877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 4/8/08 12:33 Página 1 TEACHER’S RESOURCE PACK www.santillana.es 1 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 2 Contents INTRODUCTION Student’s Book organisation.................................................................................... 4 Classroom techniques ............................................................................................ 5 Teacher’s Resource Pack.......................................................................................... 12 PowerPoint presentations ....................................................................................... 14 Webquests.............................................................................................................. 15 Values and competencies........................................................................................ 17 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE PROGRAMMING AND RESOURCES 1 The Universe..................................................................................................... 20 2 Planet Earth ...................................................................................................... 28 3 Living things ..................................................................................................... 36 4 Invertebrates ..................................................................................................... 44 5 Vertebrates ........................................................................................................ 52 6 The plant and fungi kingdoms .......................................................................... 60 7 The simplest living things ................................................................................. 68 8 The Earth’s atmosphere ..................................................................................... 76 9 The hydrosphere ............................................................................................... 84 10 Minerals ............................................................................................................ 92 11 Rocks ................................................................................................................ 100 12 Matter and its properties ................................................................................... 108 13 Everything is matter .......................................................................................... 116 14 Atoms and elements .......................................................................................... 124 2 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 3 Essential Natural Science Essential Natural Science is a four-level course which teaches the core curricular objectives of Natural Science to students aged 12 to 16. Drawing on recent progress in the field of CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning), the course has been designed as an effective, user-friendly tool in the classroom. Its goal is to combine scientific accuracy with clarity of presentation and simplicity of language. Research tasks and stimulating activities help learners to develop valuable skills and to reflect on the learning process. Every opportunity has been taken to personalise the contents so that young learners develop scientific curiosity, as well as responsibility for the world they live in. Special attention has been paid to the following aspects: • Sequencing of contents • Level of difficulty in both the explanations and the activities • Quantity and diversity of the activities • Quality of the illustrations and visual explanations • Level of English used throughout the course 3 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 4 Student’s Book GENERAL ORGANISATION The fourteen units are structured into four learning blocks that take the student from the broadest concept - the Universe, to the smallest concept - the atom. Learning block I The Universe and the Solar System; the Earth Learning block II Living beings: invertebrates, vertebrates, microorganisms Learning block III Materials that make up the Earth: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, minerals and rocks Learning block IV The chemical study of material: matter, molecules and atoms Learning to learn Each of the four blocks is introduced by a double-page spread which gives students their first contact with scientific procedures. These pages provide initial training in study skills necessary for the young scientist, in preparation for the themes to be studied. The focus of these pages is on learning to learn - finding one’s way in the scientific world. The topics presented on these pages are: • The telescope • The optical microscope • Other scientific instruments: the stereoscopic microscope, weather instruments • An introduction to the Periodic Table of Elements UNIT ORGANISATION The fourteen units are organised in the same way: 4 Introductory page What do you remember?: photographs with questions to stimulate recall of prior knowledge Content objectives: scientific learning objectives Key language: a summary of the key language structures and functions used throughout the unit Unit development The main theme is divided into sections Each section answers the title question and develops the concepts in detail Activities on the page ensure reinforcement and extension practice of both scientific concepts and language Hands on One page of practical activities to carry out in the classroom (or the laboratory if available) Activity page One page of round-up activities for revision and extension Unit summary: What should you know? A summary of the key concepts, also recorded on the Student’s CD 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 5 Language support Meticulous language support throughout Essential Natural Science reflects the fact that Science is being taught in English, and English through Science. • Key language focuses attention on structures and functions that appear regularly in the unit. • Activities are often accompanied by word or sentence prompts as guidance. • The Vocabulary appendix groups terms from each unit with a brief definition. See pages 160 - 163. • The Key language appendix offers more language models. See pages 164 - 167. • Pronunciation can be practised by listening to the recording of the unit summary, What should you know? provided on the Student’s CD. Classroom techniques UNIT INTRODUCTORY PAGE To take maximum advantage of this page, use some of these techniques: • Photographs and questions. Focus attention on the photo/s and ask: What does this photo represent? If students answer in L1, rephrase their answers in English: Yes, it’s a photo of / it represents… • Read the title and ask: How is the photo related to the title? Make sure you rephrase all the answers in English. • Help activate prior knowledge by creating a word map on the board. Elicit words or phrases directly related to the theme of the unit. • Introduce each of the three introductory sections separately. What do you remember? • Read the questions aloud, then students work in pairs or groups to answer. • Encourage students to share and compare their responses: Let’s share information for question 1. Do you remember anything about ... from previous courses? Can you name other things that belong to this group? etc. • Add new vocabulary contributed by the class to the word map on the board. 5 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 6 Content objectives • Read and explain the content objectives. Encourage learners to predict what they will learn: What do you think we will discover with regard to the first objective? Give priority to the content of the students’ predictions rather than the correctness of their English. Key language • Read the headings and examples aloud. Ask students if they can provide more examples: Can you make other sentences like these? • Turn to the Key language section at the end of the book. Students will find new examples of language functions for each unit. LEAD-INS Devise a variety of lead-ins (short activities at the beginning of the lesson). Create a file with the more successful ones and use them every day with books closed. Some practical suggestions: • Use simple ‘true or false’ statements to focus attention on a new topic, for example: Plants and fungi belong to the same kingdom. True or false? All rocks are solid. True or false? • Do quick hand counts to assess how much practical experience students have: Put up your hand if you have ever seen an eclipse; visited a planetarium … Count the hands and present conclusions: Most students have (never) visited a planetarium. • Carry out a demonstration or quick experiment and ask a question about it: What happens when I drop (a plastic bottle / a rubber ball) on the floor? What would happen if I dropped (a glass bottle)? • Do ‘brain gym’: write the letters H I J K L M N O and tell students they represent the word ‘water’ (H to O or H2O); What is 2 and 2? (4 or 22). • Brainstorming: Find three scientific terms beginning with the letter ‘s’. Say the names of the planets in alphabetical order, etc. • Use the Vocabulary organiser, provided on the Student’s and Class CDs. Write a scientific term on the board and ask individual students what it means in L1, how to pronounce it and what visual and written association they might give it. • Arouse students’ curiosity: cover a shoe box with attractive paper and keep it in the classroom. Put interesting specimens, related to the content of the day’s lesson, into the box (rocks, a leaf, an insect, etc.) Invite students to guess what the specimen might be: What’s in my mystery box today? Encourage students to provide specimens as well. 6 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 7 UNIT DEVELOPMENT PAGES Most units contain between 6 and 8 sections. Each section begins with a numbered scientific question to be answered and developed in various sub-sections. Highly effective visuals accompany the texts, and the key vocabulary is highlighted in bold. Did you know that…? boxes provide interesting additional information related to some of the main texts. The majority of the content pages feature an Activities box. Students carry out the tasks directly related to the content of the section, or do supplementary research on the topic. Before reading Whenever introducing a new section, use some of these techniques to aid reading comprehension. Read Essential Natural Science, page 64, to follow this explanation. • Presentation: Read the section number and question aloud. For example, Two. What are non-flowering plants like? Brainstorm possible answers. If reading out a yes / no question, for example, Can plants react?, students predict what the answer might be. • Skimming: Ask a general question about the section: How many types of non-flowering plants are there? The bold words in the first paragraph, the headings of the two subsections that follow, as well as the drawings, provide an immediate answer: Two. Ask: What are they? and elicit the answer: Mosses and ferns. This helps students become familiar with how the information is structured and presented. • Scanning: Copy an incomplete sentence or definition from a section on the board. Students complete it with the appropriate word, for example: Mosses produce inside capsules. Or, ask a question that students can answer by looking at the text more closely: Where do spores grow? This helps students focus on specific information. • Focus on key vocabulary: Draw attention to the words in bold, then ask students to refer to the Key vocabulary on pages 160 -163 to find some definitions. Encourage them to complete the Vocabulary organiser for each unit. (See Vocabulary organiser, page 9.) 7 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 8 • Focus on Key language: Ask: Can you find any examples of the key language here? Students refer back to the introductory page, then scan the text again to find examples. They copy the functions in their notebooks and colour-code both the functions and the grammar points to improve recall: Comparing – Ferns are bigger than mosses. Making generalisations – Most gymnosperms are evergreens. While reading • Specific task: Students read the page individually or in pairs to complete a task, for example, finding a definition or answering a specific question. • General task: Ask students to find the main idea in the text. After reading • Students can be asked to summarise the text orally, or in writing, especially if it describes a process or transmits an opinion. • They can also read the text again and write down key facts in note form: Mosses: non-flowering, non-vascular plants. No true roots, stems or leaves… ILLUSTRATIONS The illustrations in Essential Natural Science include high-quality photographs, drawings, maps, charts and diagrams with captions which provide explanations and / or additional information. The drawings illustrate states or conditions that cannot be represented with photos, such as processes. They are labelled to provide students with essential key vocabulary. The illustrations in the Student’s Book satisfy the following criteria: • Quality: chosen for their clarity and level of detail • Representativeness: the best-known and most frequent examples are shown • Ease of identification: all the necessary references are provided EXPLOITING THE ILLUSTRATIONS Depending on the type, an illustration can be used to help students quickly grasp a complex idea or set of data, describe a situation or a process, predict an outcome, support an explanation or develop observation skills and attention to detail. Do the following activities: • Make sure students know the meaning of these terms: diagram, close-up, magnified image, cross-section, graph, bar graph, pie chart and table. They should use the correct term when describing an illustration. 8 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 4/8/08 12:33 Página 9 Plants shell stomach water 74 % body mass lung eyes lipids 0.8 % foot Cross-section of a snail mouth mineral salts 3.2 % proteins 3.2 % glucides 19 % Pie chart of organic and inorganic substances • Identify the type of illustration and say what it represents: This is a (cross-section) of (a snail). This (pie chart) shows the percentages of organic and inorganic substances in plants. • Focus attention on the caption and read it aloud, then help students reword the information: The pie-chart shows the percentages of organic and inorganic substances in plants. • Read the labels that flag the different parts of the illustration and make sure students know how to pronounce the words. They may add new words to their Vocabulary organiser for the unit. ACTIVITIES Activities throughout the unit provide exercises to help students analyse, revise, extend and summarise the new concepts. There are several different types: • Global comprehension activities. These include questions to help students clarify concepts, compare elements by describing similarities and differences, describe the outcome of experiments, draw inferences from known facts, or use logic to solve problems. These questions require a degree of linguistic competence on the student’s part. Encourage them to consult the Key language boxes and the Vocabulary and Key language sections at the end of the book. • Activities based on illustrations. These involve observing or producing a drawing, a diagram, a graph or a chart. Remind students that clear, uncluttered pages and neat labelling are essential, and spelling should always be double-checked. • Activities based on research. These aim is to help develop research skills and skill in collecting, selecting and representing information gathered from different sources, such as encyclopedias, books, specialised publications and the Internet. Students can work in groups, especially to produce the end of unit Web task. Encourage them to create multi-media presentations to show to the class. 9 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 10 HANDS ON • One page per unit provides a practical activity designed to foster scientific skills. Some of these activities can substitute for work in a Science laboratory, or, indeed be carried out in a laboratory. The activities have been chosen so that students acquire scientific methodology and observational skills and become familiar with scientific procedures. • The experiments are safe, easy to set up and do not require complicated, expensive materials. The methodology can be studied without performing the experiments at all. • The Hands on activities encourage students to apply the knowledge they have acquired to the comprehension of the world around them. WHAT SHOULD YOU KNOW? • The end-of-unit summary synthesizes the most important concepts which have been taught, providing a concise overview. This summary is recorded on the Student’s CD and can be used for revision and additional oral and pronunciation practice. • What should you know? pages are ideal as revision sheets, to be studied before the Unit test, or before main exams. The track number is supplied on the CD icon: 1 PROJECTS • Each unit summary is followed by one or two Projects in which students can relate science to technology, society, and the environment. If done in pairs or groups, the projects will ensure more varied input and help students develop strategies for successful team work, such as delegating, sharing and negotiating. STUDENT’S CD The Student’s CD provides the following resources: • Audio tracks. The unit summaries What should you know? can be used either in class or by the students at home to revise the content of the unit and to practise the pronunciation of key vocabulary and expressions. • Web tasks: one, sometimes two, per unit. Each task poses a question to solve, together with several pre-selected links to the Internet. Web tasks are miniresearch tasks: students are instructed to go to selected web pages to find the information they need. They then represent the results in the form of reports, graphs, posters, etc. They can be done individually, in pairs or in groups. • Activity sheets. Blank diagrams for students to use to revise the key unit vocabulary. There are between two and four per unit. They can be printed out and completed individually or in pairs. 10 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 11 • Vocabulary organiser: Students can print out the template and complete it with key vocabulary as they work through a unit. Explain the layout at the beginning of the course: – One organiser or more for each unit. Students print out as many as they need. – Each sheet is divided into five columns: students write the English word in the first column; the translation in L1 in the second; the pronunciation in the third column. The fourth and fifth columns are optional: in Visual association, students draw or doodle whatever helps them visually recall the word. In Written association, students can write anything that will help them memorise the word: a play on words, a word set, etc. Encourage them to use colour on these sheets to highlight important information or words they have difficulty remembering. – These sheets should be filed with the worksheets and activity sheets. VOCABULARY ORGANISER English UNIT My language Pronunciation Visual association Written association 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 RICHMOND PUBLISHING • SANTILLANA EDUCACIÓN, S. L. 쮿 11 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 12 Teacher’s Resource Pack The Teacher’s Resource Pack provides the following material for each unit: 1. UNIT INTRODUCTION AND PROGRAMMING This double page includes the objectives and contents as well as the assessment criteria (expressed as ‘Can-do’ statements) for each unit. A list of the competences the students are expected to develop is provided, as well as the activities related to each competence. 2. REVISION, EXTENSION AND ASSESSMENT WORKSHEETS There are five worksheets per unit. • Worksheets 1 and 2. Word games and simple exercises recycle and revise the vocabulary, key language and structures of the unit. • Worksheets 3 and 4. A variety of exercises: jigsaw tables and charts, word maps, question loops, etc., to revise both the scientific content and the key language of the unit. Worksheet 4 is designed as an interactive activity for pairs or groups. • Worksheet 5. This provides an optional reading passage as an extension activity. More challenging in language level than in Essential Natural Science in general, it develops one of the central themes of the unit, followed by comprehension questions and exercises. Use Worksheet 5 essentially for the more advanced students. Exploitation of worksheets • A score box is included on each worksheet. Students can mark each other’s work in class. In this way, they will know immediately how well they have done and which areas they still need to work on. The answer key is provided on the Teacher’s CD. • These worksheets are flexible and can be used at any point during the lesson, as a quick test of what has just been presented, as extra preparation for the Unit test or to be done as homework. They address the need for diversity in the classroom: to revise and / or extend both the scientific contents as well as the language structures. They are designed to be completed individually, but challenged students may gain from working with a partner. • The worksheets should be photocopied as required. Hand them out and read out the instructions. Students may find coloured pencils or fluorescent markers useful to highlight details. • The worksheets can be filed in a folder and used for revision when needed. 12 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 13 3. RESOURCES FOR ASSESSMENT Can-Do statements The Can-Do statements provided in each unit introduction reflect the objectives expressed in terms of measurable achievements. Unit tests There is one photocopiable test per unit, divided into two parts: multiple choice questions followed by a reading / writing task. The answers are provided on the Class CD. Class CD The Class CD includes all the material on the Student’s CD and in addition: • Answer key: Answers for all the activities in the Student’s Book, as well as the answers to the Worksheets and activity sheets. • Audio material: One task listening per unit, usually identifying, saying True or False or classifying. This provides excellent aural practice for students and can be used in different ways, for example, asking students to summarise what they have heard in writing, take notes while they are listening or listen to all the questions before answering them rather than giving an answer after every question. 13 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 4/8/08 12:33 Página 14 PowerPoints The Class CD provides 14 PowerPoint presentations, one for each unit in Essential Natural Science. The PowerPoints include diagrams, cross-sections, charts and graphs which will help present the course contents to the class. Animations and simple activities are also included. The contents of the PowerPoint presentations go beyond the scope of the Student’s Book in many cases. These can be used for extension activities. USING POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS PowerPoint presentations are an excellent medium for imparting and receiving information in the classroom. Teachers and students alike benefit from the combination of texts, visuals and sound in interactive slideshows. PowerPoint is a presentation software program, included as part of the Microsoft Office package. If your computer is preloaded with Microsoft Office, you probably already have PowerPoint installed. The program is designed to produce slideshows which can incorporate text, graphics, video and animation. Just click Start and select Programs to find it. If you do not have PowerPoint installed, visit this link for information: http://office.microsoft.com/es-es/powerpoint/default.aspx PowerPoint presentations are easy to create. There are many good tutorials on the Internet. For example: http://www.actden.com/pp/ http://www.bcschools.net/staff/PowerPointHelp.htm http://www.internet4classrooms.com/on-line_powerpoint.htm For students, creating PowerPoint presentations can be highly stimulating and good fun. The research and analytical skills needed for the task are as important as the presentation itself. 14 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 15 Webquests Webquests are activities in which students must obtain most of the information they need from the Internet, in order to complete a task. The information is pre-selected so that the student does not get lost in the huge amount of information available, much of which is not reliable. The student’s main task is to analyse and synthesize the information. Webquests combine individual and group work, so the students work together and learn through cooperation. They provide: • Motivation. Most students enjoy working with computers and find it motivating. Webquests pose problems which inspire curiosity and a desire to find answers. • Skills development. Finding and selecting information, synthesis or analysis. Students also learn to develop their own criteria and draw their own conclusions. • Personalisation. Webquests allow students to work in a more personalised way. Organisation The Webquests have five parts: 1. Introduction. This gives the student basic information about the proposed activity. It creates interest and curiosity about the subject to be researched. 2. The task. This section explains what the student is expected to do. Tasks can vary: creation of a webpage, a report, or a brochure, an oral presentation, a dramatisation, a role-play, etc. 3. The process. This stage describes the steps the student should follow in order to carry out the task successfully. All the links are provided in order to obtain the necessary information, and are clearly connected to the questions asked. The Webquests provide all the sources of information needed, such as web pages, documents… 4. Evaluation. This comes at the end of the process when the task has been completed. A table of assessment is supplied which can assess content, final outcome, and personal involvement of the student in carrying out the task. This type of assessment has its advantages: the students know what is expected of them at every stage which helps them to focus on their task. They can also assess themselves and so become aware of their own learning process. 5. The conclusion. The final stage of the task gives students the opportunity to reflect on their work and what they have learned. It also provides an opportunity to correct possible errors and improve the Webquest. 15 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 16 THE WEBQUESTS IN ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE There are three webquests, linked to the contents of Essential Natural Science. They provide an alternative, less conventional way of studying aspects of the syllabus. 1. Our future home. The exploration of the planets and a comparison with Earth. To accompany Units 1 and 2 of the Student’s Book. 2. Paradise corner. Ways to preserve the animal and plant world. To accompany Units 3 - 6 of the Student’s Book. 3. A journey to the wonders of nature. The exploration of beautiful places on Earth. To accompany Units 9 and 11 of the Student’s Book. All three Webquests require both group and individual work. EXPLOITING THE WEBQUESTS Before starting • Explain the different sections and talk about the general organisation of the Webquest: the topic, group formation and the roles of its members, the time they have to do the task and the final outcome. If necessary, they can write down the purpose of the task so they can refer to it. • Focus the students’ attention on the task and awaken their interest in the subject: read a fragment of a relevant book, show part of a film, etc. Collecting information • The students have a variety of sources at their disposal and they have to select those which are relevant. They should analyse the information and decide if it is useful. Advise them to print out only useful information. • As students collect information, they can organise it by creating a rough version. • They may need to collect pictures or recorded material to finish their task. • Finally, explain the importance of communicating findings to the group. Processing information • Remind students that they should synthesize the information obtained, keeping in mind how they are going to communicate it later. • Explain the importance of editing the information: they should write correctly and make any necessary corrections. Communicating the information • Tell the students that they should express clearly their main ideas. • Explain that they should keep in mind their audience and the format they are required to use. 16 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 17 Values and Competencies VALUES The area of Natural Science is the appropriate scientific context in which to help students reflect on issues related to the environment and to health. In Essential Natural Science, the topics presented for discussion include the need for adequate eye protection when observing eclipses, the dangers of antibiotics abuse, the dangers posed to health by certain industries, protection against harmful radiations (Health Education), as well as conservation of the Earth’s biological resources, the importance of invertebrates in the food chain, poaching and illegal animal trade, the control of pests by natural means, the development of responsible consumer habits, and the need to reduce water consumption (Protection of the Environment). The Introduction to each unit provides examples for discussing the values related to the theme. KEY COMPETENCES Competence is the capacity to use one’s acquired knowledge, abilities and personal attitudes in different contexts and situations. Key competences feature the following characteristics: • They focus on the development of abilities rather than the assimilation of theoretical content: individuals become ‘competent’ when they learn how to solve problems effectively. • They are dynamic because they develop progressively and can be acquired in different learning situations and institutions. • They are interdisciplinary and transversal because they integrate knowledge that originates in different academic disciplines. • Once acquired, they will become part of the student’s lifelong learning experience. Reasons for including key competences in the secondary curriculum • They integrate formal and informal learning experiences. • They allow students to use their skills in widely differing contexts. • They help clarify objectives, content and assessment criteria in all the subjects. • Each area can contribute to the development of key competences which are then applied to other areas or subjects. 17 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 18 THE EIGHT KEY COMPETENCES The following key competences are considered necessary and should be developed in all the subjects of the curriculum. Competence in linguistic communication The use of language as a tool for oral and written communication. Mathematical competence The ability to use numbers, perform basic operations and understand the symbols and forms of mathematical reasoning. Knowledge and interaction with the physical world The ability to interact with the physical world and apply the scientific method to explain its phenomena. Processing information and digital competence The ability to find, obtain, process and transmit information using traditional and modern technologies. Social competence and citizenship The ability to understand the social reality in which we live and the desire to contribute to its development. Cultural and artistic competence The appreciation of cultural and artistic manifestations through the ages and in different cultures. Competence in ‘learning to learn’ The ability to plan courses of action and set oneself goals in order to develop efficiency and autonomy during the lifelong learning process. Autonomy and personal initiative The ability to imagine, develop and evaluate individual or collective projects creatively, self-confidently and with critical sense. 18 877310 _ 0001-0019.qxd 22/8/08 07:41 Página 19 THE CONTRIBUTION OF SCIENCE TO THE KEY COMPETENCES • Linguistic communication It includes the use of formal scientific terminology and the ability to use it with sufficient precision in both oral and written work. • Mathematical competence Mathematical competence enables students to elaborate mathematical models and solve problems in order to interpret the physical world. • Knowledge and interaction with the physical world Knowledge of the physical world is the basis of all Science. Scientific knowledge integrates strategies in order to learn how to define and solve problems, design experiments, analyse results and communicate them. Knowledge of one’s own body and caring for one’s health are also crucial in the acquisition of this competence, as are the interrelations of people and their environment. • Digital competence: using new technologies The ability to select and use information found in digital media involves text processing (copying, pasting, inserting images,…) and surfing the Internet. Students become familiar with the different codes and formats of scientific language (numerical and geometrical models, graphic representations, statistics, chemical symbols, etc.). • Social competence and citizenship This competence helps develop group cooperation, solidarity and satisfaction at completing given tasks. Scientific literacy constitutes a fundamental dimension of citizen culture, allowing students to form opinions based on solid data with regard to problems related to scientific and technological progress. • Cultural and artistic competence This area deals with the ability to produce accurate and elegant models to represent scientific facts and results. It also highlights the contribution of science and technology to the development of humanity’s cultural and artistic patrimony. • ‘Learning to learn’ Operating with theoretical models helps develop imagination, powers of analysis and observation skills, creativity and a critical attitude, which in turn fosters autonomous learning. • Personal initiative The study of Science demands autonomy and initiative. From the moment a hypothesis is formulated until conclusions are reached, students need to select their resources, plan the methodology, solve problems, manage their resources and constantly revise their results. 19 877310 _ 0020-0027.qxd 1 22/8/08 07:43 Página 20 The Universe OBJECTIVES 1. To learn about the Universe and its major components 2. To understand the enormous distances in the Universe and do simple calculations involving them 4. To observe the night sky and recognise well-known stars and constellations 5. To learn about the scientific theories of astronomical knowledge 3. To identify the components of the Solar System, their characteristics and movements CONTENTS CONCEPTS • • • • • PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • Interpreting diagrams and images of the Solar System and its components • Researching constellations and producing a poster • Interpreting scientific texts ATTITUDES • Becoming aware of the enormous distances in the Universe and accepting the fact that our planet is probably only one of millions of existing planets • Showing interest in recognising celestial bodies in the night sky Conception and components of the Universe Sizes and distances within the Universe The Solar System and its components Characteristics of the planets and movements of celestial bodies Astronomical knowledge and historical evolution COMPETENCES Competence in linguistic communication: understanding descriptive texts (sections 1-6, pp. 9-14); understanding instructions (Activities, p. 16); listening to the unit summary What should you know? (Student’s CD, track 1). Processing information and digital competence: interpreting tables (sections 4-6, pp. 12-14); researching the possibility of life on other planets (Investigate, p. 17; Web task, unit 1, Student’s CD). Competence in ‘learning to learn’: focusing on the Learning to learn section (pp. 3-5) and Content objectives (p. 8); organising and interpreting information (What should you know?, p. 17). 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0020-0027.qxd 22/8/08 07:44 Página 21 VALUES Peace Studies A look at astrology and its historic links with science and religion. Astrology asserts that the position of certain stars and planets influence our personality, important events in our lives and even our destiny. Astrology as we know it originated in Babylon over 5,000 years ago as a compound of religion and science. The scientific part was concerned with the movement of stars, whilst the religious part attempted to determine the relationship between cosmic events and happenings on Earth. As human knowledge increased, astrology was separated from the science of astronomy and relegated by scientists as superstition. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can identify, define and describe the major components of the Universe 4. Can observe the night sky and recognise well-known stars and constellations in it 2. Can understand the use of special units to measure distances in the Universe; can identify them and give their equivalents 5. Can explain scientific theories of astronomical knowledge 3. Can describe the Solar System and draw a map to locate it in the Universe; can identify and describe its components INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Films NASA (North Amercian Space Agency) Space Odyssey. Journey to the planets. 2004 http://www.nasa.gov The Nine Planets This film is a two-part science fiction documentarydrama which examines the possibilities of a dangerous, manned space mission to explore the inner and outer planets of the Solar System. http://www.astrored.net Star Wars. 1977 One of the best web pages about the Solar System. George Lucas, creator of the most famous film trilogy ever, depicts a marvellous universe, a mixture of western and adventure. With a famous sound track and special effects which broke new ground. NASA home page which includes numerous links. Views of the Solar System http://www.solarviews.com A vast archive of photographs, scientific facts, text, graphics and videos. Discover the latest scientific information, or study the history of space exploration. Books Eyes on the Universe: A History of the Telescope. Isaac Asimov Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975 This book relates the discoveries which lead up to modern-day reflector and radio telescopes. It begins describing the rudimentary lenses used by Galileo. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 21 877310 _ 0020-0027.qxd 1 4/8/08 12:34 Página 22 WORKSHEET 1 THE UNIVERSE NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Complete these words with the missing vowels a, e, i, o, u or y. pl n t s t ll g l x n b l c t m st z t r d rb d c t 2 Match each word to its definition. light year dwarf planets asteroids rotational axis orbit galaxy 1. They are smaller than planets and they orbit the Sun. 2. They are rocky objects which are irregular in shape. 3. It is the invisible line on which celestial objects spin or rotate. 4. It is the distance light travels in one year. 5. It is the curved path which a celestial object follows in its revolution around another celestial object. 6. It is a vast collection of stars, dust and gases, held together by gravitational attraction. 3 Put the words in order and write the correct sentences. 1. Scientists empty between spaces think there vast the galaxies are 2. Planets larger are bodies much other celestial than 3. Saturn’s mostly rings made ice of particles are 4. The life is with planet the only Earth 5. The Uranus is temperature of average -200º C surface 6. The planets is crust of made inner the rock of ___ / 20 22 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0020-0027.qxd 1 4/8/08 12:34 Página 23 WORKSHEET 2 THE UNIVERSE NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Write the names of the planets. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. 5. 2. 6. 3. 7. 4. 8. 2 Complete these sentences using the words in the box. elliptical eight larger Mars outer The Solar System is made up of 1. includes comets, 3. natural Saturn one moons inner planets and 2. star, the Sun. It also and asteroids. The Earth’s 4. satellite is the Moon, but there are also many artificial ones orbiting it. The planets all move in 5. Earth and 7. 9. orbits. The 6. are all rocky; the 8. , Uranus and Neptune are gaseous. Mars is 10. planets, Mercury, Venus, planets, Jupiter, than Mercury, and Jupiter is much larger than the Earth. ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 23 877310 _ 0020-0027.qxd 1 4/8/08 12:34 Página 24 WORKSHEET 3 THE UNIVERSE NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Use your Student’s Book to complete this chart. Planet Type Mercury Distance from the Sun (AU) rocky Venus Period of revolution Average surface temperature 58.65 days 0.72 Earth Jupiter Period of rotation 0 224.6 days 23 h 56 mins 365.25 days gaseous Neptune Number of satellites 1 - 150º C 30.06 - 210º C 2 Use your chart to answer these questions. Which planet… 1. … has the most satellites? 2. … has the shortest period of rotation? 3. … has the longest period of revolution? 4. … is the greatest distance from the Sun? 5. … is the hottest? 6. … rotates faster, Venus or Neptune? 7. Which planets are closer to the Sun, the rocky planets or the gaseous planets? 3 Now answer these questions. 1. Which galaxy does our Solar System belong to? 2. Which is the nearest star to our Solar System? 3. Which celestial bodies are made up of ice, dust and gas, and have bright tails? 4. What is the distance from the Earth to the Sun? 5. How fast does light travel in one second? ___ / 30 24 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0020-0027.qxd 1 4/8/08 12:34 Página 25 WORKSHEET 4 THE UNIVERSE NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Jigsaw chart. Work in pairs. Take turns to read and classify these sentences. Write each number in the correct category. 1. They are spherical bodies which orbit the Sun. 2. They are vast collections of stars, dust and gases. GALAXIES 2 3. They are imaginary patterns of bright stars. CONSTELLATIONS 4. There are eight of them. 5. They contain thousands of millions of stars. 6. Ours is called the Milky Way. 7. They are massive spherical bodies of gases. STARS 8. They all move in elliptical orbits. 9. They emit light and heat. 10. Officially, there are eighty-eight. 11. They form when clouds of gases are pulled together by gravitational forces. PLANETS 12. Their position changes with the seasons because of the movements of the Earth. 2 Write a description of the four celestial objects. Use the chart and your own knowledge! ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 25 877310 _ 0020-0027.qxd 1 4/8/08 12:34 Página 26 WORKSHEET 5 THE UNIVERSE NAME: CLASS: Mars DATE: Martian moon Do you know why the moons of Mars are called Phobos and Deimos? Mars was the Roman god of war (Ares in Greek) and his symbol is a, which represents a spear and a shield. For some strange reason, the moons of Mars received Greek names rather than Latin ones, Phobos meaning ‘panic’ and Deimos meaning ‘terror’, because these two feelings are always related to war. Phobos can be used as a suffix. We can construct words that inform us about human and animal feelings of extreme fear in different situations. For example, a person who suffers from claustrophobia feels terribly afraid when enclosed in a small space. Think also about other similar words such as hydrophobia, arachnophobia or agoraphobia. There are all kinds of fears! Fortunately, as rational human beings, we can also use different strategies to overcome these fears. 1 Choose the best title for this reading passage and write it on the line above. The two moons of Mars The gods and the moons Two satellites 2 Correct the information. 1. Mars was the Greek god of war. 2. According to the text, war evokes feelings of anger and despair. 3. Claustrophobia refers to the fear of going to war. 4. We must learn to live with our fears. 3 Match the words to the fears they indicate. 26 1. hydrophobia a. fear of spiders 2. ablutophobia b. fear of books 3. agoraphobia c. fear of water 4. arachnophobia d. fear of open spaces 5. bibliophobia e. fear of washing yourself ___ / 10 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0020-0027.qxd 1 4/8/08 12:34 Página 27 TEST 1 THE UNIVERSE NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Circle the correct answer. 1. The universe is all the (a) space (b) energy (c) matter, space and energy that exists. 2. A nebula is (a) a cluster of stars (b) a cloud of gas and dust (c) a vast empty space. 3. Nebulas surround (a) all the planets (b) the stars (c) the natural satellites. 4. Astronomers use (a) Astronomical Units (b) International Units (c) Universal Units. 5. Satellites orbit (a) the stars (b) the Sun (c) planets and dwarf planets. 6. Mercury and Venus have (a) one satellite each (b) no satellites (c) more than ten satellites each. 7. Asteroids can form (a) belts (b) constellations (c) systems. 8. The position of the constellations changes with (a) the seasons (b) the way we imagine them (c) the colour of the night sky. 9. The orbit of comets is (a) highly irregular (b) more or less regular (c) highly elliptical. 10. An astronomical unit (AU) is the distance from the Earth to (a) the Moon (b) the Milky Way (c) the Sun. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. Theories of the Universe In the second century BC, the astronomer Ptolemy proposed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe, and that the Sun, Moon and planets orbited the Earth. This was known as the Geocentric theory, or the Ptolemaic System. However, in 1542, Nicolas Copernicus proposed that the Sun was at the centre of the Universe. When Galileo Galilei invented the telescope in 1610, he was able to prove the Heliocentric theory (or Copernican System): the planets and stars revolve around the Sun. 1. For how many centuries was the Geocentric theory used in astronomy? 2. What did this theory suggest? 3. What was Copernicus’ theory? 4. Who invented the telescope? ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 27 877310 _ 0028-0035.qxd 2 4/8/08 14:24 Página 28 Planet Earth OBJECTIVES 1. To describe the differences between our planet and other rocky planets 4. To identify the four spheres of the Earth; to learn about their composition and importance 2. To explain the relationship between the orbital movement of the Earth, the tilt of its rotation axis and the recurrence of the seasons 5. To identify the relief features of the continents and of the ocean floor 3. To learn about phenomena caused by the movements of the Moon: lunar phases and eclipses 6. To experiment reproducing eclipses, using simple equipment CONTENTS CONCEPTS • • • • PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • Analysing scientific texts • Interpreting different types of images and producing scale diagrams • Using simple equipment to reproduce eclipses ATTITUDES • Valuing our planet because of its unique characteristics within the Solar System • Showing interest in explaining phenomena such as the seasons, the phases of the Moon, and the succession of day and night Characteristics, movements and relief features of the Earth The seasons and what causes them The Earth and the Moon: lunar phases and eclipses The Earth’s ‘spheres’: geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere COMPETENCES Processing information and digital competence: understanding scale diagrams, cross-sections and aerial photographs (sections 1-6, pp. 19-25); Hands on (p. 22); Activities (p. 26); finding out about artificial satellites (Web task, unit 2, Student’s CD). Cultural and artistic competence: elaborating a simple model (Hands on, p. 22). Competence in ‘learning to learn’: acquiring language skills (Key language, p. 18); consulting the Vocabulary and Key language sections (pp. 160-167). 28 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0028-0035.qxd 22/8/08 07:45 Página 29 VALUES Health Education Students should understand that it is vital to protect their eyes while observing solar eclipses. Looking at the Sun without adequate protection can result in serious, irreversible ocular lesions and even blindness. Protection must be used from the beginning to the end of the eclipse and eyes averted from the Sun frequently. Eclipses can be observed through special glasses available in pharmacies or at an optician’s, or using welding glass nº 14 as a filter. Special filters can be used in telescopes. Eclipses can also be observed through a camera obscura or by projecting solar light through a telescope and focusing the image on a screen. The Sun must never be observed through optical instruments without appropriate filters. The following should not be used as filters: smoked lenses, developed film, strips of semi-transparent plastic, sunglasses or binoculars with solar observation glasses. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can describe the differences between our planet and other rocky planets 4. Can name and describe the three layers of the geosphere 2. Can interpret diagrams representing the movements of the Earth, the Sun and the Moon 5. Can describe the characteristics of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere 3. Can explain phenomena caused by the movements of the Earth and Moon: the seasons, the succession of day and night, the phases of the Moon 6. Can identify the relief features of the continents and of the ocean floor 7. Can reproduce eclipses using simple equipment INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Films Earth from Space The Dish Warner Home Video http://earth.jsc.nasa.gov Director: Robert Sitch Web page showing photos of the Earth taken by NASA astronauts. The images are processed from the International Space Station on a daily basis. This Australian film presents a behind-the-scenes look at the contributions of a handful of Australians to the Apollo XI mission to the Moon in July 1969. Visible Earth Apollo 13 1995. Columbia Tristar Home Video http://visibleearth.nasa.gov Director: Ron Howard A catalogue of images and animations of Earth. Some of them can be downloaded although the files are very large. Film about the Apollo 13 Space Mission, a year after man first walked on the Moon. At first it seemed it would be the perfect mission, until those famous words from space: “Houston, we have a problem.” Earth and Moon viewer http://www.fourmilab.ch/earthview View the Earth and Moon from many vantage points and in multiple ways. Books Discover the Moon Jean Lacroux & Christian Legrand The living planet. A portrait of the Earth BBC David Attenborough examines the ecology and biodiversity of the most important ecosystems of the Earth. A warning about the dangerous caused by our industrial society. Cambridge University Press An ideal introduction to lunar observing. Includes more than 300 lunar sites to observe through your telescope. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 29 877310 _ 0028-0035.qxd 2 4/8/08 14:24 Página 30 WORKSHEET 1 PLANET EARTH NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Find eight words in the wordsearch and then write them on the lines below. M) if a word refers to the Moon, (E E) if it refers to the Earth or (M ME) if it refers to both. Write (M W P H A S E S W E A P I R F Q L H C B S P W E U G M L R O T A T I O N I T L C T S N R Y P R S K E D O A V S G T Q R A X I S E O I D F S T E Z T N C G M N U L L A S E A S O N W M S 1. ( ) 3. ( ) 5. ( ) 7. ( ) 2. ( ) 4. ( ) 6. ( ) 8. ( ) 2 Complete each definition with a word from Activity 1. 1. It is the movement that causes the sequence of day and night. 2. One of the elements that makes life on Earth possible is . 3. This one begins on 21st March. 4. The Earth rotates around this imaginary line. 5. One of the Moon’s is the last quarter. 6. The moment of the year when day and night are exactly the same length. 7. The winter one is the shortest day of the year and the summer one is the longest. 8. It is caused by the Moon passing between the Sun and the Earth, or by the Moon passing directly behind the Earth. 3 Match the answers to the questions. 1. How many ‘spheres’ make up the Earth? a. The biosphere. 2. Which ‘sphere’ includes all the living things on Earth? b. The crust and the upper mantle. 3. What is the geosphere? c. Four. 4. What makes up the lithosphere? d. The solid part of the Earth. ___ / 20 30 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0028-0035.qxd 2 4/8/08 14:24 Página 31 WORKSHEET 2 PLANET EARTH NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Label the different parts of this cross-section of the surface of the Earth. 1. mountain range 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2 Complete these sentences using the words in the box. relief volcanoes living things abyssal land relief ranges shelves The Earth is the only known planet which contains water and 1. ridges . The distribution of materials which makes up the Earth’s crust forms the different types of 2. The 3. relief features include mountain 4. 5. . The ocean floor 6. 7. , oceanic trenches and 8. continental . , great plains and continental features include mid-oceanic plains. Submarine 9. may create volcanic archipelagos. 3 True or False? Write T or F. 1. The Earth is the only planet with an atmosphere which contains oxygen. 2. Hydrogen is the most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere. 3. The average temperature on the Earth’s surface is 18 ºC. 4. The gravitational attraction of the Moon produces ocean tides. 5. Earthquakes and volcanoes are the result of geological activity. ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 31 877310 _ 0028-0035.qxd 2 4/8/08 14:24 Página 32 WORKSHEET 3 PLANET EARTH NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Complete this table with the missing information about the four ‘spheres’ of the Earth. Sphere Is made up of Contains Geosphere three concentric layers nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide Hydrosphere liquid water, snow and ice land and water 2 Do you remember? Use these jumbled up numbers to complete the three Facts Files. 2,900 km from 7 to 70 km 21% over 4,000ºC from 7 to 10 km 3 78% 11,034 m 4,500 m 2,500 15ºC FACTS FILES The geosphere a. - the thickness of the continental crust b. - the thickness of the oceanic crust c. - the distance the mantle lies below the crust d. the temperature of the cores The atmosphere a. - the percentage of nitrogen in the air b. - the percentage of oxygen in the air c. - the average temperature on the Earth’s surface. The hydrosphere 32 a. - the number of years ago that Thales described the water cycle b. - the number of states in which water exists c. - the average depth of the ocean d. - the depth of the Mariana trench ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0028-0035.qxd 2 4/8/08 14:24 Página 33 WORKSHEET 4 PLANET EARTH NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Sentence loop. Work in pairs. Take turns to start or finish the sentences. 1. The Earth revolves … 2. The Earth rotates … 3. The Moon revolves … 4. Solar eclipses occur … 5. Lunar eclipses occur … 6. The orbit of the Earth … 7. The full Moon occurs … 8. The new Moon occurs … 9. The Moon orbits the Earth … 10. The axis of the Earth … 11. At any time, one half of the Earth … 12. When a hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun, … a. … when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon. b. … when the Earth blocks sunlight from the Moon. c. … is facing the Sun. d. … on its own axis. e. … when the Moon blocks sunlight from the Earth. f. .… it is summer. g. … in approximately 29.5 days. h. … an elongated circle called an ellipse. i. … around the Earth. j. … around the Sun. k. … when the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth. l. … is slightly tilted. ___ / 24 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 33 877310 _ 0028-0035.qxd 2 4/8/08 14:24 Página 34 WORKSHEET 5 PLANET EARTH NAME: CLASS: DATE: Does Earth have a twin? There is a planet in the Solar System which is completely covered in thick clouds. It has a volcanic surface and a poisonous atmosphere. Its average temperature is 480 ºC, while on Earth the average temperature is 15 ºC. Its clouds contain sulphuric acid rather than water. It cannot possibly support life! Yet for years scientists have considered this planet as Earth’s twin. Why? Firstly, it is similar in size and mass to Earth. Both planets are very close to each other, much closer than any other pair of planets. Both are quite young geologically. (They have very few craters caused by meteorite impacts on their surfaces). In the beginning, the Earth’s twin probably had oceans. Then, the oceans turned into desert land as the water disappeared. This was due to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in its atmosphere. (On Earth, this is known as the greenhouse effect!) Finally this planet, named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty, has a variety of geographical features similar to those on Earth. These include plains (about 65 % of the surface), mountains, canyons, and valleys. If this is enough to consider the mysterious planet ‘Earth’s twin’, imagine how incredibly different all the other planets must be from ours! 1 From the information in the text, which planet is considered to be Earth’s twin? 2 Correct the information in the following sentences. 1. The clouds on Earth contain sulphuric acid. 2. The Earth is smaller than this planet. 3. At the beginning, this planet was desert-like. 4. Then water appeared on it. 5. This planet is named after the Roman god of war. 6. Mountains form most of the surface of this planet. ___ / 15 34 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0028-0035.qxd 2 4/8/08 14:24 Página 35 TEST 2 PLANET EARTH NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Circle the correct answer. 1. The Earth’s magnetic field protects living beings from (a) carbon dioxide (b) solar radiations (c) earthquakes. 2. In summer, the Sun’s rays strike the Earth’s surface (a) perpendicularly (b) at an oblique angle (c) at an angle of 135º. 3. Seasons occur at different times of the year in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres because of (a) the revolutions of the Earth (b) the rotation of the Earth (c) the tilt of the Earth’s axis. 4. The Moon rotates it orbits the Earth. (a) at the same speed as (b) faster than (c) more slowly than 5. As a result, (a) the same side of the Moon always faces the Earth (b) tides occur 6. A lunar month lasts (a) as long as (c) eclipses occur. a lunar day. (b) longer than (c) less than 7. When the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth and blocks off the sunlight, it is called (a) a solstice (b) a solar eclipse (c) a lunar eclipse. 8. A lunar eclipse can only take place during the (a) new Moon (b) first or last quarter (c) full Moon. 9. The shadow projected by the Earth on the Moon during an eclipse is called the (a) penumbra (b) umbra (c) nebula. 10. During the first quarter of its phase, the Moon (a) rises at noon and sets at midnight (b) rises and sets with the Sun (c) rises at midnight and sets at noon. 2 Read this passage and fill in the gaps. The Earth Some specific characteristics make the Earth a unique planet in the Solar System. In the first place, it has an atmosphere containing 1. which is essential for plant and animal respiration. The Earth’s atmosphere also contains carbon dioxide which is essential for 2. . It also has a 3. cycle and an average temperature of 4. . The Earth’s 5. field protects living beings from dangerous solar radiations. For all of these reasons, the necessary conditions for life exist on our planet. ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 35 877310 _ 0036-0043.qxd 3 4/8/08 12:40 Página 36 Living things OBJECTIVES 1. To define the characteristics of living things 2. To identify the main chemical elements which make up living things 3. To describe cell structure, cell types and cell functions 4. To distinguish animal cells from plant cells 5. To identify unicellular and multicellular organisms; to determine the level of organisation in the latter 6. To identify the characteristics of the five kingdoms of living things 7. To learn about species and their scientific nomenclature 8. To learn how our species is classified 9. To learn how to use a microscope; to prepare slides for observation CONTENTS CONCEPTS • • • • • • • • The characteristics, vital functions and composition of living beings Cell structure, cell types and cell functions Prokaryotes and eukaryotes Levels of organisation of living things The five kingdoms Species and their nomenclature Biodiversity and conservation Characteristics and classification of the human species PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • • • • • Interpreting scientific texts Observing and interpreting photographs, cross-sections and diagrams Formulating a hypothesis Using a microscope in a scientific inquiry Applying scientific criteria to the classification of living things ATTITUDES • Developing an active interest in learning about and conserving the Earth’s biodiversity • Valuing the diversity of the human species and accepting that we are one of the many species of vertebrates which inhabit the planet COMPETENCES Competence in linguistic communication: understanding and using scientific terms correctly (sections 3-8, pp. 33-39); listening to the unit summary What should you know? (Student’s CD, track 3). Knowledge and interaction with the physical world: formulating and validating a hypothesis (Hands on, p. 36); understanding biodiversity (sections 1, 7 and 8, pp. 31, 38 and 39). Social competence and citizenship: understanding threats to biodiversity (section 1, p. 31); taking steps to protect biodiversity (Investigate, p. 41; Web task, unit 3, Student’s CD). 36 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0036-0043.qxd 22/8/08 07:47 Página 37 VALUES Protection of the Environment In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) published a report entitled Our common future, which pinpoints the fundamental causes of the environment crisis as the contrast between the poverty of the southern hemisphere and the extreme consumerism of the northern hemisphere. In 1992, an important step was taken to protect the Earth’s Biodiversity, with the celebration of a UN Conference now known as the Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. At its conclusion, 150 countries signed the Biodiversity Treaty, the first international agreement in which governments undertook to conserve the Earth’s biological resources. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can identify and define the characteristics and functions of living things 6. Can define the characteristics of the five kingdoms 2. Can identify the chemical elements which make up living things 7. Can understand the classification of living things and the nomenclature used to classify them 3. Can understand how cells are organised and describe their types and functions 8. Can define the concept of species; can explain how the human species is classified 4. Can explain the difference between unicellular and multicellular organisms 9. Can use a microscope to observe specimens of plant and animal cells 5. Can explain the levels of organisation of multicellular organisms INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Films National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica The spirits of the rainforest http://www.inbio.ac.cr/en/default.html Discovery Channel Discover the biodiversity of this small paradise, and learn about the living things in its ecosystems. A documentary about the Manu Biosphere Reserve, situated between the Amazon River and the Andes. It shows the daily life of the native Machiguenga tribe. The film interweaves the natural history of the area with the myths and legends of the Machiguenga. World Watch Institute http://www.worldwatch.org/ This prestigious institution collects facts about the Earth and its environment, among other things. Great wildlife moments Books BBC Nasty nature A selection of the best moments of the BBC wildlife programmes. Nick Arnold David Attenborough This book offers amusing facts about nature. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 37 877310 _ 0036-0043.qxd 3 4/8/08 12:40 Página 38 WORKSHEET 1 LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Write the name of each chemical substance. C= H= N= O= 2 Match each word to its definition. nutrition heterotrophs reproduction zygote autotrophs interaction gamete 1. These include plants, algae and some bacteria. 2. The processes which enable living things to react to changes in their environment. 3. The processes which enable living things to obtain the energy and matter they need to live. 4. The first cell of a new living thing. 5. These feed on organic matter which is already elaborated. 6. The processes which enable living things to create new living things. 7. This is a sex cell. 3 Classify in the table the human actions which affect biodiversity. intensive agriculture uncontrolled fishing uncontrolled hunting Destruction of habitats deforestation road construction introduction of foreign species Destruction of species industrial development urban development forest fires Pollution ___ / 20 38 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0036-0043.qxd 3 4/8/08 12:40 Página 39 WORKSHEET 2 LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Reorder the letters and write the substances which make up plants and animals. Tick the ones that are inorganic. 1. werat 4. tinserop 2. spidil 5. desuglic 3. relanims 2 Complete the sentences using the words from Activity 1. Then finish labelling the pie charts. 1. Plants and animals are mostly made up of is 74 % and in animals it is 60 %. : in plants the proportion 2. Plants do not have many which can be broken down into fatty acids and cholesterol. In fact, the proportion is only 0.8%, while it is 20 % in animals. 3. Animals and plants have about equal proportions of and 3.2 % in plants. 4. Plants have a much larger proportion of than animals: 19 % as opposed to 0.6 %! 5. : 3.4 % in animals , which include glucose and cellulose, , which are necessary to transport oxygen, fight microorganisms and make structures, are also found in both plants (3.2 %) and animals (16 %). Animals Plants glucides 0.6 % minerals 3.2% ___ / 25 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 39 877310 _ 0036-0043.qxd 3 4/8/08 12:40 Página 40 WORKSHEET 3 LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Tick the information about animal and plant cells. Animal cell Plant cell different shapes ✓ rigid cell wall nucleus vacuoles ✓ chloroplasts mitochondria cell membrane 2 Complete the facts file below with information about the parts of cells. 1. The cell membrane… is like a . It keeps . It controls . 2. The nucleus… contains . It is usually found on of a plant cell. 3. The cytoplasm… is the take place. of a cell. It is a substance. It is where 4. Chloroplasts… are unique to . They store . . They are responsible for 3 Rewrite the sentences to compare facts. For example: The nucleus is smaller than the cell. 1. The cell walls of animals are (rigid) plant cell walls. 2. The shapes of animal cells are (varied) the shapes of plant cells. 3. The vacuoles in animal cells are (small) in plant cells. 4. Prokaryotic cells are (simple) eukaryotic cells. ___ / 30 40 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0036-0043.qxd 3 4/8/08 12:40 Página 41 WORKSHEET 4 LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Sexual Dimorphism game. The male and female of many animals have different names. Put the following words into the correct column. horse tigress cock bull wild sow nanny goat lion Male a Female b horse mare pig cow ewe billy goat tiger lioness wild boar sow hen sheep mare 2 Work in pairs. How quickly can you match the concepts? I II III Kingdom Primate Walk upright Phyllum Homo sapiens Are heterotrophs, cells form tissues Sub phyllum Hominid You talk, have a long childhood Class Homo Are intelligent, have little body hair Order Chordate Babies drink their mother’s milk Family Animal Are a chordate with a backbone Genus Vertebrate Your thumbs and fingers work together Species Mammal Have a spinal chord 3 Write True/False questions about the five animal kingdoms to test your partner. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 41 877310 _ 0036-0043.qxd 3 4/8/08 12:40 Página 42 WORKSHEET 5 LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: Scientific names In Science, universal names are used to avoid confusion and help everyone identify animals and plants quickly and consistently. Carl Linnaeus, was the first person to do this scientifically, and for this reason he is known as ‘the father of modern taxonomy’. In the 18th century, he devised a universal way to designate the species: the Scientific Name. Scientific names use two words. The first is the Genus, and the first letter is always written with a capital letter. The second is written in lower case. (Italics are always used for this.) Both words then form the species’ name. For example, in any part of the world, the Iberian lynx is known as the Lynx pardinus and the donkey is an Equus asinus! Lynx pardinus Equus asinus 1 Think about and answer the questions. 1. Why did Linnaeus invent the system of classification? 2. In your opinion, why was a scientific system of classification necessary in the 18th century? 3. Which tools do modern scientists have to classify living things that Linnaeus did not have? 2 Invent and draw an imaginary living thing. Then classify it according to the Linnaean system. ___ / 10 42 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0036-0043.qxd 3 4/8/08 12:40 Página 43 TEST 3 LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Circle the correct answer. 1. Biodiversity is especially varied (a) in tropical rain forests (b) in urban areas (c) in abyssal plains. 2. Animals, fungi and all protozoa are (a) autotrophs (b) heterotrophs (c) prokaryotic. 3. When two sex cells join, they form (a) buds (b) gametes (c) a zygote. 4. Shells, bones and teeth contain (a) mineral salts (b) nucleic acid (c) glucose. 5. The cell membrane is like (a) a muscle (b) a skin (c) a blood vessel. 6. Plant cells are (a) round (b) polyhedral (c) star-shaped. 7. Plant cell walls are made of (a) cellulose (b) chloroplasts (c) mitochondria. 8. There are ________ levels of classification for living things. (a) eight (b) seven (c) six. 9. A Linnaean Order is a subgroup of (a) Family (b) Class (c) Genus. 10. There can be differences between the male and the female of the same species. This is called (a) dimorphism (b) phylum (c) reproduction. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. Biodiversity Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth in all its forms. It is the result of evolution, a slow process which began with the first life forms and still continues today. Species change and adapt to the environment. Biodiversity varies tremendously throughout the world. It is influenced by climate and habitats, amongst other things. Polar regions generally have fewer species, and so have less biological diversity. The Atlantic Forest in Brazil has about 20,000 plant species, 1,350 vertebrates and millions of insects, and so has great biological diversity. Some regions have lost some of their biodiversity because plant and animal species have been severely reduced or even destroyed by deforestation, uncontrolled hunting and fishing, pollution and other factors. 1. Are rocks and minerals included in biodiversity? Explain your answer. 2. What is the name of the process which began with the first forms of life? 3. Why does biodiversity vary throughout the world? 4. What factors can affect and reduce biodiversity? ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 43 877310 _ 0044-0051.qxd 4 22/8/08 07:48 Página 44 Invertebrates OBJECTIVES 1. To describe the characteristics of the animal kingdom 4. To differentiate between vertebrate and invertebrate animals 2. To describe invertebrates and classify them into groups 5. To differentiate between bilateral and radial symmetry 3. To describe invertebrate life functions 6. To test the usefulness of a simple experimental model CONTENTS CONCEPTS • Characteristics of the animal kingdom and differences between vertebrates and invertebrates • Structural characteristics, organisation and functions of invertebrates • Diversity of invertebrates: the main groups and their characteristics PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • • • • ATTITUDES • Understanding and valuing the diversity of invertebrates • Becoming aware of the importance of invertebrates in nature and understanding the need to protect them Interpreting photographs, scientific diagrams and cross-sections Applying scientific criteria to the classification of invertebrates Using the information in the book to classify invertebrates Following instructions to make experimental models COMPETENCES Processing information and digital competence: understanding and producing comparative tables (section 2, p. 44); using the Internet to research spiders (Web task, unit 4, Student’s CD). Social competence and citizenship: researching the types of crustaceans consumed by humans (Research, p. 51). Competence in ‘learning to learn’: applying previous knowledge (What do you remember?, p. 42); acquiring language skills (Key language, p. 42); completing the Vocabulary organiser (Student’s CD). 44 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0044-0051.qxd 22/8/08 07:48 Página 45 VALUES Protection of the Environment Invertebrates play an important role in nature. They are a major part of the food chain; they maintain the structure and fertility of the soil, are the natural enemies of certain pests, they pollinate food-producing plants and consume plant and animal wastes, thus contributing to the recycling of matter. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can describe the characteristics of the animal kingdom 2. Can describe the characteristics, organisation and functions of the different groups of invertebrates 3. Can describe invertebrate life functions 5. Can differentiate between vertebrates and invertebrates, and between bilateral and radial symmetry 6. Can understand the usefulness of experimental models to explain observations 4. Can classify invertebrates using simple keys and observation techniques INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Insects are animals Insects on the Web Judith Holloway & Clive Harper http://www.insects.org/ Publisher: Modern Curriculum press Extremely exhaustive web page about insects. It has an interesting section on macro-photographs, with commentaries of a great number of insect species. Learn all about insects and how to categorise them. Conchology: The art & science of nature http://www.worldwideconchology.com/ One of the most complete web pages about molluscs. Intended for shell collectors, it has thousands of photographs of shells from all over the world. They are classified by environments. The insect world Norman Lobsenz Publisher: N.Y. Golden Press (1959) A profusely illustrated reference to the insect world. Films Phase IV Director: Saul Bass (1974) Paramount Pictures Books How and why wonder books: Ants & bees (1962) In a desert of the United States of America an invasion of intelligent ants takes place. Ronald Rood Arac attack Publisher: Grosset and Dunlap. N.Y. Director: Ellory Elkayem This title forms part of a vintage collection of children’s non-fiction books. Warner Home Video (2002) Rookie read-about Science series: It’s a good thing there are insects Citizens of a mining city of Arizona find out that a chemical dump has made hundreds of spiders grow to an enormous size. Allan Fowler A bug’s life Publisher: Children’s Press Disney Pixar (1998) All about insects, their anatomy, habits and camouflage. An intelligent and funny story. A clever ant called Flick hires a group of ‘warriors’ to defend his colony. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 45 877310 _ 0044-0051.qxd 4 4/8/08 14:26 Página 46 WORKSHEET 1 INVERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Match the words in the columns to make new words. Write them. Put a cross next to the two that are not animals. 1. jelly a. bone 2. sea b. fish 3. back c. worm 4. earth d. fish 5. star e. bed 6. tape f. worm jellyfish 2 Find and write the names of the six groups of invertebrates. Give an example of each. A E H A A G K O Y U F C N I D A R I A M U H G R U T D J K O S I S M V H W H D L J N G B N D O S J L P O R I F E R A O U G D S X A J M J Y S I E H V S D S H E C A R T H R O P O D S P M F T R E W Q S X A S F A S D F G S W Group Example 3 Circle the mistakes and rewrite the information. 1. Invertebrates are animals with backbones. 2. Some, like spiders, have no skeleton. 3. Sponges are cnidaria. 4. Porifera have radial symmetry and tentacles. 5. Annelids breathe through the skin. ___ / 25 46 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0044-0051.qxd 4 4/8/08 14:26 Página 47 WORKSHEET 2 INVERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Match the answers to the questions. 1. How many groups of molluscs are there? a. They have no shells. 2. Which group includes slugs? b. Through lungs. 3. Name an interesting characteristic of slugs. c. Three. 4. What do cephalopods have that gastropods and bivalves lack? d. Metamorphosis. 5. What is an interesting characteristic of cuttlefish and squid? e. Gastropods. 6. How do terrestrial molluscs breathe? f. They have an internal shell. 7. What process do larvae go through to become adult individuals? g. They have tentacles. 2 Read the descriptions and identify the sub-group they refer to. 1. They have got six legs, two antennae and a strong mouth for chewing. 2. Their bodies consist of many segments; they move very fast; their name means ‘a thousand feet’. 3. They have four pairs of legs; venomous scorpions belong to this group. 4. They usually have ten legs and most of them are aquatic; they have a hard outer shell and their front legs have claws for defence. 3 Look at these two arthropods and write sentences to compare and contrast them. Crabs are crustaceans, but scorpions are arachnids. ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 47 877310 _ 0044-0051.qxd 4 4/8/08 14:26 Página 48 WORKSHEET 3 INVERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Read the sentences and write the invertebrate group they refer to. 1. They feed by filtration. 2. They have a soft body divided into three parts. 3. They have a soft body, a mouth and tentacles. 4. Most of them breathe through their skin. 5. They have a soft body and no skeleton. 6. They have jointed legs and an external skeleton. 2 True or False? Write T or F and then correct the false sentences. 1. Invertebrates are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms. 2. The simplest invertebrates are porifera and cnidaria. 3. The largest known invertebrate is the nautilus. 4. Jellyfish are molluscs. 5. Worms have bilateral symmetry. 6. Leeches are terrestrial annelids. 7. The body of molluscs is covered by a fine membrane called a mantle. 8. Scolopendra are myriapods. 9. There are six sub-groups of echinoderms. 3 Write down the three most interesting facts you have learnt about invertebrates in this unit. Compare your list with a partner. 1. 2. 3. ___ / 20 48 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0044-0051.qxd 4 4/8/08 14:26 Página 49 WORKSHEET 4 INVERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Use your Student’s Book to write sentences comparing and contrasting invertebrates. Read your sentences with a partner and add more information. Example: Movement – molluscs and arthropods Arthropods can move quite fast because they have many legs, and some have wings. However, molluscs have only one foot and for this reason they move more slowly than arthropods. Nutrition – cnidaria and echinoderms Habitat – molluscs and porifera Reproduction – worms and arthropods Respiration – cnidaria molluscs and echinaceaechinoderms ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 49 877310 _ 0044-0051.qxd 4 4/8/08 14:26 Página 50 WORKSHEET 5 INVERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: A Polynesian delicacy ‘Palolo’ is the Polynesian name of the Palola viridis which is also known as the Eunice viridis. It is a curious worm found in the coral reefs of the Pacific Ocean where it feeds on microorganisms, algae and crustaceans. When palolos reach sexual maturity, the males and females, which are about 30 cm long, produce segments full of sperm or eggs. Once a year, on just one particular night in October or November, the segments detach themselves from the bodies and swim to the surface of the water. There, they break open and release the eggs and sperm so that fertilisation can occur. The newly fertilised eggs sink to the bottom after a few days and the ‘parents’ start growing new segments again. Palolo worms are important to the Samoan people for two reasons. Firstly, the islanders eat them. Secondly, they hold a grand yearly festival to celebrate the fishing of the worms. Palolo worms are on the menu everywhere! There are dishes of palolos fried in oil, cooked with onions and coconut milk, or simply served on toast. People who have tried them say that they taste like caviar, and for the Samoans, there is nothing tastier than this yearly gift from the sea! 1 Complete the table about palolo worms with information from the text. Scientific name Habitat Food Size Uses of 2 How often do palolos reproduce? Describe their reproduction cycle. 3 Name some invertebrates that you have eaten. Were they tasty? ___ / 15 50 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0044-0051.qxd 4 4/8/08 14:26 Página 51 TEST 4 INVERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Circle the correct answer. 1. Animals are eukaryotic and (a) heterotrophic (b) unicellular (c) autotrophic. 2. Porifera feed by filtration. Water enters and then leaves through (a) the central cavity (b) the channels (c) the osculum. 3. The body of cnidaria is surrounded by (a) tentacles (b) pores (c) buds. 4. In the earthworm, eggs are deposited in a large segment called the (a) clitellum (b) coelom (c) setae. 5. Most molluscs are hermaphrodites and (a) viviparous (b) oviparous (c) ovoviviparous. 6. As they grow, arthropods shed the old exoskeleton and grow a new one. This is called (a) metamorphosis (b) multiplication (c) moulting. 7. The chelicerae help the spider (a) eat (b) move (c) defend itself. 8. The internal skeleton of echinoderms is made up of (a) pedipalps (b) plaque (c) segments. 9. The exoskeleton of aquatic insects is protected by (a) a shell (b) a mantle (c) wax. 10. Most echinoderms breathe through (a) lungs (b) the ambulacral apparatus (c) gills. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. Tapeworm The taenia tapeworm is a parasite that lives in the intestines of animals and humans. When cows or pigs eat vegetation that has been contaminated with tapeworm eggs, they become infected. Consequently, humans can become infected too if they eat meat from these animals. Tapeworms absorb nutrients directly from their hosts. Some taenia species are more than ten metres long. Their head, called the scolex, has four suckers and pointed hooks. Then comes the neck and many rings which get bigger as they get older and move farther from the head. The body of a tapeworm is long, flat and soft, with no respiratory or digestive system. Since they are hermaphrodites, they can fertilise themselves. Tapeworms cause great harm to their unfortunate hosts. 1. Where do tapeworms live? 2. When do humans become infected? 3. How do tapeworms feed? 4. Describe the body of a tapeworm. ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 51 877310 _ 0052-0059.qxd 5 22/8/08 07:49 Página 52 Vertebrates OBJECTIVES 1. To identify the main characteristics of vertebrates 2. To compare vertebrates and invertebrates 3. To recognise and classify vertebrates into groups 4. To learn the step-by-step procedure to produce a scientific diagram CONTENTS CONCEPTS • Definition, common characteristics and classification of vertebrates • Specific characteristics and subgroups of the five groups of vertebrates PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • • • • ATTITUDES • Appreciating the diversity of vertebrates and understanding the need to protect them Interpreting photographs and scientific diagrams Analysing anatomical diagrams in order to compare groups of vertebrates Applying scientific criteria to the classification of vertebrates Producing scientific diagrams COMPETENCES Social competence and citizenship: becoming involved in animal protection (Web task, unit 5, Student’s CD). Cultural and artistic competence: producing accurate and well-drawn scientific diagrams (Hands on, p. 59). Competence in ‘learning to learn’: organising facts using tables and Venn diagrams (sections 2-6, pp. 54-58); testing a hypothesis (Hypothesis, p. 61); completing listening tasks to revise the unit (track 5, Student’s CD, Class CD). 52 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0052-0059.qxd 4/8/08 12:42 Página 53 VALUES Protection of the Environment Poaching is promoted by very different interests. Animals such as bears, foxes and otters are hunted for their pelts, while fish, squirrels, monkeys, parrots, chameleons and brightly feathered birds are sold to people as exotic pets. Due to this and other pressures, many species are now on the brink of extinction. In 1973, the first international treaty was signed to limit indiscriminate hunting and fishing as well as the illegal animal trade. However, the threat continues. Civic cooperation is essential, as is the attitude of individuals. Individually we can refuse to adopt exotic animals as pets, decide not to buy fur coats and clothes made from exotic animal skins, and collaborate with local authorities which protect wildlife. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can identify vertebrates using photographs and scientific drawings 3. Can classify vertebrates using simple keys and observation techniques 2. Can apply appropriate criteria to compare vertebrates and invertebrates 4. Can define and produce scientific diagrams INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Tropical jungle National Geographic.com Kids Interactive BBC collection http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/Animals/ Students can penetrate the jungle and find themselves face to face with a jaguar or a gorilla. An animal encyclopaedia which includes all kinds of interesting facts and fascinating information. Animals are beautiful people Books Warner Bros Entertainment Art of birds Director: Jaime Uys Pablo Neruda The director worked for four years and travelled 100,000 miles to film this ironic vision of animal behaviour, capturing dozens of remarkable, surprising and funny scenes. The famous poet shows his passion for these animals and for the natural richness of his homeland, Chile. Jane Goodall’s wild chimpanzees Films Artic and Antarctic BBC Nature Collection A documentary film about the Poles: the animals which live there, their behaviour and their way of life. Director: David Lickley For forty years, the great zoologist Jane Goodall observed the wild chimpanzees of Africa. The film explores the life and work of this scientist, with special emphasis on the chimpanzees she studied. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 53 877310 _ 0052-0059.qxd 5 4/8/08 12:42 Página 54 WORKSHEET 1 VERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Use the clues to solve the puzzle and find the mystery word! 3 4 1. Most of them can fly. 2 2. Their bodies are covered with hard scales. 1 5 3. Their skin is moist and has no covering. 4. They can have legs, fins or wings. 5. They have gills and no legs. Mystery word: 2 Put the words in the correct order and complete the sentences. 1. a backbone All vertebrates an endoskeleton have with All 2. bilateral articulated Vertebrates limbs have and symmetry Vertebrates 3. All trunk a and a head vertebrates have All 4. be terrestrial aquatic can Vertebrates or aerial Vertebrates 3 Complete the sentences with words from the box. metamorphosis 1. Vertebrates have viviparous bilateral oviparous interaction symmetry: the two sides of their body are the same. 2. The way living things react to and affect their habitat is called 3. Mammals, except monotremes, are 4. Birds are 5. Amphibians undergo : they give birth to live young. : they lay eggs. : they change their form during their development. ___ / 15 54 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0052-0059.qxd 5 4/8/08 12:42 Página 55 WORKSHEET 2 VERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: Prefixes are syllables or groups of syllables before a word which change its meaning. Scientific prefixes usually come from Greek (G) or Latin (L). 1 Look up these prefixes in a dictionary. Then, match each prefix with its English meaning. 1. homeo- (G) a. not 2. vivi- (L) b. changed in form 3. ovi- (L) c. the same, constant 4. inter- (L) d. grass 5. carni- (L) e. egg 6. meta- (G) f. two, double 7. in- (L) g. between, among 8. herbi- (L) h. meat 9. bi- (L) i. alive 2 Find a word with each prefix in your Student’s Book, Unit 5. 1. 6. 2. 7. 3. 8. 4. 9. 5. 3 Complete each sentence with one word from the box. echinoderms cnidaria terrestrial molluscs arthropods worms 1. Vertebrates have bilateral symmetry and so do . 2. Vertebrates have a head and so do . 3. Vertebrates use lungs to breathe and so do . 4. Vertebrates have a mouth and so do . 5. Vertebrates have an endoskeleton and so do . 6. Some vertebrates are carnivorous and so are . 7. Porifera are simple invertebrates and so are . echinoderms molluscs ___ / 25 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 55 877310 _ 0052-0059.qxd 5 4/8/08 12:42 Página 56 WORKSHEET 3 VERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Complete the chart about the five groups of vertebrates. Mammals Respiration lungs Nutrition carnivores, herbivores, omnivores Reproduction viviparous Birds Reptiles Amphibians Fish 2 Write two sentences in each case to compare and contrast different groups of vertebrates. Example: Terrestrial mammals have legs, aquatic mammals have fins and bats have wings. All reptiles have four legs except snakes, which have none. Movement: Respiration: Nutrition: Reproduction: ___ / 20 56 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0052-0059.qxd 5 4/8/08 12:42 Página 57 WORKSHEET 4 VERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Add information to the Venn diagram and write sentences to compare and contrast bats and seagulls. BATS SEAGULLS mammal bird BOTH wings Example: Both seagulls and bats have wings. However, only seagulls are birds. 2 Draw and label a bat. ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 57 877310 _ 0052-0059.qxd 5 4/8/08 12:42 Página 58 WORKSHEET 5 VERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: The platypus is an amazing animal. It has a bill and webbed feet but it is not a bird. It lays eggs but it is a mammal. It walks like a reptile but it has fur – two coats of it! It has small eyes and no visible ears, but its sight and hearing are brilliant. It has no true teeth, but it is a carnivore. It can growl like a dog. It looks like a cute stuffed toy, but the male produces a venom that can be lethal. No wonder people have always been fascinated by this enigmatic creature! The platypus was first studied by Europeans in the 18th century. However, the story had a strange beginning. When a drawing of a platypus and a platypus skin were sent back from Australia in DATE: 1798, British scientists actually thought that someone was pulling their leg. One of them accused the unknown joker of attaching a duck’s beak to the body of a beaver. As the platypus is also a shy, unsociable animal, it has taken the scientific community years to learn all its secrets. 1 Match the words and their definitions. 1. bill a. to make a deep sound in the throat to show anger 2. webbed b. poison 3. growl c. a flat beak 4. venom d. capable of killing 5. lethal e. with a membrane between the toes 2 Choose the best title for this reading passage and write it on the line above the text: A practical joke The enigmatic platypus A scientific discovery 3 Correct the information in each sentence. 1. The platypus lays eggs, but it is not a mammal. 2. It has a tail like a bird. 3. It is a friendly, sociable animal. 4. Because of its small eyes, it has a bad sense of sight. 5. Scientists found the platypus easy to understand. ___ / 10 58 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0052-0059.qxd 5 4/8/08 12:42 Página 59 TEST 5 VERTEBRATES NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Circle the correct answer. 1. The main difference between invertebrates and vertebrates is that vertebrates have (a) an endoskeleton (b) bilateral symmetry (c) a backbone. 2. The main difference between mammals and other vertebrates is that mammals (a) produce milk (b) have articulated limbs (c) are homeothermal. 3. The bones of birds are (a) hollow (b) very long (c) aerodynamic. 4. Birds have a horny mandible called a (a) keel (b) beak (c) neck. 5. Snakes have no (a) teeth (b) limbs (c) scales. 6. Amphibians have no (a) skin (b) scales (c) toxins. 7. Amphibians are the only vertebrates which (a) undergo metamorphosis (b) moult (c) are oviparous. 8. In fish, the gills are protected by a bony cover called the (a) caudal fin (b) lateral line system (c) operculum. 9. The shell of turtles and tortoises is called the (a) amnion (b) calamus (c) carapace 10. The skin of sharks is covered with toothlike projections called (a) denticles (b) plaques (c) cartilage oviparous. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. From egg to frog The female frog lays eggs in warm water and the male fertilises them. Three days after it hatches, a tadpole develops gills, a tail and an open mouth to feed on microscopic plants. After 12 weeks, the tadpole develops legs and lungs: it can move and breathe outside water. At about 16 weeks, the tadpole has four legs and its tail disappears. It loses its many tiny teeth, and its mouth grows larger. At this point the frog has achieved its adult form, and it climbs out of the water to make its home on land. 1. What are the first body parts a tadpole develops? What does the tadpole use them for? 2. What do tadpoles eat? 3. Draw the timeline of the tadpole metamorphosis. hatches adult frog ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 59 877310 _ 0060-0067.qxd 6 22/8/08 07:50 Página 60 The plant and fungi kingdoms OBJECTIVES 1. To identify the main characteristics of the plant and fungi kingdoms 4. To learn how plants and fungi obtain nutrition and reproduce 2. To classify plants and parts of plants 5. To learn the step-by-step procedure to make a classification 3. To recognise the organs of plants and fungi; to identify their shapes and functions CONTENTS CONCEPTS • • • • • PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • Analysing and interpreting illustrations which depict cycles or sequences of events • Describing the structural, organisational and functional traits of plants, with the help of photos and drawings • Using a dichotomous chart to classify plants ATTITUDES • Showing interest in learning about the great diversity of plants about us and discovering the common traits which define the plant and fungi kingdoms • Developing a positive attitude towards the protection of biodiversity Definition of the kingdom, common characteristics and classification of plants Parts of the plant: roots, stems and leaves. Structures and functions Nutrition, interaction and reproduction of plants Characteristics and classification of fungi Observation and classification of plants COMPETENCES Competence in linguistic communication: describing processes clearly and concisely (Activities, pp. 68, 69 and 70); Investigate, p. 73); listening to the unit summary What should you know? (Student’s CD, track 6). Cultural and artistic competence: creating an attractive and accurate leaf classification system (Hands on, p. 67). Autonomy and personal initiative: researching aspects of the plant world (Activities, pp. 65, 68, 69 and 71; Web task, unit 6, Student’s CD). 60 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0060-0067.qxd 22/8/08 07:52 Página 61 VALUES Protection of the Environment Describe the biological and genetic importance of plants in agriculture. Through the ages, human beings have used almost ten thousand different plant species for food, selecting and improving varieties constantly. This diversity is essential for increased yields and the improvement of crop quality, and constitutes a key element in food safety. Pests, for example, can be controlled thanks to biodiversity which can replace susceptible species with immune ones. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can identify and describe the main characteristics of the plant and fungi kingdoms 4. Can describe the nutritional process in plants and explain the process of photosynthesis 2. Can classify plants and identify the traits which determine how they are classified 5. Can explain how plants and fungi reproduce 3. Can identify the organs and parts of plants and fungi; can explain the functions of each 6. Can create a leaf classification system INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Films Photographic atlas of plant anatomy Amazon http://botweb.uwsp.edu/anatomy/ Director: Keith Merril Photographs of parts of plants. Books A documentary about the journey of an Indian shaman, Julio Mamani, and the scientist Dr Mark Plotnick, through the river Amazon to look for medicinal plants. Introductory mycology Emerald jungle Alexopoulos & Mims Director: John Boorman Up-dated with very clear graphic representations of the different morphologic structures of fungi. Based on real facts, it narrates the story of a child who disappears leaving no trace. He is the son of an American engineer who is building a ditch in the Amazon jungle. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 61 877310 _ 0060-0067.qxd 6 4/8/08 14:27 Página 62 WORKSHEET 1 THE PLANT AND FUNGI KINGDOMS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Combine the words in the columns to make new words. day side daytime ever cone 1. fly pot 2. top trap 3. pine stool 4. night green 5. under time 6. toad side 7. flower time 8. 2 Complete the sentences with words from the box. chloroplasts 1. autotrophic cellulose spores mosses plants fungi moulds are classified in two groups: non-flowering and flowering. 2. There are three groups of : yeasts, 3. Plants have 4. Plants are and mushrooms. which contain chlorophyll. but fungi are heterotrophic. 5. The cells of fungi are eukaryotic but they have no 6. Fungi reproduce by , and so do ferns and 3 Match the questions and answers. 1. What do all plants have? a. Photosynthesis. 2. What is chlorophyll necessary for? b. Angiosperms. 3. What do gymnosperms produce? c. Roots, stems and leaves. 4. What produce seeds inside a real fruit? d. Yeast. 5. What is the body of fungi made up of? e. Seeds inside a false fruit. 6. Which fungus is used in cooking and making alcoholic drinks? f. Hyphae. ___ / 20 62 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0060-0067.qxd 6 4/8/08 14:27 Página 63 WORKSHEET 2 THE PLANT AND FUNGI KINGDOMS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Complete the sentences with the words in the box. angiosperms multicellular 1. Plants are unicellular autotrophic photosynthesis gymnosperms heterotrophic : they make produce their own food through 2. However, fungi are . : they need other organisms to produce their food. 3. Fruits which have seeds inside a seedcase or real fruit are called 4. The seeds of are not protected by a fruit. 5. Fungi can be or . : they can have one cell or many cells. Prefixes are syllables or groups of syllables before a word which change its meaning. Here are some scientific prefixes. Some of them come from Latin (L) and some from Greek (G). 2 Match each prefix with its meaning in English. 1. uni- (L) a. naked, bare 2. auto- (G) b. only one 3. angio- (G) c. seedcase 4. gymno- (G) d. other, different 5. photo- (G) e. light, produced by light 6. multi- (L) f. self, by oneself 7. hetero- (G) g. more than two, many 3 Write other words you know with the same prefixes. 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. 6. 4 Read the definitions. What do they refer do? 1. They are small and non-vascular. 2. This is the name of the stem of a fern. 3. This is the name for trees that have leaves all year. 4. This is the name for trees that lose their leaves in winter. 5. Flowering plants grow these to reproduce. ___ / 25 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 63 877310 _ 0060-0067.qxd 6 4/8/08 14:27 Página 64 WORKSHEET 3 THE PLANT AND FUNGI KINGDOMS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Complete the word map with the main parts of the flower’s reproductive organs. Use the words in the box. stamen pistil filament stigma pollen grains ovules style anther ovary Parts of the flower Male Female 2 Match the words with the descriptions below. Then put the stages of reproduction in the correct order. Germination Fertilisation Fruit and seed formation Pollination Dispersal 1. : pollen reaches the stigma, penetrates it and fertilises the ovules inside the ovary. 2. : the seeds fall on the ground and germinate. A small root and shoot grow. 3. : the ripe fruit falls off the plant or releases the seeds. 4. : the fertilised flower is transformed. The corolla and the calyx dry up. The ovary changes into the fruit. 5. : pollen from one flower’s anther reaches the stigma of another flower. 3 Answer the questions in pairs. 1. Name two kinds of animal that help plants pollinate. 2. What are the functions of fruit? 3. Name some ways in which seeds are dispersed. ___ / 20 64 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0060-0067.qxd 6 4/8/08 14:27 Página 65 WORKSHEET 4 THE PLANT AND FUNGI KINGDOMS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Work in pairs. Take turns to read. Then classify the sentences and write the numbers. 1. Plants have three main organs: leaves, stems and roots. Flowering plants 2. Mosses belong to this group. 3. They reproduce by spores which are dispersed by the wind. 4. They grow seeds in order to reproduce. 5. These keep the plant upright and conduct nutrients from the roots to the leaves. Non-flowering plants 2 6. Raw sap is transformed in the leaves into elaborated sap through photosynthesis. 7. Angiosperms are deciduous and have brightly coloured flowers. 8. The stem of the fern, which grows horizontally in the ground, is called a rhizome. Functions of roots, stems and leaves 9. When mineral salts dissolve in the water absorbed by plant roots, raw sap is produced. 10. Oxygen goes into the leaves as excess water is expelled through the stomata as water vapour. 11. Gymnosperms have small, insignificant flowers grouped together into inflorescences. Plant nutrition 12. The function of plant roots is to fix the plant to the ground and absorb water and minerals. 2 Draw a simple diagram to explain plant nutrition. ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 65 877310 _ 0060-0067.qxd 6 4/8/08 14:27 Página 66 WORKSHEET 5 THE PLANT AND FUNGI KINGDOMS NAME: CLASS: DATE: Plant warfare Imagine you are a plant. How can you keep hungry herbivores away? You can’t escape. There is no place for you to hide. What strategies can you develop to save yourself? You have several options. You can decide to avoid herbivores completely, by growing in places which they can’t access. For example, elephants will not eat you if you decide to grow on high mountains. You can also trick your enemies into eating non-essential parts of you. So if you need flowers for reproduction, you can produce small, inconspicuous ones. Or you can make sure your leaves are so difficult to digest that the herbivores won’t bother. You can also summon the enemies of your enemies to your aid. Give food and shelter to colonies of ants, as some acacia trees do. Since giraffes and antelopes do not enjoy chewing ants, so they will leave you alone! All you need to do is to produce a bit of nectar for your ‘soldiers’. Finally, you can confront your enemies by using poison. Some of the most noxious substances come from plants. You can also grow thorns and sharp spines, like rose bushes and cacti do, or cover your leaves with hairs in order to irritate herbivore mouths. As you can see, you will be able to survive, although you will need some time to set up your strategy – say a few hundred thousand years! 1 Find words in the text which mean the following: 1. possibilities: 2. reach: 3. not easily noticed: 4. call: 5. face your enemies: 6. poisonous: 2 True or False? Write T or F. Then, circle the mistakes. 1. Many plants need to defend themselves against herbivores. 2. Some plants grow close to herbivores so they can be eaten more easily. 3. Acacia trees support ants as a protection against larger herbivores. 4. Some plants produce lethal poisons to protect themselves. 5. Roses and cacti are attractive to herbivores. 3 Investigate and find the names of some poisonous plants. ___ / 15 66 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0060-0067.qxd 6 4/8/08 14:27 Página 67 TEST 6 THE PLANT AND FUNGI KINGDOMS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Circle the correct answer. 1. Plant cells are surrounded by (a) a cellulose wall (b) membranes (c) organelles. 2. Ferns are (a) non-vascular plants (b) vascular plants (c) flowering plants. 3. Instead of leaves, mosses have small laminas called (a) rhizomes (b) sorus (c) phyllodes. 4. Most gymnosperms are (a) evergreens (b) non-flowering (c) deciduous. 5. During photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide through the (a) leaves (b) roots (c) flowers. 6. Leaves and branches are joined to the stem at (a) internodes (b) apical buds (c) nodes. 7. There are main roots and secondary roots. Each root ends in (a) capsules (b) root caps (c) hyphane. 8. After fertilisation, the ovary of a flower (a) dries up (b) falls off the plant (c) changes into the fruit. 9. The energy needed for photosynthesis is provided by (a) elaborated sap (b) sunlight (c) raw sap. 10. There are two types of heterotrophic fungi: saphrotrophs and (a) parasites (b) eukaryotes (c) mycelium. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. Plant reactions There are two types of plant reaction: permanent – related to growth and temporary – caused by stimuli in the habitat. For example, if you place a plant horizontally, the stem will grow and curve towards the light and the roots will grow down into the soil. This is a permanent reaction. In temporary reactions, the plant returns to its initial state when the stimulus stops. For example, the stems, leaves and flowers of sunflowers turn with the Sun as it moves across the sky. Plants also react to classical music: they open their leaves and flowers and bend towards the source of the music. They grow much faster if music is played to them every day. However, they do not like rock music, and absolutely hate heavy metal! They will bend away from this type of music, and if it does not stop, they usually die within two weeks. 1. What is the difference between permanent and temporary reactions? 2. Describe one temporary and one permanent reaction in plants. 3. What kind of music do plants prefer? ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 67 877310 _ 0068-0075.qxd 7 4/8/08 12:43 Página 68 The simplest living things OBJECTIVES 1. To identify the main characteristics of microorganisms 5. To understand how vaccines and antibiotics work 2. To examine the structures and vital functions of bacteria 6. To learn about harmful and beneficial microorganisms 3. To learn how viruses are structured 7. To learn the step-by-step procedure to take samples and observe microorganisms under the microscope 4. To learn about infectious diseases, their transmission and prevention CONTENTS CONCEPTS • Main characteristics of microorganisms • Characteristics, structures and vital functions of organisms which belong to the Monera and Protoctist kingdoms • Characteristics, structures and infection cycle of viruses • Microorganisms and their role in the biosphere • The infection process, prevention and cure of infectious diseases PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • • • • • ATTITUDES • Appreciating the value and benefits of most microorganisms • Showing interest in learning about organisms which are not visible to the naked eye • Understanding the importance of hygiene in the prevention of diseases Interpreting and producing schematic diagrams Observing and interpreting magnified images, cross-sections and schematic diagrams Using scientific criteria to classify living things Using a microscope to recognise and classify living things Analysing scientific texts COMPETENCES Competence in linguistic communication: interpreting instructions correctly to complete a scientific inquiry (Hands on, p. 80); listening to the unit summary What should you know? (Student’s CD, track 7). Knowledge and interaction with the physical world: understanding how infectious diseases are caused and transmitted (sections 3, 4 and 5, pp. 78, 79 and 81); learning how to prevent and cure diseases (sections 4 and 5, pp. 79 and 81). Autonomy and personal initiative: investigating microorganisms (Activities 22 and 26, p. 82), researching bacteria (Web task, unit 7, Student’s CD) and presenting conclusions. 68 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0068-0075.qxd 22/8/08 07:53 Página 69 VALUES Health Education Life expectancy in the West has risen to almost 80 years, among other factors, thanks to the use of antibiotics. However, the abuse of antibiotics contributes to increased bacterial resistance. It is vitally important to understand how to treat a bacterial infection, to respect dosages and to continue with the treatment for the prescribed length of time. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can identify, describe and classify organisms which belong to the Protoctists and Monera kingdoms 2. Can describe the structures and vital functions of bacteria 3. Can describe the structure and infection cycle of viruses 4. Can explain the origin, transmission, prevention and cure of common diseases 5. Can explain the difference between vaccines and antibiotics and identify the diseases which can be controlled by each 6. Can describe the beneficial or harmful role of microorganisms in the biosphere 7. Can follow the correct procedure to collect samples, observe and classify organisms under the microscope INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Microbes in action. Illustrated advanced biology Searching for the mysterious microbe C.J. Clegg http://www.microbeworld.org/ Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton (2002) Web page of the American Society for Microbiology. It includes amusing cases and experiments with micro-organisms. Examines the characteristics of microbes, giving detailed examples of each group. Microbe Zoo. Digital learning center for microbial ecology Royston M. Roberts http://www.commtechlab.msu.edu/sites/dlcme/zoo/index.html Serendipia. Accidental discoveries in science Publisher: Wiley Science Editions The author analyses the circumstances leading to famous discoveries such as the Principle of Archimedes or of penicillin. Virtual zoo with exotic species. The zoo includes photos of micro-organisms, classification, facts on size, and feeding. Films Books Intimate strangers. Unseen life on Earth The panda’s thumb PBS Home Television series Stephen Jay Gould This four part series focuses on micro-organisms and the detective work of scientists, whose investigations lead them to discover the beauty of microscopic life. Learn about the usefulness of microbes in controlling illnesses, fighting against hunger or cleaning toxic waste. Publisher: Hermann Blune Essays about evolution, explained with humour. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 69 877310 _ 0068-0075.qxd 7 4/8/08 12:43 Página 70 WORKSHEET 1 THE SIMPLEST LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Write noun + noun combinations using one word from each column. In English, a noun directly before another noun makes the first noun function like an adjective. For example, cellulose cells are cells (noun) which are made of cellulose (noun). Monera cycle rabies water incubation kingdom life vaccination puddle cell bacteria period 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. 6. 2 Complete the sentences with the word combinations from activity 1. 1. Some parasites need more than one host to complete their 2. The . of some diseases can last years. 3. The cytoplasm of contains genetic material. 4. Many microscopic organisms live in . 5. The contains unicellular, microscopic, prokaryotic organisms. 6. The has saved thousands of people from a horrible death. 3 Match the questions and answers. 1. How do bacteria generally reproduce? a. Through photosynthesis. 2. How many main groups of bacteria are there? b. The Protoctist kingdom. 3. What do parasites feed off? c. Four. 4. How do cyanobacteria make their own food? d. According to the way they move. 5. Which kingdom do algae belong to? e. In the digestive system of many mammals. 6. How are protozoa classified? f. Trypanosoma. 7. Which protozoa causes sleeping sickness? g. By binary fission. 8. Where can symbionts be found? h. Living things. ___ / 20 70 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0068-0075.qxd 7 4/8/08 12:43 Página 71 WORKSHEET 2 THE SIMPLEST LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Match these Greek forms to their English equivalent. Many scientific terms are created by combining Greek or Latin forms. Recognising these combinations will help you understand words more quickly! 1. -pod- a. root 2. -rhizo- b. animal 3. -phyto- c. food, nutrition 4. -path(o)- d. disease 5. -bio(s)- e. foot 6. -troph(o)- f. plant 7. -zoo- g. life 8. -cyt(o)- h. cell, of cells 2 Find a word with each form in Unit 7 and preceding units of your Student’s Book. 1. 5. 2. 6. 3. 7. 4. 8. 3 Complete the gaps with words from activities 1 and 2. 1. The science that studies plants and animals is called 2. have articulated legs. 3. The is the jelly-like substance inside cells. 4. The underground stems of ferns are called . 5. Organisms which produce their own food are 6. Organisms which obtain food from other organisms are 7. All viruses are . . . This means that they cause disease. 8. Plankton consisting of microscopic animals is called . 9. Plankton consisting of microscopic plants is called . ___ / 25 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 71 877310 _ 0068-0075.qxd 7 4/8/08 12:43 Página 72 WORKSHEET 3 THE SIMPLEST LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Write the information below in the Venn diagram. Then, write sentences to compare and contrast protozoa and algae. autotrophs heterotrophs unicellular or multicellular classified by movement live in salt and fresh water some can float on wat classified by colour PROTOZOA unicellular protoctist kingdom eukaryotes no tissues ALGAE BOTH eukaryotes Example: Protozoa are heterotrophs, but algae are autotrophs. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2 Draw and label a unicellular organism and a multicellular organism. ___ / 20 72 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0068-0075.qxd 7 4/8/08 12:43 Página 73 WORKSHEET 4 THE SIMPLEST LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Work in pairs. Take turns to start and finish the sentences. 1. Viruses cannot carry out… a. …a capsid and nucleic acid. 2. Viruses are composed of… b. …a bacteria transmitted through the air. 3. Some viruses, like influenza… c. …certain bacteria and fungi. 4. All viruses are… d. …have a viral envelope. 5. The observable effects of… e. …any vital functions by themselves. 6. Insects that carry a disease from… f. …one person to another are vectors. 7. Pneumonia is caused by… g. …many aquatic animals. 8. Salmonellosis causes… h. …vomiting and diarrhoea. 9. Athlete’s foot is transmitted through… i. …pathogenic parasites. 10. Intestinal flora are bacteria that live… j. …physical contact through the skin. 11. Antibiotics are produced by… k. …disease on the body are called symptoms. 12. Plankton is the primary food of… l. …in human and animal digestive systems. 2 True or False? Write T or F. 1. All sporozoa are parasites. 2. A flagellum is another word for tail. 3. Malaria is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. 4. Rhizopods move using cilia which are hair-like organs. 3 Write five true o false sentences based on information from Unit 7. Then, test your partner. Example: Most bacteria are autotrophs. (F) ___ / 25 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 73 877310 _ 0068-0075.qxd 7 4/8/08 12:43 Página 74 WORKSHEET 5 THE SIMPLEST LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: The Mould in Dr. Florey’s Coat “The Mould in Dr. Florey’s Coat” is a fascinating book by Eric Lax. In it, the author describes the amazing work of the scientists involved in the development of penicillin. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928, but it took years before it could be used as an effective medicine. The scientists grew penicillin in a solution of different liquids. The problem was extracting it from these liquids and making it safe enough for injections. Dr Florey, an Australian scientist working at Oxford University, and Ernst Chain, a biochemist from Germany, experimented until they could purify enough of the miracle drug to use on seriously ill people. In 1940, everyone in Britain feared a German invasion. The title of this book refers to the fact that in order to avoid Penicillium notatum falling into enemy hands, Florey and four of his colleagues injected some spores of penicillin into their clothes. The spores could lie dormant for years and then be revived later for further research. The German invasion, of course, never occurred. In 1945, Chain, Florey and Fleming received the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for discovering penicillin and researching its therapeutic uses. 1 Find words in the text which mean the following. 1. remarkable: 5. co-workers: 2. refine: 6. inactive: 3. sick: 7. happened: 4. was afraid of: 8. investigating: 2 Correct the information in each sentence. 1. The text describes a film by Eric Lax. 2. It was difficult to inject penicillin after it had been extracted from the solution. 3. The Germans purified penicillin in 1940. 4. After the German invasion, Dr. Florey continued his work. 3 Think and answer. 1. Why couldn’t doctors use penicillin as soon as it was discovered? 2. What were the researchers afraid of? 3. What solution did they find? ___ / 15 74 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0068-0075.qxd 7 4/8/08 12:43 Página 75 TEST 7 THE SIMPLEST LIVING THINGS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Circle the correct answer. 1. Symbionts live on the bodies of other living things and (a) obtain food from their host (b) obtain food and provide a benefit to their host (c) help their host with digestion. 2. The organisms that belong to the Monera kingdom do not have (a) an organised nucleus (b) tissues (c) cytoplasm. 3. Saprophytes transform organic substances into (a) cyanobacteria (b) acid (c) inorganic substances. 4. Organisms in the Protoctist kingdom do not have (a) an organised nucleus (b) tissues (c) cytoplasm. 5. Flagellates move using (a) a tail (b) hair-like organs (c) pseudopods. 6. All sporozoa are (a) bacteria (b) parasites (c) zooplankton. 7. Algae are classified by (a) pigment (b) size (c) habitat. 8. Algae sometimes form (a) families (b) patches (c) colonies. 9. The capsid of viruses is made of (a) nucleic acid (b) protein (c) live pathogens. 10. Vaccination protects you by using (a) penicillin (b) pathogens (c) symptoms. 2 Answer the questions with information from the text and your own knowledge. Preventing diseases You can protect yourself from infection in several ways. For example, wash your hands after using the toilet and before eating. Wash fruit and vegetables carefully, and cover all food to protect it from insects. Make sure that everything you eat and drink tastes fresh. Throw away anything that looks or tastes strange. Apart from personal and food hygiene, vaccinations and antibiotics are other ways of fighting and preventing diseases. Vaccines are given to people as preventive measures: they contain dead or weakened microorganisms from specific illnesses. They teach our bodies how to fight an infection without actually exposing it to danger. Antibiotics are curative measures: different antibiotics are prescribed to fight different illnesses. They are produced by certain bacteria and fungi which prevent specific harmful microorganisms growing in the body. However, they cannot fight illnesses caused by viruses, and should never be used without a doctor’s prescription. 1. List three ways of preventing diseases. 2. Explain the difference between a vaccine and an antibiotic. 3. Can antibiotics kill viruses? ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 75 877310 _ 0076-0083.qxd 8 4/8/08 14:28 Página 76 The Earth’s atmosphere OBJECTIVES 1. To examine the origin, structure and composition of the atmosphere 4. To understand how human activity affects the atmosphere and the climate 2. To learn basic principles of meteorology and the study of climate 5. To learn about the greenhouse effect 3. To analyse how winds, clouds and precipitation are formed 7. To make and use an anemometer to measure wind speed 6. To learn how to prevent atmospheric pollution CONTENTS CONCEPTS • • • • • The composition, layers and formation of the atmosphere Atmospheric physics: pressure, high and low pressure areas, humidity and temperature Atmospheric phenomena: precipitation, winds and cloud formation Meteorology, climate, weather forecasts, storms and anticyclones The impact of human activity on the atmosphere; pollution and corrective measures PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • • • • • • Presenting information with the help of tables, maps and pie charts Interpreting weather maps, pressure and isobar contour maps Observing and analysing graphs and meteostat photos Analysing scientific texts Making and using a simple device to measure a variable Recording and analysing data ATTITUDES • To become aware of the environmental problems which affect the atmosphere; to understand the need for personal action to correct them • To show interest in understanding atmospheric phenomena and interpreting weather maps and forecasts COMPETENCES Mathematical competence: understanding the measurements and scales used to assess meteorological variables (section 4, p. 90) calculating wind speed (Hands on, p. 91). Knowledge and interaction with the physical world: understanding the impact of human activity on the atmosphere (section 5, p. 92); understanding the greenhouse effect and taking steps to reduce air pollution (section 6, p. 93). Social competence and citizenship: taking steps to reduce air pollution (section 6, p. 93). 76 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0076-0083.qxd 22/8/08 07:54 Página 77 VALUES Protection of the Environment Special emphasis needs to be placed on the commitment of individuals to the solution of environmental pollution. Key to this is the development of responsible consumer habits, the three ‘Rs’ of responsible consumption being Reducing, Reusing and Recycling. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can describe the structure and composition of the Earth’s atmosphere 5. Can explain how human activity affects the atmosphere and the climate 2. Can explain the origin of the Earth’s atmosphere and compare it with the atmosphere of other planets 6. Can explain the greenhouse effect and how to avoid air pollution 3. Can explain the physical processes that govern atmospheric phenomena 7. Can make and use an anemometer, analyse and interpret the resulting data 4. Can predict the weather by interpreting weather maps and tables INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Films National Geographic for kids Biosphere http://kids.nationalgeographic.com National Geographic, 2000 Navigate to find information about weather, the greenhouse effect, pollution, etc. The ozone layer, the greenhouse effect, the power of the Sun, energy sources of the future… Books The climate: cold & The climate: wind Everyday weather and how it works Science and Nature Herman Schneider BBC ( 2003) With user-friendly, didactic language, and useful diagrams, this book shows how to interpret the weather. Twister Columbia Tristar Home Video (1996) Collins guide to the weather Director: Jan de Bon Gunter D. Roth This book explains in simple language and with abundant illustrations the factors that influence climate. A group of scientists follow tornados in order to place a revolutionary machine inside them, which can provide information about these storms. Weather Cyclone Valerie Wyatt National Geographic (1997) Instructions on how to do entertaining experiments that help students understand the Earth’s climate and enjoy the spectacle of meteorological phenomena. Documentary film about the fury of storms, from tornados in the Mid-West of the United States to the typhoons of the Pacific or the hurricanes of Florida. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 77 877310 _ 0076-0083.qxd 8 4/8/08 14:28 Página 78 WORKSHEET 1 THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Match the words with their definitions. 1. The symbol of this colourless and odourless gas is N2. a. The mesosphere. 2. This gas is necessary for photosynthesis. b. The atmosphere. 3. The first living beings produced this by photosynthesis. c. The troposphere. 4. It is divided into four layers. d. Nitrogen. 5. This is the highest and the thickest layer of (4). e. Oxygen. 6. This layer of (4) contains clouds of dust. f. The ionosphere. 7. The ozone layer is found here. g. Carbon dioxide. 8. It contains 80 % of the total mass of the atmosphere. h. The stratosphere. 2 Find eight words connected to weather. Q H G I N H M F P R E S S U R E A F K O B M A F D S F B V I I S S D C A C D N D G F L R W I N D S N O W X T J G G G U K Z Y Y T I J D D H A I L 3 Complete each definition with a word from activity 2. Use the plural where necessary. 1. are formed when rising air cools. 2. is the concentration of water vapour in the atmosphere. 3. are the currents that move air masses around in the atmosphere. 4. can be low or high, moving towards a land mass or towards the sea. 5. is precipitation which falls to the ground in the form of water drops. 6. is precipitation which falls in the form of little balls of ice. 7. is precipitation made of soft white flakes. 8. connect points with the same atmospheric pressure on weather maps. ___ / 20 78 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0076-0083.qxd 8 4/8/08 14:28 Página 79 WORKSHEET 2 THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE NAME: CLASS: DATE: Remember! • Prefixes and suffixes are syllables or groups of syllables which change the meaning of words. Prefixes go before the word, and suffixes go after the word. • Combining forms can be used at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a word. 1 Match each prefix, suffix or combining form with its English meaning. 1. iso- a. that produces or causes 2. alt(o)- b. a device or instrument used for measuring 3. -gen c. heat, of heat 4. -meter d. weight 5. meso- e. in the middle, between 6. -aer(o)- f. equal, similar 7. -therm(o)- g. high 8. -bar(o)- h. air, of air 2 Find a word from Unit 8 with each form. 1. 4. 7. 2. 5. 8. 3. 6. 3 Complete the sentences with words from activities 1 and 2. 1. Atmospheric pressure is measured with a 2. Some gases used in 3. . are pollutants. is the height above sea level. 4. Temperature is measured with a 5. . is the gas that combines with oxygen to produce water. 6. The measures the amount of rainfall per square metre. 7. The is located between the stratosphere and the ionosphere. 8. Atmospheric pressure, which is shown in in altitude. , changes with differences ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 79 877310 _ 0076-0083.qxd 8 4/8/08 14:28 Página 80 WORKSHEET 3 THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Reorder the letters and write the names of the four -spheres that make up the atmosphere. 1. onio- 3. tortas- 2. semo- 4. porto- 2 Label the four spheres in the illustration. THE ATMOSPHERE 500 km 400 km ALTITUDE 80 km 300 km 40 km Ozonosphere 200 km 10 km 100 km 80 km 40 km 10 km 0 km 3 Read the sentences and write the –sphere. 1. This contains clouds of dust and ice. 2. This contains 80% of the total mass of the atmosphere. 3. The ozone layer is found here. 4. It is about 40 km thick. 5. Comets appear in this sphere. 6. Passenger aircraft fly in this zone at an altitude of 10 - 12,000 metres. 7. From ground level to its highest point, this is about 10 km thick. 8. This is where meteorological phenomena occur. ___ / 20 80 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0076-0083.qxd 8 22/8/08 07:55 Página 81 WORKSHEET 4 THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 True or False? Write T or F. Then correct the false sentences. 1. Temperatures are higher at the Equator because solar energy is more spread out. 2. In summer, the sea releases heat, keeping coastal areas warmer. 3. Cold ocean currents can make areas cooler. 4. Snow occurs when water vapour in the air freezes. 5. Cumulus clouds form above 6,000 m. 6. Cirrus clouds normally mean good weather. 7. When clouds are low and horizontal, usually no rain falls. 2 Complete the chart with information about atmospheric pollution. Human activities Pollutant Consequences Burning fossil fuels Burning gasoline acid rain CFC gases soot Cities are dirtier. Buildings are damaged. Can cause lung disease. ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 81 877310 _ 0076-0083.qxd 8 4/8/08 14:28 Página 82 WORKSHEET 5 THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE NAME: CLASS: DATE: The Godfather of Clouds Luke Howard was an English pharmacist who loved clouds. As a schoolboy, he began to study the weather, and continued to study it throughout his life. In 1803, he made a classification of clouds. To do this, he employed Latin names, as Linnaeus had done with plants and animals. He also applied Linnaean principles in his new scheme of classification. Basically, he divided clouds into three categories: stratus for the layered clouds, cumulus for the fluffy ones and cirrus for the high, thin ones. He later added a fourth term, nimbus (from the Latin for ‘cloud’), for a rain cloud. The basic elements in Howard’s system could then be combined to describe every kind of cloud in the sky: cirrostratus, stratocumulus, cumulonimbus, and so on. Before Howard’s system became popular, most people believed that clouds changed too quickly to be classified. Clouds were simply described by their colour and shape: black, white, fluffy, thin, high, etc. So although Howard was not a scientist, he made a very important contribution to modern meteorology and with good reason has been named ‘the godfather of clouds’. 1 Find words in the text which mean the following. 1. liked immensely: 2. used: 3. rules: 4. system: 5. name: 6. the study of weather and climate: 2 How many basic cloud categories are there in Howard’s system and what are they called? 3 Draw and label the three basic types of clouds. Indicate the approximate altitude at which they are found. ___ / 20 82 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0076-0083.qxd 8 4/8/08 14:28 Página 83 TEST 8 THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Circle the correct answer. 1. The present atmosphere is made up of (c) 78 %. nitrogen: (a) 1 % (b) 21 % 2. The ozone layer protects life from (a) harmful UV rays (b) X rays (c) the greenhouse effect. 3. Cirrus clouds normally announce (a) fair weather (b) stormy weather (c) precipitations. 4. Cumulus clouds form at about (a) 1,000 m. (b) 5,000 m. (c) 10,000 m. 5. Air pressure is measured in (a) isobars (b) millibars (c) barometers. 6. To make weather predictions, meteorologists collect (a) four variables (b) six variables (c) eight variables. 7. To measure wind speed, you use (a) a hygrometer (b) a pluviometer (c) an anemometer. 8. CFCs are used in aerosols, air-conditioning and (a) refrigerators (b) microwave ovens (c) television sets. 9. CFCs eliminate (c) oxygen. from the atmosphere. (a) carbon dioxide (b) ozone 10. Acid rain is caused by (a) CFCs (b) carbon dioxide (c) sulphur and nitrate dioxides. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. The greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon which is essential for keeping the temperatures on Earth suitable for life. The atmosphere absorbs a lot of solar radiation. CO2 in the atmosphere acts like the glass walls of a greenhouse, trapping heat and preventing it from returning into space. In this way, the Earth does not lose too much heat. However, the amount of CO2 has increased over the last 200 years because more fossil fuels are burned as the population of humans and domestic animals has increased. Some CO2 is dissolved in the oceans and absorbed by plants. Unfortunately, we are destroying forests, the Earth’s ‘green lungs’, and not doing much to reduce our consumption of coal, gas and oil. So more CO2 is produced, more heat is trapped in the atmosphere, and the average temperature of the Earth is rising. 1. What is the greenhouse effect? 2. What are the positive and negative aspects of the greenhouse effect? ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 83 877310 _ 0084-0091.qxd 9 4/8/08 12:44 Página 84 The hydrosphere OBJECTIVES 1. To find out about the distribution of water in the hydrosphere 5. To describe the water cycle 2. To learn about the properties of water 6. To identify uses of water and causes of water pollution 3. To study the characteristics of sea water and fresh water 7. To study the effects of temperature on condensation 4. To learn about ocean movement: waves, currents and tides 8. To learn how to control variables in an experiment CONTENTS CONCEPTS • • • • • • PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • Observing and interpreting pie charts, graphs and diagrams • Interpreting and explaining natural cycles • Conducting an experiment to determine how variables can be controlled ATTITUDES • • • • The origin and distribution of water The properties of water and its importance for all living things Characteristics of ocean and fresh water The water cycle Uses and quality of water Water pollution Valuing water as an indispensable resource to sustain life Developing a positive attitude towards the need for sustainable water management Valuing individual initiatives aimed at reducing water consumption Appreciating the significance of the water cycle and reflecting on the problems caused by human activity COMPETENCES Mathematical competence: understanding results expressed as percentages (sections 1 and 3, pp. 97 and 99); representing information in different graphs (section 1, p. 97). Knowledge and interaction with the physical world: interpreting and reproducing a diagram of the water cycle (section 5, p. 101; Activity 17, p. 104); understanding how to control variables in an experiment (Hands on, p. 103). Social competence and citizenship: taking steps to reduce water pollution (Activity 9, p. 102; Activity 16, p. 104; Web task, unit 9, Student’s CD). 84 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0084-0091.qxd 22/8/08 07:56 Página 85 VALUES Protection of the Environment Access to water for all is a challenge for both industrialised and developing countries. Water pollution, increased use of irrigation in agriculture and increasingly frequent droughts pose a threat to world water resources. In order to avoid waste, it is important to educate people about responsible water consumption. Simple measures such as putting two bottles in the lavatory cistern can help save water. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can describe the distribution of water in the hydrosphere 6. Can describe how water is used and how to reduce water pollution 2. Can describe the properties of water 7. Can understand the effects of temperature on condensation 3. Can describe the characteristics of sea water and fresh water 4. Can explain movements of ocean waters 8. Can understand how to control variables in an experiment 5. Can explain and illustrate the water cycle INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Oceans and seas United States geological survey Incola Davies http://water.usgs.gov/ Collection of books with stunning photographs and well-written texts which lead to a world of discoveries and entertaining projects. Web page with reliable, impartial information about different aspects of water use in the United States. It includes factual maps, photos and an interactive section. Films The climate: water U.S. geological survey BBC Science and Nature http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.html Very complete and detailed explanation of the water cycle. Books The sea around us Rachel Carson This book talks about the formation of the Earth, the centuries of uninterrupted rain which created the oceans, giant squid fighting with sperm whales, and the powerful tides which shift 100 billions tons of water daily into Fundy Bay. Congo: the river that swallows all rivers BBC Documentary Find out about the River Congo region and places that where undiscovered until the last half of the XIX century, for example, Lake Tanganika. The Endurance Director: G. Butler The explorer Ernest Shackelton and his crew started out on an expedition that would be crucial for the history of exploration: the first on-foot journey though the Antarctic. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 85 877310 _ 0084-0091.qxd 9 4/8/08 12:44 Página 86 WORKSHEET 1 THE HYDROSPHERE NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Complete the text about water to find the crossword answers. Find the hidden property of water in the crossword. 8 Water in solid form is called, 1. . When water freezes it 6. unlike other substances. 3 1 2 , 4 It is made up of one 2. 6 of hydrogen and two of 7. 5 . 7 Water molecules are attracted to other molecules. This is called 3. . Water moderates the Earth’s climate by absorbing 4. . It dissolves rock components because it is a powerful 5. . Our planet looks blue from space because of all the water in the 8. The hidden property of water is 2 . Complete the sentences with compound nouns from the box. sea level rock erosion 1. water courses water molecules sea water river valleys are attracted to each other and to other substances. 2. contains dissolved gases and salts. 3. Tides are the periodic rise and fall of the 4. One of the results of wave action is 5. Streams and torrents are 6. . . fed by rain. are also created by the action of water as it erodes rocky banks. ___ / 15 86 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0084-0091.qxd 9 4/8/08 12:44 Página 87 WORKSHEET 2 THE HYDROSPHERE NAME: 1 CLASS: Match the questions and answers. 1. Where do glaciers originate? 2. What are wetlands? 3. How much of the water on Earth is fresh water? 4. What happens when water freezes? 5. What does water leave when it evaporates? 6. What does the temperature of sea water vary with? a. Water located beneath the surface of the ground b. Areas of marshlands and swamps. c. Mineral salt deposits. d. On the surface of water. e. It dilates. f. Like rivers through the sea. 7. Where do waves occur? g. On mountain tops. 8. What do ocean currents move like? h. In lakes. 9. What is groundwater? i. 3%. 10. Where is most surface fresh water located? 2 DATE: j. Depth. Put the words in order and write correct sentences. 1. Earth both and salt fresh water be found can on. Both 2. Water covers of the but only is planet 68.7 % fresh water 3% Water 3. in the atmosphere and in living things water 0.9 % of fresh is 0.9 % 4. 2 % surface water is human fresh consumption for fit of 2% 5. beneath groundwater Earth is fresh water located the surface of the Groundwater ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 87 877310 _ 0084-0091.qxd 9 4/8/08 12:44 Página 88 WORKSHEET 3 THE HYDROSPHERE NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Write these words associated with the processes of the water cycle in the correct columns. rain clouds hail groundwater water vapour from the leaves and stems of plants from the hydrosphere to the atmosphere rivers and streams porous ground snow dew The water cycle Evaporation Evapotranspiration Condensation Precipitation Surface run off Infiltration rain 2 3 Read the descriptions and identify the stages of the water cycle. Then put them in order. a. : The leaves and stems of plants release water into the atmosphere. b. : A lot of water also filters into the ground, especially in places where the ground is porous. c. : Water passes from the hydrosphere to the atmosphere as it changes to a gas. d. : The water held in the clouds falls to the ground in the form of rain, snow or hail. e. : Clouds and dew are formed when water vapour changes to liquid. f. : Water on the surface of the Earth moves across the land and into rivers and streams. Answer the questions in pairs. 1. List different forms in which water can be found. Lakes, 2. List four ways of saving water. ___ / 25 88 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0084-0091.qxd 9 4/8/08 12:44 Página 89 WORKSHEET 4 THE HYDROSPHERE NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Work in pairs. Take turns to read and classify the sentences. Write the numbers in the boxes. Fresh water Salt water Properties of water Uses of water 1 1. It is a powerful solvent which can dissolve many components of rock. 2. It is used in many industrial processes. 3. About 0.9% of it is found in the atmosphere and in living things. 4. It is used for human and animal consumption. 5. It contains dissolved salts, mainly in the form of chlorides and sulphates. 6. At room temperature, it flows because its molecules move freely. 7. Groundwater accounts for 30.9 % of it. 8. Oil refineries consume enormous amounts of it. 9. It is poisonous if you drink too much, and can kill you within days. 10. It can also exist as a solid and a gas. 11. Only 0.3 % of it is found on the surface of the Earth. 12. The largest body of it is the Pacific Ocean. 2 Draw a picture to illustrate one of the above sentences. ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 89 877310 _ 0084-0091.qxd 9 4/8/08 12:44 Página 90 WORKSHEET 5 THE HYDROSPHERE NAME: CLASS: DATE: Tides A tide is the regular rise and fall of the sea caused by the gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun. Tides go through the following stages: the water rises for several hours, reaches its highest level and stops at high tide. It then does the opposite, falling for several hours and finally stopping at low tide. Then the process starts all over again. Around new and full moon, when the Sun, Moon and Earth form a line (a condition known as syzygy), the tidal pull due to the Sun reinforces the tidal pull of the Moon. As a result, high tides are higher than average and low tides are lower than average. This is called the spring tide, or just ‘springs’. The name is not derived from the season of spring, but from the verb meaning ‘to jump’. When the Moon is in the first quarter or third quarter, the Sun and Moon are separated by 90° (as seen from the Earth), and the Sun’s pull partially cancels out the pull of the Moon. As a result, the range of high tide and low tide is less extreme. This is called the neap tide, or ‘neaps’. There is an interval of about seven days between springs and neaps. 1 Complete each sentence with the correct information. 1. Tides are caused by 2. First, the water rises for several hours and stops at 3. When it reaches high tide, it starts to , finally stopping at 4. During spring tides, the gravitational attraction of the Sun 5. During neap tides, the gravitational attraction of the Sun 2 Write a definition for the word syzygy. 3 Explain the terms ‘spring tide’ and ‘neap tide’. ___ / 15 90 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0084-0091.qxd 9 4/8/08 12:44 Página 91 TEST 9 THE HYDROSPHERE NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Circle the correct answer. 1. The largest amount of water on Earth is found (a) in the ground (b) at the Poles (c) in the oceans. 2. Only (a) 11 % (b) 2 % (c) 0·9 % of surface fresh water is found in rivers. 3. In swamps, the ground is (a) frozen all year long (b) inundated all year (c) inundated during the summer months. 4. Water (a) absorbs heat in summer and emits heat in winter (b) absorbs heat all year round (c) absorbs heat in winter and emits heat in summer. 5. When water freezes (a) its mass increases (b) its weight increases (c) its volume increases. 6. Ocean currents are produced by wind, differences in temperature and (a) erosion (b) differences in salinity (c) the gravitational attraction of the Moon. 7. During evaporation, water passes from (a) the atmosphere to the hydrosphere (b) the hydrosphere to the atmosphere (c) the surface of the Earth to under the ground. 8. When water condenses it forms clouds and (a) dew (b) rain (c) hail. 9. Sewage originates mainly in (a) towns and cities (b) the countryside (c) industrial areas. 10. In an experiment, when the variables for the participating elements are the same, we say that they are (a) dependent (b) independent (c) controlled. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. A precious resource Water is a finite resource which cannot be created or synthesized. Your body loses 1.5 to 2 litres of water through sweat, urine and respiration. You need to drink at least an equivalent amount of fluids to replace it for the correct maintenance of the body’s systems. If there are six thousand million people on Earth, twelve million cubic metres of fresh water are needed every day just to provide enough drinking water for everyone! So, we should all try to reduce water consumption by adopting simple everyday habits. For example, take showers instead of baths, turn off the tap when brushing your teeth, fill dishwashers and washing machines before using them. You can install water-saving devices in the shower head and lavatory cistern. If water in your town was suddenly rationed, you would be amazed at how many things you can do with a small amounts of it! 1. Why do we need to drink water? 2. How much water is needed on Earth each day? 3. Write three ways of saving domestic water. ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 91 877310 _ 0092-0099.qxd 10 4/8/08 12:41 Página 92 Minerals OBJECTIVES 1. To learn the definition of a mineral 5. To identify the properties of minerals 2. To learn about the composition of minerals 3. To learn how minerals are extracted and used 6. To learn to use the Mohs Scale of Hardness 4. To classify minerals 7. To use a mineral key to identify minerals CONTENTS CONCEPTS • Definition, composition and properties of minerals • Classification of minerals • Extraction and uses of minerals PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • Observing, interpreting and identifying photos of minerals and the mining process • Producing a chart to identify minerals • Analysing scientific texts ATTITUDES • Showing interest in finding out about minerals and identifying the most common ones • Valuing the uses of minerals COMPETENCES Competence in linguistic communication: using the comparative correctly (Key language, p. 106; Mohs Scale of Hardness, pp. 112-113); understanding and giving definitions (sections 1-5, pp. 107-112); listening to the unit summary What should you know? (Student’s CD, track 10). Knowledge and interaction with the physical world: understanding the impact of mining on the environment (section 3, p. 109); testing minerals for hardness (Mohs Scale of Hardness, pp. 112-113). Competence in ‘learning to learn’: understanding and using a scale correctly (Mohs Scale of Hardness, pp. 112-113); classifying minerals using a key (Mineral Identification Key 1, p. 113); completing a chart with the results (Mineral Identification Key 2, p. 113). 92 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0092-0099.qxd 22/8/08 07:57 Página 93 VALUES Health Education Mining generates health risks both for those who work in the mines and for the surrounding local population. The most common negative effects of mining are lung problems caused by inadequate ventilation and exposure to harmful dusts as well as acoustic and water pollution. In underground mining, accidents can be caused by flooding, explosions and cave-ins. Metallurgical processes generate toxic residues, heavy metals for the most part, which poison organisms. Nowadays, governments require mining companies to conform to existing legislation regarding security regulations and health and environmental impact standards. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can define what a mineral is 5. Can describe the properties of minerals 2. Can describe the composition of minerals 6. Can use the Mohs Scale of Hardness to compare the hardness of minerals 3. Can identify different methods of mineral extraction and describe uses of minerals 4. Can identify the two main groups of minerals and name specimens from each group 7. Can produce a chart based on the mineral identification key INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Films Introduction to gemology The Undersea World: Sunken treasure http://www.bwsmigel.info/ Documentary SAV Free web page. Lessons on how to study gems from a scientific point of view. The Nuestra Señora de la Concepción was a Spanish galleon which sank 2nd November 1641, with a cargo of gold and silver. Jacques Cousteau and the treasure hunter Remy Haeven immerse themselves in the adventure of looking for it. Geologylink http://www.college.hmco.com/geology/resources/ geologylink/index.html This web page includes a wealth of resources about geology. It also has really interesting sections such as The Earth Today and Geology in the News. Books Gemstones of the world Walter Schumann The Dark Crystal Director: Jim Henson A thousand years ago, the Dark Crystal was harmed by the Urskeks and a period of chaos started. Now it has to be repaired or the devil Skekses will have absolute power. Mackenna’s gold Sutter’s gold Director: J. Lee Thomson Blaise Cendrars Gregory Peck and Omar Sharif fight for a legendary treasure of gold in the Far West. This narrates the story of the Swiss emigrant, Johann August Sutter. He took part in the first ‘gold fever’ in California. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 93 877310 _ 0092-0099.qxd 10 4/8/08 12:41 Página 94 WORKSHEET 1 MINERALS NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Reorder the words and write correct sentences. 1. crust is The made up of Earth’s rocks The 2. of are made Rocks up minerals Rocks 3. have a chemical Minerals composition definite Mineral 4. also specific They properties physical have They 5. minerals solid All are substances All 2 Use the clues to solve the puzzle and discover the mystery word. 3 4 1. This silicate is used in electronic insulators. 5 2. As its name indicates, this silicate is olive green. 2 7 6 3. This metal mineral is abundant in the Earth’s core. 4. This non-silicate is the source of lead ore. 5. This silicate comes in many colours and is used in jewellery. 1 6. This non-silicate is a halide. 7. This native element is a precious metal used in jewellery. Mystery word: 3 Circle the mistake in each sentence. 1. Minerals are organic or inorganic substances. 2. The Earth’s crust is made up of minerals. 3. Oxygen is the least abundant element in the Earth’s crust. 4. Water and mercury are minerals. 5. Minerals have a changing chemical composition. 6. Quartz is usually smoky or milky. ___ / 20 94 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0092-0099.qxd 10 4/8/08 12:41 Página 95 WORKSHEET 2 MINERALS NAME: CLASS: DATE: In English, an adjective can be created by adding -y to a noun to describe its aspect (colour, taste, smell or texture) or content. For example: milk → milky (the colour or taste of milk), smoke → smoky (the colour or smell of smoke) 1 Write the adjective for each noun. glassy 1. The aspect of glass: 2. Containing sand, the texture of sand: 3. Containing rock, the aspect of rock: 4. The taste of fruit: 5. Containing streaks: 6. The colour of silver: 2 Read the text and fill in the gaps with the missing information. Minerals, which are found everywhere in the Earth’s 1. or more 2. of 3. , are composed of one . A chemical element is a substance which is only made of one kind . Oxygen, 4. and 5. are examples of chemical elements. The chemical composition of a mineral 6. its physical properties. Minerals can be found with 7. 8. , small amounts of other which are not part of the mineral. These can 9. some of the properties of the mineral. 3 List the names and colours of three varieties of quartz. Name 4 Colour The following sentence helps to remember the names and order of the minerals on the Mohs Scale of Hardness. Write them below. The Geologist Can Find An Ordinary Quartz (which) Tourists Call Diamond! Talc, ___ / 25 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 95 877310 _ 0092-0099.qxd 10 4/8/08 12:41 Página 96 WORKSHEET 3 MINERALS NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Compare silicates and non-silicates in the Venn diagram. Then write sentences to compare and contrast them. SILICATES the most abundant minerals on Earth NON-SILICATES BOTH do not contain silicon they are minerals Silicates are more abundant than non-silicates. 2 Name four silicates and four non-silicates. Silicates: 1. 3. 2. 4. Non-silicates: 3 1. 3. 2. 4. Write the composition of the following: 1. sulphide 2. oxide 3. carbonate 4. halide ___ / 15 96 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0092-0099.qxd 10 4/8/08 12:41 Página 97 WORKSHEET 4 MINERALS NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: In pairs, complete the names of the different properties of minerals in the facts file. Then, write examples to demonstrate each property. Facts file: minerals Colour L_____ _____k ____v___ _ _ _ _ _ _ ss Sulphur is always yellow. Quartz can be different colours ___p_ 2 Read the text, then write the minerals on the corresponding section of the Mohs scale below. Gemstones Most gemstones have a hardness of 7 or more on the Mohs Scale but there are some with an even lower hardness. The hardest gemstone of course is diamond and lowest on the scale is turquoise at 5/6. Amethyst and jade are three points less than diamond and one more than opal. Ruby and sapphire are three more than opal. Emerald and aquamarine are exactly between diamond and opal. Can you work out where they go on the scale? 5 6 7 8 9 10 ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 97 877310 _ 0092-0099.qxd 10 4/8/08 12:41 Página 98 WORKSHEET 5 MINERALS NAME: CLASS: DATE: The power of gold Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from the Latin ‘aurum’, meaning shining dawn). Its hardness on the Mohs Scale is only 2.5, but it is highly valued as a precious metal. It has been used as money and for jewellery for centuries. Gold has always been associated with power and leaders. Ancient Egyptians believed that gold was a divine and indestructible metal associated with the Sun. The famous Tutankhamun solid gold mask was made of beaten gold. It was found in the Pharaoh’s tomb, placed on top of his head and shoulders. Gold is dense, soft, shiny, and the most malleable and ductile of all known metals. Pure gold is bright yellow in colour. A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet which measures one square metre! Gold occurs naturally as nuggets or grains in rocks, in underground seams and in alluvial deposits. Great human achievements are frequently rewarded with gold, in the form of medals and decorations. Winners of races and prizes are usually awarded a gold medal (such as at the Olympic Games, and for the Nobel Prize). Many award statues are made of gold, such as the famous ‘Oscar’ film awards and the ‘Concha de Oro’ given at the San Sebastian Film Festival. 1 Write all the adjectives that describe gold in the text. 2 How does gold occur in nature? 3 What are the main properties of gold? 4 What did the Ancient Egyptians think about gold? 5 Give two examples of treasures made of gold. The Tutankhamun mask ___ / 20 98 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0092-0099.qxd 10 4/8/08 12:41 Página 99 TEST 10 MINERALS NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Circle the correct answer. 1. All minerals have (a) a definite chemical composition (b) some liquid or gas mixed in them (c) an organic component. 2. More than half the weight of a rock is made up of (a) hydrogen (b) oxygen (c) helium. 3. The chemical composition of a mineral (a) varies according to its colour (b) varies according to the place where it is found (c) never varies. 4. The salt we use in cooking generally comes from (a) graphite (b) halite (c) calcite. 5. Pencils are made of (a) graphite (b) halite (c) calcite. 6. Feldspar is used (a) in the glass and ceramics industries (b) in electronic insulators and paints (c) as an abrasive. 7. Muscovite is another name for (a) black mica (b) white mica (c) olivine. 8. The second most abundant element on Earth is (a) iron (b) calcium (c) silicon. 9. Minerals made up of a single element are called (a) mineral elements (b) native elements (c) natural elements. 10. Diamonds and graphite are both made up of (a) pure oxides (b) pure carbon (c) pure carbonates. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. Mineral extraction Minerals are found everywhere in the Earth’s crust. They are extracted in different ways and each method has an impact on health and on the environment. In surface mines, minerals are found in layers which are relatively close to the surface. These minerals are removed by cutting into the surface. This means that vegetation is destroyed and the surrounding landscape is degraded. The local environment is also affected by noise, land, air and water pollution. In underground mining, the minerals are deep in the Earth’s crust and are extracted in various ways, such as using explosives, or by digging deep holes. This may cause flooding and subsidence. Some governments are trying to limit health and environmental damage while others think that extracting the minerals is more important. 1. Summarise the two types of mining mentioned in the text. 2. List two health and two environmental problems caused by mining. ___ / 15 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 99 877310 _ 0100-0107.qxd 11 4/8/08 12:36 Página 100 Rocks OBJECTIVES 1. To explore some uses of rocks 4. To analyse how rocks are formed 2. To understand the relationship between minerals and rocks 5. To classify rocks according to their properties 6. To discover the processes involved in the rock cycle 3. To recognise common types of rocks CONTENTS CONCEPTS • Origin, definition and classification of rocks • The rock cycle • Uses of rocks PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • Observing and interpreting diagrams, photographs and descriptive charts • Interpreting the results of experiments • Identifying rocks using photographs ATTITUDES • Showing interest in finding out about rocks and their uses COMPETENCES Processing information and digital competence: understanding and using a descriptive chart to classify rock types (sections 5 and 6, pp. 122 and 123); interpreting a rock cycle flow diagram (section 7, p. 124); researching the number of active volcanoes on Earth (Web task, unit 11, Student’s CD). Knowledge and interaction with the physical world: investigating chemical and physical weathering (Hands on, p. 125); starting a rock collection (Activity 17, p. 125). Cultural and artistic competence: tracing the use of different rocks in the creation of historic monuments (section 1, p. 117); appreciating the beauty of natural rock formations (section 7, p. 124). 100 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0100-0107.qxd 22/8/08 07:57 Página 101 VALUES Protection of the Environment Most fuels we depend on to produce the energy we need are non-renewable resources. Their use results in significant damage to the environment, as well as economic disturbances. Burning coal and oil is a direct cause of the greenhouse effect, additional problems being acid rain, air pollution, damage to the ozone layer in the troposphere and the destruction of landscapes and ecosystems. The challenge is to replace energy generated by fossil fuels with renewable energies such as hydraulic, solar and eolic power. Since they reduce the number of pollutants freed in the atmosphere, alternative energies have a lesser impact on the environment. A new age of energy is apparently dawning: in the USA, for example, sales of fuel-hungry cars have dropped while sales of hybrid cars have doubled in one year. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can recognise uses of rocks in construction, decoration and the chemical industry 4. Can understand the processes by which the different types of rocks are formed 2. Can explain the similarities and differences between rocks and minerals 5. Can classify rocks using a descriptive chart 3. Can recognise and identify common types of rocks 6. Can explain the processes that constitute the rock cycle INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Guide to rocks and minerals Webgeology. University of Tromsø, Norway Chris Pellant http://www.ig.uit.no/webgeology/ Films A really interesting web page with information about geology. It includes excellent animations of geologic processes. The new explorers: mystery of the Andes A&E Home video Books J. Flynn, from the Natural History Museum, Chicago, leads a group of geologists and naturalists in an expedition through the Andes to solve the mystery of how fossils of mammals from 32 million years ago appear in rocks formed 100 million years ago. Rocks and fossils Volcano (1990) Robert T. Coenraads National Geographic Video Rocks for kids http://www.rocksforkids.com/ For students interested in rocks and collecting them. An explanation of the inner workings of the Earth through rocks, minerals and fossils. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 101 877310 _ 0100-0107.qxd 11 4/8/08 12:36 Página 102 WORKSHEET 1 ROCKS NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Find six rocks and six minerals in the wordsearch and write them in the correct box. G S E R T Y U I O O M A R B L E I F L I M E S T O N E D C L H P O G H L B A S A L T R H D X G A L E N A G S C V O I L G N F P S L A T E A I D A B N M E A S T S R C A L C I T E A H ROCKS 2 MINERALS Complete the definitions with words from Activity 1. 1. is an organic sedimentary rock which is also a liquid. 2. There are two types of : muscovite and biotite. 3. is a heavy, hard volcanic rock and is very common on ocean floors. 4. is a beautiful rock used to make famous Greek and Roman statues. 5. is a source of lead ore, and 6. is a beautiful yellow mineral we can wear in the form of chains and rings. 7. is used in the glass and ceramics industries, and is a source of table salt. is used to make cement. 8. These three rocks are used as construction materials because they are strong, decorative and provide good insulation: 3 , Match the questions and answers. 1. What is the solid part of the Earth made up of? 2. How many main classes of rocks are there? . a. Three. b. Igneous rocks. c. Rock. 3. What do you call rocks made up of a single substance? d. By heat and pressure. 4. What is an example of (3)? e. Limestone. 5. Which rock can be found in liquid form? f. Monomineralic rocks. 6. Which rocks are formed from cooled magma? g. Oil. 7. How are metamorphic rocks formed? h. By the accumulation and compaction of sediment. ___ / 30 8. How are sedimentary rocks formed? 102 and 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0100-0107.qxd 11 4/8/08 12:36 Página 103 WORKSHEET 2 ROCKS NAME: CLASS: 1 Label the photographs. 2 Complete the text with words from the box. limestone build make manufacture sculptures clays Rocks are any natural, inorganic material made of 1. oil floors minerals . Stones are pieces of rock which have been used through the ages to 2. Slate is still used to 3. DATE: houses, bridges, city walls and roads. roofs and walls. Granite, slate and limestone also serve as raw materials to 4. For example, cement is made of 5. and marble are used for 7. and 6. and 8. other products. . Granite . However, man-made materials, such as plastics, are made from 9. 3 Describe the rocks and materials containing rock that are used in your house. Try to think of at least four. Example: Granite is used for the hallway floor. ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 103 877310 _ 0100-0107.qxd 11 4/8/08 12:36 Página 104 WORKSHEET 3 ROCKS NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Complete the word map to classify rocks, using the words in the box. conglomerate gypsum rock salt pumice basalt marble coal clay limestone obsidian granite oil slate sandstone CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS igneous metamorphic plutonic volcanic foliated 1. non-foliated 2. 5. 6. 3. detrital 4. 7. 8. 9. sedimentary chemical 10. 11. 12. organic 13. 14. 2 Complete the sentences with the name of a rock. 1. is usually black and slightly shiny because of the presence of mica. 2. The texture of is spongy from bubble holes, and it floats in water. 3. was formed from the remains of land vegetation and can burn easily. 4. is made up of very small grains and smells earthy when wet. 5. is black and smooth, it looks like glass, and its edges are very sharp. 6. is the most common rock in the continental crust. ___ / 20 104 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0100-0107.qxd 11 4/8/08 12:36 Página 105 WORKSHEET 4 ROCKS NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Work in pairs. Complete the text with the words below. cementation oil coal weathering metamorphic erosion compaction. The rock cycle Rocks are broken up by atmospheric phenomena (changes in temperature, rain, acid rain and wind) or by the activities of plants and animals. This is called 1. . The broken fragments of rocks are swept away by running waters, glaciers, waves or winds. This process is called 2. . Two processes join fragments to form rocks. In sedimentary rocks, the weight of layers of sediment compacts the sediments more, which reduces the spaces between the fragments and squeezes out the water. This is called 3. . The rock fragments are stuck together with salt crystals which form when the water is eliminated, a process called 4. , and layers of sediment become layers –or strata– of sedimentary rock. Organic material is transformed into two types of sedimentary rock.. 5. is made of terrestrial vegetation which accumulated in swamps and was buried in the Earth’s crust millions of years ago. 6. is made of marine plant and animal remains which fell to the bottom of the sea and were buried under sediments that accumulated over millions of years. Other rocks are formed within the Earth by the effect of intense heat and pressure on sedimentary and igneousrocks. These are called 7. rocks. When they eventually come to the surface, they can also suffer weathering and erosion. And so the rock cycle starts again. 2 On a separate sheet of paper, draw and label the stages of the rock cycle. 3 In pairs, think about and answer the questions. 1. Why are coal and oil called ‘organic’ sedimentary rocks? 2. Why are they rocks although they are not inorganic? 3. How do metamorphic rocks eventually emerge to the surface? ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 105 877310 _ 0100-0107.qxd 11 22/8/08 07:58 Página 106 WORKSHEET 5 ROCKS NAME: CLASS: DATE: Obsidian This mysterious and beautiful rock is also known as ‘natural glass’ or ‘volcanic glass’. It is formed when boiling lava from a volcano cools rapidly, without sufficient time for crystals to form. Stone Age cultures valued obsidian highly because it could be fractured to produce sharp blades or arrowheads. When polished, it created early mirrors, tools, statues and decorative objects. Pre-Columbian Mesoamericans also made a type of sword with obsidian blades mounted in a wooden handle. Called a ‘macuahuitl’, the weapon could inflict terrible injuries. Native American people traded obsidian throughout North America. Today, obsidian is used in cardiac surgery because well-made obsidian blades are much sharper than steel surgical scalpels. Even the sharpest metal knife has an irregular blade when viewed under an electron microscope. However, an obsidian blade is smooth and even. Obsidian is also used for ornamental purposes and as a gemstone. It possesses the peculiar property of presenting a different appearance according to the manner in which it is cut. When cut in one direction it is a beautiful jet black; when cut across another direction it is a glistening grey. 1 Find words or expressions in the text which mean the following. a. broken: b. peoples from Central America: c. jewel: d. unusual: e. shiny: 2 Would you expect to find fossils in obsidian? Explain your answer. 3 Give one example of the use of obsidian in the ancient world and one in the modern world. 4 What is the main difference between an obsidian blade and a steel blade? How can you see this difference? 5 Draw and label a ‘macuahuitl’ as you imagine it. Then check your answer in an encyclopedia or on the Internet. ___ / 10 106 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0100-0107.qxd 11 4/8/08 12:36 Página 107 TEST 11 ROCKS NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Circle the correct answer. 1. Cement is made from (a) gypsum (b) limestone and clays (c) granite fragments. 2. Rock salt and quartzite are (a) monomineralic rocks (b) metamorphic rocks (c) sedimentary rocks. 3. Rocks formed from cooled magma are called (a) conglomerate rocks (b) intrusive rocks (c) igneous rocks. 4. Limestone is a ____________ (a) detrital (b) chemical (c) organic rock. 5. Fossil fuels are (a) organic (b) detrital (c) chemical. 6. The first step in the rock cycle is (a) weathering (b) compaction (c) cementation. 7. Magma on the Earth’s surface is called (a) pumice (b) crust (c) lava. 8. In plutonic rocks, the magma (a) cools rapidly, producing tiny crystals (b) cools slowly, producing large crystals (c) cools rapidly, trapping gases which produces bubble holes. 9. Metamorphism occurs (a) near the Earth’s crust (b) deep within the Earth (c) near active volcanoes. 10. Metamorphic rocks are formed when (a) sedimentary rocks melt (b) metamorphic rocks lose their minerals (c) minerals inside rocks are changed by heat and pressure. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. Fossils Sedimentary rocks sometimes contain remains of living things that died millions of years ago. These remains are called fossils. Fossils became part of the rocks during the processes of compaction and cementation of sediments, and they provide invaluable information about the history of life on Earth. The first fossils date back to about 540 million years ago. They were molluscs and trilobites. Trilobites had a head, a thorax and a tail. In the nineteenth century, scientists established that trilobites were arthropods, the group that includes modern insects and crustaceans. Later fossils showed the first fish, and then the first vegetation that appeared on Earth. And much, much later, of course, came those strange and mysterious ‘terrible lizards’, the dinosaurs. 1. During which process were fossils created? How? 2. What is the relationship between a trilobite and a modern lobster? 3. Find words or expressions in the text which mean the following. a. important: c. demostrated: b. proved: d. plants and trees: 4. Put these living things in the order in which they appeared on Earth, starting with the earliest: dinosaurs, molecules, mankind, plants and trees, molluscs and trilobites, fish. ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 107 877310 _ 0108-0115.qxd 12 4/8/08 16:01 Página 108 Matter and its properties OBJECTIVES 1. To learn about the properties of matter 2. To identify the most common base units 3. To study derived units 4. To identify the most common derived units 5. To learn how to express quantities in International System Units 6. To learn how to change other units of measurement into ISUs 7. To learn the step-by-step procedure to produce a graph CONTENTS CONCEPTS • The general and specific properties of matter • Base units and derived units • The International System of Units and commonly used units PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • Converting and changing units • Using simple measuring equipment to verify certain properties of matter • Producing graphs to analyse the results of an experiment ATTITUDES • Showing interest in obtaining precise measurements COMPETENCES Mathematical competence: understanding base units and derived units (sections 1 and 2, pp. 131 and 132); learning how to calculate surface area, volume, mass and density (sections 3-6, pp. 132-135); understanding different temperature scales (section 7, p. 136; Activities, p. 138). Knowledge and interaction with the physical world: discovering the general and specific properties of matter (section 1, p. 131). Processing information and digital competence: understanding the International System of Measurements (section 1, p. 131); producing graphs to present and analyse data from an experiment (Hands on, p. 137); understanding the properties of matter and the uses of base units and derived units (What should you know?, p. 139); converting commonly used units to the International System of Units (Web task, unit 12, Student’s CD). 108 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0108-0115.qxd 22/8/08 08:00 Página 109 VALUES Protection of the Environment Owing to the different densities of oil and water, oil spills, whether accidental or deliberate, cause a great deal of havoc in marine and coastal ecosystems. Oil spills form slicks which float on the surface, forming an insulating layer which prevents oxygen and light from penetrating, resulting in the death of marine plants and animals. As the volatile components of the crude oil evaporate, it becomes much denser and more viscous. The action of waves pulverizes it and the resulting particles are deposited on the ocean floor where they form an asphaltic layer that is not only incompatible with life but also extremely difficult to eliminate. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can define matter and identify its general and specific properties 4. Can explain the difference between base units and derived units 2. Can identify common base units such as length, mass, time and temperature 5. Can understand and calculate quantities in ISUs 3. Can identify derived units such as surface area, volume and density 7. Can produce graphs to represent and analyse data from an experiment 6. Can express other units of measurement in ISUs INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Science for fun New York University. What is matter? Janice Vancleave http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/ whatismatter.html Clearly explained experiments especially dedicated to students. Web page of New York University, which explains what matter is, in simple language. Films Books David Attenborough Biography of physics BBC Warner George Gamow Documentary about the Antarctic, an ecosystem with a frozen mass which suffers cyclic expansions and contractions. These changes determine the nutrition, life and behaviour of the varied wildlife. The history of physics told with simplicity and rigorousness. Life in the freezer 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 109 877310 _ 0108-0115.qxd 12 4/8/08 16:01 Página 110 WORKSHEET 1 MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES NAME: 1 2 CLASS: DATE: Find eight properties of matter in the wordsearch. Then, write them in the correct box. T S P Q P A F G I O M W S G B Z I A E D H D E N S I T Y S I U S G E J H J H G H X L A N J F T T O P C O L O U R E F D D Z R Y V O L U M E R GENERAL PROPERTIES SPECIFIC PROPERTIES Put the words in order and write correct sentences. 1. are properties matter to General common all . 2. properties differentiate from matter another Specific kind of one . 3. used properties describe Specific matter are to identify and . 4. are units base Derived of combinations units . 5. in amount of a Mass the body is matter . 6. of space Volume occupies amount the matter is . 3 True or false? Write T or F. Circle the mistakes. 1. There are four general properties. 2. Specific properties differentiate a solid from a liquid or a gas. 3. Weight and density are specific properties. 4. The kilogram is used to measure mass. 5. The square metre is used to measure length. 6. Temperature is measured in kelvins. 110 ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0108-0115.qxd 12 4/8/08 16:01 Página 111 WORKSHEET 2 MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES NAME: CLASS: DATE: Prefixes of common measures Remember! Prefixes are added at the start of a word to change its meaning. 1 2 Match each prefix to its English meaning. 1. kilo- a. one hundredth 2. hecto- b. one hundred 3. deca- c. very small; one millionth 4. deci- d. one tenth 5. centi- e. one thousandth 6. milli- f. ten 7. micro- g. dwarf; one thousand millionth 8. nano- h. one thousand Express the following measures as multiples of a metre. Examples: 100 metres 1 decimetre = 0.1 metre 1 hectometre = 3 1. 1 kilometre 4. 5 decametres 2. 1 millimetre 5. 5 centimetres 3. 1 nanometre 6. 8 micrometres Read the instructions, then solve the problems below. • To multiply whole numbers ending in zero, multiply the base numbers; then add the total number of zeros that end both numbers. Example: 300 ⫻ 1500 Multiply the base numbers: 3 ⫻ 15 = 45 There are 4 zeros in total, so: 300 ⫻ 1500 ⫽ 450,000 • To divide whole numbers ending in zero, cross out all the zeros in the divisor and the same number of zeros in the dividend. Divide what is left in the normal way. Example: 20,000,000 ⫼ 500 There are 2 zeros in the divisor 500, so: 20,000,000 ⫼ 500 200,000 ⫼ 5 = 40,000 a. 80 ⫻ 100 = d. 20,000 ⫼ 500 = b. 5000 ⫻ 10 = e. 4000 ⫼ 20 = c. 1200 ⫻ 4000 = f. 9,000,000 ⫼ 300 = ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 111 877310 _ 0108-0115.qxd 12 4/8/08 16:01 Página 112 WORKSHEET 3 MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES NAME: 1 2 CLASS: DATE: Match the words to their definitions. 1. length a. the amount of matter in a body 2. mass b. the measure of passing events 3. temperature c. the relationship between the mass and the volume of a body 4. time d. the extension of a body in two dimensions 5. derived units e. the distance between two points 6. surface area f. mathematical combinations of base units 7. volume g. the thermal state of a body 8. density h. the space occupied by a body Complete the chart with the missing information about properties and units. Property Unit Length Surface area (m) square metre ( ) (m3) Capacity ( kilogram ( ) ) kg/m3 3 Complete the facts file about the properties of matter. Facts file: properties of matter Length Surface area Volume Mass Density Length is the distance between two points. It is measured in metres Capacity ___ / 30 112 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0108-0115.qxd 12 4/8/08 16:01 Página 113 WORKSHEET 4 MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES NAME: 1 2 CLASS: DATE: Work in pairs. Take turns to start and finish the sentences. 1. All matter has mass … a. one thousand litres. 2. Derived units are … b. in cubic metres. 3. Air is matter because … c. than gases. 4. Surface area is a … d. the mass and the volume of a body. 5. Liquids are measured in … e. volume, weight and density. 6. Capacity is measured … f. a measuring cylinder. 7. One cubic metre is equal to … g. relationship between two variables. 8. Mass is measured using … h. derived unit from length. 9. Density is the relationship between … i. combinations of base units. 10. Liquids have a higher density … j. scales. 11. Temperature measures the amount … k. of heat that a body emits or absorbs. 12. A graph can show the … l. it occupies space. Work in pairs. Describe how you would measure the following. 1. the volume of a pile of coins 2. the surface area of a shoeprint 3. the volume of air in a measuring cylinder half full of water ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 113 877310 _ 0108-0115.qxd 12 4/8/08 16:01 Página 114 WORKSHEET 5 MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES NAME: CLASS: DATE: The English system of measurement The metric system is an elegant decimal system in which units are defined by the power of ten, and named with prefixes indicating the order of magnitude of the units. In contrast to this, the English System is based on the human body or on people’s immediate environment. An inch is the length of three barleycorns placed end to end. A hand, the width of a man’s hand, is 4 inches. Today, hands are only used to measure the height of horses. A foot is the length of a man’s foot and represents 12 inches. A yard, which was the length from the king’s nose to his outstretched hand, is now 36 inches. If you look at liquid measures (for example, in recipe books), you will find terms like teaspoon (the approximate volume of a small spoon used for stirring tea), tablespoon (the amount contained in a large spoon), cup (the amount held in a normal-sized cup), and pint. The word ‘pint’, by the way, came to English from the Spanish word pinta (a spot or a mark). As you can see, the two systems are completely opposed. The metric system is based on the cold logic of Science while the English system is ‘organic’ in the sense that it developed because of people’s needs to measure very concrete things. 1 2 Match the words and the definitions. 1. power (of) a. a cereal used to make beer, feed animals, etc. 2. magnitude b. the number of times that a number can be multiplied by itself 3. barley c. completely extended 4. barleycorn d. a grain of barley 5. outstretched e. size Think and answer. 1. What is the English system based on? 2. Why did scientists need to adopt a standard international system of measurements? 3 Draw and label three objects that represent English measurements. Add their equivalents in metric units. ___ / 10 114 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0108-0115.qxd 12 22/8/08 08:00 Página 115 TEST 12 MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Circle the correct answer. 1. The general properties of matter include mass, volume, (a) capacity and density (b) weight and density (c) size and density. 2. The formula used to measure the surface area of irregular objects is called (a) π r2 (b) base x height (c) estimation. 3. Capacity is measured in (a) litres (b) litre/dm3 (c) dm3/litre. 4. Density is the relationship between (a) capacity and volume (b) mass and capacity (c) mass and volume. 5. Solids have (a) a lower density than gases (b) a higher density than gases (c) an equal density to gases. 6. In the International System of Units, the unit for temperature is the (a) Kelvin (b) º Celsius (c) º Fahrenheit. 7. Temperature is (a) dependent on (b) independent of (c) somehow related to mass and volume. 8. Time is (a) the difference between the rising and the setting of the Sun (b) the length of the Earth’s rotation (c) the measure of passing events. 9. Graphs show (a) the results of an experiment (b) the relationship between two variables (c) coordinate axes. 10. On a graph, the horizontal and vertical axes are called (a) x and y (b) y and x (c) scales. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. Matter Everything that takes up space and has mass is matter. Therefore, everything around us is matter. Matter has general properties which are common to all things. Specific properties, on the other hand, help us tell one kind of matter apart from another. Colour, texture, hardness, shape, etc. are used to identify, differentiate and describe matter. Although it may appear that air is not matter, it does have mass and it does occupy space, therefore it is matter. What we can say is that its density is smaller than the density of solids because it has little mass for the volume of space it occupies. 1. What is matter? 2. What properties enable us to distinguish between different types of matter? 3. Why is air considered to be matter? 4. Find words or expressions which mean the following. a. occupies: b. general: c. distinguish between: ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 115 877310 _ 0116-0123.qxd 13 22/8/08 08:01 Página 116 Everything is matter OBJECTIVES 1. To identify the different states of matter 5. To learn how to separate mixtures 2. To explain how matter changes its state 3. To define mixtures and pure substances 6. To learn about the properties and uses of synthetic materials 4. To describe physical and chemical changes 7. To recognise the importance of recycling materials CONTENTS CONCEPTS • • • • • The physical states and changes of matter Definition of mixtures; methods used to separate them Pure substances: compounds and elements Synthetic materials Residues and recycling PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • • • • • Applying different methods to separate materials Observing and interpreting process diagrams and pie charts Learning different methods to separate mixtures Verifying hypotheses Interpreting scientific texts ATTITUDES • Showing interest in the need for recycling COMPETENCES Competence in linguistic communication: understanding and describing processes (section 2, p. 142; Activity 4, p. 142; Hands on, p. 145); communicating the results of an investigation (Project, p. 149); listening to the unit summary What should you know? (Student’s CD, track 13). Processing information and digital competence: interpreting and producing process diagrams (sections 2 and 7, pp. 142 and 147); What should you know?, p. 149); interpreting a pie chart (section 7, p. 147); investigating the fourth state of matter (Web task, unit 13, Student’s CD). Social competence and citizenship: taking steps to reduce waste and recycle (section 7 p. 147; Activities 14 and 15, p. 147); investigating how urban solid waste is removed from one’s area (Activity 16, p. 147). 116 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0116-0123.qxd 22/8/08 08:01 Página 117 VALUES Protection of the Environment The recycling chain begins when consumers separate packaging from the rest of their household residues and deposit them in different containers. There are different types of containers depending on the residue. The residues are collected and taken to recycling plants where the process is completed. Glass, for example, is completely recyclable. A new jar or bottle can be made from a recycled one, and will have the same characteristics as the original. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can identify and describe the different states of matter 4. Can describe physical and chemical changes 2. Can explain how matter changes from one state to another 6. Can describe the properties and uses of synthetic materials 3. Can define the terms mixture, solution, pure substance, element and compound 7. Can recognise and explain the importance of recycling 5. Can use different methods to separate mixtures INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Books The international boiling point project Chemical chaos http://www.k12science.org/curriculum/boilproj/ Nick Arnold and Tony Saulles An interesting web page which sets up a collaboration between centres to investigate the boiling point of water. Humorous book about chemistry. Chem4kids Rossie Harlow and Sally Morgan http://www.chem4kids.com/ This book explains the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste. It also includes tips on how to recycle at home. Shows the basis of chemistry in a clear and amusing way. Recycle city http://www.epa.gov/recyclecity/ Entertaining web page of the EPA about recycling. It includes games and other activities. Garbage and recycling (Young discoverers: Environmental facts and experiments) Films Ice age 2: The Meltdown Director: Carlos Saldanha The Ice Age is coming to a close and the animals are enjoying the new-world paradise created by the Meltdown. 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 117 877310 _ 0116-0123.qxd 13 4/8/08 12:37 Página 118 WORKSHEET 1 EVERYTHING IS MATTER NAME: 1 CLASS: Find eight words related to the states of matter. Then complete the text with the words. C O M P R E S S L O C Y A U X H O I N V T R H P A L Q T B R T G A T I U R N E I D N H D I A M W C S D D S D C T F L O W S G S T S D E N S I T Y E B A S G L O K U 1. hold their shape, but liquids and gases adapt their shape to the container. Solids 2. when heated and 3. Solids cannot 5. when cooled, as do 4. but liquids and gases can. The 6. is high, and that of gases quite low: they have few 7. For this reason, gases are easy to 8. 2 DATE: . of solids in a large volume. while solids are not. Match the words and their definitions. 1. Forces a. is made up of tiny particles. 2. Attraction b. affects the speed of particles. 3. Matter c. attract particles. d. holds particles close together. e. is the number of particles in a given volume. f. is the ability of matter to flow. 4. Fluidity 5. Compressibility 6. Solid, liquid and gas g. 7. Temperature 8. Density 3 is the degree to which volume is reduced as pressure is applied. h. are the physical states in which matter can exist. Correct the incorrect words in the following sentences. 1. When a solid is heated, the particles move more slowly. 2. As a result of heating, the force of attraction between particles increases. 3. The process of melting is also called cooling. 4. The temperature of a substance at fusion and solidification varies. 5. The change of a solid to a gas is called regressive sublimation. 6. The change of a liquid to a gas is called condensation. 118 ___ / 30 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0116-0123.qxd 13 4/8/08 12:37 Página 119 WORKSHEET 2 EVERYTHING IS MATTER NAME: 1 CLASS: Unscramble the letters and find the names of the different combinations of matter. TURMIXE ILOSUTON POUNCOND 2 DATE: PERU STANBUCES METELEN Put the following information in the correct place in the facts file. can be chemical compounds or elements / only one component / a subgroup of mixtures / made up of a solvent and a solute / cannot be broken down / are chemical in nature / homogeneous ones are called solutions / have a fixed composition / contain two or more elements / classified in the Periodic Table / made up of more than one substance / Facts file: matter can be chemical compounds or elements Pure substances Compounds Elements Mixtures Solutions 3 Complete the following definitions. 1. is the liquid part of a solution. 2. change does not alter the composition of a substance. 3. change transforms the substance into a new substance. 4. is a method used to separate insoluble solids from liquids. 5. is a homogeneous mixture of two metals or a metal and another substance. ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 119 877310 _ 0116-0123.qxd 13 4/8/08 12:37 WORKSHEET 3 EVERYTHING IS MATTER NAME: 1 Página 120 CLASS: DATE: Using the information on page 146 of your Student’s Book, write sentences to compare and contrast synthetic materials and their uses. Example: Plastic – Glass: Both plastic and glass are impermeable but plastic is flexible and glass is not. … Plastic – Carbon fibre Glass – Fibre optics Fibreglass – Plastic Glass – Carbon fibre Fibreglass – Fibre optics 2 Think of an object or product made with synthetic materials. Explain why the materials used are the right ones for the product. ___ / 30 120 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0116-0123.qxd 13 4/8/08 12:37 Página 121 WORKSHEET 4 EVERYTHING IS MATTER NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Read the text and then label the pie chart. Distribution of solid waste Textiles represent ten percent of solid waste, the same amount as glass and waste labelled other. Plastic and metal add up to fifteen percent, with one percent more metal than plastic. Paper and organic matter make up the rest. Paper is a quarter of total waste, and organic matter is even more! 1. 30 % 3. 7% 5. 2 8% 6. 10 % 2. 25 % 4. 10 % 7. 10 % Work in pairs. Take turns to answer the questions. 1. What products can be recycled? 2. What happens to toxic waste? 3. What materials can be recycled? 4. What first happens to waste when it has been collected? 5. What are manufactured products made from? 6. What happens to products that cannot be recycled? 7. What happens to products when they have been manufactured? a. They are distributed to the shops to be sold for domestic consumption. b. Bottles, cans, newspapers, fruit and vegetables. c. It is taken to a centre where it is sorted. d. Raw and recycled materials. e. It is buried in special containers. f. They are incinerated or put in a rubbish dump. g. Plastic, glass, organic matter, paper and metal. ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 121 877310 _ 0116-0123.qxd 13 4/8/08 12:37 Página 122 WORKSHEET 5 EVERYTHING IS MATTER NAME: CLASS: DATE: Recycling facts and figures Why recycle? Because recycling saves energy and helps to conserve the environment. Although 50% of waste is recycled in some European countries, in others the percentage is much lower. Over half of the rubbish that ends up in the dustbin could be recycled. Just think of all the plastics, paper, cans, and glass we throw straight into the bin, when they could be recycled. Glass, for example, is 100% recyclable and can be reused time and time again. If it is not recycled and ends up in a landfill, it will never decompose. Aluminium cans, like the ones which contain drinks, can be recycled and ready to use in just six weeks. We can save money by buying products which do not have a lot of packaging. At the moment, about 16% of the money we spend on a product pays for the packaging, which we just throw away later. Plastic is another material that can easily be recycled. It really is a good idea to throw plastic articles into the right dustbin for recycling, because plastic can take up to 500 years to decompose. We can also help to conserve the environment by recycling paper. It takes twenty-four trees to make one ton of newspaper, and the production of paper made from wood causes 27% more air pollution than recycled paper. In addition, 70% less energy is needed to recycle paper than to produce it from raw materials. 1 Find words or expressions in the text which mean the following. a. a garbage can: d. rubbish dump: b. in the end: e. separate into basic components: c. waste: 2 Answer the questions. a. Why should glass be recycled? b. Why should we avoid buying products with a lot of packaging? 3 On a separate sheet of paper, design a poster to encourage recycling. Use a catchy slogan to get your message across! ___ / 20 122 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0116-0123.qxd 13 4/8/08 12:37 Página 123 TEST 13 EVERYTHING IS MATTER NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Circle the correct answer. 1. According to particle theory, the particles within matter are (a) static (b) in constant attraction and repulsion (c) in constant motion. 2. Above its boiling point, a substance is (a) a gas (b) a liquid (c) a solid. 3. Solutions are usually (a) solid mixtures (b) liquid mixtures (c) gaseous mixtures. 4. Chemical change involves (a) a chemical reaction (b) a physical change (c) a breakdown into simpler substances. 5. Rocks are usually (a) homogeneous mixtures (b) heterogeneous mixtures (c) chemical compounds. 6. In a solution, the dissolved substance is called the (a) solvent (b) solute (c) dissolution. 7. Chemical elements are (a) solutions (b) compounds (c) pure substances. 8. Synthetic materials are obtained from natural substances which are transformed by (a) chemical processes (b) chemical reactions (c) chemical changes. 9. Fibre optic is a fibre made from (a) carbon (b) petroleum (c) glass or plastic. 10. Batteries, old medicines and paints must be disposed of in (a) a rubbish dump (b) a waste collection area (c) a collection dump. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. Particles Particles of matter do not change from one state to another. They only change their arrangement or their energy. When matter changes state, no mass is lost and no mass is created. When a solid is heated, the particles gain energy and move more and more rapidly. The forces of attraction between the particles are weakened, and at a certain temperature, they have enough energy to break free from their positions. Then, the solid changes into a liquid in a process called fusion. 1. Find the opposite of the following words in the text. a. gained: d. slowly: b. destroyed: e. strengthened: c. cooled: f. solidification: 2. What two changes can occur in particles of matter? 3. What happens when a solid is heated? 4. What is fusion? ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 123 877310 _ 0124-0131.qxd 14 4/8/08 12:38 Página 124 Atoms and elements OBJECTIVES 1. To recognise atoms as the basic components of matter 4. To understand chemical formulas 2. To learn how elements are classified 5. To learn about the elements that can be found in nature 3. To learn how atoms are organised 6. To write a Fact File about a chemical element CONTENTS CONCEPTS • Atoms: definition, structure and atomic number • Atoms, molecules and crystals • The Periodic Table of Elements; symbols and properties of common elements PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS • • • • ATTITUDES • Showing interest in learning how matter is structured • Valuing the properties of elements and substances and their applications Using and analysing graphs and pie charts Writing a Fact File Understanding chemical formulas Interpreting scientific texts COMPETENCES Mathematical competence: understanding data expressed as percentages (section 6, p. 155). Knowledge and interaction with the physical world: understanding the Periodic Table of Elements and using it to classify elements (section 3, p. 152); understanding the differences between atoms, molecules and crystals (section 4, p. 153); understanding chemical formulas (section 5, p. 154); learning about the elements in nature (section 6, p. 155). Autonomy and personal initiative: researching elements and completing Fact Files about them (Hands on, p. 157); researching the importance of soil nitrogen (Investigate, p. 159). 124 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0124-0131.qxd 22/8/08 08:02 Página 125 VALUES Health Education Certain elements such as uranium, thorium, polonium and radium emit radiations. These radiations can expose photographic plates, ionise gases, produce fluorescence, penetrate opaque bodies, etc. Radiations can also destroy tumor cells, and constitute an efficient therapy for cancer. The brain and bones can be explored with the help of radiation, and radioactive elements can be used to trace hormones and other chemical compounds of organisms. However, radiation can be harmful to cells. If it is handled inadequately, exposure to high levels can be toxic, and even fatal. The risks to health depend on the intensity of the radiation, the length of the exposure and the capacity of given tissues to absorb it: for example, reproductive organs are twenty times more sensitive than skin. EVALUATION CRITERIA 1. Can explain what matter is made up of 2. Can describe and explain how elements are classified 3. Can explain how atoms are organised 5. Can describe the properties of chemical elements found in nature 6. Can research an element and produce a Fact File 4. Can explain what a chemical formula is and the information contained in it INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS Web links Atoms, quarks and the Periodic Table The science centre M. Tweed http://www.americanchemistry.com/s_chlorine/science_ index.asp?CID=1210&DID=4580&CTYPEID=113 Explores the world of matter, including up-to-date findings, but without forgetting knowledge gained throughout the centuries. Helpful American guide for science teachers. Books Films Mr Tompkins explores the atom Flubber George Gamow Director: Les Mayfield This book explains with humour the behaviour of atoms, fusions and nuclear fission, along with other topics. Professor Philip Brainard has created a new and revolutionary invention. It is green, it flies and looks like rubber. It is Flubber! 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 125 877310 _ 0124-0131.qxd 14 18/9/08 15:21 Página 126 WORKSHEET 1 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Put the words in order and write correct sentences. 1. matter is atoms All of made up All 2. the the atom of core nucleus called is central The The 3. called orbit the electrons Particles nucleus Particles 4. is an empty Most of atom Most 2 Use the clues to solve the puzzle and discover the mystery word. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. You have lots of this in your bones and teeth. 7 2 A noble gas, it makes up 15.9 % of matter in the Universe. 1 3 This is a rare noble gas which is used in advertising. This one is easy – it is the same name as a planet! 4 5 8 6 A rare Earth element named after a continent. The most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, and a basic compound of protein. Used in the manufacture of aircraft and satellites, was this one named after the famous DiCaprio film? Used in making paper, matches, gunpowder and insecticides, it burns with a blue flame and gives off a terrible smell! The mystery word is: 3 Write the atomic number of each element in the shaded squares of the puzzle. 4 Correct the information in these sentences. 1. Electrons have a positive charge (+). 2. An atom is the largest part of an element. 3. Noble gases join up with each other to form molecules. 4. There are three types of molecules. 5. All crystals closely resemble each other. ___ / 25 126 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0124-0131.qxd 14 4/8/08 12:38 Página 127 WORKSHEET 2 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS NAME: CLASS: DATE: Chemical suffixes are syllables that are placed after the name of an element to indicate changes in its chemical composition. 1 2 Match each chemical suffix to its meaning. The following suffixes indicate: 1. -ate a. a chemical compound, for example hydrogen sulfide. 2. -ide b. the presence of alcohol or phenol, for example glycol. 3. -in c. the salt of an acid, for example sulfate. 4. -ite d. the salt of an acid, for example sulfite. 5. -ol e. a sugar, for example fructose. 6. -ose f. a neutral compound, for example glycerin. Complete the sentences with the words in the box. ethanol oxides protein nitrites/nitrates salt sugars 1. Maltose, lactose and fructose are all 2. all include oxygen in their composition. 3. is a synonym of alcohol. 4. The chemical compound NaCl is our common table 3 . . 5. , a chief constituent of animal bodies, is also a neutral compound. 6. , which are food additives found in many treated meats, are not good for you. Answer the questions using the Periodic Table of Elements on page 152 of your Student’s Book. How many … 1. … solid elements are there? 2. … liquid elements are there? 3. … gases are there? 4. … noble gases are there? 5. … artificial elements are there? 6. Which element has only one atom in its nucleus? 7. What is the symbol for mercury? 8. What is the symbol for Sodium? ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 127 877310 _ 0124-0131.qxd 14 22/8/08 08:03 Página 128 WORKSHEET 3 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: In pairs, guess the elements referred to in the column on the left. Write the chemical name, the atomic symbol and the atomic number for each. English name Atomic symbol Atomic number Latin name aurum argentum cuprum ferrum Planets Mercury Uranus Neptune Pluto Plutonium Pu 94 People P. & M. Curie A. Einstein D. Mendeleev E. Lawrence Einsteinium Es 99 Places France California Poland Ytterby, Sw 2 Complete the definitions about the organisation of atoms. Look at page 153 of your Student’s Book. 1. Every chemical element has its own 2. Simple . consist of two or more atoms of the same joined together. 3. The noble gases are : they do not join up with each other to form . 4. The atoms of most elements join up with each other to form , of which there are types. 5. Crystals consist of or arranged in a regular, organised structure. Each crystal has a different . 6. Simple crystals consist of groups of atoms of the same joined together in an organised . 7. Compound crystals consist of of atoms from different elements. ___ / 55 128 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0124-0131.qxd 14 18/9/08 15:22 Página 129 WORKSHEET 4 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1 Work in pairs. Take turns to read. Classify the sentences and write the numbers in the correct box. Atoms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Chemical formule They indicate how many atoms of each element make up a molecule. They are composed of a nucleus, protons, neutrons and electrons. The ones for simple substances describe molecules with just one element. Each one has a unique number of protons in its nucleus. The ones for compound substances indicate which elements make up the molecule. Some can be broken down by chemical reaction. In the case of simple crystals, they are simply the chemical symbols of the elements. Most of the space in them is empty. Some of their particles have a positive charge while others have a negative charge. In the case of compound crystals, they indicate the elements and their proportions within the crystal. 2 Complete and classify the sentences. Write the numbers in the correct box. Elements in nature 1. In the Earth’s crust makes up 83 % of the Universe and its symbol is H2. 2. Four elements, 3. There is a lot of a non-metal substance called , , combine to make up 95 % of all living things. , and in quartz. 4. is a soft white metal obtained from bauxite, and which is a claylike ore. 5. is the basis of all organic compounds in living things. Its symbol is C. 6. combines with oxygen to form hematite and magnetite, and it is also present in our blood. 7. These five elements are the most abundant in the rocks and minerals of the Earth’s crust. 8. Its symbol is He; makes up almost one sixth of the Universe, but very little is found on Earth. 9. The metal , found in minerals such as olivine, burns with a bright white flame. 10. Its symbol is N2 and it is the most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere. . ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 129 877310 _ 0124-0131.qxd 14 4/8/08 12:38 Página 130 WORKSHEET 5 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS NAME: CLASS: DATE: The inventor of the Periodic Table Mendeleev’s start in life was difficult. Born in Siberia in 1834, he was the youngest of an enormous family of at least fourteen children. His father, the headmaster of a local school, went blind and could no longer work. So his mother started a glass factory to support the family. However, just as Mendeleev was finishing high school, his father died and the glass factory burned down. His mother, a very determined woman, took him to St. Petersburg - apparently they hitchhiked the four thousand miles there - and worked tirelessly to get him into university. St. Petersburg Mendeleev became a university professor. In the late 1860s, he began working on his lifetime achievement, the Periodic Table of Elements. Over the years, he arranged the 63 known elements by their atomic weights (later changed to atomic numbers), from the lowest to the highest. At the same time, he grouped them according to their properties. Wherever a gap appeared in the table, he predicted that a new element would one day fill it. And he was right! In fact, three of those elements were discovered during his lifetime—gallium, scandium, and germanium. 1 Correct the information in the following sentences. 1. Mendeleev went to university in Siberia. 2. When he started to compile his table, there were 68 known elements. 3. He arranged the elements from the highest to the lowest atomic weights. 4. He also organised them according to their abundance on Earth. 5. He stated that no new elements would be found. 2 List the other scientists whose names appear on the Periodic Table. 3 Think and answer. 1. What can the first part of Mendeleev’s life teach us? ___ / 15 130 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 877310 _ 0124-0131.qxd 14 4/8/08 12:38 Página 131 TEST 14 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS NAME: 1 CLASS: DATE: Circle the correct answer. 1. Atomic numbers indicate the number of: (a) electrons (b) neutrons (c) protons in an atom. 2. The smallest part of an element is (a) an atom (b) a molecule (c) a nucleus. 3. Noble gases always (a) form molecules (b) exist as single atoms (c) combine among themselves. 4. The noble gases are helium, neon, argon, krypton, radon and (a) boron (b) xenon (c) silicon. 5. The most abundant element in the Universe is (a) helium (b) oxygen (c) hydrogen. 6. The most abundant element in the Earth’s crust is (a) helium (b) oxygen (c) hydrogen. 7. The basis of all organic compounds is (a) carbon (b) nitrogen (c) hydrogen. 8. CaCO3 is the compound that is found in sea shells and egg shells. It is (a) calcium oxide (b) calcium chloride (c) calcium carbonate. 9. At room temperature, chlorine is a (a) gas (b) liquid (c) solid. 10. This element is used in the composition of fireworks: (a) sodium (b) magnesium (c) potassium. 2 Read the text and answer the questions. Calcium Calcium is a soft grey metal which does not occur as an element in nature, where it exists only in compounds. It is found in sedimentary rocks like gypsum and limestone. Limestone is often composed of the organic remains of sea animals and for this reason it is rich in calcium. Interestingly, when subjected to heat and pressure, limestone becomes the metamorphic rock, marble, which of course also contains calcium. Calcium is the fifth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, and the most common element in the human body. 99 % of it is found in bones and teeth. In this respect, it has been shown that cola drinks, which are rich in caffeine, sugar and phosphorus, cause significant calcium loss through the urine and could even lead to osteoporosis (brittle bones) in children and adolescents. 1. Briefly describe calcium. 2. What do cola drinks contain a lot of? Why is it dangerous to drink excessive quantities of them? 3. Find the opposite of the following words in the text a. hard: b. poor: c. cold: d. unimportant: e. scarce: f. flexible: ___ / 20 쮿 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 1 쮿 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L. 쮿 131 877310 _ 0132-0136.qxd 4/8/08 15:55 Página 132 Vocabulary 1 The Universe asteroids rocky bodies which orbit the stars. astronomical unit the distance from the Earth to the Sun: approximately 150 million kilometres. galaxies a vast collection of stars, dust and gases, held together by gravitational attraction. geocentric theory proposed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe. heliocentric theory proposed that the Sun was at the centre of the Universe. light-year the distance light travels in one year: about 9.5 trillion km. Milky Way the galaxy where our Solar System is. orbit a curved path which a celestial body follows in its revolution around another celestial body. 2 Planet Earth atmosphere the layer of gases which envelops the Earth. Nitrogen and oxygen are the most abundant. biosphere the part of the Earth’s surface, sea and air that is inhabited by living things. core the centre of the Earth, below the mantle. Its temperature is over 4,000°C. crust the outer layer of the Earth’s surface. It is divided into continental crust and oceanic crust. equinox the time of the year when day and night are exactly the same length. geosphere the solid part of the Earth which includes the lithosphere, the mantle and the core. hydrosphere all the water on Earth. lithosphere the upper 100 km of the geosphere. It is is made up of the crust and the upper mantle. lunar eclipse when the Moon passes behind the Earth, so the Earth prevents sunlight from reaching the Moon. mantle the middle layer of the Earth, below the crust. It is made up of rock. The temperature is from 1,000 to 4,000ºC, so some areas are melted rock. revolution the elliptical path taken by one body around another. The Earth revolves around the Sun. rotation the Earth rotates on its axis. The axis is tilted 23.5 degrees. This rotation creates day and night. solar eclipse when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, and blocks off the sunlight. 132 water cycle the movement of water around, over, and through the Earth: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff and infiltration. 3 Living things autotrophs living things which produce the organic substances they need from inorganic substances. Plants, algae and some bacteria are autotrophs. cell membrane the outer covering of a cell. The cell membrane keeps the cell together and controls what passes in and out of it. chloroplasts organelles with a green pigment, chlorophyll, which absorbs the Sun’s energy to elaborate organic matter during photosynthesis. cytoplasm the inside of a cell where many of the chemical reactions take place. eukaryotic cells cells which have a nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear membrane. heterotrophs living things which obtain nutrition from organic matter which is already elaborated. Animals, fungi, and all protozoa are heterotrophs. inorganic substances things which contain no carbon. They are present in living things and nonliving things: water and mineral salts. organelles small structures in the cytoplasm responsible for respiration, making and storing nutrients, etc. organic substances substances exclusive to living things. Carbon is the principal element. Organic substances include: glucides, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. nutrition all the processes which enable living things to obtain the energy and matter they need to live. photosynthesis the process through which plants obtain nutrition. prokaryotic cells cells with no nucleus or nuclear membrane. Genetic material is dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. They are simpler than eukaryotic cells. species the first level of classification for living things. A group of living things which are physically similar. They reproduce and usually have fertile descendants. 877310 _ 0132-0136.qxd 4 4/8/08 15:55 Página 133 Invertebrates annelids invertebrates with soft, cylindrical bodies divided into segments, with organs in each segment. Most breathe through gills. arthropods the largest and most varied group of living things: more than one million species. They live in sea water, fresh water and on land. cephalopods a group of molluscs. They have tentacles, but no shell. For example: squid, cuttlefish and octopus. cnidaria jellyfish, corals and sea anemones. They have a soft body, with only one opening and a mouth surrounded by tentacles. crustaceans a group of arthropods with 10 legs, with usually an aquatic habitat. For example: lobster or crab. echinoderms invertebrate animals which live on the sea bed. For example, sea urchins, starfish and sea cucumbers. gastropods a group of molluscs. Gastropods have a spiral-shaped shell with a single valve. For example, snails, sea snails and slugs. Slugs have no shell. molluscs a group of invertebrate animals with a soft body divided into head, body mass and foot. For example, squid, mussels, oysters, slugs and snails. myriapods a group of arthropods with worm-like bodies and many legs. They are terrestrial. For example, centipede and scolopendra. oviparous animals that lay eggs. Eggs are laid by the female and develop outside the body. platyhelminths invertebrates with long, flat, soft bodies. They have neither legs nor respiratory or digestive systems. Many are parasites. polyp cnidaria bodies shaped like a tube with the opening at the top. For example, corals and sea anemones. porifera invertebrate animals without organs. Sponges belong to this group. 5 Vertebrates amphibians vertebrate animals. Their skin is moist and has no covering. They have four legs and are poikilothermal. They undergo metamorphosis. homeotherms warm-blooded animals: capable of keeping their body temperature constant. mammals a group of vertebrate animals. Their bodies are covered with hair or fur. They are homeothermal and have mammary glands. ovoviviparous animals that are born from an egg. The egg develops inside the female. poikilotherms cold-blooded animals. They cannot regulate their body temperature, so are warm or cold depending on the environment. reptiles vertebrate animals with bodies covered with hard scales. They are poikilothermal and most of them are oviparous and carnivorous. viviparous animals that give birth to live young. Development starts in the mother’s body. The babies feed on the mother’s milk. 6 The plant and fungi kingdoms angiosperm flowering plants which have seeds inside a real fruit. dispersal a stage of plant reproduction. The ripe fruit falls off the plant or releases the seeds. ferns small non-flowering plants. Ferns are vascular. They have roots, stems, and leaves called fronds. fertilisation a stage of plant reproduction. Pollen reaches the stigma, penetrates it, and fertilises the ovules inside the ovary. fungi have eukaryotic cells and are heterotrophic. Fungi are made up of hyphae, which group together to form the mycelium. germination the last stage of plant reproduction. Seeds germinate producing a tiny shoot and root. gymnosperm one kind of flowering plant. They have seeds inside a false fruit, like a pinecone. mosses small, non-flowering plants. They are nonvascular. They have no true roots, stems or leaves. pollination the first stage of plant reproduction. Wind and insects transport pollen from one flower to another. stomata microscopic pores on the underside of a leaf. transpiration process by which excess water is expelled through leaf stomata in the form of water vapour. vascular plants with conductor vessels to distribute water and nutrients. yeasts unicellular fungi. Some types are used to make bread, wine, beer, etc. 7 The simplest living things algae unicellular or multicellular autotrophs. They live in salt and fresh water. bacteria microscopic, prokaryotic organisms. They belong to the Monera kingdom. 133 877310 _ 0132-0136.qxd ciliates 4/8/08 15:55 Página 134 a group of protozoa with hair-like organs. flagellates one of the groups of protozoa. They move with a flagellum (tail). protoctist unicellular and multicellular living things. They are eukaryotes and have no tissues. The Protoctist kingdom includes protozoa and algae. protozoa unicellular and heterotrophic living things. Some are parasites, and cause illnesses. rhizopods protozoa with pseudopods (projections of the cell cytoplasm). saprophytes organisms which live on dead or decomposing matter. They transform organic substances into inorganic substances. sporozoa a group of protozoa that cannot move. vaccines contain dead or weakened microorganisms from a specific illness. They teach the body how to fight an illness. 8 The Earth’s atmosphere 9 The hydrosphere condensation the process in which water vapour changes to liquid. currents movement of large bodies of water by prevailing winds. evaporation the process of the water cycle in which liquid water changes to a gas (water vapour). evapotranspiration when water evaporates into the atmosphere from the leaves and stems of plants. groundwater water located beneath the ground. infiltration surface water penetrates into the ground. This occurs more easily if the ground is porous. surface runoff when the movement of surface water across the land forms rivers and streams. tides the rise and fall of water levels due to gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun. waves occur on the surface of water, caused by the wind. Wave action causes cliff erosion and creates beaches. Minerals acid rain rain with dissolved pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. 10 climate describes the characteristic pattern of weather in an area, over a long period of time. hardness measures how a mineral reacts to being scratched. impurities small amounts of other substances found in minerals. These can change some mineral properties. lustre refers to the way minerals reflect light. It can be metallic, or non-metalic. mixtures are made up of different substances of varying sizes, shapes and colours. Mohs Scale of Hardness classifies minerals by hardness. One is soft. Ten is the hardest. non-silicates minerals which contain no silicon: native elements, oxides, sulphides, carbonates and halides. silicates the most abundant minerals on Earth. They are made up of silicon and oxygen. Some common silicates are quartz and feldspar. streak the colour of the powder left when minerals are scratched. global warming in the last century, the atmosphere has warmed between 0.5 and 0.9ºC on average. greenhouse effect a natural phenomenon, essential for keeping the temperatures on Earth suitable for life. CO2 in the atmosphere acts like the glass walls of a greenhouse. It traps the heat and prevents it from returning into space. ionosphere the highest and thickest layer of the atmosphere. mesosphere a layer of the atmosphere about 40 km thick. It contains clouds of ice and dust. meteorology the study of different atmospheric variables to make weather predictions. ozone (O3) a gas which exists throughout the atmosphere, mainly concentrated in the stratosphere. It makes up the ozone layer. stratosphere a layer of the atmosphere about 30 km thick. There is an increase in temperature from –70ºC at its lower limit, to 0ºC at its higher limit. troposphere a very thin layer which represents 80% of the total mass of the atmosphere. Aeroplanes fly at this level. It is where the greenhouse effect is produced. weather describes the state of atmospheric conditions at a certain place, over a short period of time. 134 11 Rocks cementation the process by which sedimentary rock is formed from sediments glued together. compaction the weight of layers of sediments which reduces the spaces between the fragments and squeezes out the water. As a result, salt crystals are formed. 877310 _ 0132-0136.qxd 4/8/08 15:55 Página 135 erosion fragments of rocks are picked up and transported by running water, glaciers, or wind. igneous rocks rocks formed from cooled magma. metamorphic rocks rocks formed from other rocks by the effects of heat or pressure. metamorphism a slow process in which temperature and pressure change parent rock into metamorphic rock. organic sedimentary rocks made up of organic material, fossils. There are two kinds: oil and coal. plutonic (intrusive) rocks rocks formed as magma cools slowly under the ground over thousands of years. rock cycle the processes which form, change and recycle rocks over millions of years. sedimentary rocks rocks formed by the accumulation and compaction of sediment, for example, clay, sand or rock fragments. volcanic (extrusive) rocks rocks formed as lava cools rapidly on the Earth’s surface. weathering atmospheric phenomena (changes in temperature, rain, etc.), or the activities of plants and animals which break up rocks. 12 Matter and its properties base units used to measure length, mass, time, etc. capacity the amount of liquid a container can hold when it is full. Capacity is measured in litres (L). degrees Celsius a scale used to measure temperature. 0ºC equals 273.15K or 32ºF. density the relationship between the mass and the volume of a body. Measured in kg/m3 or g/cm3. derived units obtained from a combination of the base units. They are used to measure surface area, volume, speed, density, etc. International System of Units (SI) a system which defines the base and derived units required to measure the properties of matter. kelvin one of the scales of the International System of Units that is used to measure temperature. 0 K equals –273.15ºC and –459.67ºF. mass the amount of matter in a body. Mass is measured in kilograms (kg). matter all objects that take up space, and have mass. Everything around us is made of matter. surface area the extension of a body in two dimensions, measured in square metres (m2). volume the amount of space matter occupies. Volume is measured in cubic metres (m3). 13 Everything is matter chemical compound a substance containing two or more elements joined up. compressibility a property which measures the difficulty of matter to be compressed. fusion the process by which a solid changes into a liquid. heterogeneous a mixture of substances where more than one part is distinguishable. homogeneous a substance which is uniform in structure and composition. recycle to transform used materials into new materials. regressive sublimation the process by which a gas changes directly into a solid. solidification the process by which a liquid is cooled and changes to a solid. solute in a mixture, the dissolved substance. solution any homogeneous mixture. solvent in a mixture, the part where the substance is dissolved. sublimation the process by which a solid changes into a gas, without first becoming a liquid. vaporisation when a liquid evaporates into a gas. 14 Atoms and elements atom the smallest particle of matter which can exist alone. It is made up of a nucleus with protons and neutrons, and electrons. atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. This number is different for each atom. chemical formula symbols which indicate how many atoms make up a molecule. crystals consist of atoms or molecules arranged in a regular, organised structure. electrons extremely small particles that orbit the nucleus. They have a negative charge (–) and are attracted to the positively charged protons in the nucleus. element a substance that contains just one type of atom. It cannot be broken down into anything simpler by chemical reaction. molecules two or more atoms joined together. neutrons particles in the nucleus which have no charge. periodic table of elements a table in which all elements are grouped with similar elements, with their symbol and atomic number. protons particles in the atom’s nucleus, which have a positive charge. 135 877310 _ 0132-0136.qxd 18/9/08 15:24 Página 136 Essential Natural Science, Teacher’s Resource Pack Pack is a collective work, conceived, designed and created by the Secondary Education department at Santillana, under the supervision of Enric Juan Redal, Antonio Brandi and Michele C. Guerrini. Contributing authors: Mady Musiol, Concha Barreiro, Marcos Blanco, Esperanza Blanco, Antonio Brandi, José María Cabello, José Manuel Cerezo, Antonio Delgado, Jesús Diéguez, David Folkers, Belén Garrido, Pilar de Luis, Patricia Gómez, Samuel Jiménez, Miguel Ángel Madrid, Ignacio Meléndez, Margarita Montes, Patrizia Pierantoni and Cristina Zarzuelo Content consultants: Kevin Salvage and Carmen Rengel Language specialists: María José Sánchez, María Rosa Batlle, Giselle Dubois, Beatriz Papaseit and Ana María Pons English editors: Sheila Tourle, Cynthia Donson, Sheila Klaiber, Jonathan Mellor, Kirsten Ruiz-McOmish Student CD: Vocabulary organiser: Antonio Delgado Web tasks: Jeannette West PowerPoints: Marcos Blanco, Jeannette West and Javier Claramonte Webquests: Isabel Pérez, Librotex Art director: José Crespo Design coordinator: Rosa Marín Design Team: Cover: Martín León-Barreto Interior: Rosa María Barriga Coordinator, design development: Javier Tejeda Design development: José Luis García and Raúl de Andrés Technical director: Ángel García Encinar Technical coordinator: Marisa Valbuena Layout: Montytexto, Juana Berrio, Pedro Valencia, Jorge Borrego, Antonio Díaz Artwork coordinator: Carlos Aguilera Illustrations: alademosca il·lustració, Digitalartis, Marcelo Pérez, Pere Luis León, David Cabacas, Domingo Benito, Carlos Aguilera Research and photographic selection: Amparo Rodríguez Photographs: A. Viñas; C. Jiménez; C. Suárez; D. Sánchez; F. Orte; GARCÍA-PELAYO/Juancho; I. Rovira; J. C. Muñoz/'Instituto Geológico y Minero de España'; J. I. Medina; J. Jaime; J. M. Gil-Carles; J. Navarro; J. Soler; L. M. Iglesias; M. San Félix; Prats i Camps; R. Tolín; S. Padura; TERRANOVA INTERPRETACIÓN Y GESTIÓN AMBIENTAL; V. Rivera; A. G. E. FOTOSTOCK/Sinclair Stammers, Fritz Poelking, Edward Kinsman; POPPERFOTO; COVER; EFE/EPA/Armin Weigel; EFE/AP PHOTO/I. UNDATED FILE PHOTO; EFE/SIPA-PRESS/C. Burmester, S. Korb; HIGHRES PRESS STOCK/AbleStock.com; I. Preysler; ISTOCKPHOTO; J. M.ª Barres; JOHN FOXX IMAGES; LOBO PRODUCCIONES / C. Sanz; MELBA AGENCY; MUSEUM ICONOGRAFÍA/J. Martin; PHOTODISC; STOCKBYTE; AGRAZ S. A.; MATTON-BILD; SERIDEC PHOTOIMAGENES CD; ARCHIVO SANTILLANA The publishers would like to express their gratitude to the following teachers for their insightful comments and useful suggestions throughout the preparation of Essential Natural Science. Carlos Álvarez Santos (Liceo Zuloaga); Silvia Durán (SEK-El Castillo); José Ramón Noya (Liceo Zuloaga); Maureen Vidal Gafford © 2008 by Santillana Educación, S. L. / Richmond Publishing Torrelaguna, 60. 28043 Madrid Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educación, S. L. Richmond Publishing 26-28 Hammersmith Grove London W6 7BA United Kingdom PRINTED IN SPAIN Printed in Spain FAS - S. A. - Digital ISBN: 978-84-294-2223-8 CP: 877310 D.L.: M-43210-2008 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publisher.