The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration in the context of the Humane Bogota Development Plan The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration in the context of the Humane Bogota Development Plan PLANNING SECRETARIAT OF THE CITY BOGOTÁ Bogotá D.C. www.sdp.gov.co Carolina Chica Builes – Coord. Sandra Milena Beltrán Gustavo Francisco Petro Urrego Mayor ofPatricia Bogotá Nella Chams Paula Guevara Gerardo Andrea Ignacio Ardila Calderón Planning Enrique Secretary of Bogotá Jorge Moreno Ana María Oliveros Octavio Fajardo Martínez Socioeconomic Planning Undersecretary of Bogotá Regional, National and International Integration Office Carolina Chica Builes Bogota Secretariat Director of Planning Regional, National and International Integration Office www.sdp.gov.org Work Team Regional, National and International Integration Office Sandra Milena Beltrán Díaz Jorge Enrique Moreno Muñoz Ana Maria Oliveros Rozo Nella Patricia Chams Sanmartín Paula Andrea Guevara Bogotá D.C, September 2014 As a description of the regional integration strategy of the Capital District, this document compiles aspects included in the Technical Supporting Documents of the District Development Plan "Bogotá Humana 2012 2016" and the Exceptional Modification to the Capital District Land Use Plan 2013. However, it also introduces the description of district actions in specific projects and incorporates new institutional considerations. 2 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration in the context of the Humane Bogota Development Plan1 INTRODUCTION This paper is about regional planning and integration of Bogota with its metropolitan and more extended region. In the first section, the document contextualizes the role played by the Capital City within the local and national scenario. It also presents a description of the main interdependence ties between Bogota and its neighbouring territories. Those elements explain the interest of the Capital District in defining a policy framework on which different territorial jurisdictions can build their initiatives around a region model in an independent but coordinated manner. The second section presents Bogota’s Regional Integration Strategy based on the idea of consolidating a network of cities under the concept of global city-region. This concept recognizes networks of cities as a system that generates competitive conditions. Two city planning instruments are presented as part of the mechanisms employed by the City’s Administration for the implementation of its regional integration strategy. On one hand, a long term planning instrument known as the Territorial Ordinance Plan, which has impact on land use configuration. On the other hand, a medium term planning instrument known as the Development Plan, which defines the socio-economic intervention strategy. As part of the regional integration strategy of the City of Bogota, planning instruments are combined with the creation of regional governance conditions. This is the last topic to be described in this article. Besides the institutional arrangements allowed by law, the Capital District has opted for the creation of flexible coordination mechanisms to deal with common problems and goals. Likewise, an agenda of regional interest projects is being defined and implemented by the administration in order to achieve short term results in aspects such as environment protection, mobility, urban planning, among others. This document synthesizes the strategic route designed by the Humane Bogota Government in its attempt to create conditions for a coordinated and a harmonized work amongst the City of Bogota and its surroundings. This intervention has the objective to reduce territorial inequalities, not only within the city but also in the region. The emphasis is to seek a convergence in terms of quality of life for the inhabitants of both Bogotá and the municipalities in the region. 1 This paper compiles aspects included in the Technical Supporting Documents of the District Development Plan Humane Bogota 2012 - 2016" and the Exceptional Modification to the Capital District Land Use Plan 2013. However, it also introduces the description of district actions in specific projects and incorporates new institutional considerations critical to the success of regional integration. The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration 3 THE ROLE OF BOGOTA WITHIN THE REGIONAL AND NATIONAL CONTEXT Bogota is not only the most important city in Colombia2, but has gained recognition as one of the most socially, economically and culturally dynamic cities in Latin America. With 7.6 million inhabitants, the Capital District gathers 16 per cent of the country's population. It is the most important productive platform in Colombia, generating 26 per cent of the national Gross Domestic Product, which makes its economy much larger than that of countries such as Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Similarly, due to its role as the political and administrative capital of Colombia, the specialized services it offers regionally and nationally, and its international projection, Bogota has been recognized as the structuring core of the network of cities that relate it to Cundinamarca and other important departments of the country's central region such as Boyacá, Meta and Tolima. As is the case with most Latin American capital cities, Bogota has experienced a quick urban transition with its highest peak during the 1960s. The result is not just the transformation of the urban-rural composition throughout the country but also the expansion of Bogota and its immediate metropolitan area. That metropolitan area is where it is possible to have a greater supply of land and housing with significantly lower costs than those found in the city. Both Bogota and its regional urban land have become thirty times larger in the last fifty years (Figure 1).3 Figure 1. Urban expansion process in Bogota and its metropolitan area Source: Planning Secretariat, Department of Cundinamarca (2009). In the process, in the absence of a metropolitan and regional integration model (due to institutional framework and political conditions that have historically hindered such 2 Despite its importance as a urban center, urban land only represents 25% of the entire territory of the City of Bogota. The remaining 75% is classified as rural and protection land as it has a major stake in the Paramo de Sumapaz. 3 As a reference, Bogota had a population of 325,650 inhabitants in 1938. By 1964, that population had increased to 1,697,311. In 1973 , the census recorded 2,855,065 inhabitants in the city and today the figure has increased to more than 7,600,000 people. 4 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration construction), urban growth has largely been chaotic and disorganized. The major characteristic of this growth is its failure to consolidate decentralized development and capture balanced regional development dynamics. Bogota, the core city, continues to strengthen its primacy while quality of life in the metropolitan region declines with distance from the core city. Consequently, Bogota has not reached regional convergence dynamics in economic development processes. The gaps between the core city and others that make up the urbanregional territory of Bogota-Cundinamarca-Central Region keeps widening. A recent analysis performed by Alfonso (2013) shows that the dynamics of the municipalities in the region are not ultimately converging (cite source, which recent analysis). As noted by this author, there is a "slowdown in the intra-metropolitan convergence of local public investment per capita, one of the main determinants of progress or setbacks in the living standards of the population (...) (as well as a) considerably slow pace at which other studied proxy measures of quality of life have been converging over the last 25 years."4 The primacy of Bogota has increased migration from municipalities in the metropolitan area to peripheral areas of the city. This has resulted not only in the generation of additional demands for the structure of basic public services in the city but also stresses the conurbation and suburbanization in the savannah, leading to increased pressure on rural land and urban sprawl containment areas on the borders of the city. This has intensified damage to the main ecological structure, leading to an increase in vulnerability to risk and climate change including the possibilities of life in the savannah territory (Figure 2). Figure 2. Conurbation phenomenon in the savannah of Bogota Source: Map projection 2007, Government of Cundinamarca, with information provided by municipalities and classified by the Government of Cundinamarca, District Planning Secretariat and UNCRD Bogota and its extended metropolitan region have close interdependence ties environmentally, economically, socially and culturally. To illustrate, environmentally, the city draws 75 per cent of its water from the Chingaza paramo system (located on the border between the departments of Cundinamarca and Meta), 22 per cent from Cundinamarca municipalities and 3 per cent from the Tunjuelo river basin. This system also helps supply water to an important area of the savannah of Bogota. But, it is being threatened by damage to 4 Secretaría Distrital de Planeación (2013). “Hacia un índice de convergencia de Bogotá con su área de influencia directa” [Towards an index of converge of Bogota and its area of direct influence], led by Oscar Alfonso Roa, Bogota D.C., p. 51. The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration 5 the fragile ecosystem that supports it and the climate variability associated with global warming. Food security is another central concept that expresses the economic interdependence between the urban and rural areas that make up the region. Bogota consumes 7,600 tons of food per day, including fruits, vegetables, grains and meat, 77 per cent of which is located within a 300 kilometer radius, mainly in Cundinamarca, Boyacá, Tolima and Meta. So, even as Bogota depends on food production and supply that occur outside its Capital District jurisdiction, the region depends on Bogota both for the market that the city represents and the food processing that takes place therein. In terms of mobility, the main roads that define the integration points of the Capital District nationally and regionally are those that have the greatest flow of vehicles carrying cargo and passengers (Figure 3). As these roads are saturated, they are generating pressures on the functional and service structure of the city. Thus, there are significant negative externalities such as increase in travel time, air pollution, accelerated wear of road network and deterioration of the population's quality of life, all of which are negatively impacting the competitiveness of both the city and its region. Figure 3. Traffic distribution system for trucks entering and leaving Bogota Access Daily flow entering Bogota Daily flow leaving Bogota Source: SDP (District Planning Secretariat). Macro-modeling for freight vehicles based on the "Study to determine the Cargo Origin/Destination matrix and implementation of actions to regulate the internal cargo in the city," conducted by Steer Davies Gleave in 2010 (Contracted by the District Department of Transportation). The urban and peri-urban areas situated along major freight routes (Calle 13, South (Soacha), Funza-Cota and Autopista Norte) have emerged as location axes for new nodes of industrial activity in the region around Bogota (Figure 4). There is, however, segmentation between the so-called "heavy industry" located in the region and "light industry" within the city. If consolidated, this could make for productive complementarities5 that would lead to the strengthening of the regional economic platform. 5 Secretaría Distrital de Planeación - UNCRD (2011). Lineamientos para una política de adaptación a la evolución de los asentamientos productivos en la estructura metropolitana y regional Bogotá – Sabana [Guidelines for a policy of adaptation to the evolution of productive settlements in the metropolitan and regional structure Bogota – Savannah], p. 15. 6 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration Figure 4. Industry creation dynamics 2000 - 2010 Industries 2000 Industries 2010 New axes Source: District Planning Secretariat - UNCRD (2011). Guidelines for a policy of adaptation to the evolution of productive settlements in the metropolitan and regional structure Bogota Savannah, p. 14. The consolidation of a territory capable of generating convergence dynamics in economic and social development requires the design of a land use model that addresses, from a regional perspective, the configuration of environmental components, basic infrastructure, economic and industrial locations, and human settlements as part of a regional strategic system. This explains the interest of the Capital District in defining a policy framework on which different territorial jurisdictions can build their initiatives around a region model in an independent but coordinated manner. The approach to address such regional integration and the actions that have been taken to implement it are examined in the next section. THE REGIONAL INTEGRATION INITIATIVE OF THE CAPITAL DISTRICT The Capital District has proposed the idea of consolidating a network of cities based on the conceptual category of a global city-region, which is "understood as a space of variable area that integrates several territories sharing geographical proximity and developing cooperative relations."6 This concept recognizes networks of cities as a system that generates competitive conditions even beyond the metropolitan area. This system is dynamic. It is constantly redefined. It is based on an institutional architecture that allows it to create a regional governance framework.7 6 7 Ibid, p. 26. Ibid. p. 26. Refer to Scott (1998), Hall (1996), Sassen (1991) and Keating (1998) for the approaches mentioned. The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration 7 As Boisier8 suggests, a region is a complex and interactive structure of multiple boundaries that exceeds the notion of contiguity. Every region establishes alliances to achieve certain goals within certain timeframes in order to position itself in the international context9. In other words, regions are not predetermined facts, related to natural, social and cultural conditions, but constructions arising from strategic agreements of territories, which functional relationships are magnified and affect different areas and levels, ranging from local to international. Thus, strategic planning processes with a regional perspective have been gaining strength as it has been shown that disparities in the regions' levels of development diminish the competitiveness and quality of life of their inhabitants. In this regard, for purposes of development planning, the Colombian legal framework provides for the use of different instruments of public policy that vary in both the emphasis of their actions and in their short-, medium- and long-term visions. For this paper, it is worth mentioning that the regional integration vision of the Capital District is included in two basic instruments that convey the strategy for territorial and socio-economic development in the medium- and long-term. They are: i) the Territorial Ordinance Plan (POT in Spanish), and ii) the District Development Plan (PDD in Spanish).10 The Regional Integration Strategy Contained in the Territorial Ordinance Plan (POT in Spanish): The POT is a key element of long-term planning that is valid for three terms of office (12 years). Through the Territorial Ordinance Plan, the city defines land use and actions of public infrastructure and rural-urban transformation that should be incorporated in the instruments of short- and medium-term socio-economic planning, i.e. frames spatial actions of socioeconomic policy. This is done by establishing the conditions under which housing as well as productive, cultural and recreational activities can be located. It also defines the collection of charges on the construction activity and sets policies and incentives to contain segregation phenomena. The first POT of Bogota was decreed in 2001 with the idea of consolidating a dense and compact city model. Its emphasis was largely urban though with two big omissions: i) it failed to develop a framework for actions in the rural area that represents 75 per cent of the district territory; and ii) it did not include an initiative for city development within a regional and international context in an increasingly globalized world. In order to overcome this second omission, the POT was modified in 2003 to define an open and decentralized land use model based on the recognition of a regional structure in which the Capital District organizes its actions according to its close ties of interdependence with neighbouring territories. This model proposed the strengthening of a network of cities with a vision of sustainable regional development in the economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects, based on productive vocations, potentials and complementarities of 9 Boisier Sergio. La gestión de las regiones en el nuevo orden internacional: cuasi-estados y cuasi-empresas [Regional management in the new international order: quasi-states and quasi-companies]. 1992. 10 The Colombian legal framework creates a complex web of planning instruments not only in areas related to socio- economic development but also in financial matters and those concerning actions on urban and rural land. Some of these instruments pose the need for coordination among the local, departmental (regional) and national levels. It is a complex and fragmented planning scheme with overlapped planning schedules. 8 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration the territory. This perspective recognizes that failure to plan regional development could lead to the depletion of resources, and thus to environmental impoverishment.11 Aside from decentralization of development dynamics, the city-region model adopted by the Capital District in 2003 also proposed to stop conurbation processes by: • controlling urban sprawl; • preserving the environment and its ecosystem services; • expanding and improving the provision of road infrastructure and regional connection equipment; • creating conditions for achieving public and human security; and • ensuring adequate supply of food and raw materials for the city. All this is to be supported by a coordination scheme between district planning and the regional planning system. It also set a general framework for district actions in the construction of a Bogota-Cundinamarca regional initiative. It defined areas of strategic action to build regional integration agendas with the nation, departments and municipalities within its regional setting. Nearly a decade after adopting the land use model with a regional focus, it is possible to list some advances in the realization of memoranda of understanding and cooperation agreements that allowed common challenges to be addressed through specific investment or technical cooperation projects. As illustrated in table 1, main achievements are referred to general coordination aspects on the short run rather than a bounding regional action plan. Table 1. Mechanisms used for addressing regional matters Scenario Bogota-Cundinamarca Regional Planning Committee Food security cooperation agreements with the governments of Cundinamarca, Boyaca, Tolima and Meta Achievements • Preparation of regional studies on economy, demography and environment. • Design of different scenarios of regional occupation models. • Definition of regional scope projects. • Support to small size food production farmers. • Implementation of Bogota’s Food Security Master Plan. Capital Region Agreement with the government of Cundinamarca • Design of a regional integration agenda with the department of Cundinamarca. • First attempt to create an Administrative Planning Region. Thematic coordination working tables with the neighbouring municipalities • Definition of a common agenda regarding citizen’s security. • Difinition a common agenda regardin connecting roads and infrastructures. • Definition of a common agenda regarding rural and urban borders management. 11 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Secretaría Distrital de Planeación. Inter-administrative agreement 458 of 2008. Decentralized model review. Product 8. July 19th, 2009. Product: Bogotá: ¿es posible un modelo regional desconcentrado? [Is a decentralized regional model possible?], Bogotá D.C. The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration 9 Still, the model has failed to implement an integrating strategy for long-term regional development that is binding for the territorial authorities in the regional setting. It failed to exploit the potential of regional integration. Although the land use plan of the Capital District had explicitly proposed the initiative for setting up a regional model system, it was at best only a framework of reference for the neighbouring territories and could not be determinant for territorial decisions at the regional level. By 2013, under the administration of "Bogotá Humana 2012-2016" and by exceptional modification to the POT (Decree 364/2013), the land use model of 2003 was updated and strengthened by including the regional component in all its chapters. The institutional framework required to ensure the exercise of governance at the different governmental levels that make up the region was strengthened. Strategic instruments of planning and management were incorporated to ensure that decisions on land use in the Capital District and the region are taken in concert with the agents involved in the economic, social and territorial planning of the region and that territorial autonomy are duly respected. Two instruments are worth noting: i) The Regional Integration Programme; and ii) Management and Ordinance Plans Associated to Regional Territory (PGOR in Spanish). The Regional Integration Programme aims to "facilitate, strengthen and realize the development of regional integration policies and strategies of the Capital District in the fields of planning and management of land use (...) from a perspective that associates and binds territorial entities of the region."12 This programme is developed through three subprogrammes: i) Coordinated regional land use planning; ii) Adoption of land use institutional entities for regional planning) and iii) Associated management of regional initiatives and projects. It is important to highlight that the subprogramme "Adoption of land use institutional entities for regional planning" favours structuring and institutionalization of territorial planning partnerships outlined in the Colombian legal framework (e.g. the Metropolitan Area, the Special Administrative and Planning Region and the Territorial Integration Committee). The PGORs aim at "coordinating urban-regional development policies in geographic areas beyond the jurisdiction of the Capital District through the adoption of mechanisms such as territorial models, land occupation guidelines, region-wide strategic projects or regional schemes for the provision of public services."13 Short after its adoption, Decree 364/2013 was temporarily suspended and none of these regional integration instruments have been developed. Given this situation, Bogota’s administration opted for the use of regional coordination arrangements allowed by national laws. This option has either reduced binding level or complicated constitution procedures that slow any regional integration activity. The Regional Integration Vision Established in the Humane Bogota District’s Development Plan 2012 – 2016: 12 Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá, Decreto 364 del 26 de agosto de 2014 “Por el cual se modifican excepcionalmente las normas urbanísticas del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial de Bogotá D.C., adoptado mediante Decreto Distrital 619 de 200, revisado por el Decreto Distrital 469 de 2003 y compilado por el Decreto Distrital 190 de 2004” [Decree 364/2014 – Territorial Ordinance Plan], (Secretaría Distrital de Planeación, Bogotá D.C.: 2014), Art. 543, p. 449. 13 Ibid. Art. 545, p. 451. 10 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration In contrast, the District Development Plan (PDD) includes economic and social development policies for one term of office. It is, therefore, a medium-term instrument governing for four years. The PDD should consider the structural lines of action included in the current POTs and it is formulated in terms of a government political proposal. The PDD contains a supra-territorial approach to establish harmonious relations with the region. This approach would need to deal with the impact of the socio-economic dynamics of the District on their immediate surroundings. This includes issues relating to urbanization, land use, management and conservation of the environment, segregation pattern and mobility. Accordingly, the Bogota Humana PDD included the regional vision as a transverse component of its strategic focus. This vision states that Bogota has a functional strong interdependency with its surroundings in terms of water supply, food supply, and labour and real estate markets, amongst others. It also states that all regional interventions must procure the reduction of development gaps between the main city and its neighbouring municipalities. Thus, eight of the 33 programmes that are part of the PDD have a regional scope. These programmes describe the main actitives that are subject of intervention and investment during the PDD implementation (table 2). In terms of regional integration, such programmes revolve around sectoral actions aimed mainly at issues related to environmental sustainability, food security and sovereignty, connectivity infrastructure, economic development, and mutual technical cooperation. Table 2. Humane Bogota Development Plan Structure (2012 – 2016) (Regional scope projects are highlighted) PDD Focus 1. A city that overcomes segregation and discrimination: the human being at the centre of development concerns This axis gives priority to early childhood, reduction of inequality and improvement of the quality of life of the population. 2. A territory facing climate change and organized around water This axis considers water as an Programmes Early childhood comprehensive development Healthy territories and health care system Knowledge building, inclusive and diverse education under quality conditions Equal opportunities and gender equality for women Fight against discrimination and violence Support to victims’ dignity Human rights promotion Support to cultural and sports practices Food security and sovereignty (regional scope) Humane rural life Science, Technology and Innovation for development (regional scope) Support to popular economy, entrepreneurship and productivity (regional scope) Decent and dignified work Improvement of quality and coverage of public services Humane housing and habitats Extended downtown revitalization Main ecological structure rehabilitation (regional scope) Addressing climate change (regional scope) Humane mobility (regional scope) The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration PDD Focus 11 Programmes organizing element of the territory Risk management comprehensive strategy and the environment as an essential component of development. It also Zero-waste programme promotes the integration of the City with its metropolitan and extended Environmentally friendly city region. Bogota, a territory in the region (regional scope) A city that participates and decides (regional scope) 3. Defence and strengthening of the public sector Management and coordination capacities strengthening at the city’s central level of government and local districts Effective and inclusive transparency, fight against corruption and social control Territories of life and peace for crime prevention Citizen’ security strengthening This axis realizes the proposal of the government program to fight Bogota: a City of memory, peace and reconciliation against corruption. It also expresses its commitment towards restoring Public health rights protection trust between citizens and public institutions. Administrative function and institutional development strengthening ICT for Digital Government, Smart City, Knowledge sSciety and Entrepreneurship International Humane Bogota Source: http://www.bogotahumana.gov.co/index.php/noticias/comunicados-de-prensa/1147-plan-dedesarrollo-bogota-humana Bogota’s PDD Focus 2 (A territory facing climate change and organized around water) has the objectives of: "To consolidate the regional integration of Bogotá with the region. To adopt agreed-upon planning actions that ensure respect for and protection of existing social and environmental structures at the regional level, and favouring convergence in terms of quality of life for all inhabitants of the region”14. This focus also includes the programme "Bogotá, a Territory in the Region" that aims to "improve the capacity of the city to address supramunicipal issues and recognize and mitigate their impacts on the region through institutional and socio-economic strategies with the strengthening and harmonization of mechanisms for planning, management, and building reciprocity and co-responsibility relationships with the region, enhanced by the coordinated management of royalty funds." The priority projects of this programme are: i) Institutionalization of Regional Integration; ii) Coordination of Regional Development; and iii) Regional Cooperation. Based on its PDD 2012-2016, Bogota has launched a clear initiative to reduce territorial inequalities, not only within the city but also in the region. The emphasis is to seek a convergence in terms of quality of life for the inhabitants of both Bogota and the municipalities in the region. The bridging of interregional gaps depends on both political and planning commitments to boosting systemic competitiveness of the regional territory, where 14 Humane Bogota Development Plan 2012-2016, Part I Chapter 3 Art. 24 (7), Art. 25 (2 and 4). P. 185. 12 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration all economic sectors (traditional and non-traditional) have the potential to generate a sustainable standard of living for people in the region. The Multi-scale Regional Integration Approach of the Capital District: In its PDD, Bogotá is projected as an environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive city that is recognized as part of a regional structure having strong interdependence relations with its territories (figure 5). As mentioned above, the current exceptional modification to the POT reaffirms its commitment to the consolidation of an open and decentralized model of land use. The purpose is not only to achieve a functional network of cities complimentary to the supply of goods and services in the Capital District, but also to integrate the regional core they are part of to both the system of the major cities of the country and the road, railway, port and airport infrastructure that connect it with international markets (figure 6). Figure 5. Multi-scale approach to regional integration Figure 6. Bogota in the context of the Regional Network of Cities Source: District Planning Secretariat (2012-2013) - Regional, National and International Integration Office In order to advance the regional planning process and achieve concrete results in the shortand medium-term, certain progressive territorial scopes were proposed to address the various problems arising from the interaction of the Capital District with the region. Three scales of joint planning for the integration of Bogotá to its neighbouring territories, characterized by functional two-way relationships, are identified: • Border Scale: The links between Bogotá and its immediate surroundings are associated with the pressure exerted by the core on adjacent municipalities. They include, but are not limited to, issues related to the harmonization of zoning instruments, land use, mobility, utilities and main ecological structure. On the border scale, there is a need to distinguish The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration 13 between urban border and metropolitan-relationship municipalities, and rural border municipalities. • Subregional Scale: This corresponds to the territory covered by the Department of Cundinamarca and its municipalities, which play a supportive role in environmental, socio-economic, functional and service structures. The relationship of the District with this territory is based on the location of industry, logistics equipment, food supplies and raw materials. On this territorial scale, the focus is on better use of existing advantages and factors of competitiveness to achieve substantial improvements in quality of life and human development and to reach a better international position in a context characterized by the progressive positioning of such regions as first-order stakeholders in the achievement of growth and productivity. • Regional Scale: This territory comprises Bogota and the Departments of Cundinamarca, Boyacá, Tolima and Meta and their respective municipalities. It encloses a vision of longterm regional development based on the complementarities of climate, soils and potentialities of its territories. Bogotá, with an economy based on service provision, is integrated to a region engaged in agribusiness, trade and mining. On each of the scales, actions are being taken to further the consolidation of an institutional framework that allows planning of regional development in the short-, medium-- and long term. Some of these actions include, but are not limited to, management of land use administrative entities; consolidation of coordination spaces and management of project with regional scope; execution of agreements with neighbouring territories; conservation, restoration and sustainable use of regional natural resources and the environment; improvement in the provision of public services; food security, etc. TOWARDS THE CREATION OF CONDITIONS FOR REGIONAL GOVERNANCE The governance of regional arrangements is one of the issues that have attracted the attention of scholars of modern institutions. Oscar Alfonso (2014) made a compilation of sound academic articles which unveil the obstacles and political conflicts behind an institutional architecture that fits the purpose of regional and metropolitan management. The pattern that seems to prevail is that regional government schemes are closer to non-formal arrangements rather than to clearly defined institutional structures. This is the case of Bogota and its region. Colombian legal framework allows the creation of administrative entities at the regional and metropolitan levels. However, those regional figures need to fulfil a list of complex requisites to be developed, which are time consuming and tend to exceed a single period of government. Given this situation, the Capital District has advanced on regional integration through the development of non-formal coordination scenarios that allow reducing reluctance toward the construction of a common agenda. This section describes the mechanisms employed by the City of Bogota in its attempt to achieve regional goals. On the one hand, presents the institutional initiative to develop some of the institutional settings allowed by the legal framework through the creation of an Administrative Region and a Metropolitan Area. On the other, explores flexible coordination 14 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative to regional integration scenarios, such as thematic committees and specific agreements in order to deal with short term issues. As part of its strategy, the City of Bogota is also financing large scale regional integration projects with its neighbouring municipalities and departments. As previously illustrated, Bogota has strong reasons to demand actions agreed upon with other territories around a development model. Therefore, to overcome all the difficulties to manage forms of association included in the regulatory framework, the Capital District has chosen to work on a strategy of rapprochement with departmental governments of neighbouring territories and municipalities in its area of direct influence. This strategy had its origin in 2001 with the creation of the Bogota-Cundinamarca Regional Planning Committee, which Technical Secretariat was held by the United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD). In this scenario, the City’s administration sought to create a work space that succeeds in generating trust and a favourable environment for regional policy coordination between the government of the Department of Cundinamarca, the Regional Environmental Authority (CAR in Spanish) and the Capital District. The Regional Planning Committee also managed to convene stakeholders from private sector, academia and civil society. It raised the visibility and importance of regional issues, which led to the creation of new spaces of inter-institutional agreement such as the Regional Competitiveness Commission (involving the Chambers of Commerce in the region and the academia). In addition, it rose funding for studies that became the basis of regional policies and projects that were formulated throughout the 2000s. These studies had spawned the regional integration approach that was introduced in the modification to the Bogota Territorial Ordinance Plan 2003. Since then, the United Nations Centre for Regional Development has supported the Capital District in the adoption of a strategy that seeks to combine the development of land use institutional entities recognized by legal provisions, using less formal (or alternate) institutional coordination scenarios. The following are the most recent actions taken by the Bogotá Humana government in this regard: Development of land use institutional entities: The creation of regional schemes for coordinating regional development has been the focus of effort since the early 2000s but without achieving any results so far. However, since 2011, there has been a change in the national policy to strengthen territorial association schemes, which include a new Organic Law on Land Use and a new royalty distribution based on regional criteria. In this context, there has been a renewed interest in creating regional government structures such as: a. Creation of an Special Administrative and Planning Region in the Central Region (figure 7): The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration 15 Figure 7. Central Region Territory Source: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, cited in: Technical Supporting Document of the Special Administrative and Planning Region - Central Region (2014). Administrative and Planning Regions are associative systems formed by departments. However, the Capital District may belong to them since it has a special jurisdiction that allows it to be a municipality and a department at the same time. Its role revolves around planning common matters at the departmental level, associated with economic and social development and environmental sustainability of its territories. The first attempt to establish a Special Administrative and Planning Region was in 2011 with the initiative of a region of this nature between the Capital District and the Department of Cundinamarca, which was named Bogotá-Cundinamarca Capital Region at the time. This proposal was dismissed by the Departmental Assembly and the District Council because it was submitted at the end of the administrations ruling at that time. With the start of the Humane Bogota Development Plan, the idea of a regional planning platform did not only focus on the Department of Cundinamarca, but sought to include departmental partners historically closer to the Capital District known as the "Central Region." For this reason, the District administration has been working in tandem with the neighbouring departments of Cundinamarca, Boyacá, Meta and Tolima in the process of building this form of association. The objective is "to integrate and consolidate, from a regional perspective, a peaceful territory culturally diverse and globally competitive and innovative with social, economic and environmental balance."15 This is an administrative entity intended to be permanent. The purpose is to bring together territorial agencies at department level around the following central concepts defined by its partners such as: • • • • • 15 Ecosystem sustainability and risk management; Transportation, logistics and utilities infrastructure; Competitiveness and international scope; Food security and rural economy; Governance and good governance. Central Region Declaration of Interest. Bogota D.C. January 27th, 2014. Document signed by the Mayor of Bogota and the Governors of Cundinamarca, Boyaca, Tolima and Meta. 16 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative to regional integration On September 25th 2014, the first Special Administrative and Planning Region in the country was created with the signing of an administrative agreement. To reach this point, the Land Use Commission of the Senate provided a favourable prior opinion about its formation (a non-binding opinion). Likewise, the initiative was successfully submitted to all Central Region public corporations which provide the authorization for its creation (Departmental Assemblies and District Council). b. Creation of the Metropolitan Area Bogota - Soacha: The metropolitan area of the Capital District is arguably the most important in Colombia in terms of economy and population. Yet, unlike other formally constituted metropolitan areas in the country, there is no institutional arrangement for the Capital District and the metropolitan municipalities. The reasons have been eminently political. The profound asymmetries between Bogota and neighbouring territories in terms of population and income tend to be associated with loss of autonomy by the latter in the event that a metropolitan entity is established. This has resulted in enormous costs for the region as urban growth, industrial location, traffic and transportation management, public service provision and ecological structure intervention have been carried out without metropolitan criteria, generating notorious diseconomies of scale. The first attempt to establish a metropolitan area between Bogota and some municipalities of the savannah took place in early 2000s. However, political conflicts between them and the District ended up in the dismissal of the initiative. The implementation of the Humane Bogota Development Plan in 2012 renewed the interest in a metropolitan dialogue. The district administration started to engage in the task of finding municipal partners who would form this sub-regional government entity. Only the municipality of Soacha, being the most sensitive territory in terms of its close functional relationships with Bogota (shares the most important urban border with Bogota), expressed interest in the creation of a Metropolitan Area. The procedure was started in 2012 as provided by regulations valid at that time16. For this purpose, a technical team formed by professionals from both administrations was constituted to lead the discussions and to coordinate technical and legal aspects for the creation of this Metropolitan Area. In December of the same year, the project team managed to file the agreed-upon initiative with the National Civil Registry in order to request the date for the referendum in both territories that would authorize the creation of this entity. Notwithstanding, the Registry delayed the setting of the date of the referendum and, on April 29th, 2013, a new law on metropolitan areas was passed.17 Article 1, Paragraph 1 of this new law provides that it does not apply to the case of Bogota and its neighbouring municipalities, which will have a special law (not issued yet). The electoral authority stated its opinion in this regard and declared that setting a date for the referendum is not applicable given the new regulatory framework. Hence, the incorporation process was suspended. Despite the aforementioned turn of events, the Capital District maintains its interest to move towards the construction of a metropolitan government arrangement and is currently working on the recommendations for a Special Law that would allow it to overcome the limits imposed by the same legislation. 16 17 Law 128 of 1994 "Whereby the Organic Law on Metropolitan Areas is issued." Law 1625 of 2013 "Whereby Law 128 of 1994 is repealed and the regime for Metropolitan Areas is issued". The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration 17 Alternate scenarios of institutional coordination and management of regional projects The problems of metropolitan development in the savannah of Bogota in terms of mobility, public services delivery, environmental assets protection, citizen security, among others, have focused attention on the search for coordination mechanisms. Overcoming these difficulties requires a "regional governance" scheme to facilitate the action of public and private stakeholders around a common initiative for territorial development. Given the limited scope of action from the point of view of formal institutional settings such as the creation of a Metropolitan Area, the City of Bogota has supported the establishment of less formal regional coordination mechanisms and the introduction of timely and specific actions in the territory through the implementation of concrete regional projects. Such action would reduce the stress of issues related to local autonomy and present facts that reflect a real desire to solve shared problems jointly. These alternative scenarios are presented below: Regional coordination committees: These are specialized dialogue spaces where stakeholders are convened depending on the specific issues to be addressed. Some of the most developed are: i) ii) iii) Border Committees: involves mayors, office secretaries (planning, environment, government, economic development, etc.), representatives and police authorities. It has covered topics such as coexistence, public security and land use. Regional Technical Committee: This is a space provided by UNCRD to address issues related to regional land use and involves the Government of Cundinamarca, the Capital District and the Regional Environmental Authority (CAR in Spanish). Territory and Water Committee: involves the Capital District, the Government of Cundinamarca, the Regional Environmental Authority (CAR) and two municipalities representing local governments. This committee renegotiates agreements between the Bogota Water Company and neighbouring municipalities for large-volume water supply and has been working on the definition of a water use strategy based on sustainability criteria and balance of water sources in the region. General agreements for regional integration of Bogota to neighbouring territories: In order to enable a legal instrument that allows project development and complementary investments with its territorial counterparts, the district administration has bilaterally executed a series of general agreements for regional integration with the departments of Cundinamarca, Boyacá, Meta, and the municipality of Soacha, based on the identification of consensus foci contained in their respective development plans: • • • • • • • • • Regional institutionality, Planning and land use, Environmental sustainability and climate change, Food security and sovereignty, Regional information management, Transportation and mobility, Public security and coexistence, Institutional cooperation for the design of public policies, Peace building and victim care, 18 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative to regional integration • • Economic development and competitiveness, and Regional logistics and equipment. Under these framework agreements, the city of Bogota has progressed in the procedure of the Special Administrative and Planning Region of the Central Region Planning and in the implementation of specific projects in each of the priority foci. Regional project management: Initiatives such as the Bogota - Cundinamarca Regional Planning Committee (2001-2007), the agreement of the Central Region (2004) and the agreement for establishing the Bogota - Cundinamarca Capital Region (2008), allowed the identification of an agenda of territorial integration and development dynamics coordination. They included projects of road infrastructure and regional equipment to economic development initiatives aiming at a successful integration of the region into the global dynamics. From these inputs and in compliance with the goals defined in the seven regional programmes included in the Humane Bogota Development Plan, the Capital District has allocated resources to the implementation of projects aimed primarily at expanding access of citizens to public services and increasing the competitiveness of the region and Bogota. The current administration has executed about 25 regional projects addressing mainly the issues of urban environment and utilities; environmental and territorial planning; transportation and mobility; economic development and competitiveness; information systems for the region; and food security and sovereignty. The main actions are described below: • Conservation, restoration and sustainable use of regional natural resources: Recovery and hydraulic adaptation of the Bogota river and restoration of wetlands and water bodies are one of the flagship areas of work in this matter. The project: "Conservation, restoration and sustainable use of ecosystem services of the territory located within the paramos of Guacheneque, Guerrero, Chingaza, Sumapaz, the Cerros Orientales of Bogota and its area of influence" has become a milestone of interinstitutional and inter-territorial coordination for shared management of environmental issues. This project not only involves an important amount of financial funds (about 50 million dollars), but also it is a work initiative among 13 municipalities. Additionally, with the adoption of the exceptional modification to Bogota's POT, decisions were made for targeting pressure containment of urban sprawl, protection of rural borders and areas of risk, protection and recovery of the regional connectivity elements of the Main Ecological Structure, which affect the integration into the regional setting of the Capital District. As for the definition of regional scale environmental planning, it is possible to find: i) the formulation of the Guidelines for Environmental Policy of Central Region (2008) that includes the regional ecological vision to 2050; ii) the implementation of the Comprehensive Regional Plan for Climate Change in the Capital Region, which is one of the world pilot models promoted by the United Nations to strengthen the capacity of regional governments to establish resilient territories capable of facing climate change; and, iii) the Regional Water Assessment aimed at conducting an integrated analysis of supply, demand, quality and risks associated with water resources in the region. • Smart mobility: Road and transportation connectivity is one of the main focus of regional integration. The City has advanced in the expansion of Transmilenio Bus system The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration 19 (BTR) to the neighbouring municipality of Soacha. Likewise, the Capital District invested about USD $1.5 million in the acquisition of 50 per cent of the Regional Railway Company (December 2013) from the Government of Cundinamarca. This stock transformation led to the first regional company. The company is currently studying various Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) proposals for the restoration of railroad tracks shared by Bogota and Cundinamarca. It is expected that the first PPP would be approved in the second half of 2014 to implement the West Savannah Light Rail. • Provision of public services: In terms of regional actions, the Capital District has worked permanently in the adaptation of its water supply network to ensure water supply for its jurisdiction and the metropolitan area (about 10 municipalities in the urban border). Warnings about the vulnerability of this territory to climate change and risk management, as well as the need to establish a strategy for the comprehensive management of solid waste on a regional scale, have brought up the debate on the coordination of savannah land use and the protection of its environmental heritage. For this reason, the need to develop a genuine process of harmonization of land use planning instruments has become crucial for ensuring the sustainability of the main urban agglomeration in the country. • Information systems for the region: This is one of the topics that has fallen behind in the regional integration agenda since the information gap between Bogota and surrounding municipalities is significant. However, in December 2013, the implementation of another major regional project of the Capital District was started. This is the "Analysis and management system of socio-economic and spatial information of Bogota and the region". Its investment amounts to 16 million dollars funded by the General System of Royalties of the Capital District and covers 33 municipalities (including Bogota). This project constitutes an important work scenario for the generation of information on quality of life, productive system and real estate market at the regional level that will guide coordinated decision-making and monitor the impact of regional public policies. • Actions to ensure food security: Since 2008, the Capital District and the other departments like Boyacá, Meta and Tolima have joined forces for the comprehensive development of their food and nutrition security strategies. Such actions have yet to be integrated into the logistics strategy, the mobility and connectivity scheme, as well as the regional competitiveness initiative. However, in order to strengthen peasant producers in the region, the Capital District has invested about $3 million in stock in 2013 to promote corporatization and identify appropriate marketing channels. Likewise, funded by the General System of Royalties ($25 million), the Capital District and the Government of Cundinamarca work together in the development of new technologies applied to the agricultural production of the region. Food security and supply is one of the most sensitive issues of regional integration since it is associated with strategies to improve the quality of life in rural areas and consolidate post-conflict in the context of peace negotiations. After this review, it is possible to conclude that given the difficulties to create formal institutions for regional integration, the City of Bogota has focused its attention on a pragmatic strategy allowing alternative governance conditions. Implementation of specific projects and establishment of non-formal coordination scenarios have shown its effectiveness in terms of reducing mistrust towards the Capital District. Although effective, it is clear that this is a short term strategy that must be combined with the introduction of long term and more stable institutions such as those conceived in the national laws. 20 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative to regional integration FINAL REMARKS Bogota is aware that its sustainability lies in its capacity to create development balances between the City and its regional partners. In this regard, the regional occupation model purpose is to foster regional deconcentration in terms of population and economic activities, using the consolidation of a sub-regional network of centralities characterized by a group of compact cities and a balanced distribution of regional infrastructures as a strategy. In doing so, the new land use reinforces tools to link the City planning system with a Regional Planning System, as well as regulation to control urban sprawl processes between Bogota and its surroundings. For the Capital District, the path towards regional integration has not been easy. Administrative decisions from the national government that led to the annexation of six municipalities surrounding its city limits18 in 1954 are recurrently mentioned by local stakeholders to indicate that they distrust Bogota as a partner that ensures respect for equality and territorial autonomy. Likewise, for a long time, Bogota has exported negative development effects without assuming the associated costs demanded by its neighbouring municipalities. These have caused great difficulties when proposing the development of institutional entities that allow a stable, formal government scheme on the metropolitan territory, thus hindering coordination of urban and urban-rural development. The programmatic plan "Humane Bogota" has sought to address the traditional prejudices that are attributed to the Capital District. Likewise, it has taken on the challenge of giving financial muscle to specific projects of regional integration that even propose compensation schemes for those territories that are suppliers of strategic goods and services (environmental such as water, landscape and food) to the main urban centre. In this way, the City seeks to overcome the hurdle of land use administrative entities through the implementation of investment projects that demonstrate with actions commitment to the development of a region understood as a network of cities and rural areas that are functionally complementary. As for the regional integration strategy, it is important to emphasize that the Capital District recognizes multiple territorial scales. The region, as a planning scale, is not defined by a single geographical criterion but its size varies depending on the problems to be addressed. For this reason, the Exceptional Modification to the Territorial Ordinance Plan recognizes a border scale where the problems to deal with revolve around everyday passenger transportation, traffic, public safety, utilities and issues inherent in urban expansion. On the other hand, it also recognizes a subregional scale with the department of Cundinamarca which problems arise from regional connectivity, productive specialization and interventions on shared ecological structure. Finally, it considers a regional scale, at the level of the Central Region of the country, that seeks to coordinate an integration model with four departments in order to have a distinctive development proposal in relation to other regions with which it competes nationally and internationally. 18 The municipalities attached (Fontibon, Bosa, Usme, Suba, Usaquen and Engativa) were merged in the administrative structure of Bogota and became localities of the District (i.e., they are no longer territorial entities with political and administrative autonomy). The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative of regional integration 21 Based on these scales, the Capital District is also committed in the long run to replacing flexible and slightly binding integration mechanisms (such as technical committees with neighbouring territories) with administrative entities such as the Metropolitan Area and the Special Administrative and Planning Region. In short, Bogota proposes to move towards a system of territorial governance capable of creating conditions for human development within the main urban centre and radiating conditions of well-being along the network of territories that make up the different regional scales (a convergence proposal). Therefore, in a reality that recognizes global phenomena such as climate change, ecosystem connectivity or the market itself, the only possible strategy is to address the development as part of a complementary network which survival depends on its coordination. Bogota has taken a decisive and firm step in the right direction to coordinate strategic issues with its region. As a lesson learned, it is possible to mention that, regardless the regional scope for dealing with, the creation of sound governance conditions is close related to a clear agenda of specific issues. The existence of a legal framework favourable to regional integration is a necessary but not sufficient condition. What matters is to create an atmosphere of mutual cooperation that allows outstripping the short term and leads towards new institutions based on trust and common interests. REFERENCES Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá, Gobernación de Cundinamarca, Cámara de Comercio de Bogotá y CAF, Informe de Avance de consultoría Plan de Logística Región Capital – Criterios y lineamientos básicos de ordenamiento logístico de la Región Capital [Consultancy progress report on the Capital Region Logistcs Plan – Criteria and basic guidelines for logistic land use in the Capital Region] (Document prepared by UT Araujo Ibarra & Asociados S.A. – SPIM: 2012). Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá, Plan de Desarrollo Bogotá Humana 2012 – 2016 [Humane Bogota Development Plan 2012 – 2016], (Secretaría Distrital de Planeación, Bogotá D.C.: 2012). Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá, Decreto 364 del 26 de agosto de 2014 “Por el cual se modifican excepcionalmente las normas urbanísticas del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial de Bogotá D.C., adoptado mediante Decreto Distrital 619 de 200, revisado por el Decreto Distrital 469 de 2003 y compilado por el Decreto Distrital 190 de 2004” [Decree 364/2014 – Territorial Ordinance Plan], (Secretaría Distrital de Planeación, Bogotá D.C.: 2014). Comité Técnico de la Región Administrativa y de Planeación Especial – Región Central, Documento Técnico de Soporte de la Región Central [Central Region Technical Support Document], (Bogotá D.C: 2014). Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogotá, Plan Maestro de Acueducto y Alcantarillado [Master Plan for Water and Sewage System], (Bogotá D.C.: 2006). Óscar Alfonso R. (Comp.), “La Utopía Metropolitana I” Serie Economía Institucional Urbana, No. 10 (Universidad Externado de Colombia: 2014). 22 The Capital District of Bogota and its initiative to regional integration Óscar Alfonso R., Hacia un índice de convergencia de Bogotá con su área de influencia directa [Towards an index of converge of Bogota and its area of direct influence], (Secretaría Distrital de Planeación, Bogotá D.C.: 2013). Óscar Alfonso R., “El sistema de ciudades y el polimetropolitanismo en Colombia,” Revista Questiones Urbano Regionales, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Distrito Metropolitano de Quito: 2012). Óscar Alfonso R., “Profundización de las relaciones de metropolización de Bogotá con la Sabana [Furthering metropolization relations of Bogota with the Savannah].” In S. Jaramillo (editor) Bogotá en el cambio de siglo: promesas y realidades. (Quito, OLACCHI: 2010). 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