# Definicións (unidades, SI) Leis, Relacións Constantes

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```Definici&oacute;ns (unidades, SI)
L (m), L = S (m ),
2
2
Leis, Relaci&oacute;ns
Constantes
L = V (m&sup3;)
3
Esfera:
S = 4π r2
V = (4/3) π r3
2
Cilindro: S = 2&middot; π r + 2π r h V = π r2 h
π = 3&acute;14
M.R.: e/t = v (m/s), v/t = a (m/s2)
180&ordm;
Consecuencias
MRU: e = e0 + vt
MCU: φ = φ0 + ωt
aN = v2 / r = ω2 r
MUA: v = v0 + at
e = e0 + v0 t + at2 /2
v2 = v02 + 2ae
F (N) , F &middot; e = W = ΔE (J = N&middot;m)
Fg = GMm /r-2 (-ur) Velocidade de escape:
-11
G
=
6&acute;7
&middot;10
Fg / m = g (N / kg = m / s2)
Epg = - GMm/ r v 2 = 2 GM / R
m3 .s-2..kg -1
Epg /m = Vg (J / kg)
Fe = Kq1q2 /r-2 (ur) Orbitas
2&cedil;&middot; 3
Fe / q = E (N / C)
Epe = K q1q2 /r Kepler: ω r = GM = cte
Epe / q = Ve (J / C = V)
K = 9&middot;109
N m&sup2; C -2
Li&ntilde;a de carga: E = 2Kλ / r
Gauss:
Fluxo: E &middot; S = Φ (N m&sup2; /C)
Plano infinito: E = σ / 2ε0
Φ
=
Q
/
ε
2
ε
=
1/
4πK
T
0
q / S = σ (C / m ), q/L = λ (C / m)
0
Campo magn&eacute;tico: B (T)
Fm = qv &times; B Ciclotr&oacute;n: R = m v / qB, ω=qB/m
-7
μ
=
4π&middot;10
Circulaci&oacute;n: B &middot; L = CB ( T&middot;m) 0
I lineal: B = μ0 I / 2π r (toroide: &middot; N)
CB = μ 0 I
2
Tm/A
=
N
/A
2
Fluxo: B &middot; S = Φm (W = T&middot;m )
Vind = - ΔΦB/ t Fem. ind: vBL (despr.), NBSω (xiro)
Oscilaci&oacute;ns: y = A sen (ωt + φ0)
vm = Aω , a = - y / ω2
T (s) , 1/T = f (Hz) , 2πf = ω (rad/s) - F / y = k (N/m) ET = &frac12; mvm2 = &frac12; kA2
Newton: F = ma
v = λ/ T = ω / k
Ondas: y = A sen (wt – kx)
-1
λ (m) , 1/ λ = ν (m ), 2πν = k (rad/m)
Interferencia (franxa
n): yn = n λL / d
Espello esf: : Pim + P ob = Plte
Optica: 1 / F = P (dioptr = m -1)
F=r/2
A = Pob / Pim = dim /dob
Aumento lateral: A = yim / y ob
Refracci&oacute;n: n = 1 / v,
n12 = v1 / v2 d = 25 cm n1 &middot;sen φ1 = n2 &middot;sen φ2
vis
Resorte: ω2 = k/ m
P&eacute;ndulo: ω2 = g / L
Ondas
electromagn:
c = 1 / (ε0 μ0)1/2
Lupa: A = dvis / f
Telescopio: A = fob / foc
Microsc: A = (L/fob) &middot;Aoc
(Snell)
c = 3&middot; 108 m/s
Relatividade: β = v / c
γ = 1 / (1 – β 2 )1/2 c : velocidade l&iacute;mite e invariante
Cu&aacute;ntica:
Ondas:
E=hf
P=h/λ
Part&iacute;culas:
λ=h/p
f=E/h
h = 6&acute;6 &middot; 10 -34
J&middot;s = kg m&sup2; /s
Dilataci&oacute;n temporal: γ
Contracci&oacute;n espacial: 1/ γ
Indeterminaci&oacute;n:
Δp &middot;Δx &gt; h / 4π
ΔE &middot;Δt &gt; h / 4π
(Heisenberg)
α: He24 , β: e-10 , γ: f00
E0 = m c2
Ec = m (γ - 1)
Efecto fotoel&eacute;ctrico:
hf = W0 + Ece
Vr = (h / q) f – (W0 / q)
Tempo de vida media:
F&iacute;sica Nuclear:
τ = 1/λ
Enerx&iacute;a de enlace: E = Δm &middot; c2
Perido
de semidesint.:
Desintegraci&oacute;n: