Subido por Nelson Castro


Instituto Nicaragüense
de Tecnología Agropecuaria
Optimal conditions for the establishment of the crop
To start sowing orange, you need enough moisture in the soil, the environment must be fresh, at
least three to four heavy rains is needed to moisture or soak the soil, at least thirty centimeters
The soil should be clean, staking out the recommended distance and make holes two quarters
wide, long and deep. If the plot has superficial layers of hard material it is necessary to break it
and remove it to carry out the sowing, filling the pots with organic fertilizer to achieve good root
It is not recommended to sow in areas with strong winds, because they cause great damage to
the crop; they cause the flowers and fruits to fall off in all their stages of development, chafing of
fruits by branches, that affect the physical appearance, sow wind breaker curtains; in undulating
and broken lands, orient the plantations from north to south, in case it is not possible to plant in
contour curves with wide paths.
Number of plants and planting distances
For the establishment of a manzana of orange 168 grafted plants is needed, sown at a distance of
6 meters between plants and 7 meters between rows.
Weed control practices
In the first two years, in order to reduce the presence of weeds, it is recommended to establish
bean crops and green fertilizer in association.
Clean the area using mechanical brushcutter, taking care not to cause injuries at the base of the
plant to prevent the entry of diseases such as gummosis. It is recommended to place stubble or
vegetable cover in the clean area. Perform this activity monthly during the rainy season.
Weed management should be done at a height of 10 centimeters to prevent weeds from blooming,
protect the soil and conserve moisture. Avoid the growth and development of climbing weeds such
as batatilla, bell, others such as castenebuene (parasite lianas) because they cause strangulation
in the branches, drying them and causing death of the tree.
Pruning management
In young trees choose from 3 to 4 branches well distributed around the plant, when they are 20 cm
long prune them, selecting again 2 to 3 branches of the new sprouting of each main branch. Adult
trees require light pruning to eliminate dead, unproductive, crisscrossed, diseased and suckers
and redundant branches. This type of pruning is done before flowering and after the harvest.
The pruning of lower branches should not be done more than 40 centimeters high from the ground,
leaving a kind of “miniskirt”.
The cuts should be made flush with the trunk or branches without leaving stumps, so that the
healing is quick and avoid diseases. In each cut apply a copper paste or sulfocalcic broth to seal
wounds and prevent diseases.
Fertilization and amendment of the
transplant use 1 ounce of urea mixed with 3 and a half ounces of
complete fertilizer 18-46-0 per plant at the bottom of the hole. The
second application is made after two months with 1 ounce of urea per
plant. The third occurs with the onset of the rainy season using 1 ounce of
urea mixed with 3 and a half ounces of 18-46-0 per plant.
55 IN THE SECOND AND THIRD YEAR, apply at the beginning of the rainy season 3 ounces
of urea mixed with 7 ounces of 18-46-0 per plant. The second application is done two months
later with 3 ounces of urea per plant. The third application is done with the onset of the rainy
season using 3 ounces of urea mixed with 7 ounces of 18-46-0 per plant.
55 FROM THE FOURTH YEAR ON, apply 1.5 pounds of urea mixed with 1 pound of complete
fertilizer 12-30-10 per plant at the beginning of the rainy season. A second application is carried
out at the end of the rainy season using 1.5 pounds of urea mixed with one pound of fertilizer
Full 12-30-10 per floor.
55 FOR PLANTS IN DEVELOPMENT DURING THE DRY PERIOD, apply liquid bio fertilizers
every fortnight in a dose of 2 liters per pump. For plants in production, apply bio fertilizers
enriched with boron, calcium, magnesium and zinc before flowering. This fertilization must be
done in the morning or at dusk.
Instituto Nicaragüense
de Tecnología Agropecuario
La elaboración y reproducción
de este material es financiado por el
proyecto PAIPSAN-CCN.