COMMISSION II: RESOLUTION: OENO 2/91 Oenologist training programmes THE OIV GENERAL ASSEMBLY, Recognising the need to continue improving scientific and technical training programmes for oenologists, NOTING that the attached draft was proposed by Commission II, RECOMMENDS that Member Countries and their training institutions take said draft into account when designing oenologist training programmes. The corresponding diplomas should be issued by recognised teaching establishments at university level. DRAFT CORE REQUIREMENTS OF AN OENOLOGIST TRAINING PROGRAMME COURSE STRUCTURE –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– THEORETICAL TRAINING A - Mathematics, F - Biochemistry, B - Physics, G - Biology, C - Physical chemistry, H - Microbiology, D - Inorganic chemistry, I - Introduction to information technology, E - Organic chemistry, J - Foreign languages. SUPERVISED PRACTICAL TRAINING IN THE ABOVE DISCIPLINES –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– A - MATHEMATICS l. – General mathematics 1.1. Functions 1.1.1. Functions of a real variable Limits. Continuity. Differentiable functions. Study of elementary functions. Taylor's formula. Limited developments. Definite integrals. Calculation of primitives. Definite integral of a continuous function on an interval. First-order and second-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients. 1.1.2. Function of several variables: partial and total derivatives 1.1.3. Linear algebra Finite-dimensional vector spaces. Linear applications; matrix calculation. Determinants; linear systems. 1.1.4. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Vector analysis: scalar, vector and mixed products. Gradient, divergence, curl. ll. - Statistical probabilities 2.1. Random variables. 2.2. Laws of probability: binominal law, Poisson's law, Gauss' normal law. 2.3. Characteristics of a sample: mode, median, arithmetic mean, variance, standard deviation. 2.4. Estimation of the parameters of a population. 2.5. Introduction to test theory. 2.6. Comparison of frequencies, averages, variances. 2.7. Linear regression. 2.8. Analyses of variance. 2.9. Multidimensional analysis. B - PHYSICS l. - Metrology 1.1. Measurement of quantities. Systems. Units. 1.2. Errors and approximations in measurements and calculations. ll. - Mechanics 2.1. Equilibrium. Free point under the influence of several forces, general resultant. 2.2. Solid body rotating around an axis. Centre of gravity. 2.3. Stable, unstable and indifferent equilibria. 2.4. Acceleration; definition of mass. Relationship between weight and mass. 2.5. Equilibrium of a heavy body. 2.6. Levers and balance, stability, precision, sensitivity, trueness. 2.7. Work, power, potential energy, kinetic energy, mechanical energy. 2.8. Material point mechanics: kinematics, dynamics, applications in some simple cases (falling bodies, harmonic oscillator). Ill. - Energetics 3.1. Energetics: mechanical energy, heat energy, calorimetry, changes in deviations. 3.2. Basic principles of thermometry. Quantity of heat, calorimetry. 3.3. Modes of heat transfer. 3.4. Principle of conservation and degradation of energy. 3.5. Expansion of solids and liquids. IV. - Electricity 4.1. Mechanics of passage of current through metal and electrolytic conductors. Resistance, Ohm's laws. 4.2. Electrostatics. Direct current. Alternating current. Electrical and magnetic properties of matter. Electromagnetism. Electronic principles. Peltier effect. Application: NMR spectrometry. V. - States of matter 5.1. Gaseous state: Mariotte's law, kinetic theory of gases, equation of state for a perfect gas. Partial pressure. Dalton's law. Solubility of gases. 5.2. Liquid state: intermolecular forces, surface tension, flow, viscosity. 5.3. Crystalline state. 5.4. Change in state. Fusion and solidification, supercooling, glass. Vaporisation and liquefaction. Sublimation, freeze-drying. 5.5. Solutions. Diluted solutions: case of electrolytes. Concentrated solutions: osmotic pressure, cryoscopy. Solid solutions: eutectics. VI. - Optics 6.1. Geometrical optics. Basic principles of geometrical optics. Principles of image and stigmatism. Mirrors and dioptres. Thin lenses. The eye. The microscope. 6.2. Wave optics. Principles of wave optics. Light interference phenomena. Analysis of light. Study of colour. Diffraction phenomena. Influence on the resolution limit of optical instruments. Polarisation of light. Crystalline polarisation. Polarising microscope. Rotary polarisation. Polarimetry. VII. - Atomic and particle physics Structure of the nucleus; Radioactivity; Nuclear reactions; Particulate aspects of matter. C - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I. - Thermodynamics 1.1. First principle and applications. Internal energy and enthalpy. Temperature-dependent variations. Calorific capacities. 1.2. Laws of equilibrium constants Variation dependent on temperature and pressure parameters. Applications: 1.3. Homogeneous gaseous systems. Heterogeneous systems. Chemical potential Systems containing mixtures. Free enthalpy and chemical potential. Application to chemical equilibria. 1.4. Unary systems. Study of the pure body. Clapeyron's equation. 1.5. Binary systems. Raoult's and Henry's laws. Isobars: perfectly homogenous systems, eutectics and cryometry. Osmometry. II. - Structure of matter Atomic models and their development. Molecular geometry. The chemical bond: molecular orbital. Ionic bond. Low-energy bonds. lll. - Kinetics Basic principles of mechanisms and reactions. Orders of reaction. IV. - Ionic reactions in solution 4.1. Electrolytic dissociation, dissociation of water; ionic equilibria. Acids, bases and salts. 4.2. Solubility product. Decrease in ionisation. 4.3. pH of a solution, pKa, pKb. 4.4. Buffer solutions. 4.5. Coloured indicators. 4.6. Oxidation-reduction, oxidation-reduction potential, predicting oxidation-reduction reactions. 4.7. Complexes, stability, chelates. D - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY D.1. Electronic structures of elements and their periodic classification. D.2. Different types of bonds. Molecular structures and crystalline structures. D.3. Study of various important elements in viticulture and oenology: K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, P, S, Cl, etc. E - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY l. - General organic chemistry 1.1. Structure and general characteristics of organic compounds. 1.2. Elements of stereochemistry. 1.3. Electronic effects. 1.4. Classification of reagents and reaction mechanisms. ll. - Study of the main functions and applications in Biochemistry and Biology 2.1. Alkanes. Alkenes. Alkynes. 2.2. Alcohols. Phenols. 2.3. Aldehydes. Ketones. Quinones. Carbohydrate compounds. 2.4. Acids and derived functions. 2.5. Organic nitrogen compounds. 2.6. Organic halogen derivatives. Organometallics. 2.7. Cyclic compounds. Terpenes. F- BIOCHEMISTRY I. - Structure and properties of molecules that make up living organisms 1.1. Proteins. Nucleic acids. 1.2. Carbohydrates. 1.3. Lipids. ll. - Enzymology 2.1. Specificity of enzyme catalysis. 2.2. Enzyme kinetics. 2.3. Action of effectors: pH, temperature. Activators. Inhibitors. llI. - Energy metabolism 3.1. Catabolism and energy production (glycolysis and fermentation, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid catabolism, etc.). 3.2. Biosynthesis and energy use (fatty acid biosynthesis, pentose phosphate pathways and gluconeogenesis, etc.). IV. - Genetic information and its expression 4.1. Structure and DNA replication. 4.2. Transcription and the concept of messenger RNA. 4.3. Genetic code. 4.4. Translation of polypeptide chains. G - BIOLOGY l. - Plant biology 1.1. Cytology and plant anatomy. 1.1.1. Microscopic structure and infrastructure of plant cells; main differences compared with animal cells. 1.1.2. Basic principles of the biochemical composition and biophysical properties of the main cell components. 1.1.3. Reproduction (mitosis and meiosis). 1.1.4. Differentiation and organisation of different cellular tissues. 1.2. Studies of vascular plants. 1.2.1. Fundamental organs of vascular plants, from a morphological and anatomical perspective; main features of embryogenesis and morphogenesis of these vegetative organs. Growth: branching of the stem; phyllotaxis; buds and various shoots; leaves; roots. 1.2.2. Vegetative reproduction Organs involved in sexual reproduction; inflorescence; flowers; fruits and seeds; stages of sexual differentiation in flowers; floral biology; fecundation. 1.2.3. Comparison of Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Wherever possible, use of the vine as an example is recommended, both in lessons and practical work. 1.3. Studies of non-vascular plants. Fundamental characteristics of Bryophytes, lower and higher fungi; green and red algae, cyanophytes and bacteria (introduction to the concept of viruses); main features of their living conditions, structure and reproduction, leading to the essential principles of alternation of generations and the corresponding stages of sexual differentiation. 1.4. Phytopathology. ll. - Sensory biology Epithelial tissues. General properties of excitable elements. Transmission of impulses. III. - Animal biology General principles of parasitology. Intersystemic and intrasystemic relationships (parasitism, symbiosis, saprophytism). H. – MICROBIOLOGY Organisation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Genetics of microorganisms (recombinations, mutations). The classification criteria for microorganisms (morphological, biochemical, genetic). The major microbial groups: bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi. Microbial metabolism: carbon metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, energy metabolism. Microbial growth laws and genetic regulation of growth. Principle of aseptic work and monosporic cultures. I - INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Equipment. Operating systems (MS-DOS). Introduction to multiposts (Unix, Xenix). Software (spreadsheets, word processing, databases, statistics). J - FOREIGN LANGUAGES Continued study of one or several foreign languages. MINIMUM OENOLOGIST TRAINING PROGRAMME COURSE STRUCTURE -------------------------------------------The following proportions are recommended: Viticulture 20-30% Oenology 40-50% Economics, Law, Languages 20-30% THEORETICAL TRAINING A. VITICULTURE B. OENOLOGY I. Processing of grapes into wine. Wine microbiology. II. Composition and production of wine. III. Processing and treatment of wine. IV. Oenological engineering. V. Analysis and monitoring of must and wine. VI. Products and coproducts derived from the vine and wine. C. ECONOMICS, MARKETING, ACCOUNTING, MANAGEMENT I. Agricultural economics. II. National economics. III. International economics. IV. Marketing. V. Accounting, Management. D. LAW AND LEGISLATION E. WINE AND VINE PRODUCTS IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT F. FOREIGN LANGUAGES SUPERVISED PRACTICAL TRAINING Viticulture Applied oenology and microbiology Oenological engineering Sensory analysis Chemical and microbiological analyses and monitoring DETAILED PROGRAMME ---------------------------- The programme set out in detail below represents the minimum oenologist training programme. A. - VITICULTURE l. – Basic elements History of vineyard establishment. Systematics of Vitaceae. Genetics of different varieties, clonal selection, hybridisation, crossing and other methods of DNA transfer. Ampelographic characteristics of varieties. Rootstocks and scions; in-depth study of the main vine varieties of the region. Problem of choosing a vine variety depending on environmental conditions, the type of product sought, legislative requirements, etc. ll. - Vine biology Morphological and anatomical study of the vine (vegetative and reproductive organs). Annual life cycle of the vine. General principles of nutrient functions in the vine. lll. - Ecology 3.1. Climatology. Climate factors. Vine climatology. 3.2. Pedology. Origin of soils, pedogenesis factors. The fundamental components of soil. Physical, chemical and physicochemical properties of soils (texture, structure, water balance, clay-humus complex, etc.). Deficiencies and excesses. Biology of soils, soil flora and soil fauna. Vineyard soils. Influence of soil on vine physiology and wine composition. 3.3. Applications. Plants as indicators of environmental conditions. Choice of rootstocks and vine varieties, vine training systems. IV. - Vine cultivation Reproduction processes. Planting. Vine size. Maintenance tasks. Annual soil maintenance, chemical weed control, green covering and irrigation. Manuring. Cultivation in particular environments. Consequences of cultivation techniques on yield and quality. V. - Pathology and treatments Weather hazards (frost, hail, etc.). Physiological problems and diseases. Fungal diseases and animal parasites. Treatment products. Integrated pest control. VI. - Viticultural geography and vine and wine history Knowledge of the main viticultural regions and the wines most characteristic of various countries around the world. Development of areas under vines and world production. Quantitative regulation of production. B. - OENOLOGY l. - Processing of grapes into wine 1.1. Study of raw materials, Description and Biochemistry: Description of the grape cluster and berry. Maturation phenomena of the berry. Origins and biosynthesis pathways of organic acids from sugars, phenolic compounds and nitrogen compounds. Influences of climate and growth conditions. Maturity indices and models predictive of the harvest date, quality and quantity. Variations in the composition of must. Respective influences of components of mature grapes on wine production, composition and preservation. Influence of various parasites (insects, fungi) on the composition of must and wine. 1.2. Technology 1.2.1. Pre-fermentative treatments and phenomena. Enzymatic activities. Study of oxidoreductases, pectinases, proteases, lipases, invertases, etc. Technological consequences. Exchange phenomena. Colloidal phenomena. Harvest, transport. Mechanical treatments of the harvest: crushing, destemming, transfer, pressing. Sulphiting. Temperature control. Must clarification. Correction of raw materials (enrichment, acidification, deacidification, etc.). Yeasting. 1.2.2. Fermentations. 188.8.131.52. Yeasts. Yeast cell. Ecology. Taxonomy of yeasts. Concept of species. Genetic isolation and identification of yeasts, and selection. Yeast metabolism. Influence of physicochemical and biological factors. 184.108.40.206. Alcoholic fermentation. Description of aerobic and anaerobic phenomena. Growth and fermentation. Biochemistry of fermentation. Fermentation balance. Bacteria. Lactic and acetic bacteria. Ecology. Taxonomy. Isolation and growth. Metabolism. Influence of environmental conditions. 220.127.116.11. Malolactic fermentation. Description of the phenomenon. Biochemistry of fermentation. Fermentation conditions. 1.2.3. Winemaking. 18.104.22.168. Red winemaking. Maceration phenomena: Different tank systems. Management of winemaking. Pumping-over. Aeration. Normal and abnormal conditions. Stuck fermentations. Action of bacteria. Temperature control. Running-off. Pressing. Free-run and press wine. Continuous winemaking. Winemaking using carbonic maceration. Winemaking using heat treatment of the harvest. Other processes. 22.214.171.124. White winemaking. Techniques for must extraction. Racking must. Inoculation. Management of fermentation. Temperature and aeration conditions. Production of dry wines. Skin maceration. Production of sweet wines and wines derived from overripe grapes with or without the action of Botrytis cinerea. 126.96.36.199. Rosé winemaking. Processed using partial bleeding by draining, whole-cluster pressing. 188.8.131.52. Winemaking using altered harvests. Different alterations (rot, hail, etc.). Appropriate remedial measures. 184.108.40.206. Special winemaking. Natural sweet wines and liqueur wines. Sparkling wines. Flor or film wines. Wines on lees. This chapter will be oriented towards the productions characteristic of the country in question. ll. - Composition and production of wine 2.1. Composition of wine. Alcohols, sugars, organic acids, mineral components, phenolic compounds, nitrogen compounds, neutral polysaccharides, volatile compounds, aromatic compounds, other compounds, etc. Comparison between the composition of must and that of wine. Relationship between composition and sensory characteristics. 2.2. Acidity and pH. State of acids in wine, acidimetric balances. 2.3. Oxidation-reduction phenomena. Oxidation-reduction systems in wine. Dissolution of oxygen in wines. Oxidisable substances in wine - oxidation mechanism of wine components. Application of the principle of oxidation-reduction potential in oenology. Determination of this potential. 2.4. Macromolecules and colloidal phenomena in wines. True solutions and the colloidal state. Stabilising factors for macromolecules and colloidal suspensions. Flocculation. Sedimentation. Adsorption. Concept of colloid protectors. Natural macromolecules in wine. Accidental formation of colloids in wines. 2.5. Precipitation of physicochemical origin in wines. Tartaric precipitation. Ferric precipitation. Chemical and physicochemical phenomena of "ferric casse". Influence of pH and organic acids. Formation of ferric complexes. Copper precipitation or "copper casse". Coagulation of proteins or "protein casse". Precipitation of colouring matter. Precipitation of oxidasic origin. Characteristics and prediction of haziness and deposits. 2.6. Microbial alterations. 2.6.1. Microbial alterations . 2.6.2. Alterations resulting from yeast, flowers. 220.127.116.11. Lactic bacteria. Degradation of pentoses. Degradation of citric acid. Degradation of tartaric acid: Tourne (bitter) disease. Degradation of glycerol: amertume (bitterness), "graisse" disease. 18.104.22.168. Acetic bacteria. Formation of acetic acid and ethylacetate. III. - Processing and treatment of wine 3.1. Knowledge and qualities of products used in oenology. International Oenological Codex of the OIV. International Code of Oenological Practices. 3.2. Hygiene. Hygiene of the premises, equipment and facilities. Wine hygiene. Prevention of microbial and physicochemical accidents. 3.3. Fining of wines. Theory of fining. Coagulation of proteins in wine. Physicochemical phenomena involved. Overfining. Fining practices and main fining agents used. Fining lees. 3.4. Filtration of wines. Theory of filtration. Filtration mechanisms: screening and adsorption. Forward and tangential flow. Output and clogging of filtering surfaces. Filter materials: cellulose, diatomaceous earth, perlite, membranes, etc. Filtration techniques. Choice of filtration process. Filterability tests. Comparison of the effects of fining and filtration. 3.5. Centrifugation of wines. Theory of centrifugation. Principle of materials. 3.6. Physical treatments. Biological stabilisation of wines using heat treatment: pasteurisation. Stabilisation and concentration using cold treatment. Various processes. 3.7. Physicochemical and chemical treatments. Theory and practice of treatments. Use of the products mentioned in the International Code of Oenological Practices of the OIV and products authorised for testing. Sulphuric acid in wines: role, states and techniques of use. Inert gases in oenology. 3.8. Preservation of wine. Handling. Preparation, Topping-Up. Racking. Preservation under an inert gas. 3.9. Ageing of wine. In wood. In the fermenting room. In the bottle and other techniques. 3.10. Packaging. Preparation. Technical monitoring of the wine (behaviour and filterability). Equipment, packaging processes and sealing methods. IV. - Oenological engineering 4.1. Importance of the mechanical equipment of viticultural industries. 4.2. Fluids. Heat transmission (conductivity, convection, radiation). Cold production (compressors, condensers and evaporators). Hydraulic elements. Flow in pipes (displacement pumps and centrifuges. Pressure and pressure losses). Flow of air. Ventilators and ventilation. Air conditioning. 4.3. Energy and motors. Electric current. Operation and protection of asynchronous motors. Electrical automatism. Safety rules. Combustion engines. Main types, possibilities for use, output, maintenance. 4.4. Materials. Wood, Cork, Glass, Steel, Concrete, Plastic materials. Mechanical properties, implementation, resistance to corrosion. Coating. Principles of resistance of materials and calculation of elements of machines and buildings. Protection against humidity, impermeability. Insulation and insulating materials. 4.5. Equipment. Piping, valves, heat exchangers. 4.6. Machines and apparatus. Harvests and their transport. Reception and quantitative and qualitative monitoring of harvests. Pre-fermentative treatment of harvests. Winemaking with maceration, in the liquid phase. Oenological practices (rousing, racking, treatments, concentration, clarification, etc.). Pressing. Preservation of wines packaged in bulk. Packaging lines. 4.7. Rational installation of viticultural facilities. V. - Analysis and monitoring of must and wine 5.1. Sensory analysis General presentation on tasting. The sense organs. Physiology of taste. Relationship between the composition of wines and their sensory characteristics. Tasting vocabulary. Knowledge and recognition of elementary flavours. Concepts of balance and harmony. Introduction to the tasting of wines, spirits and other products. Determination of thresholds of sensitivity and differentiation of smells. Detection of defects and alterations. Tasting of wines derived from various vine varieties, technologies and vineyards. Tasting jury. 5.2. Chemical analysis and monitoring. 5.2.1. Methods in analytical chemistry. 22.214.171.124. Treatments prior to analysis. Evaporation. Wet and dry mineralisation. Liquid-liquid, liquid-solid, gas-solid extractions. Distillation, steam distillation and rectification. Ion exchangers. Defecations. Filtration. Centrifugation, freeze-drying, dialysis, etc. 126.96.36.199. Separation and determination methods. Precipitation and gravimetric methods. Chromatography (paper, thin-layer, low-pressure, steam, high-performance liquid, etc.). 188.8.131.52. Analysis using chemical processes. Volumetric methods (acids, bases, oxidation-reduction). 184.108.40.206. Analysis using physical processes. Potentiometry (pH meter, potentiometric determination, specific potentiometry). Polarimetry. Refractometry. Colorimetry, turbidity, nephelometry. Spectophotometry (visible, UV, IR*, NMR*, MS*). Spectrofluorimetry*. Emission spectrophotometry (Flame photometry, plasma torch*, etc.). Atomic absorption (with and without a flame). Electrophoresis*, Isotachophoresis*. 220.127.116.11. Enzymatic analyses. 18.104.22.168. Automatic analyses. 5.2.2. Principles of methods of analysis of musts and wines. 22.214.171.124. Basic analyses and examinations. Volumetric mass and relative density. Total dry extract. pH, total acidity, volatile acidity. Alcoholic strength by volume. Reducing sugars. Free and total sulphur dioxide. Malic acid (Qualitative detection). Colour and clarity. Characterisation of haziness, deposits and alterations in wines. Tartaric deposits. Various casses. Nitrogen precipitation. Microbial alterations. Abnormal tastes brought by raw material(s) or during preservation. 126.96.36.199. Additional analyses and examinations. Main acids: tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, succinic*. Cations and mineral anions: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, leather, chlorides, sulphates, etc. Ashes and alkalinity of ashes. 1 Phenolic compounds and chromatic characteristics of wines. Carbon dioxide, glycerol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, ethylacetate. Determination of oxidasic activity (must). Permitted additives (sorbic acid, ascorbic acid, etc.). Biological detection of antiseptics. Detection of watering down, fortification, addition of glycerol, enrichment. Stability tests. 5.3. Microbiological analyses and monitoring. of raw materials. of fermentations. of preservation, ageing and packaging. Monitoring of hygiene in the winery. 5.4. Interpretation of results. VI. - Vine and wine products and other derived products 6.1. Table grapes and dried grapes. 6.2. Fortified musts, concentrated musts, rectified concentrated musts, grape juice. Stabilisation methods (preservation, packaging). 6.3. Grape-based beverages with a low alcoholic strength by volume or without alcohol. 6.4. Aromatised wines and other wine-based beverages. 6.5. Spirits. Wine spirits, brandies. Marc and lees spirits. Distillation and rectification processes. Composition, preservation and ageing of spirits. Commercialisation preparation. 6.6. Confectionary products. Jellies and preserves. Low-fat products. Production and preservation. 6.7. Wine vinegar. 6.8. Other derived products. Tartaric acid, seed oil, pomace wines, marc distillation, anthocyanin pigments, compost and other products, etc. 1 Techniques with an asterisk should be addressed at least in principle. 6.9. Analysis and monitoring of vine and wine products and other derived products. Interpretation of results. C. – ECONOMICS, MARKETING, ACCOUNTING, MANAGEMENT I. - Macroeconomics 1.1. Economic function. 1.2. Economic policy. 1.3. Economic systems and legal institutions. 1.4. Monetary systems. II. - Vitivinicultural economics at a national level 2.1. Supply. 2.2. Demand. 2.3. Prices. 2.4. Consequences (regulation, institution, exchanges, perspectives). III. - Vitivinicultural economics at an international level 3.1. Supply. 3.2. Demand. 3.3. Prices. 3.4. Consequences (regulation, institution, exchanges, perspectives). IV. - Marketing 4.1. Definition and Methodology (surveys, polls, studies). 4.2. The Marketing Mix (price, product, promotion, place of distribution). 4.3. Marketing and the export market. V. - Accounting, Management 5.1. Accounting and monitoring. 5.2. Management. 5.3. Financing and investment. 5.4. Information technology systems. D. - VITIVINICULTURAL LAW AND LEGISLATION 2 I. General regional, national and international aspects. II. Legislation relating to food products. Applications to products of viticultural origin as well as spirituous beverages. III. Employment law, economic law. Commercial law. Tax law. Expertise, etc. IV. Rights and obligations of oenologists. E. - WINE AND VINE PRODUCTS IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT I. Damage and environmental repercussions of cultivation practices, vine treatments, wine production and other discharges from vitivinicultural installations. II. Wine and Health. F. - FOREIGN LANGUAGES Continued practice of one or several foreign languages. SUPERVISED WORK Viticulture. Applied oenology and microbiology. Oenological engineering. Chemical and microbiological analysis and monitoring. Sensory analysis. PRACTICAL WORK IN THE FIELD AND IN THE LABORATORY Viticulture. Applied oenology. Sensory analysis. Chemical and microbiological analysis and monitoring. INTERNSHIP The obligatory practical internship, of a minimum duration of 4 months, should give students the opportunity to at least partially follow grape maturation, wine production, its analysis and the different stages preceding its commercialisation. An obligatory report of the internship should be written up, with its presentation being left to the initiative of each State. This internship is an integral part of the course but is not included in the number of hours. The organisation of the internship is also left to the initiative of each country. 2 This programme provides a general framework that each country may adapt to its particular case.