Unit 307 Healthy eating and well being for

Unit 307 Healthy eating and well
being for the complementary
therapy client
Federica Cerutti 872786
Zofia Kogut
Content page
• Task 1a> page 3
• Task 1b: page 16
• Task 1c: page 31
task 1a: Effect of cooking process on
• For some foods, it is necessary to pass through
the cooking process, since we would not be able
to digest them. For example, eating raw potatoes
would give us stomach pain.
• The main foods affected by heat are fruit and
• 2 vitamins are altered or destroyed by heat –
vitamin Bs – thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin
(B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic
acid (B7) and cobalamin (B8).
• and vitamin C.
Different cooking processes
• Boiling, simmering, and poaching
• Boiling, simmering, and poaching are similar methods of waterbased cooking.
• These techniques differ by water temperature:
• poaching: less than 180°F (82°C)
• simmering: 185–200°F (85–93°C)
• boiling: 212°F (100°C)
Veggies are usually rich in vitamin C.
Problem is that this vitamin is water soluble so a lot of it is lost during
the process of cooking. On the other hand, it is shown that omega 3
fatty acids that lives in fishes are preserved so much more during
boiling rather then microwaving or frying process.
Different cooking processes
• Grilling and broiling
• Grilling and broiling are similar methods of
cooking with dry heat.
• When grilling, the heat source comes from below,
but when broiling, it comes from above.
• Grilling and broiling provide great flavor but also
reduce levels of B vitamins. Also, grilling
generates potentially cancer-causing substances.
Fats and lipids Fats consists
of glycerol
and 3 fatty
acids. There
are two
types of fatty
saturated and
In a saturated
fatty acid, it
has the
number of
possible, thus
there are no
double bonds.
acids have
important fun
ctions in
the body,
storage. If
glucose (a
type of sugar)
isn't available
for energy,
the body uses
fatty acids to
fuel the cells
Butter is an
example of
fatty acid.
trout, herring,
flaxseed oil,
and canola
Other foods t
hat contain
omega-3 fatty
acids include
clams, light
A,b1,b2,b6,b12, c,
d, k
Vitamin A is a group
of unsaturated
nutritional organic
compounds that
includes retinol,
retinal, retinoic
acid, and several
provitamin A
carotenoids (most
notably betacarotene).
Vitamin B1 is a
vitamin, as are all
vitamins of the B
Vitamin b2: is a
water soluble
Vitamin A has
multiple functions:
it is important for
growth and
development, for
the maintenance of
the immune
system, and for
good vision.
Vitamin B1,
thiamin, or
thiamine, enables
the body to use
carbohydrates as
energy. It is
essential for glucose
metabolism, and it
plays a key role in
nerve, muscle, and
heart function.
Vitamin A:
sources of betacarotene such as
broccoli, spinach,
and most dark
green, leafy
Vitamin b1: yeast,
beef, pork, nuts,
whole grains, and
Vitamin B12 is
naturally found in
animal products,
including fish, meat,
poultry, eggs, milk,
and milk products.
Vitamine b2>milk,
Vitamine b2: People breads, fortified
The structure of B12 need to consume
cereals, almonds,
is based on a corrin vitamin B2 every
asparagus, dark
Vitamin c
Food source
Vitamin C also
known as
ascorbic acid
(AA) is an
nutrient in
especially in
Ascorbic acid
is a watersoluble
vitamin and is
found in
quantities in
fruits and
and organ
meats (e.g.
It is needed
for the repair
of tissues in
all parts of
the body. The
functions of
vitamin C
include the
formation of
protein used
to make skin,
and blood
vessels for
wounds and
forming scar
tissue, for
repairing and
citrus fruits
such as limes,
oranges and
papaya, green
and red
green leafy
such as
cereals and its
juices are also
Source food
lean red meat.
seafood, including
lentils and beans.
fortified breakfast
dried fruits, such as
prunes, figs, and
Food source
Calcium is a chemical element with the
symbol Ca and atomic number 20. As an
alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive
metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer
when exposed to air.
Function. Calcium is one of the most
important minerals for the human body. It
helps form and maintain healthy teeth and
bones. A proper level of calcium in the
body over a lifetime can help prevent
Food source
The main function of phosphorus is in the
formation of bones and teeth. It plays an
important role in how the body uses
carbohydrates and fats. It is also needed for
the body to make protein for the growth,
maintenance, and repair of cells and tissues.
Which foods have phosphorus? Phosphorus is
found in high amounts in protein foods such as
milk and milk products and meat and
alternatives, such as beans, lentils and nuts.
Grains, especially whole grains provide
phosphorus. Phosporus is found in smaller
amounts in vegetables and fruit.
Food source
Magnesium is needed for more than 300
biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to
maintain normal nerve and muscle function,
supports a healthy immune system, keeps the
heartbeat steady, and helps bones remain
strong. It also helps adjust blood glucose
levels. It aids in
the production of energy and protein.
PLUS: did you know the magnesium is really
helpful with period pains mood swings?
It can help with the production and releasing
of serotonine, the happy
Food source
Potassium is one of the most important
minerals in the body. It helps regulate fluid
balance, muscle contractions and nerve
signals. What's more, a high-potassium diet
may help reduce blood pressure and water
retention, protect against stroke and prevent
osteoporosis and kidney stones.
Bananas, oranges, cantaloupe, honeydew,
apricots, grapefruit (some dried fruits, such as
prunes, raisins, and dates, are also high
in potassium)
Cooked spinach.
Cooked broccoli.
Sweet potatoes.
Food source
Sodium is an essential electrolyte that helps
maintain the balance of water in and around
your cells. It's important for proper muscle and
nerve function. It also helps maintain stable
blood pressure levels. Insufficient sodium in
your blood is also known as hyponatremia.
Sodium is found mainly in body fluids. It plays
a major role in maintaining blood volume and
blood pressure by attracting and holding
BEETS. Red and gold and with around 65
milligrams of sodium per beet, these vibrant
root vegetables may become your favorite salt
substitute. ...
MEAT. ...
Food source
Chloride is one of the major minerals in
the human body and helps fluid levels in
the body remain balanced by working closely
with both sodium and
potassium. Chloride works by maintaining fluid
levels on the outside of cells in the body.
Chloride is found in table salt or sea salt as
sodium chloride. It is also found in
many vegetables. Foods with higher amounts
of chloride include seaweed, rye, tomatoes,
lettuce, celery, and olives. Chloride, combined
with potassium, is also found in many foods.
Task 1b: healthy eating leaflet
• What is a balanced diet?
A balanced diet includes foods from five groups and fulfills all of a
person’s nutritional needs.
• balanced diet provides all the nutrients a person requires, without
going over the recommended daily calorie intake.
• By eating a balanced diet, people can get the nutrients and calories
they need and avoid eating junk food, or food without nutritional
• According to the USDA’s recommendations, half of a person’s plate
should consist of fruits and vegetables.
• The other half should be made up of grains and protein. They
recommend accompanying each meal with a serving of low-fat
dairy or another source of the nutrients found in dairy.
The 5 food groups
A healthful, balanced diet includes foods from
these five groups:
. A balanced diet should offer around 60-70%
of total calories from carbohydrates, 10-12%
from proteins and 20-25% of total calories
from fat.
Healthy eating for women
• Women have special nutrient needs, and, during each stage of a
woman's life, these needs change.
• Iron-rich Foods:For example, iron needs are higher during
pregnancy and lower after reaching menopause.
• Folate (and Folic Acid) During the Reproductive Years>When
women reach childbearing age folate (or folic acid) plays an
important role in decreasing the risk of birth defects. The
requirement for women who are not pregnant is 400 micrograms
(mcg) per day.
• A growing body of evidence suggests diets rich in omega-3 fatty
acids such as fish, calcium and vitamin D, and low in animal fats, salt
and caffeine may reduce the risk of troublesome PMS symptoms.
Avoiding salt can help reduce fluid retention, abdominal bloating,
breast swelling and pain. High caffeine intake can cause irritability,
poor sleep and menstrual cramps.
Basal metabolic rate
• Even when resting, your body burns calories by
performing basic functions to sustain life, such as:
• breathing
• circulation
• nutrient processing
• cell production
• Basal metabolic rate is the number of calories
your body needs to accomplish its most basic
(basal) life-sustaining functions.
• BMR is used to understand how many calories
each person needs a day, depending on their
lifestyle, whether is active or passive , age and
Unit of energy
• According to British nutrition Foundation,
“Energy is measured in units of kilocalories
(kcal) or kilojoules (kJ). One kilocalorie (1 kcal)
is equal to 4.18 kilojoules (4.18 kJ). The
amount of energy a food contains per gram is
known as its energy density so we can
describe fat as more energy dense than
protein or carbohydrate.”
How processed foods can affect our
• First of all, what are processed foods?
• By definition, a processed food is a food item
that has had a series of mechanical or
chemical operations performed on it to
change or preserve it.
There are many potential health effects of
ultra processed foods, including:
Increased cancer risk
Heavily processed foods often include
unhealthy levels of
added sugar, sodium and fat. These ingredients
make the food we eat taste better, but too
much of them leads to serious health issues
like obesity, heart disease, high blood
pressure and diabetes.
Lacking in nutritional value. Heavy
processing strips many foods of their basic
nutrients, which is why many foods today are
fortified with fiber, vitamins and minerals.
Quicker to digest.
It’s estimated we burn half as many calories
digesting processed foods compared to
unprocessed foods.
Full of artificial ingredients. There are
about 5,000 substances that get added
to our food. Most of them have never
been tested by anyone other than the
company using them. That includes
additives to change color, texture, flavor
and odor as well as ingredients like
preservatives and sweeteners.
Calorie dense and addicting. It’s very easy to
overindulge in unhealthy food and consume
more calories than we realize
Additives in food
• Flavour enhancers – monosodium glutamate
(MSG) 621
• Food colourings – tartrazine 102; yellow
2G107; sunset yellow FCF110; cochineal 120
• Preservatives – benzoates 210, 211, 212, 213;
nitrates 249, 250, 251, 252; sulphites 220,
221, 222, 223, 224, 225 and 228
• Artificial sweetener – aspartame 951.
Antibiotics: Farmers feed many animals,
particularly poultry and pigs, antibiotics to
reduce the death rate from infection, which
occurs in very crowded conditions, and to
enhance growth and weight gain. The residues
of these chemicals remain in the processed
meat that humans eat. Overuse of antibiotics
creates super bacteria that evolve to resist
every antibiotic, which, as you can imagine,
isn’t good for the human population.
Unfortunately, consuming small amounts of
antibiotics in food is the best way to help these
superbugs evolve. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria
are becoming a huge problem in the medical
field. There may come a day when a simple cut
or scrape could lead to a life-threatening
infection we can no longer treat.
Effects of environmental pollutants in
the body
• Vitamin D deficiency
Air pollution containing molecules called polyhalogenated aromatic
hydrocarbons (PHAH) have been shown to cause vitamin deficiency.
These chemicals get into the body and increase the breakdown of
Vitamin A. It is believed that they block the functions of enzymes that
make Vitamin A.
- Lung damage
- Air pollution can contain particles that react with metal ions that
are naturally found in the body. For example, iron atoms help carry
oxygen in the blood and are one of the trace elements needed for
healthy bodies. The particles in air pollution have chemical arms
that react with iron to form harmful products. These particles get
stuck in the lungs, react with iron, and can result in an accumulation
of iron in the lungs.
- Body homeostasis
Homeostasis is the process by which the body
maintains normal conditions for things like
temperature, heart rate and growth rate.
Environmental pollution can dramatically affect
homeostasis because chemical pollutants can
behave like hormones, which are the molecules
that organs use to "talk" to each other.
• Hearth
• This results in breathing problems, from
asthma to emphysema to lung cancer. There is
now overwhelming evidence that air pollution
results in serious harm not only to the lungs,
but also to the heart. Here it increases the risk
of heart attacks as arteries narrow and
muscles weaken.
• Reproduction, babies and children
• Perhaps the most disturbing impact of toxic
air is the damage to reproduction and
children. Fertility is reduced and miscarriages
increased by exposure to air pollution.
• The unborn are also affected, with a recent
study finding pollutants in the placentas that
nourish foetuses.
Task 1c: eating disorders
• An eating disorder is when you have an
unhealthy attitude to food, which can take over
your life and make you ill.
• It can involve eating too much or too little, or
becoming obsessed with your weight and body
• But there are treatments that can help and you
can recover from an eating disorder.
• Men and women of any age can get an eating
disorder, but they most commonly affect young
women aged 13 to 17 years old.
• Orthorexia, or orthorexia nervosa, is an eating disorder that
involves an unhealthy obsession with healthy eating.
• Orthorexia was defined in 1997 by Dr. Steven Bratman, MD
• Orthorexia refers to an unhealthy obsession with eating
“pure” food. Food considered “pure” or “impure” can vary
from person to person. This doesn’t mean that anyone who
subscribes to a healthy eating plan or diet is suffering from
orthorexia. As with other eating disorders, the eating
behaviour involved – “healthy” or “clean” eating in this
case – is used to cope with negative thoughts and feelings,
or to feel in control. Someone using food in this way might
feel extremely anxious or guilty if they eat food they feel is
• Research on the precise causes of orthorexia is
sparse, but obsessive-compulsive tendencies and
former or current eating disorders are known risk
• Other risk factors include tendencies toward
perfectionism, high anxiety, or a need for control
• Several studies also report that individuals
focused on health for their career may have a
higher risk of developing orthorexia.
Pica is an eating disorder that involves eating
items that are not typically thought of as food
and that do not contain significant nutritional
value, such as hair, dirt, and paint chips.
Pica often occurs with other
mental health disorders
associated with impaired
functioning (e.g., intellectual
disability, autism spectrum
disorder, schizophrenia).
Iron-deficiency anemia and
malnutrition are two of the
most common causes of pica
followed by pregnancy. In
these individuals, pica is a sig
that the body is trying to
correct a significant nutrient
deficiency. Treating this
deficiency with medication or
vitamins often resolves the
A medical professional should
assess if the behavior is
sufficiently severe to warrant
independent clinical attention
(e.g., some people may
34 eat
nonfood items during
• Binge eating disorder involves regularly
eating large portions of food all at once until
you feel uncomfortably full, and then often
upset or guilty.
• Binges are often planned in advance and the
person may buy "special" binge foods.
• Men and women of any age can get binge
eating disorder, but it typically starts in the
late teens or early 20s.
• Symptoms of binge eating disorder
• The main symptom of binge eating disorder is eating very
large amounts of food in a short time, often in an out-ofcontrol way. But symptoms may also include:
• eating very fast during a binge
• eating until you feel uncomfortably full
• eating when you're not hungry
• eating alone or secretly
• feeling depressed, guilty, ashamed or disgusted after binge
• People who regularly eat in this way may have binge eating
• Exacted causes of Binge are unknown. You may be
more likely to get an eating disorder if:
• you or a member of your family has a history of eating
disorders, depression, or alcohol or drug addiction
• you have been criticised for your eating habits, body
shape or weight
• you are overly concerned with being slim, particularly if
you also feel pressure from society or your job – for
example, ballet dancers, jockeys, models or athletes
• you have anxiety, low self-esteem, an obsessive
personality or are a perfectionist
• you have been sexually abused
Dairy intolerance
• Lactose intolerance is caused by a shortage of lactase enzymes, which
causes an inability to digest lactose and results in digestive symptoms.
• A survey has in fact shown a correlation between lactose intolerance
and depression. The survey participants were women who filled in a
questionnaire for determining a depression. The evaluation showed that
women with lactose intolerance had a stronger tendency towards
depressions than healthy women - due to the impairement of a certain
amino acid (L-tryptophan). The main task of this amino acid is to bring
happiness as it is transformed by the body to serotonin. [17]
• Conclusion: Indeed, the study showed a reduced production of an amino
acid which influences our emotional state - a general statement can,
however, not be made and recommendations for action cannot be given.
• Lactose and asthma
• The complaints caused by lactose intolerance are mainly referring to the
gastrointestinal tract. Thus, lactose intolerance does not promote asthma
diseases. Here, too, the follwing rule applies: If you feel respiratory
problems after consumption, you should do a test for milk allergy. [12]
Food additive: Monosodium glutamate
• MSG, which is used as a flavor enhancer, has for
decades been popularly linked to various health
problems, such as headaches and allergic reactions. It's
even been considered a factor in infantile obesity.
• Specifically, central system glutamate dysregulation
has been associated with symptoms of anxiety,
posttraumatic stress, obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD), mania, depression, and
psychosis, with the strongest evidence
for glutamate's role in schizophrenia.
• On the physical level, it is claimed to cause asthma,
headaches and even brain damage
Food toxins> mercury in fish
• How bad is mercury in fish?
• Fish is one of the healthiest foods you can eat. That's
because it's a great source of protein, micronutrients, and
healthy fats. However, some types of fish can contain high
levels of mercury, which is toxic. In fact, mercury exposure
has been linked to serious health problems.
• You can also be exposed by eating fish
and shellfish because these animals absorb low
concentrations of mercury due to water pollution.
• Over time, methylmercury — the organic form — can
concentrate in their bodies.
• Methylmercury is highly toxic, causing serious health
problems when it reaches certain levels in your body.
• In both humans and animals, higher levels of
mercury are associated with brain problems.
• A study in 129 Brazilian adults found that higher
levels of mercury in hair were associated with a
decrease in fine motor skills, dexterity, memory,
and attention
• Recent studies also link exposure to heavy metals
— such as mercury — to conditions like
Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, autism, depression,
and anxiety
Reflective practice
• I’ve really enjoyed doing this assignment!
• I think it has been the more interesting one to research on and I feel
I’ve learned lots of new things.
• The part on healthy eating was particulary good for me because I
already enjoy eating healthy so everything more I learn about this is
great. I had the possibility to get more consiousness about what I
introduce in my body. I think eating healthy and being conscious
about the meaning of nourishing ourself is important for the human
development. If we want to become a better society and live in a
better world we need to 1. make sure that every living being in the
world have access to proper food 2. people from “the developed
word” should learn how to really nourish themselves. We are what
we eat, Romans sayd, so if we want to be better people, we need to
learn how to better nourish ourself.
• “Let Food Be Thy Medicine” documentary by
university of california