Subido por Edwin Rodriguez

EPA-MET-05-Calibracion Isocineticos

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MAINTENANCE,
CALIBRATION,AND OPERATION
OF
ISOKINETICSOURCE-SAMPLINGEQUIPMENT
The
and
purpose
operation
of this
of the
Details
of Isokinetic
Testing
Branch
This
interested
which
has
sampling
includes
gas
the
velocity
electrical
controls
and
box.
using
the
train
has
four
nozzle,
major
an orifice
(4) the
A representation
maintenance
and
calibration
be followed
in the
shop
cord,
Construction
Emission
Protection
presented
Agency.
as a guide
and
box
sample
to assist
train
preparation
the
is
for
a dry
for
gas
which
sample
shown
each
tube
which
assembly,
connects
assembly,
a pitot
pump,
box
described
pitobe
assembly,
a vacuum
sampling
in
(1) the
probe,
meter
which
procedure
laboratory
glass
meter,
of the
or
is
in
by the
Environmental
components:
(3) the
umbilical
described
equipment.
(2) the
sampling;
calibration,
as performed
and
a heated
sampling;
maintenance,
equipment
Programs,
satisfactorily
in
for
the
Equipment1
of Air
used
during
of manometers,
meter
been
to explain
-sampling
source
Office
probe
system
glassware;
is
Source-Sampling
personnel
The
ing
isokinetic
of the
procedure
publication
in
of the
each
box
Figure
for
consists
of a
meter,
and
contains
the
with
the
1.
The
components
sampling
monitor-
test.
should
MAINTENANCE
PITOBEASSEMBLY
Preliminary Disassembly
To
disassemble
7) except
for
the
removed
in the
the
pitobe,
welded
field
nut
and
first
(8) as shown
carried
the
remove
in
Figure
separately.
Figure
2.
Swagelok*
2.
The
Check
Pitobe
union
for
nozzle
(parts
2 through
(1) is
broken
glass
usually
chips.
assembly.
Probe
Remove
broken
or
the
glass
fractured
is within
l-1
rear.
Some
fractures
rubber
stopper
for
shorts
tion
or
tape
variable
tions
burned
spots
and
check
in the
*Mention
by the
plug
the
way
shown
touch
the
variable
and
front
end
are
of checking
the
cord
set
over
hard
to see
entire
or
rating
for
twist
Then
Shorts
are
product
Agency.
name
does
3
glass
probe
probe
the
for
the
(11)
The
and
visible
cord
probe
If the
and
for
loose
by partial
constitute
and
insula-
power
minutes.
indicated
not
sec-
from
tape
55 volts.
voltage
wire.
fractured
high-temperature
plug
in a few
proper
for
of the
the
of the
at about
length
or
because
of the
(15).
visually
3 inches
system
darkening
check
of broken
approximately
electrical
transformer
Nichrome
area
is to gently
power
its
(9) and
and
connection
the
company
Protection
sheath
common
by uniform
power
to the
(15)
back
the
most
the
Inspect
and
of a specific
Environmental
from
One
sounds.
warm
heat,
inches
(14).
from
The
on the
transformer
become
not
/2
grating
(ll),
(10)
sections.
tions
listen
probe
into
a
should
probe
does
connecheating
endorsement
in
the
rear
portion
ohmmeter
of the
or
probe
grease
from
the
water,
then
the
Breaks
a battery-light
If the
acetone
probe.
and
order,
Nichrome
proceed
Clean
deionized
allow
procedure
good
joint.
distilled,
the
wire
can
be
checked
with
an
system.
is in
ball
in
it to dry
the
with
probe
cleaning
internally
water
followed
air,
Inspect
in the
the
process.
Wipe
by brushing,
by acetone.
visually
first
Rinse
for
the
the
using
probe
cleanliness
tap
with
and
repeat
if necessary.
Pitot-Probe Sheath
Remove
A drop
quick
connects
of penetrating
Use
should
oil
compressed
be wiped
openings
the
the
for
tube
helps
air
according
in
the
with
good
water
tube
(16)
working
tube.
and
and,
procedure
pitot
pitot
misalignment,
to the
the
them
out
clean
and
from
keep
to blow
or washed
damage
(17)
the
dried.
in
the
Calibration
(5),
nut
(2),
ferrules
pitot
them
tube
Inspect
if necessary,
given
wipe
clean.
condition.
Both
air
and
and
the
repair
pitot
and
section
sheath
tube
recalibrate
of this
report.
Swagelok Union
Clean
O-ring
the
stainless
(6) by
acetone;
steel
scrubbing.
air
union
Rinse
with
distilled,
(3, 4, 7),
deionized
water,
and
and
rubber
then
with
dry.
Assembly
After
except
the
the
stopper
about
flush
in
use
or,
if the
nut
from
the
front.
Cover
contamination.
onto
front
the
open
probe
ends
sheath.
and
cord
can
welded
of the
should
assemble
the
sheath,
The
front
welded
union
of 500°
not
inspected,
into
of the
Swagelok
of a wrench
the
the
the
excess
(8) was
and
probe
end
Asbestos
on backwards.
The
the
against
Replace
temperatures
4
the
pushing
cleaned
Insert
properly
with
stopper.
tight.
are
nozzle.
seats
(5) from
is
parts
chipping
cause
cracks
probe
with
with
within
serum
that
the
union
sheath,
caps
that
the
cracks
or
similar
the
the
rear
O-ring
l/2
rubber
should
prevents
rubber
ferrule
about
(7)
stack
be only
inch
be
union
when
(5) should
first
the
probe
or unseating
for
the
component
glass
This
sure
The
the
sure
(8).
substituted
expected.
pitobe
of the
end
making
F are
square
nut
the
(2-7),
be
making
end
union
the
finger
of the
probe
1-l
inches
covers
/2
to avoid
A sample
of pitobes
check
of the
list
is
desired
shown
length
for
in
Figure
each
There
3.
sample
box
Date
should
with
each
Probe
No.
be at least
pitobe
two
sets
identified.
Probe
Glass
probe
Rubber
stopper
Insulation
Power
tape
cord
Heating
extension
system
Clean
Pitot-probe
sheath
Quick
connects
Pitot
tube
Sheath
and
welded
nut
Clean
Calibration
Swagelok
(pitot
tube)
union
Probe
side
Rear
ss ferrule
Rubber
(backwards)
O-ring
Asbestos
cord
Union
Nozzle
side
Front
Rear
ss ferrule
ss
ferrule
Clean
General
Note:
25-foot
Initial
each
remarks:
Nichrome
item
when
wire
on particulate
checked
Figure
3.
and
write
Suggested
probes.
in
pitobe
any
remarks.
assembly
check
list
5
NOZZLES
Inspect
the
recalibrate
the
the
nozzle
acetone;
by
air
dry.
or
There
l/16
separate
and
nozzle
to the
rinse
the
damage
on the
knife
with
If damaged,
in
the
Calibration
deionized
water,
serum
caps
or
repair
and
section.
and
similar
Clean
then
covers
with
to avoid
edge.
of nozzles
two
shank
damage.
procedure
ends
be a selection
with
for
with’distilled,
open
to the
increments
be etched
of the
according
Cover
should
-inch
should
nozzle
edge
scrubbing
contamination
in
knife
or
ranging
three
of each
sets
of the
from
of each
nozzles
and
l/8
to l/2
size.
all
The
the
inch
in diameter
exact
nozzles
diameters
kept
in
a
box.
METERBOX ASSEMBLY
Casing
Remove
sary
the
meter
box
casing,
check
the
general
condition,
and
make
neces-
repairs.
Pump Oil and Filter
Change
pump
filter
the
pump
(27).
The
lubricating
parts
oil
are
(28),
identified
if
in
dirty;
Figure
fill
to mark;
and
clean
4.
(27) PUMP FILTER
(8) VACUUM GAUGE
(24) ORIFICE
\
AIR TIGHT PUMP
(5) DRY TES.T METER
Figure
6
4.
Pump-meter
assembly.
the
Thermometers
Check
against
the
room
dry-gas-meter
thermometers
temperature
using
The
(25).
-in-glass
a mercury
temperature
should
thermometer
as the
check
standard.
Quick Connects
keep
Wipe
the
quick
them
in good
(31 FILL
connects
working
(9) clean
(Figure
A drop
5).
of penetrating
helps
condition.
PLUG SCRE
(41 VALVE
oil
/
111 DUAL
MANOMETER
SWITCH
(51 DRY GAS METER
16, FINE ADJUST
171 COARSE
ADJUST
bP
1231 DRAIN
(221
i8i
191 MANOMETER
1101 SAMPLE
,111
VACUUM
QUICK
PORT QUICK
AMF’HENOL
GAUG-’
CONNECT
1
SCREWS
PLUNGER
-tZli
PUMP SWITCH
-1201
PROBE
-t19\
HEAT SWITCli
.(I81
FAN SWITCH AND LIGHT
-1171
VARIABLE
TRANSFORMER
CONTROL
SWITCH
AND LIGHT
AND LIGHT
AND LIGHT
CONNEC
CONNEC
1151 TIMER
1121
141 POWER
SYSTE
CORO
ill0
Vi
(16)
1131 TIMER INDICATOR/
LIGHT
Figure
5.
Front
panel
of meter
box.
LEVELING
SCREW
Dual Manometer
Visually
fluid.
check
the
pitot
and
orifice
Check
for
leaks,
(23)
shown
in
Figure
5.
necessary.
Wipe
the
dual
manometer
compressed
air
screws
the
dual
red
the
is used
a similar
device
red
manometer
for
the
for
sure
connected,
be filled
meter
is
can
level
with
the
fluid
zeroed,
that
is faded.
and
manometer
fluid-level
the
the
for
check
screw
plunger
and
drain
O-rings,
if
be cleaned
and
wiped
fluids
the
If
manufacturer.
are
orifice
with
clean.
by the
of
color-coded:
manometer
(or
field.
ports
the
box
be free
can
Manometer
yellow
in
and
back
or
as recommended
manometer
by removing
the
clean
of reading
the
from
should
(22)
plunger
The
be removed
if it
They
plunger
fluid-level
(1) clean.
manometer
ease
lines.
fluid-level
the
dirty,
tube
the
Replace
fluid,
pitot
making
can
around
is unusually
combination)
After
lines
or the
manometer
Replace
especially
manometer
(2) are
open
fluid
level.
the
(3) on the
should
have
left
about
and
the
The
side.
l/4-
manometer
manometer
When
to
the
mano-
l/2-inch
travel
inward.
Pitot-Tube lines
Blow
The
sealing
ment
through
the
balls
in these
The
of air.
pitot-tube
quick
quick
pitot-tube
connects
connects
should
manometer
should
(9) to check
for
be removed
to allow
obstructions.
for
free
move-
respond.
Solenoid Valve
light
Plug
the
(12)
should
solenoid
does
and
not
meter-box
go on and
valves
moving
occur,
check
solenoid
The
power
valve
switch
which
contains
and
one
is
valves
close
and
the
flow
opens
while
to allow
the
pump
shown
three
open
8
power
(4),
usually
zeroed
the
into
should
a llO-volt
The
be heard.
position
shown
source,
in
plug,
The
outlet.
click
Figure
power
6.
cord
power
is the
If the
and
indicator
sound
of the
clicking
sound
connections,
bulb,
valve.
assembly,
valve
a click
into
the
cord
closed.
the
into
the
pressure
is
running.
in
Figure
5,
2-way
solenoid
When
the
manometer
to equalize.
valve
operates
the
valves
(Figure
switch
is
is
blocked
This
solenoid
6).
turned
and
allows
the
the
valve
Two
on,
the
closed
manometer
are
two
open
solenoid
to be
TOPUMPSWITCH
SOLENOIDVALVES
NORMALLYOPEN
NORMALLY CLOSED
NORMALLY OPEN
TOMANOMETER
Figure
pitot
The
solenoid
tube
manometer,
on the
meter
assembly
6.
Solenoid
operates
the
pitot
assembly
only
tube
on the
lines
can
diagram.
orifice
manometer.
be disconnected
To
at the
zero
quick
the
connects
box.
Lights and Switches
Turn
the
coarse-adjust
adjust
valve
(6).
heater
light
should
not
Turn
check
function,
valve
on all
(7) to the
switches
not
go on until
for
defective
-off
position
(18 ‘through
the
fan
parts,
and
21)
switch
is
including
open
to check
also
on.
switches,
fully
the
the
fine-
lights.
If any
lights,
The
of the
lights
fuses,
and
do
wiring.
Orifice Meter Lines
Turn
(4) and
off
carefully
manometer
the
all
adjust
should
solenoid
switches
except
the
or
the
pump
to valve
the
pump
switch
coarse-adjust
respond
valves
the
orifice
and
fine-adjust
controls.
meter
Turn
(21).
on the
The
valves.
If no movement
valve
is
switch
orifice
meter
observed,
check
system.
Timer
Leaving
when
supply
x
time
the
pump
or
periods
is
a worn
or
on.
on,
check
iMalfunction
synchronous
cycles,
the
but
of the
motor.
the
timer
most
system
timer
The
commonly
timer
(15),
can
be caused
has
used
which
should
by decreased
different
is
operate
5 minutes.
cams
for
Check
only
voltage
various
the
9
timing
for
at least
end
of the
specified
the
notch
two
cycle.
on the
The
cycles.
The
timer.
Turn
buzzer
duration
the
pump
and
timer
of the
buzz
light
can
(13)
be
should
go on at the
regulated
by adjusting
off.
Amphenol Outlet and Variable Transformer
leads
Check
the
Amphenol
to the
different
terminals
the
transformer,
outlet
voltage
with
a voltmeter
(Figure
7).
meter
or
check
Figure
7. Meter
quick
connect
or
When
light
check
light
connected
should
box wiring
by connecting
across
respond
the
the
variable
correspondingly.
diagram.
Vacuum System
Insert
Figure
a plugged
Make
5.
Turn
the
The
vacuum
male
sure
that
coarse-adjust
pressure
valve
gauge
gas
find
and
meter
metering
the
valves,
switch
read
about
leak
and
If leakage
or
Parts
leaks.
sample
(4) is off
and
27 inches
Check
a watch.
the
-on position
of mercury.
(5) and
correct
valve
to the
(8) should
of 30 inches
dry
the
into
the
and
close
port
(lo),
then
activate
fully
the
fine-adjust
for
a barometric
of mercury
leakage
rate
using
exceeds
0. 02 cubic
to check
are
the
shown
the
the
foot
pump.
valve.
reading
per
pump,
in
on the
minute,
vacuum
gauge,
pipes.
Calibration
After
shown
in
procedure
all
Figure
10
5 and
in the
A sample
Figures
systems
8 and
are
the
functioning
orifice
Calibration
check
9.
For
list
meter
calibrate
properly,
(24)
shown
in Figure
the
dry
gas
meter
4 according
(5)
to the
section.
and
recording
a calibration
purposes,
and
calculation
the
meter
sheet
box
should
are
shown
be numbered
in
Dry
Box No.
Date
Pump
oil
Quick
and
gas
meter
No.
filter
connects
Dry-gas
Dual
meter
thermometers
manometer
Pitot-tube
system
lines
Solenoid
valve---.-
Lights
and
switches
Orifice-meter
lines
Timer
Amphenol
outlet
Variable
transformer
Vacuum
system
Metering
valve
Vacuum
Leak
gauge
check
Calibration
inches
at
(orifice
General
remarks
Initial
each
and
item
when
of
mercury
- leakage
=
meter)
checked
Figure
and
write
8. Suggested
in
any
remarks.
meter box assembly
check
list.
SAMPLE BOX ASSEMBLY
Ice Bath
Fill
the
ice
bath
(4) with
water
and
check
for
leaks
(Figure
ll),
plug
into
a IlO-volt
10).
Electrical System
Using
and
heater
source,
an Amphenol
should
a poor
go on.
connection,
adapter
Failure
(Figure
to operate
a defective
fan,
may
or
be caused
a defective
source.
by a faulty
heating
element.
The
fan
electrical
The
11
Date
Box No.
Barometric
pressure,
Rb =-in.
Hg
Dry
gas
meter
I-10.
TemDerature
Orifice
manometer
setting,
intHl;20
4.0
10
6.0
10
8.0
10
Average
ii__
Calculations
Y
[email protected]
+ 460)
VW Pb (td
AH
-
AH
0.5
vd(Rb
13.6
/
0.0737
)
2.0
/
0.147
1
I
1
8.0
1 0.588
/
y = Ratio
of
[email protected] = Orifice
inches
wiring
diagram
accuracy
the
is
shown
in the
thermostat
the
about
can
probe
wet
test
meter
differential
in. H20.
Suggested
20 to 30°
Check
of
9.
thermometer
fluctuate
12
+ 460)
I
pressure
of mercury,
Figure
but
(tw
0.0368
1.0
dial
+ &)
orifice
in
the
heater
and dry gas meter
12.
Check
section
average
be adjusted
plug
dry
test
meter.
that
gives
0.75 cfm
Tolerance
- f 0.15
Figure
heated
to
after
to the
with
it
of
calibration
box.
The
a voltmeter
at
operation
temperature
stabilizes.
setting
air
and calculation
thermostat
of the
Tolerance
The
usual
= + 0.01
70"
F and
29.92
form.
by inserting
will
setting
a
generally
is
250°
desired.
or
with
a IlO-volt
check
light.
F,
(1) THERMOSTAT
\
(2) AMPHENOL
CONNECTOR _
(3) PROBE PLUG
L
Figure
10.
Sample
box.
Figure
A sample
the
box
should
ing
the
glassware
ferably
more,
of several
cleaned
runs
sets
while
have
been
check
list
is
shown
be numbered.
for
each
depending
increases
the
second
11.
in
At least
meter
box,
on the
number
efficiency
run
is being
Amphenol
Figure
two
13.
sets
should
made
Again,
of the
for
required
the
test
or
the
since
trains
recording
sample-box
be on hand
of runs
during
adaptor.
for
purposes,
assembly,
a stack
in a day.
test
The
the
sample
can
be cleaned
train
includand
pre-
availability
can
after
be
all
completed.
13
110-V PLUG
AMPHENOLCONNECTOR
Figure
12.
Amphenol
wiring
Box No.
Date
Ice
diagram.,
bath
Electrical
system
Heater
Blower
Probe
receptacle
Thermostat
for
Setting
Temperature
General
remarks
Initial
each
item
average
temperature
variation-OF
when
checked
of-OF
? OF
and
write
in
any
remarks.
.
Figure
14
13.
Suggested
sample
box check
list.
POLLUTANTCOLLECTOR
Glass Parts
Wipe
(4),
the
glass
grease
connectors
cleaning
detergent.
solution.
Rinse
Reassemble
with
the
the
(5),
openings
to avoid
of the
impingers
distilled,
parts
deionized
portions
on the
upper
of the
(1) and
shown
use
water,
using
half
cyclone
(3),
hard-to-clean
impinger
grease
joints
and
For
stopcock
a thin
taper
in
rlask
Figure
14.
dichromate
and
coat
(Z),
filter
Wash
sulfuric
then
acetone;
(Figure
with
acid
air
glass
cleaning
dry.
of acetone-insoluble
joints
holder
silicone
15).
Cover
all
exposed
contamination.
(4) Fl,LTER HOLDER
HEATEDAREA
-
from
-.-,-.
i\
i
(5) GLASS CONNECTORS
I
II
i
i
i
i
I
i
i
i
?Iil
i
i
./
//
:’
-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.m.
T
ICEBATH
-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-*-.-.-.-.-.-.
Figure
14.
Sample
box glassware
A
assembly.
Glass Frit
If the
trated
air
HCl
for
If the
dry.
H2SO4
glass
plus
frit
(7),
0. 5 hour.
frit
a few
still
drops
shown
in Figure
Rinse
with
does
not
of sodium
16,
distilled,
appear
clean,
or potassium
is dirty,
place
deionized
boil
nitrate.
for
water,
2 hours
Rinse
it in boiling,
and
in
well
then
concenacetone;
concentrated
with
distilled,
15
LUBRICATE
INDICATED AREA
(6) BAdK HALF /
(1B) F:ONT HALF
\
(9) RUBBER GASKET
(7) GLASS FRIT
Figure
Figure
deionized
with
water,
new
frits.
Assemble
shown
the
in
pump
15.
and
the
Glass
filter
holder
acetone;
air
filter-holder
filter
Figure
17 (see
on and
adjust
flow
This
assembly
holder
dry
dry.
gas
is
and
components
meter
and
on the
orifice
procedure
shown
in Figure
for
orifice
should
a pressure-drop
meter
manometer
under
to
[email protected]
INLET
Q
0
-g
0--I
\
\
--z
Figure
N _
17.
UMBILICAL
-----4
Glass
frit
pressure
‘\
,’
drop
check.
be followed
check
Calibration).
If the
FILTER HOLDER
VACUUMGAUGE
also
16.
METER BOX
16
assembly.
Impinger.
then
The
16.
vacuum
as
Turn
gauge
on the
and
meter
box
should
reads
higher
be replaced
than
or is
2 inches
dirty
and
of mercury,
should
the
be cleaned
and
frit
either
checked
is too
fine
again.
Greenburg-Smith Impinger Orifice
Fill
drain
the
Greenburg-Smith
through
required
the
for
orifice
new
impinger
tube
in 6 to 8 seconds,
with
it
water.
should
If the
water
be replaced.
does
This
is
not
only
impingers.
Filter-Holder Gasket
Clean
the
filter-holder
and
then
acetone;
water,
gasket
air
by washing.
Rinse
with
distilled,
connects
clean
deionized
dry.
UMBILICAL CORD
Quick Connects
Wipe
A drop
the
vacuum
of penetrating
line
oil
and
on each
pitot
line
(l-2)
helps
keep
(4).
The
quick
them
in
good
working
(Figure
18).
condition.
Thermometer
Check
temperature
the
dial
when
thermometer
a mercury-in-glass
temperature
thermometer
Figure
18.
Umbilical
should
is
used
check
as the
against
room
standard.
cord.
17
Electrical lines
Check
light
the
system.
electrical
Make
there
is no continuity
is
the
not
lines
sure
in
problem,
(3) for
that
the
any
leads
of the
replace
the
continuity
are
lines,
using
an ohmmeter
connected
check
the
to the
or
proper
Amphenol
a battery-
prongs.
If
connections.
If this
cord.
Check Valve
Disconnect
the
the
joint
at the
check
valve
(5) and
add
a drop
the
inlet
with
of lubricating
oil
on
valve.
Vacuum and Pitot lines
Test
Connect
noted,
the
vacuum
the
line
check
all
cause
is
not
using
soapy
the
vacuum
one
and
side.
18
leaks
box
by blocking
and
check
for
and
then,
if necessary,
first
identified,
slightly
leakage
pressurize
the
plugged
as before.
the
line
ball
joint.
If leakage
check
the
tubing.
and
check
for
is
If the
leaks
end
check
of the
Pull
for
If leakage
pitot-tube
line
a vacuum
leaks
is
to a 36-inch
of at least
by noting
noted,
the
check
10 inches,
mercury
the
U-tube
seal
mercury
the
manometer.
tubing
the
same
way
manometer
tubing
at the
Do the
same
as for
the
line.
A sample
umbilical
meter
connections
device.
end,
other
for
water.
a similar
pump
to the
readily
Connect
or
line
cord
check
list
is
shown
should
be numbered.
in
Figure
19.
For
recording
purposes,
the
for
CALIBRATION
NOZZLEDIAMETER
Using
0. 001
and
obtain
the
not
inscribed
the
Make
inch.
should
measure
a micrometer,
10 separate
average
exceed
inside
diameter
measurements
or,
inch.
If the
etch
if new,
The
nozzle
the
of the
using
of the measurements.
0.002
value
the
value
different
largest
is
satisfactory,
of the
inside
at the
same
nozzle
to the
diameters
deviation
each
time
the
average
from
polish
off
diameter
the
on the
nearest
old
outside
of
nozzle.
PITOTTUBE
Measure
of a straight
from
for
any
the
the
run
point
range
direction
for
legs
each
only
in both
for
tube
The
S-type
pitot
the
second
a cross
2 diameters
and
the
the
pitot
Make
pitot
tube
be calibrated
calibration.
Determine
upstream
S-type
should
section
tube
twice,
at least
coefficient
for
as:
those
pitot
tubes
directions,
this
pitot
during
within
and
a standard
direction.
%)
Use
point
downstream
velocities.
of the
determinations
each
with
of gas
direction
AP,
(8 diameters
of disturbance)
the
three
pressure,
of ductwork
desired
reversing
velocity
since
in which
the
= o.99jbP-=T=$X
the
average
nomograph
used
coefficient,
with
the
Cp,
sampling
equals
0.85
train
f 0. 02
is
designed
test
meter
is a
Run
the
number.
DRY 6AS METERAND ORIFICEMETER
Connect
the
components
as shown
l-cubic-foot-per-revolution
about
the
15 minutes
pump
wetted.
Calculate
[email protected]
meter
with
to warm
Then
7,
the
up and
to permit
the
information
gather
the
If an average
orifice
ratio
of accuracy
Y
of 1.0
+ 0.01
in
with
Figure
f
1 percent
manometer
set
the
interior
is not
wet
test
obtained,
21
The
wet
accuracy.
at about
0. 5 inch
surface
as requested
of the
20.
of the
on the
meter
the
data
to the
dry
gas
wet
of water
test
sheet
dry
pump
in
test
meter
for
to allow
meter
to be
Figure
9.
meter,
and
should
be
b
0
i:ll
U-TUBE MANOMETER
. . . .
/
\
--
WET TEST METER
H’
Z-I-
METER BOX
Figure
adjusted
until
the
on top
plate
Since
within
of the
the
the
should
inches
the
specification.
gas
meter
nomograph
0. 25 inch
obtained,
[email protected]
Y meets
is
not
vary
adjusting
designed
for
of water
opening
should
by more
than
If the
of water.
Calibration
This
and
of 1. 84 inches
orifice
20.
can
be
the
linkages.
a [email protected]
is
accomplished
be adjusted
k 0. 15 over
by
of 1. 84 inches
or the
the
record
orifice
range
a value
in this
range
replaced.
on the
is
In
of operation
[email protected]
removing
of water,
If a value
desirable.
is acceptable,
[email protected]
setup.
not
addition,
of 0. 5 to 8
front
of the
meter
box.
HEATINGPROBECALIBRATION
If the
Figure
are
21 may
not
graphs
can
at about
constructed
cubic
as outlined
the
per
probe
or a calibration
by using
various
foot
as outlined
to determine
be constructed
at the
0.75
are
be used
constructed
temperatures
22
probes
variable
minute.
a heat
in Reference
heat
setting
of the
source
transformer
and
1,
the
required.
probes
is
measuring
settings
graphs
while
in
If the
required,
the
inlet
passing
probes
similar
and
air
outlet
through
FIELD OPERATION
Preparing
most
the
difficult
site
part
so that
the
port
is not
to be
a useful
tool
must
use
near
for
can
Scaffolding
of sampling.
sample
equipment
a catwalk
or
sampling
must
other
be positioned
is frequently
occasionally
The
structure.
small-diameter
be
stacks.
the
erected
duorail
when
has
At many
been
sites
the
found
the
sampler
distance
from
e
his
In
the
ingenuity
selecting
probe
the
to the
ment
was
allow
easier
to get
site,
bottom
designed
the
sampling
sample
into
2-l/2-inch
and
equipment
sampler
of the
to fit
entrance
the
should
box
is
keep
without
approaches
vary,
sample
in mind
about
nicking
the
Although
been
the
port.
that
13 inches.
it has
holes,
removal
to the
found
nozzle
the
that
equip-
3-inch
or picking
holes
up deposited
dust.
Because
sampling
isokinetic
sampling
assembly
of the
once
the
probe
equipment
components,
is positioned
will
the
description
be confined
and
adjustment
at the
desired
to the
of the
use
flow
sampling
of the
operation
of the
nomographs,
rate
of the
to isokinetic
conditions
point.
NOMO6RAPHS
The
(Figure
correction
23)
isokinetic
To
factor
have
been
sampling
determine
is first
designed
rate
the
nomograph
for
(Figure
use
adjustments
correction
factor,
moisture,
70 H20.
with
and
22)
the
for
C,
and
sampling
selection
on the
the
operating
train
nomograph
as aids
for
of a convenient
nomograph,
the
rapid
nozzle
following
size.
information
required:
1.
Percent
or
2.
presurvey,
Orifice
calibration
calibration
3.
Meter
(see
section
because
An
estimate
the
factor,
temperature,
temperature
ence.
or before
This
may
sample
[email protected],
be determined
from
a previous
from
the
test
run.
This
is determined
laboratory
on Calibration).
T,.
of the
within
Temperature
pump
10”
and
at the
can
F (approximately
25
easily
meter
be
rises
estimated
+ 1 percent
above
with
error)
ambient
experiis all
REF
1
% HI0
0
I
/---
==STEP
--
’
EXAMPLE
T,
-50
j
that
is necessary
perature
4.
has
Stack
been
Nomograph
i 10
Ps/P,
= 1.05
initial
estimate
This
site
is near
the
is measured
exit
of the
To
obtain
correction
factor,
1.
Draw
line
from
[email protected] to
2.
Draw
line
from
point
“A”
to % H20
(REF
2).
Draw
line
from
point
“B”
to the
calculated
and
to set
the
following
1.
the
nozzle
select
information
C factor.
Same
stack,
Pm.
To
F above
size
T,
is
obtained
to
the
ambient
sample
atmospheric
as atmospheric
C (Figure
is first
This
25”
before
pressure,
C.
C.
tem-
used).
P,.
factor,
factor
of about
Meter
tion
5
C : LO
for correction
5.
3.
the
(an
pressure,
sampling
22.
: 100a~
% H*O
FIND
Figure
1.8
AH,a:
run;
or if the
pressure
is used.
pressure.
22):
obtain
“A”
point
to obtain
on reference
point
value
K-factor
“B”
1 (REF
on reference
P,/P,
on the
line
to obtain
operating
1).
line
2
correc-
nomograph,
required:
from
the
correction-factor
nomograph
(Figure
22).
2.
3.
Stack
traverse
to within
Average
velocity
nary
26
temperature,
pitot
traverse,
T,.
!L 25”
pressure,
using
This
is determined
F before
the
aP.
This
the
average
sample
in
“F
by a rough
temperature
run.
is determined
of minimum
by a rough
and
maximum
prelimiAP’s
in
CORRECTION
FACTOR,
PITOT
c
-2.0
ORIFICE
READING,
AP
K FACTOR
READING,
AH
REF
REF
A-
STEP
-,
0
-0
P
Lo
II
-0
7
1
B
--..
. .
STEP 2
--*-..-.,
-.....
. . ..
1.
.-...._,
STACK
TEMPERATURE,
TS
SLIDING
SCALE
:UT
ALONG
LINES
84’ 1”.
Hz0
: * dlme”s,onle!
..9=
Figure
inches
4.
Exact
23.
procedure
select
(Figure
in selecting
nozzle
C
: 1.0
size and setting
K factor.
of water.
available
available
To
Usa of the nomograph
EXAMPLE
nozzle
sizes,
D.
This
is
obtained
from
calibration
of
nozzles.
the
nozzle
size
and
to
set
the
K-factor
pivot
point,
use
the
following
23):
27
CORRECTION
FACTOR.
PITOT
C
LO
ORIFICE
K FACTOR
READING,
READING,
AP
0 00,
1
, 5
REF
A
TIP
05
PROBE
DIAMETER.
D
2500
.‘ooo
,500
,000
. . . 800
600..
500
100
I 0
STEP 2
,:~-A..
. . . . .._
‘..
.. . ... .
STACK
TEMPERATURE,
T
S
SLIDING
SC*iE
JT
--
ALONG
LINES
EXAMPLE c : 1 0
Ts : 300 9
AP: 0 5 I”. H-j0
IJ : D
In.. 0.375 In.
Figure
inches
4.
Exact
23.
procedure
select
(Figure
in selecting
nozzle
size
is
obtained
and setting
K factor.
of water.
available
available
To
Use of the nomograph
nozzle
This
D.
sizes,
from
calibration
of
nozzles.
the
nozzle
size
and
to
set
the
K-factor
pivot
point,
use
the
following
23):
27
1.
Set
correction
factor,
C,
2.
Align
T,
average
AP,
exact
nozzle
3.
Align
T,
with
4.
Align
the
AP
To
factor
with
factor
pivot
obtain
the
pivot
point
size
probe
to the
tip
reference
diameter
mark,
on D scale,
“A.
and
‘I
select
with
size
selected
and
reference
mark,
“B”,
obtain
a value
on AH
on the
scale,
and
scale.
AP
set
the
K-
the
K-
point.
orifice
meter
has
been
the
pitobe
2.
Read
the
pitot
3.
Align
the
AP
4.
Obtain
The
nomograph
use
the
nozzle
for
isokinetic
following
at the
conditions
procedure
sampling
after
(Figure
24):
pivot
point
point.
AP.
through
the
adjust
K-factor
metering
assumes
not
AH,
setting,
set,
tube
AH and
does
scale
to it.
nozzle
value
Position
T,
note
closest
exact
1.
1.
on sliding
the
change
pivot
valves.
following
more
point.
than
once
25”
the
K-factor
for
T,
< 1000”
does
not
vary
F or
50”
for
is
T,
set:
> 1000“
F.
2.
D is not
changed
3.
T,
estimated
4.
Percent
5.
P,
was
H20
and
Pm
during
the
test.
correctly
remains
and
constant,
remain
within
constant,
within
more
than
10”.
+ 1.0%.
+ 1. 0%.
SAMPLECOLLECTIONASSEMBLY
Pitobe Assembly
After
selecting
a suitable
of the
stainless
union
contains
a stainless
ring,
and
the
2).
If the
asbestos
28
that
stack
cord.
steel
union
nozzle
temperature
probe
on the
steel
side
probe
back
has
remove
length,
inserted
a stainless
is above
Ensure
sheath.
ferrule
500”
steel
F,
the
replace
cover
that
from
the
backwards
front
and
the
probe
and
back
Viton
the
nozzle
side
side
of the
a Viton
A O-
ferrule
A O-ring
(Figure
with
PITOT&R;ADING,
0.001
K FACTOR
1
PROBE
DIAMETER,
D
TIP
STACK
TEMPERATURE,
TS
UT
Figure
24.
Nomograph
the
cover
from
Remove
nomograph),
union.
shank
joint
and
insert
Avoid
and
on the
sampling
the
could
the
use
cause
glass
probe
is about
the
of wrenches
glass
covered
to begin.
LINE!
operation
nozzle
the
SI.IDING
SCALE
ALONG
to obtain
shank
in the
end
probe
as this
probe
until
Mark
desired
of the
selected
sheath
union,
tvould
to crack.
the
the
orifice
bind
assembly
probe
of the
with
nozzle
equipment
heat-resistant
(obtained
finger
ferrules
the
settings.
nozzle
and
the
Keep
meter
from
tighten
to the
tip
and
is
tape
the
the
nozzle
the
ball
complete
or by
29
PITOTz;ADING,
0.001
K FACTOR
1
7
REF.
A.-
QVOT
- ..:\
POINT
--k
\
0
STACK
TEMPERATURE,
TS
SLIDING
SCALE
ALONG
UT
-_3
AH
i 4”.
LINE
H20
c : dlmenslcm*
Ts
nomograph),
union.
shank
Nomograph
the
cover
from
.
joint
and
insert
Avoid
and
on the
sampling
AP
24.
Remove
the
could
the
use
cause
glass
probe
is about
0 : I”.
:oF
Figure
operation
the
nozzle
of wrenches
the
glass
covered
to begin.
EXAMPLE
I AP
AH
: 0.6
= 1.2
EXAMPLE
2 AP
AH
: 0.6
: 1.53
K : dmlenslonless
: I”.
to obtain
shank
in the
end
probe
as this
probe
until
Mark
H20
desired
of the
selected
sheath
union,
would
to crack.
the
the
orifice
bind
assembly
probe
of the
with
nozzle
equipment
heat-resistant
(obtained
finger
ferrules
the
settings.
nozzle
and
the
Keep
meter
from
tighten
to the
tip
and
is
tape
the
the
nozzle
the
ball
complete
or by
29
some
other
method
sampling
the
a temperature
sensor
should
extends
be
with
denote
proper
distance
into
the
stack
or
duct
for
each
point.
Attach
the
to
the
beyond
about
gas
probe
1 inch
the
from
to the
probe
the
metal
tip
pitot
sheath
and
tube
does
and
of the
not
sampling
touch
probe
any
nozzle
probe
metal.
to
so
Its
that
position
avoid
interference
filter
number
flow.
Sample Box Assembly
Place
data
the
the
sheet.
tared
filter
Tighten
rubber
in the
the
clamps
filter
holder
around
the
and
filter
record
the
holder
to prevent
on the
leakage
around
gasket.
Assemble
the
requirements
collection
of the
reactive)
on the
system,
test,
using
lower
half
box
as
a very
of all
shown
light
the
in
coat
male
ball
Figure
of
1 or
silicone
joints
as
dictated
grease
(Figure
by
(acetone
the
non-
15).
LEAK TEST
Place
the
meter
and
connect
the
vacuum
the
outlet
joint
of the
stopper
in
adjust
valve
slowly
until
gauge
reads
flow
on the
meter
and
impingers
to the
check
is
exceeds
leak
turn
forced
the
check
and
the
must
vacuum
backward
into
the
foot
per
found
the
plug
filter
and
the
and
port
box
and
the
ball
coarsevalve
until
the
for
minute
from
This
Check
fine-adjust
meter
test
meter
Turn
gas
the
box.
valve
dry
be
from
of the
sample
open
pump.
thz
feet
inlet
fine-adjust
remove
the
200
leakage.
position
leaks
first
off
of the
0. 02 cubic
or
to
to the
possible
close
complete,
immediately
being
-off
then
meter
the
cord
for
Partially
gas
up
impinger
of mercury;
dry
from
umbilical
cyclone
box
pressure,
the
the
opened.
the
When
cyclone,
to
10 inches
gauge
of the
position
Greenburg-Smith
inlet
fully
a convenient
line
the
through
mercury
last
in
vacuum
flow.
at
If the
10 inches
of
corrected.
the
inlet
prevents
to the
water
from
the
cyclone.
FINAL SAMPLINGTRAIN ASSEMBLY
Remove
half
of the
sure
that
probe
30
by
the
ball
the
joint
rubber
tightening
cover
from
with
silicone
stopper
the
the
probe
is
ball
joint
grease
snug
holding
on the
(Figure
in the
clamps.
opening
probe,
15),
in
lightly
and
the
connect
sample
grease
the
the
probe.
box.
Secure
lower
Make
the
Make
able
all
necessary
transformer
obtained
F or
on the
(use
Figure
at the
desired
meter
box.
on the
before
starting
desired
ice
periodically
last
impinger
meter
box
Allow
test
pitot-tube
so that
Turn
the
and
the
Set
temperature.
box
the
and
21 as a guide).
the
sample
Fill
electrical
sample
make
line
desired
the
box
and
periodic
probe
thermostat
on the
to heat
and
and
for
box
at 250”
probe
at least
adjustments
vari-
is
sample
blower,
probe
the
temperature
on the
heater,
checks
Set
connections.
switches
15 minutes
to assure
the
temperature.
impinger
during
at less
section
of the
testing
to maintain
than
70”
sample
box
the
with
ice
and
temperature
a little
of the
water.
Add
leaving
the
gas
F.
SAMPLERUN
Record
data
all
sheet
in Figure
coarse-adjust
valve
timer
the
cam
first
and
valve
The
and
limit
the
traverse
adjustments
recorded
run
impingers
when
open
the
fine-adjust
cover
from
the
nozzle
tip
read
AP
off
the
the
the
set
point.
such
time,
the
nomograph
AH
on the
shown
as shown
meter
box
the
number
at the
top
of the
reading.
Turn
valve,
and
off the
and
place
on the
sample
the
pitot
set
the
pitobe
tube
at
mano-
previously.
first
by adjusting
the
coarse-
valve.
consider
to about
rule
of thumb
20 percent
pressure
hold.
as that
clock
A good
of traverse
to follow
of the
drop
across
Generally
the
filter
the
filter
length
points
and
is to collect
weight.
and
the
of sampling
a weight
The
upper
amount
time
the
of conat each
10 minutes.
traverse
except
on the
the
when
orifice
regular
AP
the
should
sample
made
Besides
fully
plan
can
is 5 or
pump
box,
meter
fine-adjust
by the
the
meter
the
set
the
gas
from
equal
During
dry
Record
matter
point
turning
sary.
then
is usually
densate
initial
on and
at each
of particulate
the
AH
pump
time
including
point.
sample
sampling
data
Remove
determine
the
initial
on the
to zero.
Turn
adjust
25,
sampling
meter,
.
necessary
changes
time
pitobe
is moved
changing
meter
interval
by more
ports.
with
the
The
aid
point
AP
should
of the
recordings,
than
from
a set
to point
without
be monitored
nomograph
of readings
when
and
neces-
should
be
20 percent.
31
SHUTDOWN
When
pitobe
testing
from
and
probe
nozzle
sample.
probe
the
heat
tip
has
stack,
and
switches
as soon
box
and
for
cleanup
the
cover
inlet
the
completed,
take
and
the
remove
last
the
in
from
cyclone.
impinger
set
enough
probe
to the
turn
a final
as it is cool
Disconnect
and
been
the
the
vacuum
of readings.
probe
from
the
to avoid
cyclone
inlet
The
the
probe
pump,
Turn
order
Disconnect
outlet.
off
off
the
sampling
port.
cover
umbilical
sample
the
heater,
blower,
Cover
contamination
and
and
remove
or loss
both
cord
box
the
end
the
of
of the
from
the
sample
are
then
ready
c
and
the
analytical
procedure.
33
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