Subido por Natalia Monclús

Sustainable Development Goals The role of decentralization in classical and comtemporary capability

Sustainable Development Goals: The role of decentralization in classical
and comtemporary capability
Rosmel Agustín Rodríguez Barroso
When crises become interdependent and potentially harmful to the stability of
societies, it is necessary to attack at the core of development to make changes:
the regional integration model.
From that same premise, the objective of this essay is to find new perspectives
on regional tools and skills, through the Sustainable Development Goals and
compliance with the 2030 Agenda.
The fulfillment of this objective will give way to generating new ideas and
protocols from local governance and the triple sectorial alliance (public - private community partner), promoting sustainable development, from the local
perspective and the youth public as a case study for groups committed to this
structural reform of the development model.
The adaptive proposals of intergovernmental organizations of the region, mainly
ECLAC and OAS, are established as regional vanguards for the fulfillment of the
2030 Agenda in Latin America and the Caribbean, in turn characterizing the
integrative efforts towards Civil Associations and Non-Governmental
Organizations to the generation of synergy with the States to address targets and
indicators of the SDGs.
Taking into consideration the integration efforts that have been generated in
Africa (African Union), Europe (European Union) and Asia - Pacific (United
Nations Group for Sustainable Development) with these geopolitical integration
strategies, the Latin American region can mark a step of glocal innovation and
integral sustainability for their current and future societies
Keywords: Sustainable, municipalities, youth, institutions, development.
Introduction: The planet in deterioration, our existence in check.
We have been for more than 250 years in a world submerged in the most drastic
and accelerated changes in its history. The rapid growth of the economy and
technological advances were the main reason for a paradigm shift.
The economic and technological changes changed the social paradigms causing
a significant and constant increase in the world population, which is estimated to
be even more urbanized within the next 30 years1; The huge development in
industries and economic systems as the main response to globalization caused
national governments in some nations to reduce their field of action as managers
of their economy, strengthening the focus on mass consumption, and limiting
production only to rural areas2.
For years, economic growth was established as the only way to continuously
improve the prosperity of the human race on the planet. Over the years this
unbridled consumerism has been shown to be not efficient in the distribution of
the benefits obtained from growth, authors such as Wolfang Streeck in 2017 call
this economic system unsustainable, which stops the progress that the current
social paradigm carries , should be rethought.
The economic growth that occurred in the last 50 years due to the rapid
acceleration of the progress of the economies is unprecedented, the progress
achieved is undeniable and the consequences of this development are correlated
to the deterioration of the land system and the world's natural resources , being
the main contributor in the changes generated at the environmental level; such
as the increase in pollution levels, the loss of biodiversity, even climate change
social crises, are largely attributable to human activity due to the rapid
Landes, David (2003). The Unbound Prometheus: Technical Change and Industrial Development in
Western Europe from 1750 to the Present (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (2012). GEO-5, Global Environment Outlook.
Environment for the future we want. Malta: UNEP.
acceleration of human beings during these last 50 years, seeing Mainly affected
places that develop less rapidly, such as the American and Caribbean territory,
demonstrating how the change has been from the first human settlements on
earth, to the exploitation of resources that responds to an accelerated growth of
urbanized areas4
If we delve a little into the studies of Steffen. (2015) it is identifiable that structural
changes on planet earth are caused by the increase in human activity from its
development and economic activity, having globalization as an ally due to the fact
that development in connectivity in commerce allows for more accelerated
development and consequent environmental degradation. Therefore, it is
necessary to raise awareness of the way our production and consumption system
is carried out, seeking the natural balance of the life cycle of the material and in
line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), especially with the number
7 and number 11 in search of rethinking a sustainable, more humane, ecological
development that always takes into account the well-being, economic, social and
ecological of the society of small and large cities, thus reducing the pace that is
putting in check human life and all the species with which we cohabit.
It is important not only to consider, but also to apply the SDGs in the cities of the
world, since according to scientific studies and even publications made by the
United Nations, if we do not influence the improvements for the Economic
Systems we will have a catastrophic situation for the years after 2030, Due not
only to population growth, but in addition to that, the planet currently takes a year
and 7 months to regenerate the damage and what we consume in a year,
generating a deficit well above what is sustainable, drastically reducing the quality
and existence of natural resources and green areas, being the most affected
continents with less industrial development; Therefore, if the production and
consumption trends of the world population remain at this level, by 2030, “the
equivalent of 2 planets Earth will be needed to sustain human life 5” and how
Paul Jozef Crutzen (2000) Exposes the change in the geological era caused by intense human activity on
earth, closing the current geological era where life has been developing in the Holocene.
Global Footprint Network, (2018)
would we then guarantee the stay on this planet to who do not live in the big
The scientist Johan Rockström and his team during 2009, established the
planetary limits so that humanity continues to develop and prosper for the
following generations, even the limits in which we find ourselves are far from a
fatal point, but it is a warning from our planet indicating that we must rethink the
way of doing things and on how our governments should manage their economy,
if we place this change in 2020 in addition to the economic, ecological and social
arguments already raised, a new variable is added: COVID-19 , the pandemic
that has taught humanity to rethink a new normal for our society.
It is important to remember at this point that the United Nations developed an
action plan until the year 2030, based on 17 global objectives to act against this
problem that puts human life at risk, in order to encourage governments and large
capitals to modify actions and adopt them for the fulfillment of these 17 objectives.
This action list is extremely important and useful if we speak of local and
sustainable urban development, in a post-pandemic world where a slightly flatter
structure begins to prevail, with a key player: Local governments.
In recent years, it has been shown that the public policies and action strategies
issued by these international organizations do not have the expected result in
most of the large States because they fail to fully meet the objectives set.
Therefore, the application of the SDGs must be ensured, since it is no longer
enough to adapt reality to the needs of the planet, it is necessary to develop a
new configuration, with normality and productivity adapted to sustainability and
sustainability, which takes into account that Fundamental change decisions are
promoted by International Organizations, where greater action is allowed in local
advancement and greater access of the population to be part of these dynamics.
Sustainable Development Goals: The role of decentralization in classical
and comtemporary capability
For years, economic growth has been established as the only way to continuously
improve the prosperity of the human race on the planet, but this same model of
accelerated development has been the great architect of inequalities in the
nations of the world, generating a serious slowdown in the process of
development and urbanization as in some nations of Latin America and the
Caribbean. According to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean, the continent registers a constant decline in poverty indicators, such
as the Gini Index, where 0.465 is registered throughout the region and with
marked differences between countries with a positive index (such as Brazil and
Colombia, exceeding 0.520) and those with a negative index (Argentina, El
Salvador and Uruguay, below 0.400).
Those places where, despite being the suppliers of the main raw materials
worldwide, they develop at a different rate and are highly affected by the socioenvironmental ravages of the world economic system. By generating the
Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and refocusing on the alliances
generated in the framework of Interregional Organizations, the lines that increase
the gaps of differences begin to blur, giving way to an alternative of progress,
well-being and harmonious integration, seeking areas such as ecology, from the
culture and geography of each country.
This approach opens the way to the territorial unit that could be the future of the
world: the municipalities; combined with the demographic strategy to capitalize
on this culture of sustainability: The youth population as a social actor. In this
case, it will delve into success stories that can be adapted and transformed to be
implemented in American and Caribbean communities, located in the current
space-time context, with a planet that survives the consequences left by the
COVID-19 pandemic and an evolution in the fourth industrial revolution
Municipal institutions and political-social organizations as articulators and
mobilizers for sustainability.
For more than 50 years, global compacts have gained experience in sustainable
development 6and there have been significant advances, but not with the
necessary impact to promote a change in our society, so in this last decade, the
SDGs should change the paradigm, but to one where local work and production
is prioritized, turning this fundamental sphere into a new opportunity to act
especially in the less urbanized areas of the continents and with a special focus
on Latin America and the Caribbean as an element of change, with the enough
material to be a participant in being the engines of change in the world, because
this can not only function as a unifying element in terms of national policies
according to their own cultures and belief systems, but also a change that allows
locating the local in municipal and parochial institutions, in communities, in
grassroots organizations, in associations, in any organization that promotes local
development, that has an impact on the territory.
Efforts framed in the "Forum of the Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean
on Sustainable Development" 7generated by ECLAC or the "Inter-American
Program for Sustainable Development"8 of the Organization of American States,
show the commitment to a sustainable perspective. These initiatives are mainly
integrated in the promotion of areas such as Planetary (SDG 6: Clean Water and
Sanitation, SDG 13: Climate Action); Humanitarian (SDG 1: End Poverty, SDG
2: Zero Hunger, SDG 3: Health and Well-being, SDG 4: Quality Education, SDG
5: Gender Equality); and Sustainable (SDG 7: Affordable and clean energy, SDG
10: Reduction of Inequalities).
The ECLAC platform has been much more oriented towards municipal
empowerment work, guiding case studies in Mexico and Columbia, as well as
connecting a line of work with member countries through the systematization of
experiences. Methodologically, 3 stages of work have been illustrated:
Pactos a destacar: Estocolmo 1972, Wageningen 1976, Brundtland 1983-1987, Rio 1992 New York
1992, Kyoto 1998, New York 2000, Johanesburgo 2002, Río 20, etc.
< Resolution E / RES / 2016/12 of the Economic Council of Latin America and the Caribbean, on the
creation of the Agency
Presentation of the Organization, presented under the protection of Resolution AG / RES. 2882 (XLVI-O
/ 16) of the 2nd plenary session of the OAS General Secretariat
• Data collection,
• Municipal Diagnostic Study
• Generation of Good Practices Manual
This is given in order to give a familiarization scheme with these objectives and
their indicators, to link local problems with the pursuit of said objectives to finalize
the link between local community participation and sustainable development.
This will not only generate the bases for a Step by Step development in the local
communities of the world, but would also contribute to the Global Pacts (from a
Global perspective) a local implementation, where the planning, execution and
analysis of results are closer to the community. and the real needs of society.
What would be the methodology of action?
The States must give more competence to the Municipalities for the development
of the SDGs, provide them with a new direct action structure, promoting financing
funds, exchange of experiences, making visible the work carried out, having a
general supervision of the development of the SDGs in a general way . An
example of the benefits of the development of local skills and sustainable
development is Copenhagen, being a member of the covenant of mayors 9and
prestigious international organizations with priority in local development and
green policies
Municipalities must prepare a local action plan based on the SDGs, with the
support of specialized study centers, training support from the State and even
from international organizations that are involved in the process. Once the
objectives have been identified, society must be disseminated, involved and
made aware, create awareness that the SDGs are, how work should be done for
their development and promote that these objectives are developed not only by
political institutions, but also by the organized community, where associations
assume leading roles to execute projects that contribute to their fulfillment, that
Information on their Official Site, where they offer a compilation of
society itself is organized around their fulfillment and promotes participation and
supervision of their fulfillment10
The creation of awareness in society about what sustainability means is very
important, you cannot change the current course towards a model that is
committed to sustainability without first creating a new vision around these
precepts and new ways of life product of the impact global COVID-19, it is
important that we all have access to this information, and make young people
educate themselves around this change, including public debates; forming a
society that understands that there is a situation and must act together to
contribute to the implementation of a system that is committed to sustainability,
development, progress and the stability of humanity.
Youth as a guarantee for the future
The territorial sense of the Municipality, as the mainstay of glocal development
for the fulfillment of the SDGs, has framed its efforts in raising awareness of the
objectives and in the pedagogical approach of its applicability in the environment.
From this enclave, organizations such as the International Youth Organization
have presented initiatives to frame the effort and empowered youth vocation as
fuel for the massification of the SDGs.
Under this reading, initiatives such as "Implementation of the 2030 Agenda in the
key of Youth"
out where a series of proposals were presented such as
the implementation of a series of adaptive indicators of the SDGs for youth
activism, strategies for greater participation in local efforts and the creation of an
“Alliance for Youth” that allows joining efforts for its applicability, based on
previous agreements such as the World Youth Conference (2014), the First World
Forum on Youth Policies (2014) and the participation of youth conglomerates. in
spaces like ECOSOC.
All these Global Compacts and global goals are meaningless if Youth is not
actively involved. Young people must have a leading role in the development of
In the Latin American region should carry a methodology focused on local traditions and customs,
hand in hand with the NGOs and International Institutions that make life in the continent, thus
demonstrating the importance of involving the population in a real way.,
Document presented at the Regional Forum for Sustainable Development, organized by ECLAC in
the plans outlined, because they are the future of our species and must have
knowledge of how we are working to have the best possible future, it is necessary
to remember the population age of each one of the areas where these projects
are to be implemented, because in the less urbanized areas most of the
population is young, of productive age, and with the firm purpose of guaranteeing
a better world.
Within the framework of ECLAC, the "Declaration of the Youth of Latin America
and the Caribbean" was presented, which created a guideline for youth work in
the region, combined from the effort of civil society as a guarantor of social
cohesion and the states (national and local) to promote governance in
accordance with the spirit of the 2030 Agenda. From there, there is an established
link with sustainable work to be substantially capitalized as evidence of a defined
work horizon between civil associations and SDGs in Latin America.
It is necessary to invite organized youth and encourage the non-organized to
work in the development of the SDGs, promote spaces for participation, where
leaders will continue with the work started based on their generational vision and
continue the work cycle generation after generation, since sustainable
development is something that must be continuous, especially after the crisis
generated by the pandemic caused by the coronavirus,
Highly local territories may be an enclave for the development of a new postpandemic reality, while optimal regional plans and strategies for sustainable
development are conducted, which in turn will bring enrichment and protection of
the cultural, one more way Humanized of "Glocalization"
For this, it is necessary to recall the success stories and their application and
adaptable methodology in other settings such as the African one. The case of
Sao Paulo and other municipalities with non-urbanized areas in Brazil12 have
been the most effective and applicable models, which is why it is suggested as a
methodology for African cases and the impact of COVID-19 in the region.
The World Organization of United Cities and Local Governments. Midiendo la agenda global en los
municipios: El “Mandala ODS”. Available in:
Suggested methodologies for the implementation and monitoring of
efficient municipal management in line with the SDGs
The “Mandala of the SDGs” consists of a strategy developed by the
Confederation of Municipalities of Brazil, it is one of the many tools that UCLG
(United Cities and Local Governments) has used recently in the learning sessions
and that associations have been of importance nationals of that country, being
an example of how in the middle of the municipality the implementation of the
process can be changed in the traditional way, to a more balanced and flat way
and in line with the 4th industrial revolution and the new vision of world society
Another local process of great importance and interest for the desirable objectives
in the continent. It is developed by the Associations of Districts (LKT), Cities
(DST) and German Municipalities (DSGB) in conjunction with the Bertelsmann
Foundation and the Ministry of Territorial Research (BBSR).
unlike the Mandala applied by the South Americans; The 17 SDGs function as a
starting point for all the elements and indicators to be applied and evaluated.
Formally, each of the Sustainable Development Goals has three or four assigned
indicators, all of this derived from an analytical process that uses a systematic
and multi-level approach. This is possible as long as most of the indicators
maintain a municipal database updated periodically, translating the availability of
information and access to data from these municipal administrations as an
advantage for benchmarking and clustering according to local characteristics and
needs. Despite this, not all the indicators they use are based on data collected
directly in the municipalities.Through the municipal monitoring process,
approximately 10% of the indicators require data from the national or regional
statistical centers of the nations. in which they are applied.
These local indicators (Driven and supported by national data and with
community participation) facilitate alignment with the predetermined indicators of
the SDGs, and allow comparing the efforts of different regions, taking into account
their customs and needs, generating public policies not only more human,
applicable to diverse communities, sustainable and enduring
The World Organization of United Cities and Local Governments. Midiendo la agenda global en los
municipios: El “Mandala ODS”. P.8
This format seeks to adapt to any local development model, for 3 basic reasons:
1.- The eclectic nature of the indicators proposed in the Mandala, favors the social
and ethnic integration of social groups by generating participation and cultural
recognition of their reality; 2.- Strengthens the link between various public, private
and community organizations for solving problems, articulating efforts and wills
to generate social cohesion; 3.- It combines good practices from a glocal
perspective, starting from the particularity of the territory towards the global
perspective of the situation for its resolution.
The Mandala is an innovative tool in its style, but it must be remembered that
despite being the one recommended in this small study, due to its high degree of
effectiveness, it is not the only methodology to monitor the process of locating
and municipalizing the Objectives of Sustainable Development, but it is a tool that
with adaptation to the geographical environment, population density and Cultures
within African, can be applied with a high hope of effectiveness.
Observing it beyond borders, when developing the SDGs from the territorial level,
understanding municipal actors and grassroots organizations, it is remarkable
that the work carried out can be shared with their counterparts anywhere in the
world, because there are 17 general objectives, perhaps implemented in a
different way due to the particularities of each region, such as in this case the
African one, but finally the same due to its final objective, for which the
international link between local, regional and national actors promotes efficient
cooperation, creating new networks between local leaderships, flourishing and
expansion of multi-culture and if they are channeled in a good way, taking into
account the common objective: sustainable development, we will be able to bet
on a planet with higher rates of interconnection, overcoming barriers imposed
between The cultures.
2020 and the new normal: Towards sustainable local development and a
refocusing of the SDGs?: Latin America and the Fourth Industrial
Latin America offers a challenge in applying the Sustainable Development Goals.
The challenges of sustainability and local territorial empowerment in the region
have been tangible evidence of the panorama that must be faced in order to
achieve the expected development.
Latin America and the Caribbean have great challenges to achieve a refocusing
of their sustainable local development, from the perspective of the SDGs
oriented in its 5 Areas): 1.- Area of Justice (Obj. 16): The challenge
of democratic institutions and justice in the responsibility to appease the climate
of ethnic conflict that is pressing in places of great need; 2.-Area of the Planet
(Obj. 6, 12,13,14,15) in finding approaches for the sustainable use of natural
resources that guarantee a balance between the coverage of basic needs with
the preservation of the environment, fauna and flora in the localities; 3.- People
Area: (Obj. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.) Develop strategies to achieve schooling and food
fulfillment, as well as major initiatives such as gender equality (especially in cases
such as trafficking children, and practices condemned internationally as female
cutting, as the attack on structural poverty in the region; 4.- Prosperity Area (Obj.
7, 8, 9, 10, 11) Promote dynamics of local entrepreneurship, based on the
experience of productive clusters and taking advantage of local potentialities to
project a relevant role of the national economy. From there, there is the glocal
economy alternative as a projection of a sustainable alternative; 5.- Association
Area: (Obj. 17) promote awareness of the SDGs in various social groups as an
enclave for the promotion of individual and collective development, from the
replication of good practices as well as public, private and community support for
the generation of a vision of organized community.
What would be the technological role to sustain the rise of the Fourth Industrial
Revolution? The opportunity to recognize, integrate, re-educate and unite
communities and cultures, from the reading of an integrated focus of action for
the construction of practices that generate a pivot of governance and a selfadministered maneuver. This is oriented from our case studies (ECLAC and
OAS) as platforms for action: ECLAC directed towards good practices of
Governance and Good Governance, and OAS towards the empowerment of civil
society organizations towards the applicability of the 2030 Agenda.
Dambisa Moyo. When aid is the problem: there is another way for Africa
The regional paradox shows us the responsibility of local governance as an
indispensable tool for the integral progress of the sectors. Today the challenge is
to generate the conditions of accompaniment and support in the sustainable
scope of its capacities such as the use of its resources to combine the new effort
for a more solid continent and committed to the well-being of its members.
ECLAC and OAS: The Unifying Proposal of a Sustainable Continent.
Among the protocols presented (“Forum of the Countries of Latin America and
the Caribbean on Sustainable Development” and “Inter-American Program for
Sustainable Development”) show similarities in perspectives and divergences
that broaden the playing space to capitalize on the ODS effort in the continent.
The great similarities between the proposals are located in the following
1. The integrating context between the public sector, the private sector and the
socio-community sector as an enabling foundation for sustainable development.
2. The reinforcement of various international protocols and conventions adhered
to by other intergovernmental organizations to complement the glocal view of the
2030 Agenda.
3. Link the major global problems in particular efforts that help correct present
problems and potential situations for various social groups.
These similarities are seen as a cyclical effect: These fundamentals gave way to
the Agenda and at the same time, the Agenda is linking international efforts to
harmonize its implementation. A cycle is exercised where the vision of a selfsustaining society is specified to guarantee a broad future for new generations.
The differences that both platforms present are based on 3 variables: priority
objectives, target social groups, and social intervention mechanisms that offer
response capacity.
The "Forum of the Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean on Climate
Change" becomes more involved in the maneuvering capacity of the States and
Public Power Institutions, with the ability to guide other instances to synchronize
actions for the effective fulfillment of the 2030 agenda.
The emphasis on its adaptation is oriented more on the parameters established
in the High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, held within
ECLAC, during 2019. There, priority was given to the following list of objectives
where priority will be given the work of this forum:
• SDG 4: Quality Education
• SDG 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
• SDG 10: Reduction of Inequalities
• SDG 13: Climate Action
• SDG 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
• SDG 17: Partnership to achieve the SDGs
The mechanisms of social intervention are located in community support
strategies, diagnostic studies with local compliance reports and protocol
development of good practices for the sustainable compliance of the municipality.
The "Inter-American Program for Sustainable Development" is focused on
intensifying the work with Civil Society organizations. Although it is also protected
by the will of the Member States, the difference with the ECLAC document is to
break with the tutelary role and generate a link between intergovernmental
organization and civil society organization, established from a macro focus of
cohesion work Social.
In the framework document, they establish the priority SDGs to work under this
• SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
• SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
• SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
• SDG 15: Life of Terrestrial Ecosystems
• SDG 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
This program conceives a more environmental and oriented priority in the spatial
habitat of each environment. The mechanisms of social intervention are based
on the development of training offers and financing of local projects to social
organizations. In addition to promoting effective projects to strengthen
development benchmarks.
As both regional guidelines establish, based on inclusive growth and sustainable
development, it is possible to generate from the global scenario left by the recent
COVID-19 pandemic opens not only a window, but the door to a new way of doing
things. Throughout the world, it opens the possibility to reduce the gap that
massifies and extends the possibilities of nations, at present and in the near
future, the focus will be more clearly placed on municipalities, on the closest
primary work cells to the population and their needs.
Despite the fact that in many countries of the continent the figures are not the
most optimal, they show a clear result: Latin America wants and can evolve and
understanding not only its culture, geography and ethnography is not enough,
that is why the SDGs are elemental keys to finally bring improvements and tools
to the continent. From there, the local universe is made from small triumphs of
organization, cohesion and social empowerment that are associated with each
other and is integrated with the mechanisms of youth participation as a
mechanism of generational extension of a sustainable culture.
By analyzing the success stories and the way in which methodologies for the
application of the SDGs have been implemented in other countries of the world,
it is clear that in hostile areas, with a high rate of instability, optimal development
and application of the SDGs can be achieved. Just as Brazil did with its innovative
method of the “mandala of the SDGs”, generating effective and tangible results
with its methodology that, transforming it and adapting it to the regional reality,
can be a powerful and useful tool for the transformation of the continent, finally
adapting to the fourth industrial revolution with all that the technological era
entails and finally generating possibilities for post-pandemic sustainable
It is recommended not to leave aside the main capital that any municipality has:
Human Capital, especially youth, in their hands is a correct management and
friendly development of all the policies and strategies that are envisioned and will
be the prevailing trend at that level. At the end of the pandemic, finally, the planet
is in check, and it is in the hands of each continent, organization, nation,
municipality and organized community, to be part of the change that will make
this a sustainable planet.
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