Keﬃyeh Yemeni man wearing a kefﬁyeh on his head and a Shal on his shoulder The kefﬁyeh or kuﬁya (Arabic: ﻮﻓﻴﺔ ِ ُﻛ kūﬁyyah, meaning "from the city of ْ plural ﻮﻓﻴﺎت َ ُ;)اﻟﻜ Kufa" (ﻮﻓﺔ ِ ُ ﻛkūﬁyyāt), ُ shemagh also known as a ghutrah (ﺘﺮة َ )ﻏ, ( ُﺷ َﻤﺎغšumāġ), ḥaṭṭah ()ﺣﻄﺔ, َ mashadah ()ﻣ َﺸﺪَ ة, َ chaﬁye, dastmal yazdi (Persian: دﺳﺘﻤﺎل ﯾﺰدی, Kurdish: دەﺳﺘﻤﺎل ﯾﻪزدیdestmal yezdî) or cemedanî (Kurdish: )ﺟﻪﻣﻪداﻧﯽ, is a traditional Arabian headdress, or what is sometimes called a habit, that originated in the Arabian Peninsula, and is now worn throughout the Middle-East region. It is fashioned from a square scarf, and is usually made of cotton. The kefﬁyeh is commonly found in arid regions, as it provides protection from sunburn, dust and sand. Toward the end of the 1980s, the kefﬁyeh became a fashion accessory in the United States and, during the early 2000s it became very popular among teenagers in Tokyo, Japan, where it is often worn with camouﬂage-style clothing. Varieties and variations This section needs additional citations for veriﬁcation. Learn more During his sojourn with the Marsh Arabs of Iraq, Gavin Young noted that the local sayyids—"venerated men accepted [...] as descendants of the Prophet Muhammad and Ali ibn Abi Talib"—wore dark green kefﬁyeh (chefﬁyeh) in contrast to the black-and-white checkered examples typical of the area's inhabitants. Many Palestinian kefﬁyehs are a mix of cotton and wool, which facilitates quick drying and, when desired, keeping the wearer's head warm. The kefﬁyeh is usually folded in half (into a triangle) and the fold worn across the forehead. Often, the kefﬁyeh is held in place by a circlet of rope called an agal (Arabic: ﻋﻘﺎل, ʿiqāl). Some wearers wrap the kefﬁyeh into a turban, while others wear it loosely draped around the back and shoulders. A taqiyah is sometimes worn underneath the kefﬁyeh; in the past, it has also been wrapped around the rim of a fez. The kefﬁyeh is almost always of white cotton cloth, but many have a checkered pattern in red or black stitched into them. The plain white kefﬁyeh is most popular in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf—in Kuwait and Bahrain to the exclusion of almost any other style. The kefﬁyeh is worn by men of all ages, whether on the head or around the shoulders. Jewish rabbi wearing a traditional habit In Jordan, the red-and-white kefﬁyeh is strongly associated with the country and its heritage, because the red color was introduced by the Jordanian Bedouins under British rule, where it is known as the shemagh mhadab. The Jordanian kefﬁyeh has decorative cotton or wool tassels on the sides; the bigger these tassels, the greater the garment's supposed value and the status of the person wearing it. It has long been worn by Bedouins and villagers and used as a symbol of honor and/or tribal identiﬁcation. The tasseled red-and-white Jordanian shemagh is much thicker than the untasseled red-and-white shemagh seen in Persian Gulf countries. In Egypt, the kefﬁyeh and the agal is worn by Bedouins specially in the Sinai Peninsula. It is also sometimes tied into a turban in varying styles. In Yemen, the kefﬁyeh is used extensively in both red-white and black-white pattern. It spread during 1948 through Palestinian refugees. In Malaysia, the kefﬁyeh has been worn by Muslim women as part of hijab fashion and during the Palestinian struggle against Israel. Many Malaysians wore it to show solidarity for Palestine. Also in Indonesia the people used the kefﬁyeh to show their solidarity with the Palestinians. In Turkey it was forbidden to wear a kefﬁyeh because it was seen as evidence of support of the PKK. The kefﬁyeh, especially the all-white kefﬁyeh, is also known as the ghutrah. This is particularly common in the Arabian Peninsula, where the optional skullcap is called a kefﬁyeh. The garment is also known in some areas as the ḥaṭṭah. This section does not cite any sources. Learn more Roughly speaking: Ordinary kefﬁyeh A piece of white/orange/black cloth made from wool and cotton, worn primarily by Palestinians. Shalls/Musar A traditional scarf originated from Yemen, usually made of cotton or ﬂax and decorated with many colors, but usually red and white; worn primarily by Yemen, & Oman. Shemagh A plain piece of cloth worn by the Arabian Gulf. Dastmaal Yazdi The King of Morocco wearing a rezzah A traditional scarf in Iran, originally from the Yazd region of Iran. Chaﬁyeh A style of kefﬁyeh that originated in Iran, based on the Iranian Dastmaal Yazdi with inﬂuences from the Palestinian Kefﬁyeh. Often worn by Shi'a Muslims in Iran as well as Iraq and Lebanon to express support for Shi'a Political parties. The scarf gained popularity during the IranIraq war as a sign of Shi'a resistance against Saddam. The Chaﬁyeh is also worn by Basij members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps, Hezbollah, as well as occasionally by members of Iraq's Popular Mobilization Forces, but also by ordinary Shia religious pilgrims not afﬁliated with any political group. Ghutrah A piece of white cloth made of cotton mild, worn in western Iraq and by the Arabs of the Arabian Gulf states. Rezza It is worn by inhabitants of North Africa. Palestinian national symbol Traditionally worn by Palestinian farmers, the kefﬁyeh became worn by Palestinian men of any rank and became a symbol of Palestinian nationalism during the Arab Revolt of the 1930s. Its prominence increased during the 1960s with the beginning of the Palestinian resistance movement and its adoption by Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Yasser Arafat wearing his iconic ﬁshnet pattern kefﬁyeh in 2001 The black-and-white ﬁshnet pattern kefﬁyeh would later become Arafat's iconic symbol, and he would rarely be seen without it; only occasionally would he wear a military cap, or, in colder climates, a Russian-style ushanka hat. Arafat would wear his kefﬁyeh in a semitraditional way, wrapped around his head via an agal. He also wore a similarly patterned piece of cloth in the neckline of his military fatigues. Early on, he had made it his personal trademark to drape the scarf over his right shoulder only, arranging it in the rough shape of a triangle, to resemble the outlines of historic Palestine. This way of wearing the kefﬁyeh became a symbol of Arafat as a person and political leader, and it has not been imitated by other Palestinian leaders. Another Palestinian ﬁgure associated with the kefﬁyeh is Leila Khaled, a female member of the armed wing of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Several photographs of Khaled circulated in the Western newspapers after the hijacking of TWA Flight 840 and the Dawson's Field hijackings. These photos often included Khaled wearing a kefﬁyeh in the style of a Muslim woman's hijab, wrapped around the head and shoulders. This was unusual, as the kefﬁyeh is associated with Arab masculinity, and many believe this to be something of a fashion statement by Khaled, denoting her equality with men in the Palestinian armed struggle. The colors of the stitching in a kefﬁyeh are also vaguely associated with Palestinians' political sympathies. Traditional black and white kefﬁyehs became associated with Fatah. Later, red and white kefﬁyehs were adopted by Palestinian Marxists, such as the PFLP. The color symbolism of the scarves is by no means universally accepted by all Palestinians or Arabs. Its importance should not be overstated, as the scarves are used by Palestinians and Arabs of all political afﬁliations, as well as by those with no particular political sympathies. Symbol of Palestinian solidarity … This section needs additional citations for veriﬁcation. Learn more The black and white chequered kefﬁyeh has become a symbol of Palestinian nationalism, dating back to the 1936– 1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. Outside of the Middle East and North Africa, the kefﬁyeh ﬁrst gained popularity among activists supporting the Palestinians in the conﬂict with Israel. The wearing of the kefﬁyeh often comes with criticism from various political factions in the ongoing Israeli– Palestinian conﬂict. The slang "kefﬁyeh kinderlach" refers to young Jews, particularly college students, who sport a kefﬁyeh around the neck as a political/fashion statement. This term may have ﬁrst appeared in print in an article by Bradley Burston in which he writes of "the suburban-exile kafﬁyeh kinderlach of Berkeley, more Palestinian by far than the Palestinians" in their criticism of Israel. European activists have also worn the kefﬁyeh. While Western protesters wear differing styles and shades of kefﬁyeh, the most prominent is the black-and-white kefﬁyeh. This is typically worn around the neck like a neckerchief, simply knotted in the front with the fabric allowed to drape over the back. Other popular styles include rectangular-shaped scarves with the basic black-and-white pattern in the body, with the ends knitted in the form of the Palestinian ﬂag. Since the Al-Aqsa Intifada, these rectangular scarves have increasingly appeared with a combination of the Palestinian ﬂag and Al-Aqsa Mosque printed on the ends of the fabric. Production … A loom at work making a traditional Palestinian kefﬁyeh in the Hirbawi factory, Hebron, West Bank Today, this symbol of Palestinian identity is now largely imported from China. With the scarf's growing popularity in the 2000s, Chinese manufacturers entered the market, driving Palestinians out of the business. In 2008, Yasser Hirbawi, who for ﬁve decades had been the only Palestinian manufacturer of kefﬁyehs, is now struggling with sales. Mother Jones wrote, "Ironically, global support for Palestinian-statehood-as-fashionaccessory has put yet another nail in the cofﬁn of the Occupied Territories' beleaguered economy." Westerners in keﬃyeh T. E. Lawrence at Rabegh, north of Jeddah, in 1917 British Colonel T. E. Lawrence (better known as Lawrence of Arabia) was probably the best-known Western wearer of the kefﬁyeh and agal during his involvement in the Arab Revolt in World War I. This image of Lawrence was later popularized by the ﬁlm epic about him, Lawrence of Arabia, in which he was played by Peter O'Toole. The 1920s silent-ﬁlm era of American cinema saw studios take to Orientalist themes of the exotic Middle East, possibly due to the view of Arabs as part of the Allies of World War I, and kefﬁyehs became a standard part of the theatrical wardrobe. These ﬁlms and their male leads typically had Western actors in the role of an Arab, often wearing the kefﬁyeh with the agal (as with The Sheik and The Son of the Sheik, starring actor Rudolph Valentino). Erwin Rommel also commonly wore a kefﬁyeh during the Western Desert Campaign for practical reasons. Fashion trend As with other articles of clothing worn in wartime, such as the T-shirt, fatigues and khaki pants, the kefﬁyeh has been seen as chic among non-Arabs in the West. Kefﬁyehs became popular in the United States in the late 1980s, at the start of the First Intifada, when bohemian girls and punks wore kefﬁyehs as scarves around their necks. In the early 2000s, kefﬁyehs were very popular among youths in Tokyo, who often wore them with camouﬂage clothing. The trend recurred in the mid-2000s in the United States, Europe, Canada and Australia, when the kefﬁyeh became popular as a fashion accessory, usually worn as a scarf around the neck in hipster circles. Stores such as Urban Outﬁtters and TopShop stocked the item (however, after some controversy over the retailer's decision to label the item "anti-war scarves" Urban Outﬁtters pulled it). In spring 2008, kefﬁyehs in colors like purple and mauve were given away in issues of fashion magazines in Spain and France. In UAE, males are inclining towards more western headgear while the women are developing preferences for dupatta—the traditional head cover of the Indian subcontinent. The appropriation of the kefﬁyeh as a fashion statement by non- Arab wearers separate from its political and historical meaning has been the subject of controversy in recent years. While it is worn often as a symbol of solidarity with the Palestinian struggle, the fashion industry has disregarded its signiﬁcance by using its pattern and style in day-to-day clothing design. For example, in 2016 Topshop released a romper with the Kefﬁyeh print, calling it a "scarf playsuit". This led to accusations of cultural appropriation and Topshop eventually pulled the item from their website Use Gallery Jordanian Bedouin forces noncommissioned ofﬁcer wearing shemagh in Petra 2004 Persian children wearing the kefﬁyeh during a religious gathering U.S. Marine wearing a shemagh at the Afghanistan–Pakistan border See also Aghal, Arabian headdress Bisht, Arabian cloak Cap Gamcha, scarf from the Indian subcontinent Gingham, scarf from Malaysia ʿEmamah, Arabian turban Krama, Cambodian scarf List of headgear Litham, Arabian headdress Sudra (headdress), Jewish scarf Tagelmust, Berber scarf Tallit, Jewish shawl Thawb, Arabian garment Balaclava References 1. Ali, Syed Ameer (1924). A Short History Of The Saracens . Routledge. pp. 424–. ISBN 978-1-136-19894-6. "Kufa was famous for its silk and half-silk kerchiefs for the head, which are still used in Western Asia and known as Kufﬁyeh." 2. J. R. Bartlett (19 July 1973). The First and Second Books of the Maccabees . CUP Archive. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-521-09749-9. Retrieved 17 April 2013. "traditional Jewish head-dress was either something like the Arab's Kefﬁyeh (a cotton square folded and wound around a head) or like a turban or stocking cap" 3. Young, Gavin (1978) [First published by William Collins & Sons in 1977]. Return to the Marshes. Photography by Nik Wheeler. Great Britain: Futura Publications. pp. 15–16. ISBN 07088-1354-2. "There was a difference here for nearly all of them wore dark green keﬁyahs (or chefﬁyeh) (headcloths) instead of the customary black and white check ones. By that sign we could tell that they were sayyids, like the sallow-faced man at Falih's." 4. Times, Asia. "Asia Times | Indonesia shows its solidarity for the Palestinian cause | Article" . Asia Times. Retrieved 21 September 2019. 5. Uche, Onyebadi (14 February 2017). Music as a Platform for Political Communication. IGI Global. p. 214. ISBN 9781522519874. 6. Kim, Kibum. "Where Some See Fashion, Others See Politics" The New York Times (11 February 2007). 7. Torstrick, Rebecca (2004). Culture and Customs of Israel. Greenwood. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-313-32091-0. 8. Binur, Yoram (1990). My Enemy, My Self. Penguin. p. xv. 9. Tipton, Frank B. (2003). A History of Modern Germany Since 1815. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 598. ISBN 0-8264-4910-7. 10. Mudde, Cas (2005). Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 0415-35594-X. 11. Sonja Sharp (22 June 2009). "Your Intifada: Now Made in China!" . Mother Jones. 12. Nina (15 February 2005). "Checkered Past: Arafat's trademark scarf is now military chic" . The Village Voice. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. 13. Arjun Ramachandran (30 May 2008). "Kefﬁyeh kerfufﬂe hits Bondi bottleshop" . The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 29 August 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 14. Arjun Ramachandran (29 May 2008). "Celebrity chef under ﬁre for 'jihadi chic' " . The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 15. "What do Arabs wear on their heads" . UAE Style Magazine. 16. "Topshop pulls 'kefﬁyeh playsuit' after row over cultural theft" . middleeasteye.net. Retrieved 1 September 2017. Further reading Philippi, Dieter (2009). Sammlung Philippi – Kopfbedeckungen in Glaube, Religion und Spiritualität. St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig. ISBN 978-3-7462-28006. Jastrow, Marcus (1926). Dictionary of Targumim, Talmud and Midrashic Literature. ISBN 978-1-56563-860-0. The lexicon includes more references explaining what a sudra is on page 962. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kefﬁyeh. "The Kefﬁyeh and the Arab Heartland" from About.com "Saudi Aramco World: The dye that binds" by Caroline Stone More references about a sudra on page 962 from Jastrow Dictionary Online Modern Chronology of the Kefﬁyah Kraze from Arab American blog Kabobfest Che Couture Gives way to Kurds' Puşi Chic by Işıl Eğrikavuk, Hurriyet Palestinian Kefﬁyeh outgrows Mideast conﬂict Last factory in Palestine produces Kufﬁyeh Hirbawi: The Only Original Kuﬁya Made in Palestine Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Kefﬁyeh&oldid=966267476" Last edited 19 days ago by 126.96.36.199 Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.