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Trends in Food Science & Technology 99 (2020) 323–336
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Trends in Food Science & Technology
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A comprehensive review on antioxidant dietary fibre enriched meat-based
functional foods
Arun K. Dasa,∗∗, Pramod Kumar Nandaa, Pratap Madaneb, Subhasish Biswasc, Annada Dasc,
Wangang Zhangd, Jose M. Lorenzoe,∗
Eastern Regional Station, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Kolkata, 700 037, India
Division of Livestock Products Technology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243 122, Bareilly, India
Department of Livestock Products Technology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Science, 37 & 68 K B Sarani Road, Kolkata, 700 037, India
Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, Ministry of Education China, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Meat Production and Processing, Quality
and Safety Control, College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China
Centro Tecnológico de La Carne de Galicia, Adva. Galicia N° 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao Das Viñas, 32900, Ourense, Spain
Bioactive compounds
Dietary fibre
Plant by-products
Functional properties
Meat products
Quality attributes
Background: Meat and meat products, in spite of having high biological value protein and essential nutrients
required for human sustenance, are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and also deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fibre (DF). This deficiency of DF is often associated with increased occurrence of some
chronic diseases such as risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer. Besides, development of oxidative changes in meat and meat products needs to be readdressed to prevent the quality deterioration during storage.
Scope and Approach: A wide range of plant-derived materials and their by-products are potentially rich sources
of DFs and bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) with inherent antioxidant properties, commonly known as
antioxidant dietary fibres (ADFs). ADF holds the promise to act as functional ingredient to ameliorate the deficiency in DF as well as oxidative changes in meat products, besides offering health benefits. So, fortification of
meat and meat products with functional ingredients (ADFs) having dual properties, therefore, assumes significance.
Key Findings and Conclusions: This comprehensive review focuses on the present knowledge in the literature
about the sources of ADFs and their potential application as functional ingredients to improve the physicochemical characteristics, oxidative stability, sensory attributes and shelf life of meat and meat products.
Considering the positive health effects of ADF, its incorporation in meat products opens up new possibilities for
the industry to improve its ‘‘image” and opportunity to address consumer demands.
1. Introduction
cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as mucilages, pectic
substances, hemicelluloses, non-carbohydrate components like lignin
and gums (Sharma et al., 2016). Although DF is naturally present in
most of the fruits, cereals and vegetables, but the quantity and composition differ from one food to another (Desmedt & Jacobs, 2001). In
fact, a fibre-rich diet, although low in fat content and energy density, is
greater in volume and micronutrients (Dhingra, Michael, Rajput, &
Patil, 2012). Moreover, DF is resistant to enzymatic absorption and
digestion in the intestine with complete or partial fermentation in the
large intestine of humans (Sharma et al., 2016). But the lack of adequate amounts of DF in our diet is often related to various health disorders such as colon, cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer
Meat is a good source of high-quality protein, presenting a good
balance of essential amino acids, and having high biological value
(Lawrie & Ledward, 2006; Lorenzo & Pateiro, 2013). Meat is also an
important source of a number of other micronutrients such as selenium,
iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium and vitamins (A, B12, folic acid,
etc.). The bio-availability of these micronutrients present in meat is
much higher than those from plant sources (Biesalski, 2005). In spite of
being nutritious and having all the above positive effects, meat has
some drawbacks as it is deficient in dietary fibre (DF). Being a part of
plant material, DF is a complex mixture of polysaccharides and includes
Corresponding author.
Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (A.K. Das), [email protected] (J.M. Lorenzo).
Received 26 September 2019; Received in revised form 6 March 2020; Accepted 9 March 2020
Available online 13 March 2020
0924-2244/ © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trends in Food Science & Technology 99 (2020) 323–336
A.K. Das, et al.
(Eastwood, 1992; Larsson & Wolk, 2006).
The era of globalization coupled with rapid urbanization has been a
driving factor for shifting an increased number of women workforce
and consumers towards convenient fast food products, including meat
(Verma, Rajkumar, Banerjee, Biswas, & Das, 2013). But most of the
meat products lack minimum contents of DF (Verma & Banerjee, 2010)
to fulfil the recommendations of daily fibre intake requirement. According to the American Dietetic Association, the recommended DF
intake for an adult should be 25–30 g/day and the insoluble/soluble
fibre ratio should be 3:1 (USDA, 2015). This is required since foods
containing higher proportion of DFs promote healthier life style and
their regular intake is known to reduce several disorders and diseases as
mentioned earlier (Eastwood, 1992). This has prompted researchers
and food processors to incorporate DF in different formulations offering
its positive health benefits and functional properties such as water, fat
binding and gelling capacity in meat products. This in turn improves
the emulsion stability, viscosity, rheological properties and sensory
attributes of meat products (Ağar, Gençcelep, Saricaoğlu, & Turhan,
2016; Bis-Souza, Barba, Lorenzo, Penna, & Barretto, 2019; Hu et al.,
2016). Because of the above benefits, extensive studies have been carried out to incorporate different fibre-rich ingredients, such as oat fibre
(Claus & Hunt, 1991), peach fibre (Grigelmo-Miguel & Martı́n-Belloso,
1999), apple pulp, bottle gourd, chickpea hull flour (Verma, Banerjee, &
Sharma, 2012; Verma, Sharma, & Banerjee, 2010), sugar beet (Ağar
et al., 2016), pineapple fibre (Henning, Tshalibe, & Hoffman, 2016),
carrot fibre (Eim, Simal, Rossello, & Femenia, 2008), citrus fibre, rice
bran (Petridis, Raizi, & Ritzoulis, 2014), sugarcane fibre (Fang, Lin, Ha,
& Warner, 2019), dragon fruit peel (Madane et al., 2020) etc., only to
name a few in different processed meat products. In recent years, DF
has also been utilized as a fat substitute for the production of low-fat
meat products (Verma et al., 2012).
Lipid oxidation is the main cause of limiting the shelf life and
quality of meat and meat products (Lorenzo & Gómez, 2012). Apart
from higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids, meat contains various metal catalysts, haem pigments and a range of oxidizing agents in
its muscle tissue (Domínguez et al., 2019). Various processing steps
such as chopping, grinding, flaking and emulsification liberate the
membrane-bound phospholipids thereby accelerating the lipid oxidation of meat products (Das, Anjaneyulu, & Biswas, 2006; Domínguez,
Gómez, Fonseca, & Lorenzo, 2014). The initial lipid oxidation products
such as hydroperoxides tend to decompose resulting in formation of
hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, and volatile ketones, among others
(Lorenzo, Bedia, & Bañon, 2013). These short-chain carbon compounds
impart off-flavours and off-odours to the products (Pearson, Gray,
Wolzak, & Horenstein, 1983). Other factors that also influence lipid
oxidation are cooking methods, types of ingredients used while processing, packaging and storage conditions (Dominguez, Gómez,
Fonseca, & Lorenzo, 2014b; Gómez, & Lorenzo, 2012, 2013). To overcome this oxidation, vegetable oils are added to replace animal fats
(Agregán et al., 2018; Domínguez, Agregán, Gonçalves, & Lorenzo,
2016; Domínguez, Pateiro, Agregán, & Lorenzo, 2017; Heck et al.,
2017, 2019), but the higher degree of polyunsaturation of vegetable oils
accelerates the oxidative processes leading to further deterioration of
meat quality and consumer acceptability (Cunha et al., 2018; Echegaray
et al., 2018; Fernandes, Trindade, Lorenzo, & de Melo, 2018; Zamuz
et al., 2018). Use of antioxidants additives, modified processing technologies, vacuum packaging etc., are efficient strategies to delay the
lipid oxidation and off-flavour, which will eventually enhance the shelf
life of meat products (Domínguez et al., 2018; Lorenzo et al., 2018a).
The inclusion of antioxidants is considered as an effective method to
inhibit or delay the lipid oxidation as well as to minimize the formation
of toxic compounds such as cholesterol oxidation products, thereby
improving the shelf life of products. Synthetic antioxidants such as
butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, tertiary butyl hydroquinone
and butylated hydroxyanisol have been widely used in the meat industry, but consumer concerns over safety and toxicity have renewed
the interest of food industry in the addition of natural antioxidants (Sen
& Mandal, 2017). In this regard, the use of natural additives, especially
those obtained from plants or seaweeds, has notably increased due to
their safety and positive health effects (Agregán et al., 2018; Lorenzo
et al., 2018b). Epidemiological studies have also shown that the intake
of natural antioxidants is linked to a lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Temple, 2000). Several reports are available to assess
the effectiveness of different extracts such as rosemary (Pereira et al.,
2017), green tea (Lorenzo, Batlle, & Gómez, 2014; Lorenzo & Munekata,
2016; Pateiro, Bermúdez, Lorenzo, & Franco, 2015), grape seed
(Lorenzo, González-Rodríguez, Sánchez, Amado, & Franco, 2013),
Moringa oleífera flower (Madane et al., 2019), broccoli powder
(Banerjee et al., 2012), cumin seed (Chauhan, Das, Das, Bhattacharya,
& Nanda, 2018), pomegranate peel (Naveena, Sen, Vaithiyanathan,
Babji, & Kondaiah, 2008; Turgut, Soyer, & Işıkçı, 2016), peanut skin
(Lorenzo et al., 2018c) etc., as natural antioxidants and their role in
minimizing oxidative degradation of meat and meat products.
In fact, both natural antioxidants and DFs are considered as two
important dietary fractions involved in promoting human health. So,
the addition of ingredients that are a source of DF besides having antioxidant activity could be an opportunity to improve the quality and
storage stability of meat products, promoting healthy habits as well
(Madane et al., 2019). To counter the above shortcomings (oxidation
and low fibre content) related to meat and meat products, meat processors and researchers are continuously searching for various natural
products having dual properties (Madane et al., 2019). These natural
ingredients with DF and antioxidants are known as antioxidant dietary
fibres (ADFs). ADF is defined as the DF concentrate containing significant amounts of natural antioxidants associated with the DF matrix
(Goni & Saura-Calixto, 2009). Based on the given criteria, a number of
plant materials like mango peel, pineapple shell, dragon fruit peel,
guava pulp, acerola fruit and white and red grape pomace and some
seaweeds have been reported to contain exceptionally good DF and
antioxidant capacity. These fibres combine the physiological effects of
both DF and antioxidants in a single ingredient (Goni & Saura-Calixto,
2009). Considering the benefits of both antioxidants and DF, the article
reviews the potential use of ADFs as functional ingredients in meat food
formulations and their effect on physico-chemical and nutritional value,
storage stability and sensory attributes of various meat products.
2. Antioxidant dietary fibre
The concept of ADF was firstly proposed by Saura-Calixto (1998).
By definition, ADF contains significant contents of natural antioxidants
along with the DF matrix which could be used as new functional food
ingredients and also can prevent lipid oxidation in food products due to
the presence of antioxidant polyphenols. According to Saura-Calixto
(1998), the requirements for consideration of any ingredient as an ADF
are as follows:
• DF content must be higher than 50% on a dry matter basis.
• ADF must be able to delay lipid oxidation equivalent to at least
200 mg of vitamin E (measured by the thiocyanate procedure) and a
free radical scavenging activity equivalent to at least 50 mg of vitamin E (measured by the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method).
The antioxidant activity should be of an intrinsic property originated from the natural ingredients of the added materials. This is
not related to added antioxidants or any other constituents released
through chemical or enzymatic treatment of the original components.
2.1. Sources of antioxidant dietary fibres
Apart from cereals, pulses, nuts and seaweeds, many fruits and vegetables meet the criteria of ADF by definition. Even the secondary
products or by-products of some fruits and vegetables, obtained mostly
Trends in Food Science & Technology 99 (2020) 323–336
A.K. Das, et al.
from primary agro-food production processes or food processing industries, fulfil the criteria of ADF definition. But due to their highly
perishable nature and seasonal feature, these undervalued yet important plant-derived by-products remain unutilized and are either
discarded or eventually utilized as manure and animal feeds. Further,
their disposal or discharge create environmental problems
(Arvanitoyannis & Varzakas, 2008). As derived from natural plants and
a cheaper source of potentially functional ingredients containing rich
source of DF along with inherent antioxidant properties, they are of
interest to the food processors because of various reasons. First of all,
the amount of wastes (peels, pulps, leaves, stems, wastewaters, etc.)
and residues generated during processing of vegetables and fruits is
enormous and some of them, compared to respective edible portions,
contain more DF and phytochemicals (Goñi & Hervert-Hernández,
2011). Keeping in mind the nutritional quality, added value of the ingredients and cost-effectiveness, the functional ingredients, derived
from plant co-products and by-products, could be a real boon for the
food industry (Puupponen-Pimiä et al., 2002). Their proper utilization
by extracting some high value compounds, especially the DF fraction
and phenolic components have great potential in functional foods
preparation (Arun et al., 2015).
The major sources of ADF are by-products from different fruits such
as grapes (pomace), lemons (peel and pulp residues), Açaí (Euterpe
oleraceae) ‘BRS Pará (pulp), mangoes (peel), bael (pulp residue), banana
(peel), pineapple (pulp residues), peach and orange (peel and pulp residues), apricots and pomegranate (peel) and dragon fruit (peel)
whereas use of vegetable wastes from carrots, red beets, potatoes (peel),
tomatoes, drum stick flowers and cabbages are also reported. The ADF
content obtained from various plant-derived co-products and their byproducts is summarized in Table 1.
García-Alonso, & Periago, 2011). As far as cocoa beans are concerned,
Stahl et al. (2009) reported that cocoa products were excellent source of
antioxidants, whereas its DF could be an ideal ingredient in low-calorie
food formulations (Lecumberri et al., 2007). According to the researchers, cocoa products with a TPC content of 1.32% had TDF and
antioxidant capacity of 60.51% (soluble DF - 10.09%) and 72.32 μmol
Trolox eq/g, respectively on DM basis (Lecumberri et al., 2007). In a
study on the antioxidant activity of bael (Aegle marmelos L.) pulp residue, Das, Rajkumar, and Verma (2015) reported that the residue had
high content of total phenolics (15.16 mg GAE/g dry weight) and DF
(56.91g/100g DM). While working on the production of ADF carrot
(Daucus carota) peels, Chantaro, Devahastin, and Chiewchan (2008)
reported that it contained 45.45 g/100 g DM of DF with a great antioxidant activity (94.67%). Apart from being rich in protein (17.87g/
100g DM), minerals (7.87g/100g DM) and TPC (18.34–19.48 mg GAE/
g DM), drumstick (M. oleifera) flower contained a good amount of DF
(36.14g/100g DM) (Madane et al., 2019). Murthy and Naidu (2012)
noticed that coffee bean by-products such as coffee pulp, husk, silver
skin, and spent coffee, rich in DF and natural antioxidants compounds,
could be considered as good sources of ADF. The researchers also reported that by-products from coffee had 28–80% of TDF and
1.53–2.12 mmol Trolox eq/100 g DM of antioxidant capacity. By-products such as peel and pulp from guava exhibited higher antioxidant
capacity (up to 462 μmol Trolox eq/g DM), as they are rich in polyphenols (26.2–77.9 g GAE/kg DM) and higher DF (up to 69.1 g/100 g
DM) contents (Jiménez-Escrig, Rincón, Pulido, & Saura-Calixto, 2001).
Research findings of Verma et al. (2013) on guava fruit as a source of
ADF indicates that its powder has a good amount of DF (43.21%) and
TPC (44.04 mg GAE/g).
Another important source of ADF is cactus pear (Opuntiaficus indica), fruit or its by-products (cladode or cactus stem) that contained DF
(41.83–41.25% of total carbohydrates), while extractable polyphenols
were 1.54–3.71 g GAE/100 g DM (Ayadi, Abdelmaksoud, Ennouri, &
Attia, 2009). In another study, Bensadón, Hervert-Hernández, SáyagoAyerdi, and Goñi (2010) pointed out that by-products from cladodes
(milpa Alta and Atlixco variety), Alfajayucan (green tuna) and Pelon
Rojo (red tuna) fruits were good source of ADF as they contained DF
(3.75 and 4.01 g/100 g, respectively) and total antioxidant activity up
to 57.55 and 66.33 μmol Trolox eq/g DM for the cladodes and fruits,
respectively. Recently, Tagliani, Perez, Curutchet, Arcia, and Cozzano
(2019) reported that blueberries pomace was not only a rich source of
fibres, minerals and vitamins, but also had a strong antioxidant capacity
owing to its richness of phenolics compounds (Šarić et al., 2016). Apart
from the above important bio-ingredients, blueberries are reported to
have promising health promoting effects, as they possess a great
amount of flavanols, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, tannins and polyphenols (Szajdek & Borowska, 2008). These pomaces combine the effects of antioxidants activity and DF content, according to the concept
“ADF”, as defined by Saura-Calixto (1998).
2.2. Bioactive ingredients in plant-derived materials
Different plant-derived materials and their by-products contain
bioactive ingredients (DF and associated phenolic compounds) in
varying proportions. A study by Fernández-López et al. (2009) reported
higher DF (71.62 g/100 g DM) content and phenolics (40.67 mg GAE/g
DM) in orange peel. Outer leaves of cabbage species (B. oleracea L. var.
capitata), separated during processing as waste, are used as fertiliser or
feed for animals. But these leaves are reported to contain up to
571.50 mg GAE/100 g DM total phenolic content (TPC), 89.57–96.00%
total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and 41–43% of TDF
(Jongaroontaprangsee et al., 2007), so could be applied in food applications as ADF (Nilnakara, Chiewchan, & Devahastin, 2009). Likewise,
peel is one of the most underutilized by-products of banana (Musa
paradisiaca) processing industries. It contains a good amount of TDF
(64.33g/100g), vitamins (folic acid: 33.12 mg/100g) and phenolic and
flavonoid content (15.21 and 9.39 mg QE/g dry weight) and therefore,
could be used as valuable functional food ingredient (Arun et al., 2015;
Zhang, Whistler, BeMiller, & Hamaker, 2005). Likewise, Acai fruit pulp
has considerable potential for nutritional and health applications, as it
contains DF as high as 71.22 g/100g DM and antioxidant activity
(20.73–1514.46 μmol Trolox eq/g DM) due to the presence of good
content of polyphenols (1.50g/100g DM) related to pulp (Maria do
Socorro et al., 2011).
Due to high TDF content (28.05–70.0 g/100 g DM) and wide range
of polyphenols (16.14–283 mg GAE/100g), mango fruits and its byproducts such as peel powder and fibre concentrate are considered as
good sources of ADF (Ajila, Leelavathi, & Rao, 2008; Martínez et al.,
2012). Even, orange by-products such as flavedo, albedo and its pulp
are reported to have high dietary fibres and greater amount of flavone,
vitamin C and carotenoid than the juice (Escobedo-Avellaneda,
Gutiérrez-Uribe, Valdez-Fragoso, Torres, & Welti-Chanes, 2014).
Vegetable by-products, i.e. peel from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), are not only good source of DF (86.15 g/100g DM) but also of
phenolics (158.10 GAE/100 g) (Navarro-González, García-Valverde,
3. Role of antioxidant dietary fibres in meat products
The purpose of fortifying or enriching food formulations is not only
to achieve desired functions i.e. restore or increase yield and nutritive
values, enhance sensory attributes by influencing its physico-chemical
properties, but also to extend the product's shelf life by inhibiting oxidation and microbial growth during storage (Xiong, 2012). In case of
meat food processing, both synthetic chemical compounds and natural
ingredients, generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are regularly being used
as functional non-meat additives to regulate or modify finished product's quality and safety. The ingredients or compounds obtained from
natural sources are of great interest because of their safety and health
characteristics (Fasseas, Mountzouris, Tarantilis, Polissiou, & Zervas,
2008). These functional ingredients not only influence the physicochemical characteristics of meat products but also enrich their nutritive
and functional value. A schematic diagram showing effects of ADFs on
Trends in Food Science & Technology 99 (2020) 323–336
A.K. Das, et al.
Table 1
Sources of antioxidant dietary fibres from plant-derived co-products and by-products.
Dietary fibres (%)
Phenolics content
(mg GAE/100g)
Antioxidant capacity
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel flour
TDF: 54.20
SDF: 20.00
IDF: 34.20
TDF: 36.70
CF: 19.92–47.47
TDF: 40.89
SDF: 7.35
IDF: 33.54
TDF: 48.55
IDF: 46.72
SDF: 1.83
TDF: 49.42
IDF: 47.25
SDF: 1.77
TDF: 51.52
IDF: 50.16
SDF: 1.48
TDF: 40.86
IDF: 39.19
SDF: 1.53
TDF: 5.76
IDF: 3.92
TDF: 5.69
IDF: 4.46
TDF: 5.43
IDF: 3.65
TDF: 71.22
IDF: 68.49
SDF: 2.75
TDF: 42.00–61.00
SDF: 0.90–4.10
IDF: 21.00–64.00
TDF: 74.0 ± 3.40
TPC: 2170
DPPH Activity: 80.0%
TFC: 2240 mg/100g
Noor, Siti, and Mahmad (2015)
Cabbage powder
Cabbage powder (outer leaves)
Cabbage (outer leaves)
Guava (Psidium guajava) peel
Guava (P. guajava) pulp
Guava (P. acutangulum) peel
Guava (P. acutangulum) pulp
Annona muricata L. Crioula (matured)
A. muricata L. Lisa (matured)
A. muricata L Morada (matured)
Açaí (Euterpe oleraceae) ‘BRS Pará’ (fruit
Durum wheat by-product (Bran & Brain
50 and 70)
Red grape pomace
Apple pomace
Coffee (pulp, husk, silver skin, and
spent coffee)
Blueberry pomace powder
Carrot (peels)
Banana (peels)
Grape (Vitis vinifera) by-products
Manto Negro grape (V. vinifera) byproducts (stem)
Orange (Citrus aurantium) peel
Orange (C. aurantium) pulp
Wine grape pomace
Plantain peel (flour)
Persimmon (fresh fruit)
Mango peel powder
Mango kernel powder
Upat Lengra (Achyranthes aspera L.)
Kalokeshi (Eclipta alba L.) leaves
Nirgundi (Vitex negundo L.) leaves
TPC: 322 (TAE)*
TPC: 571.50
TPC: 739.24
TAC: 89.57–96.00%
Malav et al. (2015)
Nilnakara et al. (2009)
Tanongkankit, Chiewchan, and Devahastin (2010)
TEP: 5871
Jiménez-Escrig et al. (2001)
TEP: 2630
TEP: 5870
TEP: 2630
TPC: 358.92
TPC: 264.65
TEP: 1500
Maria do Socorro et al. (2011)
AOC: 1.1–1.2 mM TE/100 g
Esposito et al. (2005)
TPC: 5.63
TDF: 51.10
SDF: 14.60
IDF: 36.50
TDF: 28.00–80.00
IDF: 8.00–64.00
SDF: 16.00–35.00
DF: 26.15
TDF: 28.80
SDF: 11.00
IDF: 17.80
TDF: 41.60
SDF: 9.60
IDF: 32.00
TDF: 74.50
IDF: 63.70
SDF: 10.80
TDF: 77.20
IDF: 73.50
SDF: 3.77
TDF: 33.10–36.50
TDF: 22.60–28.30
TDF: 61.32
IDF: 59.88
SDF: 1.44
TDF: 37.64
SDF: 7.30
IDF: 30.34
TDF: 1.20–1.76
SDF: 0.52–0.92
CF: 9.33
CF: 0.26
TDF: 18.65
TPC: 1016
Sánchez-Alonso, Jiménez-Escrig, Saura-Calixto, and
Borderías (2007)
Sudha, Baskaran, and Leelavathi (2007)
TPC: 1020-1480
AOC: 1.53–2.12 mM TE/100 g
Murthy and Naidu (2012)
TPC: 28,514
TPC: 2890.7
TAC: 339.09 μM TE/g
Tagliani et al. (2019)
Salama, Abozed, and Abozeid (2019)
TEP: 2630
TAC:162 (vit.E mg/g)
TAC: 61 (vit.C mg/g)
TAC: 495 (Vit. E mg/g)
TAC: 187 (Vit. C mg/g)
TPC: 0.51
TPC: 0.42
TPC: 6774
Garau, Simal, Rossello, and Femenia (2007)
TEP: 771
TAC: 84.73 μM TE/g
Agama-Acevedo, Sañudo-Barajas, Vélez De La
Rocha, González-Aguilar, and Bello-Perez (2016)
TPC: 190-221
Gorinstein et al. (1999)
TPC: 1906
TPC: 2390
TPC: 6884
RSA: 93.89%
RSA: 95.08%
TEAC: 250.18 μM TE/100 g
Ashoush & Gadallah (2011)
TDF: 20.28
TDF: 19.70
TPC: 5532
TPC: 7211
TEAC: 184.31 μM TE/100 g
TEAC: 282.41 μM TE/100 g
Siqueira, Moreira, Melo, Stamford, and Stamford
Llobera and Cañellas (2007)
Tseng and Zhao (2013)
Rana, Alam, and Akhtaruzzaman (2019)
(continued on next page)
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A.K. Das, et al.
Table 1 (continued)
Dietary fibres (%)
Phenolics content
(mg GAE/100g)
Antioxidant capacity
Viburnum opulus (fruits)
TDF: 38.44
SDF: 6.82
IDF: 31.62
TDF: 45.39
SDF: 2.93
IDF: 42.46
SDF: 1.13
IDF: 58.20
TDF: 59.02
SDF: 11.46
TDF: 44.26
SDF: 5.90
TDF: 15.07
SDF: 2.89
TPC: 3730
Flavonoids: 2010 mg CE/100 g
ABTS: 26.57 mM TE/100 g
FRAP: 19.29 mM TE/100 g
Flavonoids:1670 mg CE/100 g
ABTS: 16.18 mM TE/100 g
FRAP: 13.65 mM TE/100 g
Flavonoids: 2250 mg CE/100 g
ABTS: 40.21 mM TE/100 g
FRAP: 23.47 mM TE/100 g
CT: 5216 mg/100g
ABTS: 51.87 μM TE/g
FRAP: 129.5 μM TE/g
ABTS: 5422.38 mg AAE/100 g
DPPH: 13656.27 μM TE/100 g
FRAP: 12511.44 μM Fe(II)/100 g
DPPH: 73.14% inhibition
Polka, Podsędek, and Koziołkiewicz (2019)
V. opulus (flowers)
V. opulus (bark)
Cacao pod husk product (fresh)
Mexican Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus)
Residues cv. Tupy
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)
TPC: 3510
TPC: 3980
SP: 6893
TPC: 4016.43
TPC: 31.92
Yapo, Besson, Koubala, and Koffi (2013)
Zafra-Rojas et al. (2018)
Miranda et al. (2013)
AAE-Ascorbic acid equivalent; ABTS+- 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); AOC-Antioxidant capacity; CE-Catechin equivalents; CF-Crude fibre;
CGA-Chlorogenic acid; CT-Condensed tannins; FRAP- Ferric reducing antioxidant power; DPPH-1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; GAE-Gallic acid equivalent; IDFInsoluble dietary fibre; NEP-Non-extractable polyphenols; SDF- Soluble dietary fibre; NSC- Non-soluble carbohydrate; RSA-Radical scavenging activity; SP-Soluble
phenolics; TAC-Total antioxidant content; *TAE–Tannic acid equivalent; TDA-Total dietary fibre; TEAC-Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity; TEP-Total extractable
phenol; TFC- Total flavonoid contents; TE-Trolox equivalent; TPC: Total phenolics content; - Not determinated.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram showing effects of antioxidant dietary fibre on quality attributes of meat and meat products.
quality attributes of meat and meat products is depicted in Fig. 1.
Rapid urbanization coupled with changing food habits and lifestyles
of consumers for ready to eat healthier meat products has prompted the
meat processors to use safe additives or bioactive compounds from
natural sources to answer this challenge. From the above point of view,
natural ingredients like DF associated with polyphenolic compounds
(known as ADF) have both physiological effects of DF and antioxidants
in a single material (Saura-Calixto, 1998). These functional ingredients
not only improve the oil and water retention, emulsion and oxidative
stability (Goñi & Hervert-Hernández, 2011), but also impart antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity (Ho, 1992).
Literatures available in this aspect indicate that use of ADF in many
commonly and regularly consumed food products enhance the bioactive compounds (antioxidants) and DF level in finished food products.
For example, macaroni prepared using mango peel powder has been
reported with increased DF from 8.6 to 17.8%, polyphenols from 0.46
to 1.80 mg/g and carotenoid content from 5 to 84 μg/g resulting in
improved nutritional value and storage stability without changing its
textural, cooking, and sensory attributes (Ajila, Aalami, Leelavathi, &
Rao, 2010).
Likewise, several reports are available enriching ADF in meat products derived from various sources such as durum wheat bran (Esposito
et al., 2005), chia seed (Reyes-Caudillo, Tecante, & Valdivia-López,
2008), grape seed (Sáyago-Ayerdi, Brenes, & Goñi, 2009), guava
Cooked chicken
Functional mutton
Spent hen nuggets
Drumstick (Moringa oleifera)
flower (1.0 and 2.0%)
Cabbage powder (6.0%)
Gooseberry pulp powder
Seed coat powder (GSCP1.5%)
Cooked sausages
(bolognas) and drycured sausages
Lemon albedo -raw and
cooked (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and
Cooked sausages
TDF: 2.49
IDF: 67.00
SDF: 33.00
Sheep meat nuggets
Bael pulp residue (0.25 and
Orange fiber powder (0.5,
1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%)
TDF: 56.90
IDF: 56.48
SDF: 0.43
Sheep meat nuggets
Guava (Psidium guajava L.)
(0.5 and 1.0%)
IDF: 46.98
TDF: 36.70
TDF: 36.14
SDF: 3.90
IDF: 32.24
NSC: 5.17
TDF: 2.49#
IDF: 67.00
SDF: 33.00
TDF: 43.21
IDF: 42.56
SDF: 0.65
Chicken hamburgers
(raw and cooked)
Red grape pomace (0.5, 1.0,
1.5 and 2.0%)
Dietary fibre (%)
Application in muscle
ADF and level used
AOC: 86.47%
FRAP: 0.29
DPPH: 41.87%
FRAP: 0.54
DPPH: 68.52%
IC50: 126.20 ppm
DPPH: 73.42%
ABTS: 8.65–14.40 mM TE/g
FRAP: 1.62–6.60 mM TE/g
FRAP: 0.089
DPPH: 45.00%
FRAP: 0.13
DPPH: 60.01%
LOI: 400 mg dl-α-tocopherol/g
DPPH: 100 mg dl-α-tocopherol/g
Antioxidant capacity
Table 2
Summary of antioxidant dietary fibres and their effect on meat and meat product formulations.
TPC: 3087
TPC: 322 (TAE)*
TPC: 1834–1949
TPC: 179
TPC: 190
TPC: 1516
TPC: 4404
TEP: 4900
Phenolics content
Refrigerated at 4 ± 1 °C for
20 days
Refrigerated aerobic
packaging for 21 days and
vacuum packaged for 45
Refrigerated at 4 °C up to 20
Vacuum-packed at 4 °C for
28 days under dark and
light exposure
Refrigerated at 4 °C for 21
Refrigerated at 4 °C for 15
Refrigerated at 4 °C up to 13
Storage conditions
✓ Increased redness
✓ Retarded and inhibited lipid
✓ No adverse effect on product
✓ Increased TDF and phenolics
✓ Improved product redness
✓ No change in textural
properties (except shear force
and springiness)
✓ Inhibited lipid peroxidation
✓ No adverse influence on
sensory attributes
✓ Improved emulsion stability,
cooking yield, TDF and
✓ Inhibited lipid peroxidation
✓ Decreased hardness
✓ Improved appearance
✓ Lowered residual nitrite level
✓ Lighter coloured product
✓ Significant effect on sensory
✓ Increased hardness
✓ Increased product colour
✓ Increased hardness
✓ Product less elastic and chewy
compared to control
✓ Improved oxidative stability
and odour scores
✓ Reduced redness
✓ Decreased hardness,
gumminess and chewiness
compared to control
✓ Improved oxidative stability
✓ Improved sensory scores
✓ Improved textural and colour
✓ Better nutritive values
✓ Improved physico-chemical
and sensory properties
✓ Improved shelf-life
✓ Better acceptability of product
(continued on next page)
Goswami, Prajapati, Solanki,
Nalwaya, and Shendurse
Vega-Gálvez et al. (2015)
Mayachiew and Devahastin
Malav et al. (2015)
Madane et al. (2020)
Hegazy and Ibrahium (2012)
Fernandez-Lopez et al.
Das et al. (2015)
Verma et al. (2013)
Sáyago-Ayerdi et al. (2009)
A.K. Das, et al.
Trends in Food Science & Technology 99 (2020) 323–336
Low-salt beef patties
(raw and cooked)
Ham pâté
Chicken sausage
Seaweed in cooked
beef patties
Pork and turkey
sausages (Viennatype)
Chicken nuggets
Wakame sea weed (Undaria
pinnatiflda) (3.0%)
Walnut (25%)
Kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa)
skin flour (0.5, 1.0 and
Raw sugarcane fibre (3.0%
fibre and 10.0% water)
Rehydrated seaweed
(Himanthalia elongate)
(10, 20, 30 and 40%)
Pineapple pomace
Dragon fruit (Hylocereus
undatus) peel (1.5% and
TDF: 56.91
SDF: 7.69
IDF: 49.22
TDF = 88.40
SDF = 75.10
IDF = 13.30
TDF: 79.50
IDF: 75.70
SDF: 3.80
DF: 28.79
TDF: 5.00–9.00
(Insoluble and
TDF: 40.95
SDF: 12.53
IDF: 28.42
Dietary fibre (%)
DPPH: 59.66%
IC50: 586 ppm
FRAP = 35.69 μmol TE/g
ABTS+ assay = 7.42 μmol TE/g
Carotenoids = 4.37 mg eq βcarotene/kg
TAC: 7392.40 μmol TE/kg
PGE: 2041.60 mg/kg
FRAP: 357.5 μmol TE/100 g
FRAP: 154.88 μmol TE/g
AOC: 7850 mg TE/L
AOC: 1.09 mmol TE/g
Antioxidant capacity
TPC: 39
Polyphenols: 492
TPC: 15,130
TPC: 45.17
TPC: 1262.3
Polyphenol: 560
TPC: 660 (PGE)**
DPPH EC50: 45.86
Phenolics content
Refrigerated at 4 °C up to 20
Refrigerated at 4 °C for 30
Refrigerated at 4 °C for 63
Refrigerated at 2 ± 2 °C
until analysis
Storage conditions
✓ Healthy polyunsaturated fatty
acid profile
✓ Increased linolenic and
linolenic acid
✓ Healthier amino acid profile
(lysine/arginine ratio-0.83)
✓ Increased dietary fibre
✓ Darkening in colour with
increasing concentration
✓ Enhanced odour and flavour
✓ Better acceptability at 1%
✓ Increased cooking yield
✓ Increased TPC
✓ Decreased TBARS value
✓ Improved eating quality and
health benefits
✓ Increased TDF, TPC and DPPH
radical scavenging activity
✓ Improved water-binding
✓ Improved textural properties
✓ Increased dietary fibre
✓ Decreased shrinkage and shear
force values
✓ Increased lightness (L) and
yellowness (positive b* values)
✓ Improved emulsion stability
and cooking yield
✓ Decreased lipid oxidation and
improved odour scores
✓ Improved redness of nuggets
✓ Decreased hardness,
gumminess and chewiness
than control
✓ Improved water-binding
✓ High antioxidant activity
✓ Softer textural properties
✓ No adverse effect on sensory
Madane et al. (2020)
Montalvo-González et al.
Cox and Abu Ghannam
Leang and Saw (2011)
Fang et al. (2019)
Siqueira et al. (2015)
Cofrades, Benedí,
Garcimartin, Sánchez-Muniz,
and Jimenez-Colmenero
Cofrades, López-López, Solas,
Bravo, and JiménezColmenero (2008)
Jiménez-Escrig et al. (2001)
Ostadrahimi, Tabibiazar, and
Amarowicz (2019)
#On fresh weight basis; ABTS+- 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); ADF-Antioxidant dietary fibre; AOC- Antioxidant capacity; DF- Dietary fibre; DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; FRAP- Ferric
reducing antioxidant power; IDF- Insoluble dietary fibre; EC50- Half maximal effective concentration; GAE- Gallic acid equivalent; LOI-Lipid oxidation inhibition; NEP- Non-extractable polyphenols; NSC- Non-structural
carbohydrate; **PGE- Phloroglucinol equivalent; SDF- Soluble dietary fibre; *TAE–Tannic acid equivalent; TAC-Total antioxidant capacity; TDF-Total dietary fibre; TE-Trolox equivalent; TEP- Total extractable polyphenols; TPC- Total phenolics content.
Application in muscle
ADF and level used
Table 2 (continued)
A.K. Das, et al.
Trends in Food Science & Technology 99 (2020) 323–336
Trends in Food Science & Technology 99 (2020) 323–336
A.K. Das, et al.
powder (Verma et al., 2013), bael pulp residue (Das et al., 2015), lotus
(Nelumbo nucifera) rhizome powder (Ham et al., 2017), pineapple pomace (Montalvo-González et al., 2018), drumstick (M. oleifera) flower
(Madane et al., 2019) and dragon fruit peel (Madane et al., 2020). The
use of ADF in meat products formulations not only extends their shelf
life by delaying the lipid oxidation due to the presence of phenolic
antioxidants, but also enhances the texture, physico-chemical and
sensory attributes of meat products (Das et al., 2015; Madane et al.,
2019; Sáyago-Ayerdi et al., 2009). A summary of ADFs derived from
various plant materials and their effect on physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory attributes of meat product
formulations is presented in Table 2.
meat nuggets with guava power (0.5 and 1.0%) as ADF, Verma et al.
(2013) found significantly higher moisture, total phenolics, DF and ash
contents than control nuggets whereas the protein and fat contents
were not affected. Likewise, chicken meat cutlets incorporated with
different levels of dired carrot pomace powder (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10%)
resulted in a significant increase in moisture, ash and crude fibre with
decreased fat contents (Kumar et al., 2015). An increase in protein and
ash but a decrease in moisture and fat content was also observed with
an increasing level of rye bran in low-fat meatballs (Yılmaz, 2005). In a
study, Das et al. (2015) found no significant influence of bael pulp residue (0.25 and 0.5% levels) on the protein, fat and moisture (except
ash) contents of goat meat nuggets. However, incorporation of bael
pulp residue or guava powder significantly increased the amount of DF
and total phenolics in goat meat nuggets in a dose dependent manner
(Das et al., 2015). Recently, Madane et al. (2019) noticed significant
improvement in protein, ash, total phenolics and DF contents of chicken
nuggets, incorporating drumstick (M. oleifera) flower as ADF compared
to control nuggets.
4. Technological development of meat products enriched with
antioxidant dietary fibres
4.1. Physico-chemical properties of meat products
The success of any emulsion-based meat product depends upon
many factors including its physico-chemical properties such as pH,
water holding capacity, emulsion stability, cooking yield etc. (Santhi,
Kalaikannan, & Sureshkumar, 2017). pH is one of the extremely important quality parameters in emulsion-based meat products, as it influences the texture, cooking loss, tenderness of products and microbial
activity (Lawrie & Ledward, 2006). Incorporation of ADF obtained from
various sources such as cabbage powder (Malav et al., 2015), drumstick
flower (Madane et al., 2019) and guava powder (Verma et al., 2013)
has been reported to decrease the pH value in meat products in a dose
dependent manner, which might be due to acidic nature of ADF.
Likewise, emulsion stability has a great impact on the development
of emulsion-based meat products and is linked with the stability,
structure, better yield and sensory qualities (Santhi et al., 2017).
Cooking yield is one of the most practical tests and used to predict the
influence of non-meat ingredients on behaviour of meat products
during processing. Reports available in this regard suggest that fibres or
ADFs as non-meat components are known to influence emulsion stability, thereby increasing cooking yield. During meat processing, ADF
binds to water and fat to give a very stable emulsion which remains so
throughout the product processing and storage period resulting in improvement of cooking yield, water holding capacity and juiciness
(Cofrades, Guerra, Carballo, Fernández-Martín, & Colmenero, 2000;
Dhingra et al., 2012; Thebaudin, Lefebvre, Harrington, & Bourgeois,
1997). Hence, emulsion stability and cooking yield are highly related
and lower cooking loss of emulsion-based meat products is advantageous not only from technological but also economical point of view.
Studying the effect of two types of lemon albedo (raw and dehydrated) at different levels (2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10%) on meat
emulsions, Sarıçoban et al. (2008) concluded that the highest functional
properties were achieved in 5% albedo added emulsions. The Bael pulp
residue as ADF at 0.5% level significantly enhanced the cooking yield
and emulsion stability of goat meat nuggets (Das et al., 2015). Using
drumstick (M. oleifera) flower as ADF in chicken nuggets, Madane, Das,
Pateiro, et al. (2019a) found an improvement in the emulsion stability
and a higher cooking yield (97.83% and 97.26%) than the control
(96.79%). In contrast to the above findings, Verma et al. (2013) reported decreased emulsion stability and cooking yield as well with the
inclusion of guava powder as ADF in sheep meat nuggets which could
be due to low pH of meat emulsion interfering in the formation of
uniform and stable emulsion.
ADF can also influence the overall chemical composition of meat
products, as it is reported to increase DF, moisture and carbohydrate
while reducing the fat contents. Use of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) rhizome
as an ADF in cooked sausage slightly increased the moisture and ash but
non-significantly decreased the protein content (Ham et al., 2017). It
was also found that the fat content of cooked sausages decreased with
increasing amount of lotus rhizome powder. While formulating goat
4.2. Lipid oxidation of meat products
Major lipid components such as phospholipids, triacylglycerides and
sterols are distributed in both intra and extracellular space of muscle
(Domínguez et al., 2019). These lipid components are chemically unstable and, therefore, easily prone to oxidation, especially during postmortem handling, and storage of meat and meat products (Falowo,
Fayemi, & Muchenje, 2014). This is the reason for high susceptibility of
meat products to protein and lipid oxidation, bringing in deteriorative
changes in products with the development of rancid odour and offflavour, drip loss, discolouration and accumulation of toxic compounds,
negating its acceptability (Guyon, Meynier, & de Lamballerie, 2016;
Zhang, Xiao, & Ahn, 2013). Strategic use of antioxidants from natural
sources (extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals, oilseeds, herbs, and other
plant materials like leaves, bark and roots rich in phenolics) holds a
more viable and promising option of enriching meat with health-promoting bioactive compounds (Barba et al., 2017; Falowo et al., 2018;
Putnik et al., 2017; Žugčić et al., 2019) preventing oxidative rancidity
(lipid and protein) of products (Falowo et al., 2014). These natural
compounds also provide nutritional benefits and improve technological
processing, and shelf life of meat and meat products (Singh, Singh, &
Gandhi, 2018).
Many reports are available using antioxidants associated with DF,
derived from plant or plant by-products, in meat and meat products. In
studies conducted by Verma et al. (2013) and Das et al. (2015), incorporation of guava powder and bael pulp residue as ADF significantly
inhibited lipid oxidation in sheep meat nuggets during storage on
contrary to control samples, which received lower flavour and odour
scores due to higher lipid oxidation.
Citrus fibre component delayed the lipid oxidation and decreased
residual nitrite levels, when added to meat products (Fernandez-Gines,
Fernandez-Lopez, Sayas-Barbera, Sendra, & Perez-Alvarez, 2003). Meat
products with cabbage powder had significantly lower thiobarbituric
acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid values than control
during storage under both aerobic as well as vacuum packaging conditions, which could be due to the presence of phenolic compounds in
cabbage (Malav et al., 2015). Cooked sausages prepared with different
levels of lotus rhizome powder had significantly higher oxidative stability to lipid oxidation (TBARS value 0.57–0.59 mg malondialdehyde
(MDA)/kg) than control (0.88 mg MDA/kg) sample (Ham et al., 2017).
This could be due to strong antioxidant effect of lotus rhizome because
of its lipophilic fraction and presence of good amount of gallic acid
which might have helped in preventing the initial and later stages of
lipid oxidation in sausages (Deng et al., 2013). Using the extracts of M.
oleifera flower as ADF, Madane et al. (2019) reported lower TBARS
values in chicken nuggets during 20 days storage study period indicating that the polyphenolic compounds with strong antioxidant
Trends in Food Science & Technology 99 (2020) 323–336
A.K. Das, et al.
capacity present in flower could be the contributing factor for more
oxidative stability of ADF treated nuggets compared to control sample.
and redness (a*) values in bolognas prepared with lemon albedo in
comparison with control. The authors also reported that colour properties were influenced by types and concentration of albedo used in the
formulations. Significant improvement in redness values was reported
in goat meat nuggets with addition of ADF from bael pulp residue, but
its yellowness value remained unaffected (Das et al., 2015) making the
nuggets more appealing in attracting consumers. As far as the colour
stabilizing effects of ADF during storage of meat products is concerned,
Madane, Das, Pateiro, et al. (2019a) reported a reduction (up to
12.85%) in the redness (a*) values in cooked chicken nuggets enriched
with drumstick flower as ADF on 0 day than control samples. However,
the a* values were stabilized in ADF treated on contrary to control
nuggets which faded rapidly after 10 days of storage. The presence of
phenolics associated with DF could be the reason for stability in redness
values of treated samples during storage.
4.3. Textural properties of meat products
The texture is yet another important characteristic that not only
influences the technological aspects of meat products but also plays a
vital role in consumer satisfaction. The textural property of meat product is as a result of the interaction of meat proteins, particularly their
gel-forming and emulsification characteristics, and the presence of
functional non-meat ingredients like DF (Coggins, 2007). Research
findings indicate that enriching DF influences the hardness, springiness
and shear force of meat products, thereby modifying the texture to a
great extent. Reports available in this aspect incorporating ADF from
various sources such as guava powder in sheep meat nuggets (Verma
et al., 2013), drumstick flower in chicken meat nuggets (Madane et al.,
2019) and bael pulp residue in goat meat nuggets (Das et al., 2015)
indicate that meat products had lower hardness, springiness, gumminess and shear force values than the control. But in other studies, nonsignificantly higher hardness (Malav et al., 2015) and springiness values (Wan Rosli, Solihah, Aishah, Nik Fakurudin, & Mohsin, 2011) were
also reported with addition of cabbage powder in mutton patties, and in
oyster mushroom-based chicken patties, respectively. A similar trend
has also been observed by researchers in emulsion-based meat products
with addition of DF from various sources. Ham et al. (2017) found that
most of the textural parameters such as gumminess, hardness and cohesiveness of cooked sausages were unchanged when lotus rhizome
powder was used as ADF. Bolognas sausages formulated with orange
peel fibre as ADF were harder, less elastic, cohesive and chewy
(Fernandez-Lopez et al., 2004). Depending upon the amount and type
of fibre used, both hardening as well as softening effects were observed
in various meat products which might be due to the nature of added DF
ingredients and extent of their distribution in the meat batter mix,
thereby influencing the meat product texture (Das et al., 2015).
4.5. Sensory attributes of meat products
Sensory characteristics are often used to evaluate the quality and
acceptability of products and have a great impact on consumers’ preference and willingness to purchase. In fact, the sensory properties of
meat and meat products depend on various subsets of properties such as
colour, flavour, appearance, texture and juiciness. ADF derived from
various natural sources is reported to influence the sensory properties,
particularly juiciness and texture of meat products. Addition of lotus
rhizome powder as ADF had no adverse impact on the flavour, hardness, juiciness, or overall acceptability of cooked sausage (Ham et al.,
2017), but an increase in ADF level decreased the juiciness score of the
product. The inclusion of ADFs such as guava powder in sheep meat
nuggets (Verma et al., 2013) and cabbage powder in mutton patties
formulation (Malav et al., 2015) did not significantly affect the organoleptic properties such as texture, flavour, binding, juiciness and
overall acceptability scores. However, meat products with cabbage
powder received higher flavour scores than control during storage
which might be due to its higher oxidative stability. Incorporation of
bael pulp residue as ADF at 0.25% and 0.5% levels did not have any
significant influence on various sensory properties in goat meat nuggets, except appearance, the score of which increased with ADF level
(Das et al., 2015). In another study, chicken hamburgers prepared with
GADF (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%) resulted in higher sensory values
than control (Sáyago-Ayerdi et al., 2009). The DF along with phenolics
content of GADF might have improved the flavour and tenderness of
treated hamburgers. Chicken nuggets with drumstick flower as ADF had
better appearance, flavour and juiciness scores than control sample
during 20 days storage period. This could be due to the role of ADF
acting as a stabilizing agent thereby preventing colour fading, improving the flavour by inhibiting lipid oxidation and increasing the
moisture retention capacity of the product during cooking (Madane
et al., 2019).
4.4. Colour of meat products
It is well known that meat quality is best judged based on three
sensory properties i.e. appearance, flavour and texture. Among these,
appearance or appealing colour is one of the most important attributes
that consumer's notice before drawing any conclusion whether to accept or reject the meat products (Chauhan, Pradhan, Nanda,
Bandyopadhyay, & Das, 2018; Fanatico et al., 2008; Hu et al., 2016).
Variations in colour other than the expected norm may be due to the
physical characteristics of the meat, concentration and chemical state of
pigments therein, and presence of non-meat ingredients (Hunt & Kropf,
1987). Different researchers have studied the effect of addition of nonmeat ingredients on colour stability in meat formulations. SáyagoAyerdi et al. (2009) found a significant reduction in the lightness (L*)
and yellowness (b*) values in both raw and cooked chicken hamburgers
with grape antioxidant dietary fibre (GADF) compared to control. The
authors reported that the significant increase (2.22 times) in redness
values may be due to red colour of phenolics present in GADF that
could have stabilized the colour after 3 and 5 days of storage relative to
control samples. Use of cabbage powder as ADF in mutton patties resulted in decreasing trend in the redness (a* value) and yellowness (b*
value) as storage time progressed, but the values were far better than
the control samples, where it faded more rapidly (Malav et al., 2015).
Similarly, Verma et al. (2013) reported a significant improvement in
the redness values (up to 38%) with addition of guava powder ADF in
cooked sheep meat nuggets but found no effect on the lightness and
yellowness values in comparison to control. The authors concluded that
the enhancement in redness value could possibly be due to the red
colour of guava powder.
In another study, Fernandez-Gines, Fernandez-Lopez, SayasBarbera, Sendra, and Perez-Alvarez (2004) noticed higher lightness (L*)
4.6. Nutritional quality of antioxidant dietary fibres
ADF also enhances the nutritional quality by enriching products
with DF, micronutrients and desirable fatty acids. In fact, many fruits
and vegetables fibres have been attributed to their constituents, including vitamin C and E, carotenoid, glutathione, flavonoids etc.
(Eberhardt, Lee, & Liu, 2000). For example, raw carrot (Daucus carota)
provides the richest source of β-carotene, iron, pectin, complex carbohydrate, and various minerals. So apart from being a potent antioxidant, β-carotene is reported to have anti-mutagenic, anti-tumoral
and antiulcer effect on human health (López-Romero et al., 2018).
Likewise, iron is very digestible and favours the formation of the red
globules (Lester & Eischen, 1996). Guava powder contains up to 5–6%
crude protein and 43% DF (Verma et al., 2013). Similarly, cabbage
powder is rich in minerals (7.71%) and contains 36.70% DF (Malav
et al., 2015). Drumstick flower, besides having DF and phenolics
Trends in Food Science & Technology 99 (2020) 323–336
A.K. Das, et al.
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram depicting action and pathways of dietary fibre and polyphenolic compounds in gastrointestinal tract.
Table 3
Summary of health effects promoted by consumption of diets enriched with different types of antioxidant dietary fibres.
Animal and treatment length
Diet characteristics
Male Wistar rats (215 g)
(n = 10 per group) 4
Diets-isocaloric having identical fibre content
(50 g/kg diet) but varying in the type of fibrecellulose or grape antioxidant dietary fibre
Male Sprague Dawley rats
(338g vs331g) (n = 33
per group) 24 h
Standard diet (AIN-93M modified diet)
containing 26% of wheat bran, corresponding to
4.04 mg/kg body weight of ferulic acid (FA).
Male ApcMin/+ mice (aged 5
weeks) (n = 12 and 10), 6
Standard diet with GADF at 1% w/w.
Male Wistar rats (215g)
(n = 20) 4 weeks
Standard diet with GADF at 1% w/w.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats
(40–60 g) (n = 90) 4
Standard diet with wheat or oat bran (6g/100 g)
Important findings
✓ Stimulates proliferation of Lactobacillus and slightly affects
the composition of Bifidobacterium species
✓ Exerts positive effect on Lactobacillus reuteri and
Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro
✓ Enhances gastrointestinal health of rats through microbiota
✓ Plasma FA from wheat bran remained constant up to 24hr
after meal but completely disappeared 4hr after free FA
✓ Better antioxidant activity of plasma after consumption of
bran than pure FA
✓ Supplementation with wheat bran seems more efficient than
a supplementation with pure FA
✓ Prevents spontaneous intestinal polyposis in the ApcMin/+
mouse model
✓ Modulates cancer progression-related genes and downregulation of genes related to the immune response and
✓ Acts as a promising nutraceutical for the prevention of colon
cancer in high-risk populations
✓ Potent inhibitor of mitochondria-associated apoptosis
✓ Reduces the oxidative environment of the colonic mucosa
through modulation of both the antioxidant enzyme and the
glutathion: oxidised glutathion redox systems
✓ Acts on the expression of the pro- and anti- apoptotic Bcl-2
proteins, attenuating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway
in the distal colonic mucosa
✓ Oat bran diets not protective of tumor development.
✓ An acidic luminal pH and large luminal butyrate
concentrations in the distal colon in the rats consuming
wheat bran diet reduces tumor incidence in a rat model of
colon cancer independent of effects on distal luminal
butyrate concentrations
Pozuelo et al. (2012)
Rondini et al. (2004)
Sánchez-Tena et al.
López-Oliva, Pozuelo,
Rotger, Muñoz-Martínez,
and Goni (2013)
Zoran, Turner, Taddeo,
Chapkin, and Lupton
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A.K. Das, et al.
content, is a good source of protein (17.87%) and ash along with an
adequate profile of amino acids (Madane et al., 2019; SánchezMachado, Núñez-Gastélum, Reyes-Moreno, Ramírez-Wong, & LópezCervantes, 2010). Other than having DFs and antioxidants, sweet potatoes are rich in various types of vitamins (B1, B2, C, and E), minerals
(calcium, magnesium, potassium and zinc), protein and non-fibrous
carbohydrates (Suda, 1997) and its inclusion in meat products is reported to enrich the nutritional quality of buffalo meat products
(Devatkal, Mendiratta, & Kondaiah, 2004).
non-vegetarians all over the globe. In spite of this, it often draws flak for
not being a ‘total diet’ by the nutritionists. To meet the challenges and
changing demands of providing nutritious product offering health
benefits and at the same time ensuring an appealing taste, texture and
appearance, the meat processing industry is constantly in search of all
possible ways to add functional properties to meat products. A wide
variety of plant-derived materials (co-products and by-products), rich
in fibre and polyphenolic compounds, and fulfilling the criteria of ADF,
are widely used as ingredients in developing nutritionally designed
foods. Enhancing the nutritive and functional properties of processed
meat products through inclusion of ADF, derived from these plant
materials, seems to be a way out and of interest to both meat processors
and consumers as well. ADFs offer several advantages such as improved
emulsion stability, texture, cooking yield, water holding capacity and
sensory properties, when incorporated in meat product formulations.
They also inhibit lipid peroxidation and microbial growth thereby extending the shelf life of meat and meat products.
However, the inclusion of functional ingredients as ADF in meat
product formulations should be based on their physico-chemical, antioxidant, antibacterial, technological properties, nutritional quality and
cost effectiveness. Hence, future research plans should focus on employing novel methodologies (extraction, purification, and quantification methods) to get better yield and high-quality ADF. Furthermore,
the interactions of ADF with meat products constituents, their bioavailability during processing and storage along with safety aspects
need to be studied in pilot scale, but in a detailed way before potential
commercial application in meat industry. In conclusion, the development of ADF enriched functional products opens up new possibilities
for the meat industry to improve its ‘‘image” and opportunity to address
consumer demands.
4.7. Assessment of health properties of food products enriched with
antioxidant dietary fibre
Intake of DF significantly influences the bioavailability of nutrients,
microbial composition, and gastrointestinal functions and hence modulates the mechanism of nutrient absorption in both human and animal
diet (Adams, Sello, Qin, Che, & Han, 2018). Further, DF along with
phenolic compounds are two distinct food components having specific
functional properties and offer protection against development of diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, obesity,
including constipation, coronary diseases and colon cancer (Jones et al.,
2000). However, most of these functional bioactive compounds cannot
be absorbed in native form. So, intake of ADF enriched food products
does not assure their bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract as such;
hence uncertain of their biological fate (Parada & Aguilera, 2007). The
bioavailability of the ingested nutrients depends upon the chemical and
physical interactions between phenolics and indigestible dietary fibre
and bioaccessibility of components in the digestive tract (QuirósSauceda et al., 2014). Reports available in this regard suggest a positive
correlation exiting between DF associated with phenolic compounds
and intestinal health, which could be due to scavenging of free radicals
and counteracting the effects of DF pro-oxidants (Saura-Calixto, 2011)
thereby creating a healthy antioxidant environment in the lumen
(Pérez-Jiménez et al., 2009). This is possible when the partially fermented DFs and phenolic compounds (both non-absorbable and nonfermentable) reaches the large intestine and remain in the colonic
lumen (Metzler & Mosenthin, 2008).
Further, different short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are released
due to partial or complete fermentation of DF components, may synergistically act in conjunction with antioxidant phenolics and modulate the expression of genes associated with some diseases (Tang,
Chen, Jiang, & Nie, 2011). In a study on regulation of gene in mice upon
consumption of GADF, Lizarraga et al. (2011) found that out of 26,393
genes, 641 genes were down regulated and 363 genes unregulated. The
researchers opined that consumption of GADF might have played vital
role on the beneficial health effects by down regulating nuclear receptor signalling, lipid biosynthesis (TNF and PPARα) and energy metabolism, and pathways associated with obesity. Their data also indicate that GADF protects healthy colon tissue against tumor
development and reduces the risk of cancer. A schematic diagram depicting the action and pathways of DF associated with polyphenolic
compounds in gastrointestinal tract is presented Fig. 2.
It is the synergistic effect of phytochemicals, increased bioavailability of nutrient content, gastrointestinal functions and modulation of
nutrient absorption mechanism, that are believed to be the mechanism
behind ADF's beneficial effects on the treatment and prevention of
obesity and diabetes (Weickert & Pfeiffer, 2008), reduced cardio-vascular diseases (Donovan, Manach, Faulks, & Kroon, 2006) and decreased incidence of certain types of cancer (Terry et al., 2001). The
beneficial health effects of diets enriched with different types of ADF is
summarized in Table 3.
This compilation is a review article written and analysed by the
authors and hence required no substantial funding to be stated. Jose M.
Lorenzo is member of the Healthy Meat network, funded by CYTED (ref.
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