IES Duc de Montblanc Anglès Selectivitat 2018 Gramàtica i models de redacció. Cristina García Maig – juny 2018 CONDITIONAL & WISH CLAUSES ZERO CONDITIONAL Situacions que es repeteixen sempre que es dóna una determinada condició If/when/unless + Present Present simple Simple Modal + base form FIRST CONDITIONAL Future Simple Allò que passarà si es compleix la If/unless + Present Simple condició assenyalada Imperative Modal + base form SECOND CONDITIONAL Condicions hipotètiques referides If/unless + Past Simple al present o al futur, és a dir, que és poc probable que passin Would could/might + base form THIRD CONDITIONAL Would have Condició totalment impossible, If + Past Perfect Simple atès que fa referència al passat i i Could / might have ja no es pot realitzar + past participle TIME CLAUSES As soon as Fan referència al futur Present Simple + Future Simple By the time The moment (that) When WISH CLAUSES Wish / if only + Past Simple Wish / if only + Past Perfect Simple Situacions presents que voldríem canviar o millorar Fets passats i lamentacions d’allò que ha tingut lloc Wish / if only Desitjos sobre situacions futures, poc probable que + could / would + base form tinguin lloc THE PASSIVE VOICE & THE CAUSATIVE Basic form SUBJECT + Direct object or indirect object in the active TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE Same tense Of the verb in as the active the active sentence sentence sentence (+ BY + AGENT) The subject in the active sentences, but only when it’s definitive (don’t use it when the subject is a pronoun or everybody, somebody… Verbs with two objects: They gave us a prize. Active They gave a prize to us. A prize was given to us. Passive We were given a prize. Verbs with convey thought, belief… Active People think (that) he is a clever boy. It is thought (that) he is a clever boy. Passive He is thought to be a clever boy. Active Everybody knows (that) these men committed a crime It is known (that) these men committed a crime. Passive These men are known to have committed a crime. THE CAUSATIVE We use the causative when somebody (a specialist) does something to us. SUBJECT The person who receives the action + HAVE GET + OBJECT Something + PAST PARTICIPLE Done MODAL & PERFECT MODAL VERBS MODAL VERBS can Ability may, might Possibility Request may Polite request, permission Possibility should, ought to Advice, opinion Ability need to Necessity, obligation Possibility have to Necessity, obligation be able to Inability Obligation, strong necessity must can’t Prohibition Strong belief Disbelief, deduction mustn’t Prohibition Past ability don’t have to Lack of obligation / necessity Polite request needn't Lack of obligation / necessity could Polite suggestion Formal request would possibility Offer MODAL PERFECT VERBS could have Ability to do something in the past, but which wasn’t done in the end. can't / couldn’t have Certainly that something didn’t happen. may / might have A guess about a past action. must have Certainly or logical conclusion about an event in the past. should / ought to have Criticism or regret after an event. shouldn't have Criticism or regret after an event. wouldn't have Willingness or desire to do something, but which wasn’t actually done. GRAMMAR: SHOULD / HAD BETTER SUBJECT + HAD BETTER TO + VERB IN BASE FORM SUBJECT + HAD BETTER + NOT + VERB IN BASE FORM We use “had better” to express a warning, unlike the “should”. REPORTED SPEECH Consisteix en l’estil indirecte, és a dir, a parlar i dir allò que la gent diu. Per fer-ho, calen uns certs canvis: GENERAL CHANGES Verb tenses: es passen a un temps verbal anterior. Present Simple → Past simple Past Simple → Past Perfect Simple Present Continuous → Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple → Past Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous → Past Past Perfect Continuous → Past Perfect Perfect Continuous Past Continuous → Past Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Simple → Past Perfect Simple Continuous Future Simple → Would Modal verbs Can → could May → might Must / have to → had to Other words and expressions’ changes A month ago → the previous month / the month before Today → that day Tomorrow → the following day / the day after / the next day Next week → the following week / the week after Tonight → that night Here → there Yesterday → the previous day / the day This → that These → those before Last week → the previous week / the week before Now → then Reported statements (tant afirmacions positives com negatives) ‘I found your keys last night’ Peter told Ann. → Peter told Ann (that) he had found her keys the previous night. Reported qüestions Yes / no qüestions: ‘Have you finished your exercicis?’, the teacher asked us. → The teacher asked if we had finished our exercicis. Wh- qüestions: ‘Where did you buy this dress?’ My friend wanted to know. → My friend wanted to know where I had bought that dress. *la pregunta del reported speech deja de ser pregunta y, por lo tarto, no se altera el orden Suj. – V – Compl. *el sujeto como no queda claro en la primera, te lo inventas en la segunda. Reported orders / requests ‘Sit down and don’t talk’, the mother told her children. → The mother told her children to sit down and not to talk. Reported suggestions ‘Why don’t we have a party?’ / ‘Let’s have a party’ / ‘Shall we have a party?’ / ‘How about having a party?’, he suggested. → He suggested having a party. Reported verbs Statements Questions Orders Suggestions Other verbs - Admit - Explain - Enquire - Demand - Advise - Beg - Announce - Inform - Request - Order - Invite - Deny - Answer - Insist - Want to know - Shout - Recommend - Refuse - Apologise - Mention - Wonder - Warn - Suggest - Boast - Offer - Claim - Remind - Complain - Reply - Declare - State RELATIVE CLAUSES People Who / that Objects Which / that Time When / that Possession Whose Places Where DEFINING CLAUSES No van entre comes. Es poden substituir pel that. Aporten información necessària per entendre la frase, són imprescindibles. NON-DEFINING CLAUSES Van entre comes. No es poden substituir pel that. Es poden suprimir, donen informacio extra. FORMAL / INFORMAL STRUCTURES FORMAL: The issue about which you are talking is important. INFORMAL: The issue which you are talking about is important. FORMAL: I don’t like the man to whom you were talking. INFORMAL: I don’t like the man (who) you were talking to. WRITINGS 1. CONNECTORS ADDITION In addition Furthermore Moreover A més a més What’s more Besides Also Too També As well As well as Així com and i CONSTRAST but però However malgrat Nevertheless Yet Still Mai pot anar seguit de coma Encara Mai és fix que siguin el mateix Encara que Han d’anar seguits d’una clause Although Even though Though Despite Encara que In spite of Han d’anar seguits del gerund o una noun phrase Even if Fins i tot si while Mentre otherwise Si no; en cas contrari REASON because Because of Due to Perquè A causa de As a result of Since As Han d’anar seguits d’una noun phrase Com a conseqüència de Ja que; com que Han d’anar seguits d’una clause RESULT Therefore Consequently As a result Han d’anar seguits de coma Per això As a consequence For this reason That is why Això és pel que So llavors And so i llavors No han d’anar seguit per coma mai PURPOSE So that per Ha d’anar seguit d’una clause per Han d’anar seguits de l’infinitive So as to In order to to TO INTRODUCE OPPOSING POINTS On the one hand On the other hand In contrast Contrary of 2. THE WRITING PROCESS STEP 1: Brainstorm for ideas Write down all the ideas you can think of. Don’t worry about whether all the ideas are relevant. Don’t worry about grammar or spelling. You can write in your own language. STEP 2: Organise your ideas Decide which ideas to keep and cross out the others. Group similar ideas together. Organise the groups according to a writing plan. STEP 3: Write a first draft Write your first draft on the computer or by hand. If you are writing by hand, use a pencil. Leave wide margins for notes. Leave space between lines for additions and corrections. Write quickly. Don’t worry about neatness or accuracy. If you can’t think of a word in English, write it in your own language. Look up the word in a dictionary later. If you can’t spell a word, write it any way you can. Then check the word in a dictionary or use a spellcheck when you have finished. STEP 4: Check your work Use the Writer’s Checklist on this page to improve your work. STEP 5: Write a final draft If you are writing by hand: copy your corrected work neatly onto a clean sheet of paper. If you are using a computer, print out a copy of your essay. It’s easier to find mistakes on a printed copy. Use a pen and leave a margin on the left-hand side. Make sure your paragraphs are clearly indicated. NOTE You can indicate the beginning of a paragraph by: Indenting (moving the first word of the paragraph to the right). Skipping a line before beginning a new paragraph. Each paragraph begins at the left-hand margin. Both styles are correct, but be consistent in your writing. WRITER’S CHECKLIST Organisation Content language My work is interesting and original. I began with a suitable opening sentence. I organised my work according to a plan. I presented my ideas clearly. Each paragraph has one I included only relevant ideas. topic. I supported my ideas with My paragraphs are clearly details and examples indicated. (opinion, for and against My ideas are in a logical essay). order. I ended with a suitable closing sentence. I used connectors to link my ideas. My grammar is correct. My spelling is correct. My word order is correct My punctuation is correct. I used capital letters correctly. I used adjectives and adverbs correctly. 3. WRITING SKILLS WORD ORDER Word order is very important in English. The usual order is: SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT + ADDITIONS NOTE If a sentence has both a direct and indirect object, there are often two possibilities: 1. He showed me his new car. 2. He showed his new car to me. Many time expressions can come at the beginning or the end of the sentence: 1. Yesterday, I found someone’s wallet. 2. I found someone’s wallet yesterday. Never separate the verb from its object(s). We cannot say: 1. *I found yesterday someone’s wallet. Adverbs of manner can come in several positions but not between the verb and object: 1. Slowly, she began her speech. 2. She slowly began her speech. 3. She began her speech slowly. 4. *She began slowly her speech. Some adverbs of frequency can come at the beginning or the end of the sentence, or before the main verb. 1. Sometimes we celebrate Christmas together. 2. We celebrate Christmas together sometimes. 3. We sometimes celebrate Christmas together. 4. *We celebrate sometimes Christmas together. NOTE If the main verb is be, the adverb of frequency follows it. They are often in touch on Facebook. NOTE Always and never cannot begin or end a sentence. We cannot say: *Always we give each other presents. *We forget to take a photo never. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Singular nouns that refer to groups can have either singular or plural verbs. Amounts and measurements often have got singular verbs. Words like anyone, everybody and nobody have got singular verbs. Uncountable nouns have got singular verbs, even if they end in s. Some nouns are always plural. USE OF ADJECTIVES Adjectives come before nouns and after certain verbs. The adjective form for singular and plural nouns is the same. Adjectives follow a specific order: opinion + size + age + shape + color + origin + material 4. WRITING A PARAGRAPH A paragraph consists of several sentences about a certain topic. It has the following parts: A topic sentence which gives the main idea of the paragraph. Supporting sentences which add reasons, details and examples. A concluding sentence which leads on to the next paragraph or summarises the main idea. The parts of a paragraph should flow logically. The paragraph must be easy to understand. You can accomplish this by: Using pronouns to refer back to the nouns in the text. Using connectors to show the connections between ideas. 5. WRITING AN ESSAY An essay consists of several paragraphs about a topic. There are many different kinds of essays, but they all have the same plan: 1. THE OPENING The opening is a general presentation of the topic. Try to start your essay with an opening that will catch your reader’s interest. Here are some ideas: a. Begin with a question. b. Begin with a short anecdote about real or imaginary events. c. Begin with a surprising fact. 2. THE BODY The body has got one or more paragraphs which develop the topic. When you were preparing to write, you brainstormed for ideas. Then you choose ideas to use and put these ideas into groups in a logical order. Use these groups of these ideas to write the body of the essay. Each group of ideas will become a separate paragraph. 3. THE CLOSING The closing is a paragraph which summarises the main idea or presents a conclusion. It should not bring in new ideas. In some cases, the closing may be similar to the opening, but presented in different words. It should always leave the reader with a strong impression. 6. AN OPINION ESSAY An opinion essay states an opinion an tries to convince the Reader that this opinion is correct by supporting it with reasons, facts and examples. PLAN: Opening: presentation of issue and opinion. Body: reasons, facts and examples to support opinion. Closing: summing up and restatement of opinion. USEFUL LANGUAGE In my opinion, … …since… This is a mistake. … so that … I believe that… … resulting in … First of all, … As I see it, … Secondly, … In short, … This will lead to … In conclusion, … 7. A FOR AND AGAINST ESSAY A for and against essay presents both sides of an issue. It often concludes by supporting one of the sides. PLAN: Opening: introduction to the topic. Body: arguments for one side of the issue, with supporting details and examples. Arguments for the other side of the issue, with supporting details and examples. Closing: summary of issue and writer’s opinion. USEFUL LANGUAGE More and more … Although… It has drawbacks as well as benefits. To sum up, … On the one hand / On the other hand, … In conclusion, … In addition, … I believe that … Moreover, … I feel that … 8. A SUMMARY A summary provides the reader with the main idea of an article in a few words as possible. It includes the important points, but not examples or details, and often contains language similar to, but not identical to, the article. PLAN: One cohesive paragraph which includes only important information. USEFUL LANGUAGE However, … … has increased dramatically. Clearly, … Some … claim that … Moreover, … Although… In the past few years… Apparently, … Consequently… 9. A FORMAL LETTER OR E-MAIL A formal letter is usually written to apply for a job or a course of study, to request information or to make a complaint. A formal letter or e-mail uses a specific format and formal language. La formal letter no accepta contraccions. PLAN: Details: address of writer (right), date (right), tittle / name of person being written to and address (left). Greeting (salutació). Opening remarks: reasons for writing. Body: requests for information. Closing remarks. Signing off. USEFUL LANGUAGE Greetings Opening remarks Dear Mr / Ms … I am writing in reply to… To whom it may concern, (no saps res d’ell / a) Dear Sir, / Madam, (només sabem el gènere, amb majúscules) I would like to ask a few questions. Useful Closing remarks Signing of Yours faithfully. I would like to ask… Looking forward to your prompt reply. I trust that you will… I would also like to know… I would appreciate it if… expressions I was wondering… Could you please tell me…? Yours sincerely. 10. A NEWS REPORT A news report gives information about an event in the news. It should be written in an objective way and give a clear idea of exactly what happened. PLAN: Opening: summary of the event and answers to the questions who, what, where and when. Body: details and facts. Closing: reactions / comments of people connected to the event. USEFUL LANGUAGE Apparently, … … claimed that … According to … Sources say … Speaking to reporters, … said that 11. A CURRICULUM VITAE When applying for a job, you will often have to supply the employer with your personal details, as well as your education qualifications and work experience. PLAN: Personal information: name, address, telephone number, e-mail, nationality, date of birth. Work experience: dates, name of the employer, occupation or position held, main activities and responsibilities. Education and training: dates, name of school, principal subjects covered, title of qualification awarded. Languages: mother tongue, other languages. Computer skills: general, graphics or multimedia, programming. 12. A REVIEW A review gives information and opinions about a book, film or show in order to help people decide whether to read / see it. PLAN: Opening: basic information (the title, the author, the main characters and the setting). Body: description of the characters and the plot. Strong and / or weak points. Closing: writer’s opinion and recommendation. USEFUL LANGUAGE The story is set in… I couldn’t wait to turn the pages. It tells the story of… I found the characters… It is a thriller / romance / science-fiction novel I highly recommend this book. written by… It is one of the author’s best / worst novels. If you enjoy a novel that…, you’ll love… 13. AN ARTICLE An article is usually written for different kinds of magazines or newspapers. PLAN: Title. Opening: presentation of issue and opinion. Body: specific reasons and facts to support opinion. Closing: summing up and restatement of opinion. USEFUL LANGUAGE Have you ever…? Are you on of those people Firstly, first of all, in the first place, to begin with, who…? What do you think about…? one thing to consider is… Secondly, in addition, yet another, apart from that… So, in conclusion, to sum up, to conclude, … In my opinion, if you ask me, to my mind, personally I believe that… In my view… 14. AN INFORMAL LETTER When we write an informal letter, we are usually congratulating, persuading or asking for / giving some information. PLAN: Greeting. Body. Conclusion. Closing. 15. A DESCRIPTION OF A PLACE When we describe a place, we want to describe what the place looks like and to give an impression of the atmosphere. PLAN: Opening: basic information, including the name of the place and its location. Body: physical characteristics of the place and what there is to do there. Closing: general conclusion, writer’s opinion or recommendation. USEFUL LANGUAGE The first thing people notice… It is located… The scenery is… It offers… I can recommend… You shouldn’t miss… I love… when I go there. Most people in… work as.. In short In conclusion 16. A DESCRIPTION OF AN EVENT A description of an event gives a clear impression of what the writer experiences. It usually includes details of the writer’s senses and how the writer felt there. PLAN: Opening: name, location, time and writer’s opinion of event. Body: decription with more details / what writer sees, hears, smells, tastes… Closing: concluding sentence and opinion. USEFUL LANGUAGE Last week, when, suddenly, I felt, I heard It seemed, the atmosphere was… The crowd / people were… It turned out to be… All in all… In the end… 17. A NARRATIVE A narrative is a story about a series of events and the people involved in them. PLAN: Opening: the main characters, when and where the story takes place. Body: events and problems in the story, how the characters feels and tries to solve the problem. Closing: the ending in the story, how the problem is resolved. USEFUL LANGUAGE Last weekend / summer / year… At first, before, after that, next, later, when, until Two months ago… As soon as, soon, suddenly, while, during It was a cold / hot / stormy day… Eventually, in the end, meanwhile It all began when… To my surprise… One afternoon… I felt… Fortunately, / unfortunately, / luckily … The funny thing is that… 18. A DIALOGUE Remember the following when you are writing a conversation: Identify each of the speakers in the conversation. Start a new paragraph whenever you change speakers. When you need to break a conversation and identify the speaker, use commas (,). Use the kind of informal language that people use when they speak: contractions, everyday words, exclamations, etc. 19. A SPEECH A speech must be engaging, clear, concise and most importantly, catered to the audience’s interests. Therefore the first step is to choose a topic after learning who the audience will be. Once that is done, you must write a statement of purpose for the speech. Next, do the required research so that your speech is accurate and extensive. After this you need to start writing your speech. But first, you must create an outline. The outline must have an Introduction, Body of Speech and Ending. Under each of those headings, place notes from the research, anecdotes, quotes etc. Once you decide this, you must also decide how to Start and End your speech. To begin, you may tell a Story, use humor, use a snappy quote, or you may start by getting your readers’ attention by Reading some startling statistics or by Asking thought-provoking questions. The end must be dramatic, conclusive and must leave a lasting impression on the listener’s mind. You may use the same strategies that you used for the beginning. Now you must start writing the Body of the Speech. Make sure that the different points flow into each other and that you’ve not digressed from you statement of purpose. Go back and read what you’ve written. Make any adjustments that you think are needed. Put yourself in the audience’s shoes and try to listen and see if your speech makes sense.