Would a narrower choice of products help us consume more sustainably and live more fulfilled
This is not a complaint about choice (or yoghurt, which I love). Choice is clearly a great thing. The
choice 1of whether to be nice or nasty; go for a walk or watch TV; decide where to take your
summer holiday.
But when did we ever need such 2a huge array of products to choose from? There must be a limit
and it was, I suggest, breached years ago. The rot probably set in when supermarkets and
shopping malls were invented around the 1950s. The resulting infinite choice of processed foods,
phones, cars and so on 3is a chronic affliction we can’t escape.
And it’s reached heady heights. 5Looking for a new phone recently I had a choice of no less than
48 Samsung Galaxy phones – just one brand. Why? And why so many yoghurt types: 6endless
shelves loaded with basically the same product?
Does the huge choice on offer in supermarkets, shops and online make us any happier, 8any
more fulfilled? Tim Jackson of Surrey University notes that UK 9consumer-spending has more
than doubled in the last 30 years, but life satisfaction has barely changed. Recent work shows
that “consumption for identity” – buying products to build up our sense of self – has gone too far
and 10does not deliver contentment. 11Consumption is not the same as 12choice, but these days
the two are so close that you couldn’t put a 13low-fat, 14tar-lite, 15sugar-free cigarette paper
between them.
Of course many 16shoppers may disagree. For 17them, such choice means that life has never
been better. In reality, this is a complex issue, embedded in values, identity and marketing. But
whether you’re for or against such high levels, 18we should all be aware of the effect it can have
on our mental wellbeing and crucially, our environment.
Happiness aside, I know for sure that choice is putting a huge pressure on people and planet.
This is well covered elsewhere but suffice to say that if we buy more than we need and throw
away perfectly good products – be it food, clothes or phones – we’re not making efficient, or fair,
use of finite land, water, energy, raw materials and labour. 20We’re putting more greenhouse
gases into the environment and polluting the planet so that people are finding impossible to live
in some parts of the world.
I think 21it’s worth asking yourself, at least twice, do I need to buy this at all? Do I need to eat meat
every day of the week? Could I make do with one big yoghurt pot instead of four small ones? Can
I repair this phone instead of getting a new one? Sometimes the answer will be yes.
Texto adaptado, disponível em <http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/aug/04/smartphones-yorghurts-did-weever-need-so-muchconsumer-choice>. Acesso em 07/08/2014.
01. (UEM) Choose the alternative(s) in which the underlined word is usually used in
positive contexts.
01) “...of whether to be nice or nasty...” (ref. 1).
02) “...is a chronic affliction we can’t escape” (ref. 3).
04) “...any more fulfilled?” (ref. 8).
08) “...does not deliver contentment” (ref. 10).
16) “...on our mental wellbeing...” (ref. 19).
02. (UEM) Choose the alternative(s) in which the information about the verbs from the
text is correct.
01) In the extract “And it’s reached heady heights” (ref. 4), the contracted form underlined
means “it has”.
02) The phrasal verb “looking for” (ref. 5) is the same as “searching”.
04) One possible answer for the question “Does the huge choice on offer in supermarkets,
shops and online make us any happier, any more fulfilled?” (ref. 7) is “Yes, it does”.
08) The modal verbs “may”, in “...shoppers may disagree” (ref. 16), and “should”, in “we should
all be aware...” (ref. 18), are used in the text to make deductions, to speculate.
16) The –ing form, in “we’re putting more greenhouse gases...” (ref. 20), and in “...it’s worth
asking...” (ref. 21), is used in the text with the same purpose, that is, to indicate that the
action happens regularly.
Joan Houston Hall, a lexicographer, is concerned about the use of regionalisms
throughout the country. She works in one of America’s most ambitious lexicographical projects,
which culminates with the publication of a dictionary by Harvard University Press, 50 years after
the project was inaugurated by Frederic G. Cassidy.
Mr. Cassidy, who died in 2000, did not make it to the end of the alphabet. But to scholars
and language lovers the work he set in motion is an invaluable guide to the way Americans 1not
only speak but also live. The dictionary includes 2nearly 60,000 terms, many of them reflecting
the country’s rural and agricultural past. But among the pages and pages of names for wildflowers
and farm implements, DARE, as the dictionary is commonly known, includes enough newer terms
to suggest that the state of regional English isn’t quite as bad as may suggest the laments about
the homogenizing forces of urbanization, mass media and the Internet.
Ms. Hall recognizes that the extremes of regional speech are disappearing; however, she
is pleased to find out that there are still lots of regional words. If it has become harder to find many
different terms for outdated expressions, that’s partly because people today are 3more likely to be
talking about fast food or traffic. 4In fact, in the age of Twitter and Facebook, linguists say, the
interactions that most powerfully shape our speech are still local and face to face. 5In sum,
American English 6actually has more words for the same things than ever before.
Adapted from: <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/25/books/dictionary-of-american-regional-english-reaches-lastvolume.html?pagewanted=all>. Accessed on August 14th, 2012.
03. (UFSC) Select the proposition(s) which presents (present) CORRECT explanations
for the expressions below, as they are used in the text.
01) not only… but also (ref. 1): adding information
02) nearly (ref. 2): indicating distance
04) more likely to (ref. 3): expressing probability
08) in fact (ref. 4): emphasizing information
16) in sum (ref. 5): providing additional ideas
32) actually (ref. 6): reinforcing ideas
04. (UFSC) Select the CORRECT proposition(s) about the text.
01) The Dictionary of American Regional English is a scientific article about a scientific
02) The text adapted from The New York Times was released originally in February 25th, 2012.
04) The text is about a dictionary whose project was started by Frederic G. Cassidy.
08) The text was written by Joan Houston Hall, a lexicographer who works with dictionaries.
16) The Dictionary of American Regional English is a text printed in the mass media about
people who like dictionaries.
05. (UFSC) Regarding the dictionary mentioned in the text, it is correct to state that:
01) the Dictionary of American Regional English is a result of one of America’s most ambitious
lexicographical projects.
02) Joan Houston Hall is the only lexicographer responsible for the dictionary published by
Harvard University.
04) the dictionary which is a product of a group of students from Harvard consists of almost
60,000 terms.
08) the Dictionary of American Regional English is also known as DARE.
16) the inclusion of newer terms in the Dictionary of American Regional English suggests that the
state of regional English isn’t so bad.
1Mahatma Gandhi was born in Probandar in 1869, and was sent to England in 1888 where he
studied law. When he graduated he took a job in South Africa where he first began to campaign
against injustice. The South Africans looked down on non-Europeans, and the black, white and
Indian people were kept separate. Gandhi developed his policy of non-violent passive resistance
to authority, and was imprisoned several times.
2In 1914 he went back to India. He believed that the end of British colonial rule was inevitable,
and he campaigned for independence. He tried to persuade people to buy only Indian products,
and to refuse to buy salt, on which the British levied a tax. He never stopped preaching nonviolence, even though fighting occasionally broke out between demonstrators and the army. In
the worst incident, government troops at Amritsar in 1919 machine-gunned an unarmed crowd,
killing hundreds.
3Gandhi was so against violence that at one point he decided to fast (to starve himself to death)
unless the fighting stopped. He spent several periods in prison, but always looked forward to an
end to British rule. He also looked ahead to a united India where Hindus and Moslems could live
together in peace.
4Independence was achieved in 1947, but it brought with it the division of India. Gandhi was
against the creation of Pakistan, but as the rioting spread he realized it was inevitable. He went
round Bengal on foot, preaching non-violence. In January 1948 he was murdered by a Hindu who
disapproved of his activities to reconcile the religious groups. He is looked up to all over the world
for his philosophy of non-violence.
VINEY, Peter (Dir.). Streamline English: workbook A. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. Unit 5.
06. (UFBA) A expressão transcrita pode ser substituída pela da direita, sem alterar o
sentido, em:
01) "looked down" (1st paragraph) - considered inferior
02) "levied" (2nd paragraph) - paid
04) "unless" (3rd paragraph) - until
08) "looked forward to" (3rd paragraph) - searched
16) "brought with" (4th paragraph) - caused
32) "reconcile" (4th paragraph) - get together
07. (UFBA) According to the text, Gandhi thought that:
01) Sometimes it's necessary to use weapons to fight against violence.
02) Indian troops should be prepared to fight against British army.
04) The best way to challenge government was through passive resistance.
08) Indian people should be like a brotherhood of men with the same beliefs.
16) British rule in India would come to an end after his death.
Resposta da questão 1: 04 + 08 + 16 = 28.
Resposta da questão 2: 01 + 02 + 04 = 07.
Resposta da questão 3: 01 + 04 + 08 + 32 = 45.
Resposta da questão 4: 02 + 04 = 06.
Resposta da questão 5: 01 + 08 + 16 = 25.
Resposta da questão 6: 01 + 02 + 04 + 16 + 32 = 55
Resposta da questão 7: 04 + 08 =12
Primer día de universidad… ¿qué hacer? ¿Por dónde empezar? El Servicio de
Información y Orientación Académica de la Universitat Abat Oliba CEU es un apoyo de entrada
para el futuro alumno. El estudiante se sentirá acompañado en todo momento. E incluso antes
de formalizar el proceso de admisión y matrícula para formar parte de la UAO CEU, ya que este
Servicio se encarga de realizar talleres para los futuros alumnos y jornadas de puertas abiertas
para poner en contacto a los alumnos de Bachillerato con estudiantes y profesores universitarios.
Todos los alumnos de la UAO CEU pueden acudir al Servicio de Atención al Estudiante,
el cual es de gran ayuda, ya que su objetivo es informar, orientar y asesorar al estudiante en
todos los ámbitos de la vida universitaria. Ofrece, por tanto, un seguimiento personalizado de los
progresos y necesidades del alumno. Además, los alumnos también tienen a su disposición el
Servicio de Orientación Psicológica.
Una vez ya en el campus, el estudiante pronto se dará cuenta de que hay mucha vida
más allá de los libros y las aulas. De hecho, uno de los mejores consejos que le darán será el de
aprovechar al máximo todas las actividades y cursos extracurriculares que organiza la Universitat
Abat Oliba CEU a lo largo de todo el curso.
01) A Universidade Abat Oliba (UAO-CEO), preocupada com a inserção dos jovens nas
universidades, criou um programa que consiste em
A) acompanhar os egressos, informá-los, orientá-los e assessorá-los sobre os cursos
extracurriculares oferecidos pela instituição.
B) ensinar os estudantes como aproveitar as aulas e ter um melhor rendimento nos trabalhos e
nas provas.
C) dar apoio aos estudantes que demonstram dificuldade nas aulas de Matemática e línguas.
D) mostrar aos egressos que a universidade oferece cursos extracurriculares de
empreendedorismo, idiomas e cinema.
E) dar assistência aos futuros acadêmicos ainda no Ensino Médio e, na universidade,
acompanhá-los e orientá-los sobre as oportunidades.
A partir da propaganda em análise, pode-se inferir que a personagem
A) incita a população mundial a rebelar-se contra as injustiças sofridas.
B) revela-se inocente ao crer no fim da guerra entre distintas nações.
C) propõe uma arma não convencional para guerrear.
D) propõe uma determinada bebida como fim de todos os problemas do mundo.
E) é uma criança que sonha com um mundo mais justo e igual.
Mi patria está celebrando
vestida de primavera
y dicen se ha perfumado
con agua de flores nuevas
Sus calles visten guirnaldas
con los colores de la bandera
pareciera que al viento bailan
una cueca dieciochera
En la ciudad y en los campos
en las costas y laderas
todas las casas en alto
tienen nuestra bandera
En las fondas y ramadas
se juntan nuestras familias
a comer ricas empanadas
con vino tinto y frutillas
En el cielo los volantines
serpentean multicolores
ajenos a los trajines
de las fiestas y sus clamores
Mi patria está celebrando
la música en el aire suena
arpas y guitarras cantando
las fiestas patrias chilena.
03) O poema é uma descrição das Festas Pátrias Chilenas, que comemoram a formação do Chile
como um Estado independente da Espanha. Essa comemoração acontece no mês de setembro e
conta com diversas manifestações da cultura chilena, como
A) caminhada até a casa dos camponeses em busca de bandeiras chilenas.
B) competições de pipas e guirlandas no céu de Santiago.
C) concursos de pratos típicos enfeitados com as cores da bandeira do Chile.
D) dança típica regional e degustação de empanadas com vinho.
E) reuniões de família no campo para preparação da colheita da estação.
Lo que más echa de menos Santiago Nogales es poder pasear por la ciudad. “San Salvador está
llena de 'carros' y al principio me costó mucho acostumbrarme”. Eso no es lo peor. “Los autobuses están
hechos polvo. Los empresarios de los transportes públicos piensan más en llenar la bolsa que en la
seguridad”, sostiene este vizcaíno. Así que la mayoría de los salvadoreños cogen su coche y se van al
centro comercial a pasar el día. “Hacen vida dentro de los 'moles'. Se ha perdido el hábito de ir al teatro”.
Eso sí, cuando ahorran y pueden se escapan a la playa, porque este país posee paisajes de postal.
O título do texto, reforçado pelas ideias nele contidas, expõe a ideia de que os ônibus de San
Salvador estão “hechos polvos”, revelando que a frota desses transportes públicos
A) está em péssimas condições, expondo os usuários a situações, inclusive, perigosas.
B) cobra elevadas taxas pelo oferecimento de seus serviços diariamente.
C) é bastante escassa, fazendo que a população opte por carros privados.
D) oferece um serviço de qualidade, favorecendo a locomoção da população por toda a cidade.
E) está bastante renovada, de modo que muitos salvadorenhos se sentem dentro de carros de luxo.
05) A tirinha demonstra a curiosidade de Mafalda diante do novo brinquedo de Felipe. O efeito
humorístico do texto reside no(a)
A) discussão entre as personagens sobre a verdadeira funcionalidade do brinquedo.
B) fato de Mafalda confundir o nome do brinquedo com uma categoria gramatical.
C) conclusão decepcionada de Mafalda sobre a personalidade do colega.
D) possibilidade de o brinquedo ter diversos nomes, inclusive Felipe-Felipe.
E) expressão exagerada de Mafalda diante da irritação do colega.
06) Completa la frase abajo con la forma verbal adecuada.
“Mientras yo __________ Jorge veía la televisión.”
A) he planchado
B) planché
C) planchaba
D) había planchado
E) plancharé
07) Apunta el uso correcto del artículo “el”.
A) El nariz está en la cara.
B) La letra muda del alfabeto es el hache.
C) El África y la América son dos continentes.
D) La leche y el sal están sobre la mesa.
E) Él hizo la tatuaje.