92 13 12 08 00 45 00
....#E........E.
0010: 00 28 7A 0C 40 00 7F 06-54 3C CA 84 9B 61 C0 1F
.([email protected]<...a..
0020: 07 82 28 1E 00 50 00 C1-8F 63 D3 E9 5D E9 50 10
..(..P...c..].P.
0030: 1D D5 7A 12 00 00
..z...
---<0002>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET1-XMIT
Size:
54/
54
Time: 12387.490 sec
Frame Type: TCP 202.132.155.97:10270->192.31.7.130:80
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 00A0C5012345
Source MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921312
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
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P2302R-P1C Support Notes
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x0028 (40)
Idetification
= 0x7B0C (31500)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0x7F (127)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0x533C (21308)
Source IP
= 0xCA849B61 (202.132.155.97)
Destination IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x281E (10270)
Destination Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Sequence Number
= 0x00C18F63 (12685155)
Ack Number
= 0xD3E95DE9 (3555286505)
Header Length
= 20
Flags
= 0x11 (.A...F)
Window Size
= 0x1DD5 (7637)
Checksum
= 0x7A11 (31249)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 A0 C5 01 23 45 00 A0-C5 92 13 12 08 00 45 00
....#E........E.
0010: 00 28 7B 0C 40 00 7F 06-53 3C CA 84 9B 61 C0 1F
.({[email protected]<...a..
0020: 07 82 28 1E 00 50 00 C1-8F 63 D3 E9 5D E9 50 11
..(..P...c..].P.
0030: 1D D5 7A 11 00 00
..z...
Prestige>
Offline Trace
1. Trace LAN packet
2. Trace WAN packet
128
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
1. Trace LAN packet
1.1 Disable to capture the WAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet1 none
1.2 Enable to capture the LAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet0 bothway
1.3 Enable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw on & sys trcl sw on
1.4 Wait for packet passing through the ZyXEL Device over LAN
1.5 Disable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw off & sys trcl sw off
1.6 Display the trace briefly by entering: sys trcp brief
1.7 Display specific packets by using: sys trcp parse <from_index> <to_index>
Exmaple:
Prestige> sys trcp channel enet1 none
Prestige> sys trcp channel enet0 bothway
Prestige> sys trcp sw on
Prestige> sys trcl sw on
Prestige> sys trcp sw off
Prestige> sys trcl sw off
Prestige> sys trcp brief
0
10855.790 ENET0-T[0141] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1102
1
10855.800 ENET0-R[0060] TCP 192.168.1.2:1102->192.31.7.130:80
2
10855.810 ENET0-R[0062] TCP 192.168.1.2:1103->192.31.7.130:80
3
10855.840 ENET0-R[0062] TCP 192.168.1.2:1104->192.31.7.130:80
4
10856.020 ENET0-T[0054] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1102
5
10856.030 ENET0-T[0058] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1103
6
10856.040 ENET0-R[0060] TCP 192.168.1.2:1103->192.31.7.130:80
Prestige> sys trcp parse 5 5
---<0005>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET0-XMIT
Size:
58/
58
Time: 10856.030 sec
Frame Type: TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1103
Ethernet Header:
129
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Destination MAC Addr
= 0080C84CEA63
Source MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921311
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x002C (44)
Idetification
= 0x7F02 (32514)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0xED (237)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0x857D (34173)
Source IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
Destination IP
= 0xC0A80102 (192.168.1.2)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Destination Port
= 0x044F (1103)
Sequence Number
= 0xD91B1826 (3642431526)
Ack Number
= 0x00AA405F (11157599)
Header Length
= 24
Flags
= 0x12 (.A..S.)
Window Size
= 0xFAF0 (64240)
Checksum
= 0xDCEF (56559)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
Options
=
0000: 02 04 05 B4
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 80 C8 4C EA 63 00 A0-C5 92 13 11 08 00 45 00
...L.c........E.
0010: 00 2C 7F 02 40 00 ED 06-85 7D C0 1F 07 82 C0 A8
.,[email protected]}......
0020: 01 02 00 50 04 4F D9 1B-18 26 00 AA 40 5F 60 12
...P.O...&[email protected]_`.
0030: FA F0 DC EF 00 00 02 04-05 B4
..........
Prestige>
130
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
2. Trace WAN packet
1.1 Disable to capture the LAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet0 none
1.2 Enable to capture the WAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet1 bothway
1.3 Enable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw on & sys trcl sw on
1.4 Wait for packet passing through ZyXEL Device over WAN
1.5 Disable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw off & sys trcl sw off
1.6 Display the trace briefly by entering: sys trcp brief
1.7 Display specific packets by using: sys trcp parse <from_index> <to_index>
Example:
Prestige> sys trcp channel enet0 none
Prestige> sys trcp channel enet1 bothway
Prestige> sys trcl sw on
Prestige> sys trcp sw on
Prestige> sys trcl sw off
Prestige> sys trcp sw off
Prestige> sys trcp brief
0
12864.800 ENET1-T[0411] TCP 202.132.155.97:10278->204.217.0.2:80
1
12864.890 ENET1-R[0247] TCP 204.217.0.2:80->202.132.155.97:10282
2
12864.900 ENET1-T[0416] TCP 202.132.155.97:10282->204.217.0.2:80
3
12865.120 ENET1-R[0247] TCP 204.217.0.2:80->202.132.155.97:10278
4
12865.130 ENET1-T[0411] TCP 202.132.155.97:10278->204.217.0.2:80
5
12865.220 ENET1-R[0247] TCP 204.217.0.2:80->202.132.155.97:10282
Prestige> sys trcp parse 3 4
---<0003>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET1-RECV
Size: 247/
96
Time: 12865.120 sec
Frame Type: TCP 204.217.0.2:80->202.132.155.97:10278
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921312
Source MAC Addr
= 00A0C5591284
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
131
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x00E5 (229)
Idetification
= 0xE93B (59707)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0xF0 (240)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0x6E15 (28181)
Source IP
= 0xCCD90002 (204.217.0.2)
Destination IP
= 0xCA849B61 (202.132.155.97)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Destination Port
= 0x2826 (10278)
Sequence Number
= 0x4D713D8A (1299266954)
Ack Number
= 0x00C8C015 (13156373)
Header Length
= 20
Flags
= 0x18 (.AP...)
Window Size
= 0x2238 (8760)
Checksum
= 0xAB57 (43863)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
TCP Data: (Length=193, Captured=42)
0000: 48 54 54 50 2F 31 2E 31-20 33 30 34 20 4E 6F 74
HTTP/1.1 304 Not
0010: 20 4D 6F 64 69 66 69 65-64 0D 0A 44 61 74 65 3A
Modified..Date:
0020: 20 57 65 64 2C 20 30 37-20 4A
Wed, 07 J
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 A0 C5 92 13 12 00 A0-C5 59 12 84 08 00 45 00
.........Y....E.
0010: 00 E5 E9 3B 40 00 F0 06-6E 15 CC D9 00 02 CA 84
...;@...n.......
0020: 9B 61 00 50 28 26 4D 71-3D 8A 00 C8 C0 15 50 18
.a.P(&Mq=.....P.
0030: 22 38 AB 57 00 00 48 54-54 50 2F 31 2E 31 20 33
"8.W..HTTP/1.1 3
0040: 30 34 20 4E 6F 74 20 4D-6F 64 69 66 69 65 64 0D
04 Not Modified.
0050: 0A 44 61 74 65 3A 20 57-65 64 2C 20 30 37 20 4A
.Date: Wed, 07 J
---<0004>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET1-XMIT
Size: 411/
96
Time: 12865.130 sec
Frame Type: TCP 202.132.155.97:10278->204.217.0.2:80
132
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 00A0C5591284
Source MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921312
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x018D (397)
Idetification
= 0xF20C (61964)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0x7F (127)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0xD59C (54684)
Source IP
= 0xCA849B61 (202.132.155.97)
Destination IP
= 0xCCD90002 (204.217.0.2)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x2826 (10278)
Destination Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Sequence Number
= 0x00C8C015 (13156373)
Ack Number
= 0x4D713E47 (1299267143)
Header Length
= 20
Flags
= 0x18 (.AP...)
Window Size
= 0x1E87 (7815)
Checksum
= 0x4374 (17268)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
TCP Data: (Length=357, Captured=42)
0000: 47 45 54 20 2F 70 69 63-74 75 72 65 73 2F 6D 61
GET /pictures/ma
0010: 67 61 7A 69 6E 65 5F 6C-6F 67 6F 2F 62 65 73 74
gazine_logo/best
0020: 6F 66 74 69 6D 65 73 2E-67 69
oftimes.gi
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 A0 C5 59 12 84 00 A0-C5 92 13 12 08 00 45 00
...Y..........E.
133
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
0010: 01 8D F2 0C 40 00 7F 06-D5 9C CA 84 9B 61 CC D9
[email protected]
0020: 00 02 28 26 00 50 00 C8-C0 15 4D 71 3E 47 50 18
..(&.P....Mq>GP.
0030: 1E 87 43 74 00 00 47 45-54 20 2F 70 69 63 74 75
..Ct..GET /pictu
0040: 72 65 73 2F 6D 61 67 61-7A 69 6E 65 5F 6C 6F 67
res/magazine_log
0050: 6F 2F 62 65 73 74 6F 66-74 69 6D 65 73 2E 67 69
o/bestoftimes.gi
Prestige>
Debug PPPoE Connection
Debug PPPoE Connection
The ZyXEL Device supports traces when there is problem to connect your ISP using PPPoE protocol.
Please follow the procedure below to collect the trace for our troubleshooting.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Remove the LAN cable attached on the ZyXEL Device
Enter SMT using console port
Enter Menu 24.8-CI command mode
Type the following commands:
 sys trcp sw on (turn on packet trace)
 sys errctl 3 (save crash information and make system enter debug mode after the crash)
 poe debug 1 (turn on pppoe debug)

dev dial 1 (dial remote node 1)
5. After all, if the ZyXEL Device crashes and you can do nothing, please send the above log back to
us.
6. If the ZyXEL Device crashes and you are able to enter commands, please type 'atds' in debug
mode to dump the log and send the log to us.
7. If the ZyXEL Device does not crash but just can not dial out, please capture the following further
log and send us the log.
 sys trcp sw off (turn off packet trace)
 sys log disp i (capture system error log)
 sys trcp parse (parse the trace in detail)
134
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Example- A trace with system crashes
ras> sys trcp sw on
ras> sys errctl 3
ras> poe debug 1
ras> dev dial 1
Start dialing for node <GPMI>...
poeNetCmdExe: chann poe0 event x420
poeChannDial: start session, peer<GPMI>
bdcastInit: pch poe0
poePut1SrvcName: '' len 0
host-uniq 31303030 len 4
putPoeHdr: ver 1 type 1 code x09 sess-id 0 len 12(x000C)
bdcastSendInit: l1.pktTx() failed, pch poe0 ch enet0
poePut1SrvcName: '' len 0
host-uniq 31303030 len 4
putPoeHdr: ver 1 type 1 code x09 sess-id 0 len 12(x000C)
### Hit any key to continue.###
$$$ DIALING dev=6 ch=0..........
poeI/C: ver 1 type 1 code x07 sessId x0000 len 274(x0112)
poeCtrlI/C: pkt len 274
poeGetTags()
service-name
service-name telstra
service-name bpa
service-name iprimus
service-name pacificinternet
service-name integrationisp
service-name bpa-dev
service-name bpa-sif
service-name telstrarna
service-name gpmsystems
service-name cmux
service-name launceston-broadband
135
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
service-name vivanet
service-name n1234567k00
service-name bigpond
service-name n7061992k
service-name n3068223k
service-name n2155202k
service-name n7061995k
AC-name vet1-exhibition-bsn-1
host-uniq 31303030 len 4
PADO recv'd, chann enet1
procPADO: for poe chann poe0
Chann poe0 sending request
poePut1SrvcName: '' len 0
host-uniq 31303030 len 4
putPoeHdr: ver 1 type 1 code x19 sess-id 0 len 12(x000C)
Undefined Address : 0xE3F045C4
Undefined Data : 0x56FF54FF
r0= 0xE3F045C4
r1= 0x0001FFC0
r2= 0x000000E5
r3= 0x56FF54FF
r4= 0xE3F045C4
r5= 0xE5BDBFEC
r6= 0x0001C468
r7= 0x60000093
r8= 0x00000000
r9= 0xE3550000
r12=0x56FF54FF
sp= 0x0001EDBC
r10=0xE3550000
lr= 0x00004F64
fp= 0x00000000
pc= 0x00013954
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F
e5bdbfe0: e2 8f 00 06 e5 d5 20 06 e5 d5 20 0a e5 d5 20 0e ...b...f...j...n
e5bdbff0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc000: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc010: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc020: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc030: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc040: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc050: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc060: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc070: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc080: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc090: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc0a0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc0b0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc0c0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
136
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
e5bdc0d0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
e5bdc0e0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 ed 2b ...b...f...j...n
Bootbase Version: V1.06 | 11/05/2004 19:29:47
RAM: Size = 8192 Kbytes
DRAM POST: Testing:
8192K
OK
FLASH: Intel 16M
ZyNOS Version: V3.60(MM.0) | 12/31/2004 13:39:02
Enter Debug Mode
atgo
(Compressed)
Version: RAS P2302R-P1C, start: bfc58030
Length: 3DB3EC, Checksum: 9AA9
Compressed Length: 12AC58, Checksum: DC06
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2005 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
initialize ch =0, ethernet address: 00:A0:C5:CB:A8:16
initialize ch =1, ethernet address: 00:A0:C5:CB:A8:17
VC5402 Init...OK
Press ENTER to continue...
Enter Password : XXXX
LAN/WAN Packet Trace
The ZyXEL Device packet trace records and analyzes packets running on LAN and WAN interfaces. It is
designed for users with technical backgrounds who are interested in the details of the packet flow on LAN or
WAN end of ZyXEL Device. It is also very helpful for diagnostics if you have compatibility problems with
your ISP or if you want to know the details of a packet for configuring a filter rule.
The format of the display is as following:
Packet:
137
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
0
11880.160 ENET0-R[0062] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
[index] [timer/second][channel-receive/transmit][length] [protocol] [sourceIP/port] [destIP/port]
There are two ways to dump the trace:
1. Online Trace--display the trace real time on screen
2. Offline Trace--capture the trace first and display later
The details for capturing the trace in SMT menu 24.8 are as follows.
Online Trace
1. Trace LAN packet
2. Trace WAN packet
1. Trace LAN packet
1.1 Disable to capture the WAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel mpoa00 none
1.2 Enable to capture the LAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet0 bothway
1.3 Enable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw on & sys trcl sw on
1.4 Display the brief trace online by entering: sys trcd brief
or
1.5 Display the detailed trace online by entering: sys trcd parse
Example:
ras> sys trcp channel mpoa00 none
ras> sys trcp channel enet0 bothway
ras> sys trcp sw on
ras> sys trcl sw on
ras> sys trcd brief
0
11880.160 ENET0-R[0062] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
1
11883.100 ENET0-R[0062] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
2
11883.330 ENET0-T[0058] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1108
3
11883.340 ENET0-R[0060] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
138
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
4
11883.340 ENET0-R[0339] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
5
11883.610 ENET0-T[0054] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1108
6
11883.620 ENET0-T[0102] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1108
7
11883.630 ENET0-T[0054] TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1108
8
11883.630 ENET0-R[0060] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
9
11883.2602HW ENET0-R[0060] TCP 192.168.1.2:1108->192.31.7.130:80
10
11883.2602HW ENET0-R[0062] TCP 192.168.1.2:1109->192.31.7.130:80
ras> sys trcd parse
---<0000>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET0-RECV
Size:
62/
62
Time: 12089.790 sec
Frame Type: TCP 192.168.1.2:1116->192.31.7.130:80
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921311
Source MAC Addr
= 0080C84CEA63
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x0030 (48)
Idetification
= 0x330B (13067)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0x80 (128)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0x3E71 (15985)
Source IP
= 0xC0A80102 (192.168.1.2)
Destination IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x045C (1116)
Destination Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Sequence Number
= 0x00BD15A7 (12391847)
Ack Number
= 0x00000000 (0)
Header Length
= 28
139
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Flags
= 0x02 (....S.)
Window Size
= 0x2004 (8192)
Checksum
= 0xBEC3 (48835)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
Options
=
0000: 02 04 05 B4 01 01 04 02
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 A0 C5 92 13 11 00 80-C8 4C EA 63 08 00 45 00
.........L.c..E.
0010: 00 30 33 0B 40 00 80 06-3E 71 C0 A8 01 02 C0 1F
[email protected]>q......
0020: 07 82 04 5C 00 50 00 BD-15 A7 00 00 00 00 70 02
...\.P........p.
0030: 20 00 BE C3 00 00 02 04-05 B4 01 01 04 02
.............
---<0001>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET0-XMIT
Size:
58/
58
Time: 12090.020 sec
Frame Type: TCP 192.31.7.130:80->192.168.1.2:1116
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 0080C84CEA63
Source MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921311
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x002C (44)
Idetification
= 0x57F3 (22515)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0xED (237)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0xAC8C (44172)
Source IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
Destination IP
= 0xC0A80102 (192.168.1.2)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x0050 (80)
140
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Destination Port
= 0x045C (1116)
Sequence Number
= 0x4AD1B57F (1255257471)
Ack Number
= 0x00BD15A8 (12391848)
Header Length
= 24
Flags
= 0x12 (.A..S.)
Window Size
= 0xFAF0 (2602HW40)
Checksum
= 0xF877 (63607)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
Options
=
0000: 02 04 05 B4
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 80 C8 4C EA 63 00 A0-C5 92 13 11 08 00 45 00
...L.c........E.
0010: 00 2C 57 F3 40 00 ED 06-AC 8C C0 1F 07 82 C0 A8
.,[email protected]
0020: 01 02 00 50 04 5C 4A D1-B5 7F 00 BD 15 A8 60 12
...P.\J.......`.
0030: FA F0 F8 77 00 00 02 04-05 B4
...w......
---<0002>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: ENET0-RECV
Size:
60/
60
Time: 12090.210 sec
Frame Type: TCP 192.168.1.2:1116->192.31.7.130:80
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921311
Source MAC Addr
= 0080C84CEA63
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x0028 (40)
Idetification
= 0x350B (13579)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0x80 (128)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0x3C79 (15481)
Source IP
= 0xC0A80102 (192.168.1.2)
141
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
Destination IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x045C (1116)
Destination Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Sequence Number
= 0x00BD15A8 (12391848)
Ack Number
= 0x4AD1B580 (1255257472)
Header Length
= 20
Flags
= 0x10 (.A....)
Window Size
= 0x2238 (8760)
Checksum
= 0xE8ED (59629)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
TCP Data: (Length=6, Captured=6)
0000: 20 20 20 20 20 20
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 A0 C5 92 13 11 00 80-C8 4C EA 63 08 00 45 00
.........L.c..E.
0010: 00 28 35 0B 40 00 80 06-3C 79 C0 A8 01 02 C0 1F
.([email protected]<y......
0020: 07 82 04 5C 00 50 00 BD-15 A8 4A D1 B5 80 50 10
...\.P....J...P.
0030: 22 38 E8 ED 00 00 20 20-20 20 20 20
"8....
2. Trace WAN packet
1.1 Disable the capture of the LAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet0 none
1.2 Enable to capture the WAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel mpoa00 bothway
1.3 Enable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw on & sys trcl sw on
1.4 Display the brief trace online by entering: sys trcd brief
or
1.5 Display the detailed trace online by entering: sys trcd parse
Example:
ras> sys trcp channel enet0 none
ras> sys trcp channel mpoa00 bothway
ras> sys trcp sw on
ras> sys trcl sw on
142
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
ras> sys trcd brief
0
12367.680 MPOA00-R[0070] UDP 202.132.155.95:520->202.132.155.255:520
1
12370.980 MPOA00-T[0062] TCP 202.132.155.97:10261->192.31.7.130:80
ras> sys trcd parse
---<0000>---------------------------------------------------------------LAN Frame: MPOA00-RECV
Size:1181/
96
Time: 12387.260 sec
Frame Type: TCP 192.31.7.130:80->202.132.155.97:10270
Ethernet Header:
Destination MAC Addr
= 00A0C5921312
Source MAC Addr
= 00A0C5012345
Network Type
= 0x0800 (TCP/IP)
IP Header:
IP Version
= 4
Header Length
= 20
Type of Service
= 0x00 (0)
Total Length
= 0x048B (1163)
Idetification
= 0xB139 (45369)
Flags
= 0x02
Fragment Offset
= 0x00
Time to Live
= 0xEE (238)
Protocol
= 0x06 (TCP)
Header Checksum
= 0xA9AB (43435)
Source IP
= 0xC01F0782 (192.31.7.130)
Destination IP
= 0xCA849B61 (202.132.155.97)
TCP Header:
Source Port
= 0x0050 (80)
Destination Port
= 0x281E (10270)
Sequence Number
= 0xD3E95985 (3555285381)
Ack Number
= 0x00C18F63 (12685155)
Header Length
= 20
Flags
= 0x19 (.AP..F)
Window Size
= 0xFAF0 (2602HW40)
Checksum
= 0x3735 (14133)
Urgent Ptr
= 0x0000 (0)
143
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
TCP Data: (Length=1127, Captured=42)
0000: DF 33 AF 62 58 37 52 3D-79 99 A5 3C 2B 59 E2 78
.3.bX7R=y..<+Y.x
0010: A7 98 8F 3F A9 09 E4 0F-26 14 9C 58 3E 95 3E E7
...?....&..X>.>.
0020: FC 2A 4C 2F FB BE 2F FE-EF D0
.*L/../...
RAW DATA:
0000: 00 A0 C5 92 13 12 00 A0-C5 01 23 45 08 00 45 00
..........#E..E.
0010: 04 8B B1 39 40 00 EE 06-A9 AB C0 1F 07 82 CA 84
[email protected]
0020: 9B 61 00 50 28 1E D3 E9-59 85 00 C1 8F 63 50 19
.a.P(...Y....cP.
0030: FA F0 37 35 00 00 DF 33-AF 62 58 37 52 3D 79 99
..75...3.bX7R=y.
0040: A5 3C 2B 59 E2 78 A7 98-8F 3F A9 09 E4 0F 26 14
.<+Y.x...?....&.
0050: 9C 58 3E 95 3E E7 FC 2A-4C 2F FB BE 2F FE EF D0
.X>.>..*L/../...
Offline Trace
1. Trace LAN packet
2. Trace WAN packet
1. Trace LAN packet
1.1 Disable the capture of the WAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel mpoa00 none
1.2 Enable the capture of the LAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet0 bothway
1.3 Enable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw on & sys trcl sw on
1.4 Wait for packet passing through the ZyXEL Device over LAN
1.5 Disable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw off & sys trcl sw off
1.6 Display the trace briefly by entering: sys trcp brief
1.7 Display specific packets by using: sys trcp parse <from_index> <to_index>
2. Trace WAN packet
1.1 Disable the capture of the LAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel enet0 none
1.2 Enable the capture of the WAN packet by entering: sys trcp channel mpoa00 bothway
1.3 Enable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw on & sys trcl sw on
1.4 Wait for packet passing through the ZyXEL Device over WAN
1.5 Disable the trace log by entering: sys trcp sw off & sys trcl sw off
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All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
P2302R-P1C Support Notes
1.6 Display the trace briefly by entering: sys trcp brief
1.7 Display specific packets by using: sys trcp parse <from_index> <to_index>
CLI Command List
The latest CI command list is available in release notes of every ZyXEL firmware release. Please go to
ZyXEL public WEB site http://www.zyxel.com/support/download.php to download firmware package
(*.zip), you should unzip the package to get the release note in PDF format.
145
All contents Copyright  2007 ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
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