Absolute zero Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature

Absolute zero
Autor 11, Autor 21, Autor 32
Centro de Investigación en Energía,Temixco, Morelos; 2Instituto de Investigaciones en Energía, Temixco, Morelos
[email protected]
Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy
remains in a substance. Absolute zero is the point at which the fundamental particles of nature have
minimal vibrational motion, retaining only quantum mechanical, zero-point energy-induced particle
motion. By international agreement, absolute zero is defined as precisely; 0 K on the Kelvin scale,
which is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale; and –273.15 degrees Celsius on the Celsius
scale. Absolute zero is also precisely equivalent to; 0 degrees R on the Rankine scale (also a
thermodynamic temperature scale); and –459.67 degrees F on the Fahrenheit scale. While scientists can
not fully achieve a state of “zero” heat energy in a substance, they have made great advancements in
achieving temperatures ever closer to absolute zero (where matter exhibits odd quantum effects).
In 1994, the NIST achieved a record cold temperature of 700 nK (billionths of a kelvin).
In 2003, researchers at MIT eclipsed this with a new record of 450 pK (0.45 nK)..
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