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History Revision - Full Set of Notes

History Exam Revision Document
Syllabus Outline:
Important Note to DP History Students
SL Topic 1: Stalin
Stalin’s Rise To Power, Ideology and Aims
Consolidation of Power
Domestic Policy
Foreign Policy
SL Topic 2: Hitler
Impact of WWI & Treaty of Versailles
German Revolution 1918-1919 & Weimar Republic 1919-1933
Hitler’s Rise to Power & Consolidation of Power
Domestic Policies
Foreign Policy
SL Topic 3: Mussolini
SL Topic 4: Cold War
SL Topic 4a: Japanese Imperialism
International Response to Japanese Nationalism
SL Topic 5: Mao
Birth of the CCP
Nanjing Decade 1927-37
The Long March October 1934-5
The Communists at Yanan (1935-45)- Red Army and Rectification Campaign (1942-3) 52
Japanese Occupation of China & Second United Front
Chinese Civil War 1945-9
P2 - Mao’s Rise to Power
P2 - Mao’s Consolidation of Power - Ary
Economic and Social Policies
HL Topic 1: China
Nature of Qing Rule
Internal Rebellions
Chinese Tribute System and Western Trade/Diplomatic Missions
Taiping Rebellion (1854 - 1864)
First and Second Opium War (1856 - 1860)
Self Strengthening Movement “Tong Zhi Restoration” from 1861 - 1864
Acceleration of Imperialism - Sino-Japanese War (1895)
100 Day Reform
Xinhai/1010 Revolution (1911)
Post Mao
HL Topic 2: Japan
Tokugawa Shogunate
Meiji Restoration 1868 & Era (1868 -1912)
Taisho Democracy 1912-1926
Japanese Imperialism
HL Topic 3: Korea
Korea: Isolation to Annexation
Korea under Japanese Rule
Important Note to DP History
Hi there! This study guide was created for the IB History HL & SL programme, for the 20172025 sessions. The following are included in this study guide:
● Standard level units
○ Move to global war (paper 1)
■ Hitler
■ Mussolini
■ Japan
○ Authoritarian leaders (paper 2)
■ Stalin
■ Hitler
■ Mao
○ Cold war (paper 2)
● Higher level units (paper 3):
○ Challenges to East Asian societies (1700-1868)
○ Early modernisation and imperial decline in East Asia (1860-1912)
○ China and Korea (1910-1950)
○ The People's Republic of China (1949-2005)
For paper 1, I highly recommend studying all the topics, as it has been unpredictable which
topics will come up (with japan appearing as the main topic for a couple exams in a row).
For paper 2, we highly recommend using this document, as some of the tables we
created came up on our final exam for May 2018. The document linked is more detailed
(for certain aspects of paper 2 such as domestic policies, conditions/factors in the rise to
power etc.), and is designed to answer potential exam questions.
For paper 3, please note that some of the SL Mao content can be on paper 3, so it is important
that if you’re an HL student doing PRC, that you know your stuff for Mao in depth!
We hope this helps with revision! Enjoy, bookmark this page as well as this document, and
share these resources with friends and peers!
SL Topic 1: Stalin
Stalin’s Rise To Power, Ideology and Aims
What methods did Stalin employ to overcome his rivals in the leadership struggle?
● Stalin portrayed himself as Lenin's follower in Soviet propaganda in an effort to justify his
efforts to take power - Lenin was widely revered by the Russian working class and classconscious workers world wide, particularly those in the communist parties of Europe.
● His theory of Socialism in One Country rather than Permanent Revolution was in stark
contrast to the principled socialist stand of Lenin and his internationalist outlook.
● Stalin played one side against the other to take power: First, he allied with Zinoviev and
Kamenev to cover up Lenin’s Will and to get Trotsky dismissed (1925). Trotsky went into
exile (1928). Then, he advocated ‘Socialism in one country’ (he said that the USSR
should first become strong, then try to bring world revolution) and allied with the Rightists
to get Zinoviev and Kamenev dismissed (1927). Stalin put his supporters into the
Politburo. Finally, he argued that the NEP was un-communist, and got Bukharin, Rykov
and Tomsky dismissed (1929).
Conditions in Rise to Power
● Decree on Party Unity 1921
○ Banned formal factions
○ Banned members from putting forward ideas that disagreed from official party
○ Allowed Stalin to promote friends and eliminate foes
● Member of the Politburo and held a powerful position in the Party Apparatus
○ 1922 Stalin was appointed Gen. Sec.
■ Trotsky had no significant power in the party apparatus (was War
● Centralised party machine
○ Traditionally communists did not believe in bureaucracy but due to complexities
of government it forced the party to become more centralised
○ Party decided to have Gen/ Sec. to organise matters – Stalin
■ Allowed Stalin to influence Hob appointments
Factors in Rise to Power
● Trotsky’s Weakness
○ Seen as potential dictator
○ Only joined Bolsheviks in Aug 1917 and was not a loyal member
■ Went hunting during meeting
○ Too high-minded and arrogant
■ Respected but no personal loyalty
■ Seen as person most likely to split party
○ Health poor
■ Skipped meetings
Lack of political sensitivity
■ Didn’t attend Lenin’s funeral
■ “political error of the 1st magnitude”
Luck favoured Stalin over Trotsky
Lenin died at the right time
■ January 1924
■ USSR desperate for change
■ Time of upheaval
■ Managed to manipulate people
■ Central Committee did not publish Lenin’s political testament
Politically Skilled
○ Cunning and ruthless
○ Underestimated by rivals
■ Ignored as ‘grey blue’ and rivals concentrated on eliminating Trotsky
○ Outmanoeuvred opponents
■ First
● Created Triumvirate (Stalin, Kamenev, Zinoviev) VS Trotsky
● Denounced him
● Lost power of red army – lost a lot of support
● Highlighted all his disagreements – made it seem like a crime o
■ Second
● Against left - Kamenev and Zinoviev
● Triumvirate ended = realised Stalin was becoming too powerful
● United Opposition (Kamenev, Zinoviev, Trotsky + Lenin’s wife) VS
● They were then kicked out of Comm Party
■ Third
● Against Right – Bukharin, Tomsky and Rykov
● Denunciations and lost of positions
● Stalin had many allies in Politburo
● Disagreed with their NEP
● Say need to enforce a fully communist economy
○ Appear at Lenin’s funeral as his true heir
■ Transfer Lenin’s prestige to himself
○ Able to gauge the mood and act accordingly
■ Able to perceive what people wanted
■ By 1929, they didn’t want NEP
Control in Party
○ In 1922, he was appointed General Secretary of the party
■ Enabled him to ‘hire and fire’ influential Party members
○ Had key positions in the buros
■ Politburo
■ Orgburo
○ Had a lot of power
■ Able to appoint his own supporters
■ Expel Trotsky supporters
■ This made him a useful ally
● Other contenders wanted him on their side – could deliver votes
Personal Qualities
○ Dull and mediocre
○ No one saw him as threat – until it was too late
○ Tough and ruthless
○ Determined to protect power base
○ Less high-minded, more down to earth and more practical
○ Very loyal member
■ Would never cause disunity in party
Consolidation of Power
The Great Terror
● Purge: Stalin’s way of getting rid of.:
○ Undesirable, lazy and drunk members
○ All potential threats
○ ‘Radishes’ – red outside, white inside
● Reasons to purge
○ Unpopular policies – as a distraction
○ Stalin’s pathological distrust - paranoid
○ Find scapegoats - kulaks
○ Find slave labour – sent to remote regions
○ Ensure continuous support for himself – loyal followers
○ NKVD wanted to increase their own power
● Timeline
○ 1932 – Ryutin Platform
■ Expelled from Party for circulating 200-page document, denouncing Stalin
○ 1933 – Communist purges
■ 20% of party expelled
■ Forced to confess to ‘impossible’ crimes
■ Put on show trials
○ 1934 – Kirov’s murder
■ Killed as he gained more votes than Stalin in elections
■ Kirov also spoke out against him about Ryutin’s document
○ 1936 – Trial of 16
■ 16 ‘old Bolsheviks’ were put on trial for Kirov’s death and Trotskyite
○ 1937 – Trial of 17
■ 17 tried for plotting with GE
1937 – torture, execution and purges
■ These were legalised Scientists, priests, administrators, writers,
musicians executed
1938 – Trial of 21
■ ‘Trotskyite Rightist’ put on trial – namely Bukharin and Rykov
1939 – NKVD purged
■ NKVD agents executed Knew all Stalin’s secrets
○ Creation of “ Little Stalins” Brutal hardcore ruthless communists
○ 600 000 Party members lost lives
○ Weak army – removed half of senior officers (worst idea bcoz of WW2)
○ Millions of innocent people in Gulags
○ Fear gripped Soviet people – obedient
○ Damaged industrial force o Stalin’s personality cult expanded
■ Seen as ‘father figure’
Cult of Personality
● Uplift and unite people
● Uses himself as a distraction
○ Make himself God-like
○ ‘father of nations’
○ Constantly craved adoration and attention
○ Streets, buildings, songs, poetry, statue, prizes, national anthems
■ Named after him – Stalingrad
● Timeline
○ 1924-1929:
■ Stalin assumes modest image ‘
■ Stalin is the Lenin of today’
■ City renamed Stalingrad
○ 1929-1933:
■ Received 350 greeting for 50th birthday
■ Length of applause increase after speeches
■ Huge portraits of Stalin with 3 important men
○ 1933-1939:
■ Art style: socialist realism
■ Stalin’s image everywhere – reassure people of strong leader
■ History reinterpreted in Stalin’s favour
○ 1940-1945:
■ Stalin’s imagine everywhere
● His success as war leader, increase in power
● Portraits show him in god-like solitude
● His 70th birthday crazily elaborate
Domestic Policy
● Intro
○ 1920s USSR remained a backward state
○ 1930s tremendous change
■ Stalin wanted to build a Communist Utopia in USSR
○ Methods used:
■ Collectivization
■ Industrialization
■ Kulaks
■ ‘enemies of people’ killed off
● Reasons for Collectivisation
○ Achieve socialism in countryside
■ 1/125 = communist in countryside
○ Control and transform ‘backward peasantry’
■ Peasants were seen as ‘primitive’ and ‘uneducated’
○ Solve problems of food shortage
■ Serious problems in 1927-8: peasants and states at loggerheads
○ Industrialization
■ Provide surplus manpower, food and $$ for rapid industrialisation ‘war
scare’ highlight RU need to catch up with West
○ Prove communism = way forward
■ Could eliminate kulak
■ Collectives were run by party – peasants firmly under party’s control
● Economic growth slow
● Capitalist way
● Stages of Collectivisation
○ Collectivization
■ Voluntary basis not effective
■ Confiscating grain by force
○ Urals-Siberian Method
■ Denounce kulaks
■ Revelation of kulaks – 25% reward
○ Implementation
■ Forced collectivization
● All forced to join collective farms
● If oppose, labelled as kulaks and face consequences
■ Dekulakization
● Divided into 3 categories
○ Most dangerous – imprisoned/shot
○ Transported Siberia
○ Least dangerous – given poor land outside collective farms
Peasant opposition
● Kulaks – difficult to identify
● ‘we have no kulaks here’ = common reply to squads
● Collectivization squad
○ Seen as anti-Christ
○ Took peasant possessions and properties
○ Exaggerated – killed more than target to impress
● Churches turned into barns
● Religious holidays renamed
● Women led opposition
● Peasants destroyed own possessions
○ Halt to Collectivization
■ Article written by Stalin: “Dizzy with Success”
● Accused party officials of excessive force
● Brigade “too enthusiastic”
○ Collectivization resumed
■ Peasants had limited concessions
● Small plot of land + some livestock
■ Allowed to retain any surplus if quota met
○ Famine
■ 4 to 6.5 million died
■ Ukraine – most deaths
■ State took higher % of harvest, leaving peasants to starve
■ “Stalin’s revenge on the peasants.” – R. Conquest
○ Consolidation
■ Legalized private plots
■ Allowed to keep animals
■ State/collective farms produced less than private plots
○ Party had greater control over peasants and countryside
○ State had greater control over grain supply
○ Increase grain supply, more food for industrial workforce
○ Massive increase in urban population
○ Grain production increased only marginally
○ Peasants lacked incentive to work hard
○ Collectives ineffective in long-term
● Reasons for Industrialisation
○ Only 20% were the working class
■ Unskilled illiterate ex-peasants
○ NEP wasn’t working
■ Insufficient food and jobs
■ Low wages
○ Need to prepare for war
○ Set targets for industries
Each region → each factory → each worker
■ Steel
■ Iron
■ Coal
■ Oil
Expectations exaggerated to meet Stalin’s high expectation o Usually
■ If quota not met – lie, bribe, trade
10 million people recruited from countryside – including women
■ Problem: Uneducated, illiterate, no discipline
Factories opened 24/7
Stalin Constitution 1936
● Most democratic constitution at that time
○ Freedom of speech, religion
○ Privacy
○ Right to vote
○ Employment
● HOWEVER, this was just on paper, not in reality
Social Changes
● Religion
○ Bolsheviks believed that religion = intervention to distract poor from reality
■ Many churches closed
■ 1/40 churches left (1939)
■ Worship could only take place in licensed place
■ Recorded if one goes to church
○ All other religions attacked: Islams, jews, etc.
○ Despite this, people continued to pray in private
○ Stalin wanted to replace religion with Stalin’s cult
● Education
○ Primary education made compulsory = 7 years
○ Literacy rate increase
○ Girls and boys
○ School seemed ‘bourgeoisie’
■ No more exams
■ No competition
BUT this was ineffective → returned to traditional system
■ Uniforms
■ Exams and tests
■ Teachers = rigorous communists
■ Focused on Stalin’s history
○ Young had to join Comm groups:
■ “Young Pioneers” U -14
■ “Komosol” U -28
Family Life
○ Women given more equal rights
○ Children-family bonds eliminated
■ Children spied on their own parents
○ No necessity to get married
■ Problem: No stability – men had too many gfs
○ Divorce was cheap and easy
○ Abortion legalized
○ Solution
■ abortion illegal ‘Divorce more difficult
■ Homosexuality banned
■ 6+ children from 1 mum – got $$
Soviet Culture
○ Radio = most important way to communicate with population
○ Cinema
■ Films – very patriotic/based on historical figures
○ Art = socialist art o Literature – socialist realism
○ Music suffered
Rebuilding Moscow
○ World’s first communist state
○ Monuments built
■ “Stalinist baroque”
● USSR became a ‘quicksand society’ bcz people disappeared all the time
● Women gained many more opportunities
● Suicides increase – poor standard of living
● Sense of optimism
○ A shared sense of struggle to build world’s first Comm society
Foreign Policy
● After WW1, a lot of economic hardship for FR, GE, etc
● BR – dominant & US = isolationism
● USSR hit very hard. Romanov kicked out and communist takeover
● 1920s, Lenin wanted Permanent Revolution
○ Have other countries to be communist
Stalin’s main idea: Socialism in One Country
Lenin set up
○ Comintern – intl comm org – aimed at spreading communism
○ Comecon – communist economic intl org
● 1934: USSR asked to be part of L.O.N.
○ Diplomatically accepted and acknowledged USSR as a country
■ Everyone willing to trade
■ Huge step forward
○ Collective security – avoid WWs
■ Stalin part of it
■ Some people distrust USSR (communism) but feared fascism (in GE)
from spreading more
● 1936-39: Spanish Civil War
○ Left-winged govt came to power in Spain
■ Not particularly popular
■ Military generals grouped together to overthrow them
○ Other countries got involved
■ IT & GE support military generals
■ USSR support left-winged
○ IN THE END, right-winged won – due to a lot of help from Hitler and Mussolini
○ Led to tension between Hitler and Stalin
● 1939: Nazi-Soviet Pact
○ Stalin not ready for war
○ Hitler knows BR & US will help USSR
○ Signed an agreement
■ Promised not to attack each other
■ H allowed S some territory
■ Divided Poland between them
● Stalin – east
● Hitler – west
■ Didn’t last forever. GE attacked USSR
● 1941: Operation Barbarossa (WW2)
○ Invade western part of RU
○ Stalin caught off-guard
○ Sent military troops over
○ HOWEVER, GE took over easily
■ Lots of deaths
■ Dramatic loss
○ Stalin steps down temporarily
○ Then, took charge again
● 1945: War won
■ Harsh military threat if retreated
■ More men
■ More resources
■ Favourable climate
This boosted Stalin’s popularity
SL Topic 2: Hitler
Impact of WWI & Treaty of Versailles
1914 germans were proud – kaiser celebrated for achievements, one of finest armies,
people seemed prosperous
WWI changed this picture – a proud army was defeated, german people were surviving
on turnips and bread, flour mixed with sawdust
Birth of Weimar
- Autumn 1918 allies won WWI – germany in a state of chaos
- Proposed peace on strict conditions – Germany had to be more democratic
- When Kaiser refused, sailors in North Germany mutinied and took over
town of Kiel (triggered other revolts and uprisings)
- Kaiser left Germany November 1918
- Soon following the socialist leader Friedrich Ebert became new leader
- Immediately signed armistice
- New republic giving freedom of speech worship and better working conditions
Treaty of Versailles - Context
- May 1919 Treaty of Versailles announced
- Britain and France had a strong sense that Germany had started the war, and it was
therefore reasonable to expect reparations to weaken Germany and prevent a war
- Strong sentiment in France – ror. Casualties of Britain and France was 9 mill
- Treaty of Brest Litovsk stripped Russia of 25% of pop. and large land – seemed fair
Treaty of Versailles - Terms of the Treaty
- War Guilt
- Simple clause but seen as harsh
- Germany had to accept blame for starting war
- Reparations
- Majors powers agreed without consulting Germany that Germany had to pay
reparations to the allies for damages caused by the war
- Exact figure was agreed in 1921 – 6.6 billion pounds sterling (big amount)
- If terms of payment had not been changed under the Young Plan in 1929,
germany would not have been done paying until 1984
- Overseas territories and colonies
- Overseas empires taken away
- Was one causes of bad relations between Britain & Germany pre-war
- Former colonies became mandates controlled by the LoN (essentially France
and Britain controlled them)
- Lost land in the treaty on its European Borders, losing agricultural/industrial land
- Alsace Lorraine given to France
Rhineland demilitarised
Eupen and Malmedy given to Belgium
North Schleswig given to Denmark
Danzig now run as a free city by LoN
Poland given corridor to Baltic sea (western Prussia)- cutting off
East Prussia from Germany
- Posen - rich farmland given to Poland
- Germany forbidden to join alliances with Austria
- Treated Bolshevik Russia as an outsider - reinforced Bunker mentality and
extremism of the regime – left western Europe with no allies against German
aggression in 1930s
Wilson’s frustration with terms – short term ⇒ congress refused to ratify treaty,
long term ⇒ isolationism
Treaty of Versailles - Effect
- Germans appalled
- Supporters of Weimar felt betrayed by allies
- Kaiser left – why should they be punished for his aggression
- Opponents turned fury on Ebert
- Ebert reluctant to sign treaty but had no choice
- In the minds of Germans, Ebert and Weimar were to blame for the treaty
- Treaty was a rallying point for opponents
- “Stabbed in back by socialist/liberal politicians - agreed armistice in 1918”
- German army was not defeated but betrayed by politicians
- Treaty was a source of bitterness
- Ebert’s govt. Faced violent opposition from the right
- Right wing opponents were those who were successful under the Kaiser and
liked his dictator leadership, strong army and germany empire
- March 1920 Kapp Putsch – Dr Wolfgang Kapp led 5000 Freikorps into Berlin
- Army refused to fire against own – seemed like govt. doomed
- Declared general strike which brought capital to a halt – 1.2 million on
strike caused a lack of transportation, power and water in city
- After a few days, Kapp realised he could not succeed & left
- Ebert’s Govt. struggled to deal with political violence – frequent assassinations
- Summer 1922 Ebert’s foreign minister Walther Rathenau murdered
- November 1923 Hitler led the Munich Putsch – failed
- Hitler and murder of FM got short sentences
- ToV destabilized Germany politically but it was also blamed for economic chaos
- Forced to pay reparations to the allies, 6.6 billion pounds sterling, in annual
- 2% of Germany’s annual output
Germans protested that this was an intolerable strain on the
economy which they were struggling to rebuild
- Germany lost valuable mineral resources – rich coal & iron-ore deposit handed
go Poland (upper silesia) & to France (Alsace Lorraine) whilst SCarland was
taken by LoN for 15 years
The Ruhr
- The first instalment of 50M pounds paid in 1921, nothing in 1922
- Ebert tried to negotiate but France/west lost patience – had debt to US
- Jan 1923 French and Belgian troops entered Ruhr and took what was owed to
them in the form of raw materials and goods
- Results of occupation disastrous for Germany – govt. ordered workers to
strike so France couldn’t take goods, they also sabotaged french attempts
to transport goods back to France
- France reacted killing 100 workers and expelling 100000
protesters from the region
- French sealed Ruhr off from the rest of Germany – disastrous as Ruhr produced
80% of Germany’s steel & 70% of coal
- German unemployment rose from 2% to 23%
- Collapse of German Currency
- No goods to trade fo govt’ printed money
- Paid off its debt in worthless marks including war debts of 2.2 billion
pounds & great industrialists could pay off debt too
- Chain reaction – so much money in circulation prices and wages rocketed but
people soon realised this money was worthless
- Prices of goods could change while waiting in queue
1922 - loaf of bread was 163 marks → 1923 1 500 000 marks in
september → 200 000 000 000 marks
Poor suffered but rich suffered more as their savings became worthless
- Savings in bank to buy a house in 1921 could not buy a loaf of bread in
August 1923 new govt. Under Stresemann took over
- Called off passive resistance in the Ruhr
- Replaced currency with Rentenmark
- Renegotiated reparations payment (Dawes plan 1924)
Economic crisis solved quickly, but with damaging political effects – another
problem to blame govt/ and lost support in middle class
- Germany also suffered from shortage of domestic investment – many lost
faith in business post 1923 crisis, and Weimar became dependent on
foreign loans
Nikki Christie (author of history textbooks (not a historian but well researched))
- ToV provides significant explanation to start of WWII
- Loss of german land, redrawing of german borders and burden of reparations
– meant that Germany would challenge foreign powers at some point
German Revolution 1918-1919 & Weimar Republic 19191933
Problems Faced by Weimar
1. Inflation
Wages falling behind
prices – increased
social discontent
1. Strikes
From Autumn of 1918
no. of strikes and
lockouts increased
1. Freikorps
Growing no. of rightwing soldiers forming
1. Demobilisation
About 1.5 million
soldiers returned
2. Shortages
Winter 1916-17 fuel
and food shortages
causing hardship in
2. German
Communist aimed to
bring about revolution
in Germany
2. Army
Army was
conservative but also
embittered by defeat
2. Allied blockade
Allies maintained
naval blockade after
armistice – social
distress not relieved
until June 1919
3. Flu Epidemic
Spanish flu killed
3. Workers’ &
soldiers’ councils
Councils created and
wanted changes to
industry and army
3. Nationalists
against Kaiser
abdication - didn’t
support democracy
3. Peace terms
Great concern over
the effects of the
peace treaty
Context of the birth of the republic: impact of WW1
● Social
○ Over 2.5 million germans died in war and 4 million wounded
○ By the end of the allied blockade in July 1919, 250000 ppl died of starvation
○ Germans saw ToV as diktat that had been forced upon germans
■ They were furious at the loss of colonies, territory and population
○ Germans felt self-determination had been ignored
○ Felt war Guilt clause in the treaty was unjust
○ Immediate lack of confidence in politicians (many were leading the new republic)
● Political
○ Kaiser abdicated and sent in exile to Holland
Leader of social democrats, Ebert, proclaimed a new republic and signed
armistice with allies → many saw this as treason, and politicians who signed the
armistice became known as the “November Criminals”
Moderate politician were eager to put war aside and create a democracy
Opposed by two main groups;
■ Right-wingers – loathed democracy and wanted restoration of monarchy
■ Left – saw this as an ideal time to establish a communist/socialist regime
Before constitution drawn up, there was the Spartacist Revolt in January 1919 in
which many hoped to see a russian style revolution in Germany
■ Left wing revolt led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht began in
Berlin and government had to flee the city
■ Army & Freikorps crushed revolt, political violence marned new state
■ 1918 harvest disastrous – forced prices up sevenfold compared to 1914
■ Peace treaties deprived Germany of ¾ of its iron resources, ¼ of coal and
15% of arable land
■ Reparations commission fixed the total amount of reparations to be paid
by Germany in April 1921 at 132 million gold marks
Constitution and Aims of the New Republic
● New democracy won votes of majority of German people in January 1919 despite
Spartacist revolt
○ Major political parties in republic were SPD, liberal DDP and catholic center party
● Constituent assembly met at Weimar in February and Ebert elected president
● Reichstag elected every 4 years within a system of proportional representation
– impossible for one to get an overall majority
● President to be elected every seven years
● Under article 48 he had the power to, under a state emergency, rule by decree and pass
any veto laws (dictator style)
Surviving the Crisis Years 1919-23
● Created at a time where there was confusion and chaos
● Govt. associated with ToV – November criminals for signing ToV
● Germany 1918-9 was in chaos - people starving
● Freikorps refused to bisband and formed private armies
March 1920 Kapp Putsch ⇒ Nationalist terror groups assassinated 305 govt.
Politicians, Kapp took over Berlin and only defeated when workers strike
1920 ⇒ red army rebelled in Ruhr
Spartacist Revolt 4-15 January 1919
○ January 1919 – spartacists wanted to overthrow provisional govt. & create a
soviet republic in Berlin
○ January 5 – occupied buildings called for a general strike & formed a
revolutionary committee
○ 50 000 Spartacist rebelled in Berlin
○ Spartacist coup defeated – 3 days fighting & 100 killed
Showed spartacists were strong politically but no strategy → ‘Revolutionaries with
○ Govt. had backing of army & Freikorps
○ Troubled atmosphere for next few months
Socialist Bavaria 7 November 1918 - 6 April 1919
○ 1919 communist workers’ councils seized power all over Germany & communist
govt. in Bavaria
○ Workers angered by economic problems and disillusioned by lack of gains in rev.
Spring 1919 industrial areas of germany wracked with unrest
○ Strikes occurred across ruhr, central germany and Berlin
○ KPD had no strong leadership not coordination
■ Lacked support in depth & commitment
KPD approach - foolhardiness & hesitance
○ Failed to exploit Kapp militancy
■ 1921 poorly supported uprising
■ 1923 overly cautious to mass protest of mid 1923 then acted too late
○ Poor organisation, lack of support, internal division, govt. repression
Challenge from the Right
● Powerful conservative forces such as army, industrialists, landowners elite etc.
○ Also paramilitaries
● These groups felt bitterly toward the regime
Kapp Putsch March 1920
○ After order restored in late 1919, govt had less need for Freikorps
○ Feb 1920 defense minister ordered 2 Freikorps brigades to disband
■ Leader General Walther Von Luttwitz refused
○ Wolfgang Kapp and other officers planned to overthrow govt.
○ March 12 – 12000 Freikorps marches 12 to Berlin
○ Army refused to support govt. – govt. had to flee
○ New govt. headed by Kapp proclaimed
■ Failed to gain support from most conservatives
○ Left organised strike in Berlin & protests in other regions against putsch
○ Civil servants and bankers refused to recognise Kapp
○ Occupied govt. buildings but unable to govern
■ After 4 days Kapp fled & Ebert returned
○ Aftermath – several clashes between workers & army as workers tried to extent
strike to impose more radical changes to govt
○ Govt’ took no action against some army leaders – realised it needs their support
○ Between 1919-23 Weimar Politicians lived in fear of assassinations
○ Discontent and political struggles with challenges to traditional views encouraged
right wing germans to murder and revolt to weaken the regime
○ Lenient actions of conservative judges who kept their post supported this
○ Republic lost many
Walther Rathenau – a renowned politician, his assassination was a blow
to the stability of Weimar but led to 700 000 people protesting in Berlin
and forced these tactics to stop, with Organisation Consul disbanding
■ After 1923 political assassinations declined
■ All revolts and assassinations served to foster disillusionment with regime
○ In total, nationalist terror groups assassinated 356 government politicians
French Occupation of the Ruhr
○ 1921 – allied reparations commission agreed upon total sum, but Germany could
not pay the amount owed and over Christmas and New years 1922-3 they
defaulted on their payments
○ 70 000 French and Belgian troops invaded the Ruhr to use the produce of
Germany’s industrial heartland to pay off reparations
○ German govt. Began with a policy of passive resistance and called a general
strike but French reacted brutally and shot over 100 people
○ Occupation had catastrophic consequences on the economy – loss of production
in Ruhr caused a fall on production elsewhere
■ Unemployment rose from 2% to 23%
○ Prices rose out of control as tax revenues collapsed and govt. Responded by
printing money causing hyperinflation
‘Golden Years’ Under Stresemann – What allowed this recovery and boom? Was it
superficial or did it have long term prosperity?
● Gustav Stresemann appointed Chancellor August 1923 and his policies helped
transform the fortunes of the republic
● Dawes Plan 1924
○ First act was to call off the strikes in the Ruhr as he thought the occupation les to
political instability and severe strain on the German economy
○ Issues a new currency, the Rentenmark, to stabilize inflation and negotiated with
reparations committee
April 1924 → Had plan for reparations payments under American banker Charles
Plan left total sum undecided but saved Germany two years of delay on
reparations and laid down instrument of graded installments
International loans granted to speed up Germany’s recovery and make it possible
to speed up payments
Recovery after the Dawes plan and ‘Golden Years’ was dependent upon foreign
loans and investment → fragile
Main source of aid came from USA and at any time they could withdraw aid and
demand that Germany pay it back (wall street crash)
Young Plan 1929
○ Led by Owen Young – international commissions reduced reparations to 1850
million pounds that had to paid in 59 years after complaining
However many germans had discontent for the Young Plan as they were still
required to pay 30 million to allies annually until 1988
■ Nazis launched violent campaigns
○ Before plan came into action, world was hit by great depression and Germany
was unable to pay
Weimar culture - to what extent did it undermine the support for the regime?
● Modern culture
○ Greater sexual freedom and tolerance, and development of mass culture
○ Street theatre developed to take political drama to a mass audience: ‘a theatre
that makes no contact with the public is nonsense’ - brecht
○ Some women broke traditional norms – short hair, smoking, liberation – greater
expansion of employment opportunities for women in growing professional
○ 1920s theatre developed as a form of mass entertainment for the democratic age
● German’s reactions
○ Nazis organised disruptions of “unpatriotic” films and performances, prominence
of jews during this cultural thaw was seen by right as proof of harm of Weimar
○ Many welcomed atmosphere of optimism and experimentalism but for others it
reinforced fears that Germany was collapsing
○ Many conservatives blamed govt. For allowing traditional German culture to be
■ Some left wing also felt this way, as they wanted a more dynamic
○ Abroad Germany’s culture became well known & attracted many across the
○ Experimentations limited to cities
○ The culture itself did not undermine the republic, but all that was wrong with
Germany was largely associated with Weimar
Strengths and Weaknesses of WR in 1929 (before wall street crash)
● Signs of Weakness
○ Election of new president
■ After Ebert’s death in 1925, elections held
■ Hindenburg won but unsuited as he was a right-wing politician who had
little respect for democratic government
■ Him winning elections in 1925 were largely due to Germans wanting a
war-hero to revive national glory – WR lacked this strong leadership
○ Dangers to the Economic Prosperity
■ 1929 levels of productions were well over pre war levels but dependent
on foreign loans
Economic prosperity depended on export trade and not an expansion in
the home market → any changes in overseas trade would devastate
Unemployment never fell below 1 million
Signs of Strength
○ Greatly improved economy as seen in Dawes and Young Plan – managed to buy
some time for Germany to recover and also greatly reduced reparations
How did the Great Depression lead to the collapse of the Republic?
● No growth in industrial production in 1928-9 and unemployment rose to 2.5 million
American demands for imports collapsed → german economy collapsed
American banks called back loans
Industrial production fell → was 40% below 1929 level
Unemployment rose to 6.12 million in February and huge slums were created in the
industrial cities
Crime and suicide rates rose sharply
People deserted democratic parties and turned to the extreme left or right
CHancellor Bruning (1930-2) followed a policy of economic austerity in which govt
spending was cut in order to keep inflation under control and German exports
competitive → high taxes and reduced unemployment assistance
Given Bruning’s unpopularity of his policies, he found it difficult to get a majority and
relied on article 48 → undermining democracy
Bruning replaced with Von Papen – equally unpopular
In Jan 1933 Hitler appointed chancellor in an attempt by Hindenburg to crush democracy
– WR gone
Conditions of Weimar
Economic Conditions
Political Conditions
1920s Germany exhausted after WWI
● Treaty deprived Germany of many of
her vital natural resources e.g. 75%
iron ore resources lost when rhineland
Weak constitution
● Article 48 → Dictator style ruling
Proportional representations led to
weak coalition govt. → undermine
credibility and made it hard to agree
on decisions e.g. 6 coalition govt.
Between 1925-9
Reparations burden
Legacy of ToV and defeat in WWI
● Stab in the back myth
● Government plagued with the war guilt
clause → humiliating
Blame for accepting ToV and defeat
Weak and dependent on foreign loans after
Dawes Plan
● Weak economy also made voters
support more radical parties
More money printed (1923) → hyperinflation
Hitler’s Rise to Power & Consolidation of Power
● Issue to be explained is how Nazis went from having 2.6% of votes in 1928 to 17% in
July 1932
● Nazi minister of propaganda Joseph Goebbels created a powerful myth in the 1930s that
explained Hitler’s RTP as providential
○ Said it was Hitler’s destiny to rule Germany and between 1929-33 the german ppl
put their faith in Hitler
Most modern historians recognise that there are many factors beyond Hitler himself that
led to his RTP → Great Depression, weakness of republic
Hitler never actually gained majority support in a democratic election → he was
appointed as Chancellor in January 1933 via the ‘back stairs political intrigue’ of
Germany right who wanted to use Hitler and Nazis support to achieve their
Important to consider:
○ Force of circumstances
○ Role of Hitler and Naxis through ideological appeal
○ Political intrigue of Hindenburg
Long-term Factors
● Political problems
○ Weak constitution
Article 48 → Hitler used this to establish a dictatorship
Proportional representation → led to weak coalition governments which
undermined credibility and made it hard to agree upon decisions → 6
coalition governments between 1925-9
Legacy of defeat in WWI and ToV
■ Weimar had to take on blame and humiliation
■ ‘Stabbed in the back myth’
Economic weaknesses of Weimar
1920s Germany had been exhausted by WWI and treaty deprived Germany of
natural resources
■ 75% of iron ore resources lost when Rhineland occupied
○ Reparations
○ Money system broke down and hyperinflation
○ Dependent on foreign loans
○ Weak economy made more workers support radical political parties
Nazi exploitation of Stab in the Back Myth
○ Right wing nationalists believed Germany was defeated in WWI because
socialists, catholics and jews had stabbed Germany in the back by their
revolution in 1918
■ Hitler used this in election campaigns, gained support
Mid-term factors
● Impact of Great Depression
○ 1928 foreign capital dried up as US went into great depression
○ 1929 banks forced to close and by 1932 6 million people unemployed
○ Coalition government deeply divided and failed to agree on measures to be
■ Beginning of 1930s, government agreed to cut government expenditure
on welfare to cope with the falling tax revenue
○ Bruning set up public work schemes, to counter the high unemployment rates –
too little too late
■ Public deeply discontented with the handling of the economic depression
and began to look to more radical parties such as the Nazis
● Hitler’s Use of Effective Propaganda
○ Hitler made use of propaganda to increase his support
○ 1932, he got 37% of all votes
○ Nazi party put much effort into educating some of its key members to hold
speeches to ensure the quality of party campaigns
○ In contrast to other parties, the Nazis used of the new technology such as radio
and the Cinema to attract support
Immediate Causes
● Political Intrigue
○ In 1932 General von Schleicher replaced von Papen as Chancellor as von Papen
had fallen out of favour with the people and the Weimar republic
○ Von Schleicher’s policy of land reform worried the conservative President
○ In January it was decided to get rid of von Schleicher and to try and bring the
Nazis into government to try to stabilize German politics
○ In 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor by Hindenburg
○ Hindenburg and his conservative allies thought that they could control Hitler, but
they were wrong
When Hitler was appointed chancellor he called fresh elections for March
The SA began to attack their political enemies especially the Communists and
Social Democrats
○ Their papers were closed down their offices raided, their meetings attacked and
their members beaten up. In order to ensure that the military would not intervene,
Hitler promised the army that he would tear up the military clauses of the Treaty
of Versailles. The Nazis could now act as they pleased.
The Reichstag Fire
○ In February in 1933 a young Dutch communist Van der Lubbe set fire to the
Reichstag building. Hitler took advantage of this act and announced that it was a
signal for a communist revolt. An emergency law was passed. It allowed the
chancellor to suspend the parliament. This law formed the basis of police power
in Germany and helped to create a totalitarian state. Hitler had now control over
the Weimar republic.
The Enabling Act
○ The elections held in March saw the Nazis and their allies receive 52% of the
vote and a majority in the Reichstag. Hitler passed now passed the emergency
law called "the Enabling Act". To gain the support needed for the law, SA mobs
surrounded the parliament and threatened any politicians that voted against the
law. Hitler succeeded to pass the law and it allowed Hitler as chancellor to pass
laws without seeking the approval of parliament or the President. It formed the
legal basis of the Nazi dictatorship. The Nazis could now close down the other
opposing political parties, arrest political opponents etc. They could crush all
opposition. In 1934, Hitler was the sole leader of the Nazis and he could start
build the Nazi dictatorship.
G. Ritter, the Weimar republic collapsed in 1933 to due its inability to win the confidence of the
general public. The popular resentment towards Weimar republic was a major factor in
helping Hitler seizing power in 1933.
I. Kershaw, chance, luck and tragic miscalculations were a major factor bringing Hitler to
power, and causing the downfall of the Weimar republic. There was nothing inevitable about
Hitler’s triumph in 1933.
E. Anderson, A major factor contributing to the collapse of the Weimar republic was the
shrewdness of the political leaders in the Nazi party. The government believed they could
control Hitler in his new position as chancellor in 1933. However, they were wrong Hitler
managed to outmanoeuvre the government and establish a single party state thanks to his
position as chancellor.
Nazi Ideology and Hitler’s Aims
● Mein kampf outlined Hitler’s ideas
○ Revise TOV
Unify all German speakers in EU into a "Greater German Reich"
Lebensraum: acquire more territory in the east to feed his future German empire.
A conquest war in the east, would also let Hitler fight Russian communism, and
political ideology he deeply resented.
○ Socially reconstruct Germany into a folk community based on traditional German
beliefs called Volksgemeinschaft. The new community was very influenced by
social Darwinism, It promoted equality of opportunity, but not equality in itself. In
many ways, the the Volksgemeinschaft demoted the role of the individual in order
to create a loyal German people, which would support the Nazi regime.
○ In this new community, Hitler sought to create a pure Aryan race through antiSemitic laws
Nazi ideology also containted a deep hatred for communists and jews. Hitler did viewed
jews as a united race that was the root of everything evil. The anti-semitic ideas had two
functions in Nazi ideology. Firstly, it provided Hitler with an explanation of everything bad
in Germany. Secondly, it provided Hitler with a reason for the policy of Lebensraum.
Hitler had to invade the USSR to defeat the stronghold of Jewish Bolshevism (many
jews lived in USSR).
Hitler resented socialism + communism, but Nazi ideology contained a few socialist
elements in order to appeal tothe workers. For example, Hitler would socialize the
economy (e.g. profit sharing between managers and workers in factories). However,
very few of the socialist ideas were implemented when Hitler rose to power, he focused
on foreign + right-wing policies.
Domestic Policies
"Volksgemeinschaft" (people's community) → Build a classless society by replacing
individual liberty with securing the greater good of the nation
Remove non-Nazi influences
Shaping attitudes of population to support Hitler's aims
Focus on foreign policy and militia
Successes: Hitler succeeded given that he managed to impose his ideology onto the
people. Also, through a harsh way of rule, Hitler managed to keep receive the support he
needed to pursue his foreign interests
Failures: Hitler was only in power for 12 years, 6 of which were spent in war. Essentially,
after the end of the Second World War including Hitler's suicide, Germany no longer
pursued Nazi ideology as a way of rule! Suggests Hitler was not effective enough in this
domestic policies to leave an impact on his Reich after his death, as he aspired to do.
● Aims
Indoctrinate with Nazi ideology
Create loyalty and willingness to sacrifice to greater good of nation →
"Separate spheres" → boys were to be strong fighters & girls were to bear
1933 - Government takes over and increases in supporters → expansion of
1936 - Membership and all other youth organizations banned
Camping outdoor activity, fun games → intimidation and oath to loyalty
Later, greater focus on military drills and Nazi ideology → separate for boys and
○ 95% loyal to Hitler
○ Rapid membership increase after 1933, plus compulsory membership
Brainwashed kids → students prepared to sacrifice themselves for Nazi loyalty
○ Hitler Youth became the dominant monopoly over German's Youth's spare time
○ Many youth managed to escape the "compulsory memberships" and rival groups
○ Many turned away from Hitler Youth in later 1930s
○ The Hitler Youth became less successful with more military training and Nazi
lectures etc.
○ Growing opposition to Hitler Youth - rejection of it + non-Nazi ideas
● Aims/overview
○ Nazifying - an attempt to control the teachers
○ 97% of teachers joined the Nazi Teachers’ League in 1937
○ Purge and discuss unreliable teachers
Politicize the curriculum to reflect Nazi ideology – control textbooks → History,
Biology, Physical Education (2h per day) Anti-intellectual, pro-strong/healthy →
future Aryan race
○ Greater focus on needlework for girls, music and home crafts
○ Control over teachers - 1937
○ Effective way of spreading Nazism
○ Poor quality of students
Created ignorant individuals who could not think for themselves - very much
dependent on Nazi ideology
Women and Social Control
● "Separate spheres" for men and women - men expected to work and fight for the Reich,
women were expected to work and fight for the family
● The attitudes towards women was summarised by the slogan Kinder, Kirche, Kuche
(Children, Church, Kitchen)
● The policy had the support of churches traditional rural groups, but ran contrary to ideas
of female emancipation - would have been given the vote in and got careers in the
Weimar period
● Why did Hitler have these policies?
○ Ideological - Peasant-based Volksgemeinschaft invovled the rejection of
"modern" and "Bolshevik" ideas about female emancipation
○ Pragmatic - Given the steady birth rate decline in Germany, Hitler considered it
essential for the continued economic growth of the Reich, as he planned to
conquer and populate lands in the east
● What did Hitler Do?
○ Reduced the amount of women in employment - Married women excluded from
civil service and other professions
■ Employers encouraged to employ men in favour of women. The numbers
of women allowed into university was restricted.
○ Increased the amount of marriages and births - Divorce was made easier for
childless couples
■ Aryan women offered interest free marriage loan; amount to be repaid fell
by a quarter with each child loan - only granted to women who agreed to
stay out of work
○ Generous welfare payments for mothers
○ Motherhood skills were taught by the "Women's Enterprise" (DFW)
○ Medals ("Honour Cross of the German Mother") - any women who had more than
8 children received a gold medal from Hitler personally
○ Abortion was restricted and the use of birth control for Aryans was condemned.
○ Increased the quality of births - 1933 Sterilisation law was passed against all
those with a hereditary disease/mental health problems (inc. alcoholism/feeblemindedness)
○ 320,000 people sterilised by the Nazi 1933 - 1945
Racial Policies
● The Nazis believed:
○ Blonde-haired, blue-eyed Nordic Germans (or Aryans) were a Volk, or a race.
○ Were the master race – other inferior races arranged in hierarchy beneath them.
○ Near the bottom of this hierarchy came black peoples, and beneath them 'nonpeople' such as gypsies and Jews.
It was their duty to keep the German race 'pure' by having children only with
fellow Aryans and restricting what other races could do, especially with Jews.
○ It was their destiny to conquer the lands of inferior races, such as the Slavs to the
east, and use them to provide resources and living space for the master race.
Persecution if minority groups – Nazis persecuted undesirable minority groups:
○ Homosexuals - sent to concentration camps
○ Gypsies - sent to concentration camps, shot or gassed
○ The mentally ill - sent to concentration camps
The Euthanasia Programme in 1939
○ Hitler introduced this programme to kill people with mental or physical disabilities
who the Nazis judged to lead worthless lives at the expense of the State
○ 5000 children were killed by starvation or lethal injections
○ 71,000 adults were killed by injections or gassing
○ 1941, Hitler stopped programme in the face of protests started by the Catholics
The persecution of Jews
○ Through the use of propaganda, Hitler blamed the Jews for:
■ Germany's defeat in 1918
■ The inflation of 1923
■ The economic collapse of 1929-1932
■ In schools children were taught to hate Jews, and textbooks put across
anti-semitic ideas.
■ Nazi-controlled newspapers and magazines bombarded adults with antisemitic articles and cartoons
Foreign Policy
1933-36 Revisionist Phase
- February 1933, Hitler informs his Generals about his Lebensraum planes
- influenced by Japanese invasion of Manchuria because this aggressive act of
war went unpunished.
Disarmament Proposal
- In 1933 Hilter proposes the League of Nations that all nations disarm –or that Germany
be allowed to rearm to France's level
- France refuses and quits the League
- France forms an alliance with Poland, but this is undermined by the Nazi Nonaggression Pact with Poland
- Hitler announces that the Luftwaffe is rebuilt
Stresa Front
- Alliance between Britain and France (Mussolini is a part of this for a while to get on good
terms with Britain and France so they won't interfere with his planned invasion of
Ethiopia in 1936.)
- Alliance is undermined by Britain's Naval Agreement with Germanu
1936 Rome-Berlin Axis
- Nazi troops invade the Rhineland
- Anti-Comintern Pact signed with Japan at same as Britain, France and Poland sign to
solidify the Allies despite high tension between France and Britain
Maginot Line
- Extremely good French foritifications…unfortunately they fail to extend the Maginot line
to their border with Belgium.
5 November
- Hossback Memorandum
- Hossback wrote this the day following a meeting in which Hitler, according to
Hossback (not 100% credible as it was written with no notes taken during the
meeting) revealed plans to take Austria and attack first in the East.
1938 Anschluss
- Austria becomes "Ostmarck" province
- 9 March the Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg opposed the Anschluss, but on 12 March
Nazi trrops cross the border and occupy Austria
Munich Conference
- Take back the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia that was practically surrounded by
Germany after the Anschluss.
- Hitler said that the Sudetenland was "all he wanted"
- Appeasement: Chamberlain writes that they will see "peace in this era."
Pact of Steel
July – Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact/Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
10 year pact not to invade Russia (At this point the Russians estimated they would be
able to beat Hitler should he attack)
- Secret clause to dismember Poland
- Avoids a two-front war
1 September Invasion of Poland
3 September
- France and Britain declare war
- Poland falls in 3 weeks because the allies are too far away, have inferior tanks and are
vastly outnumbered by Germany and Russia.
Phoney War period 1939-40
Winter War in Finland
- The Allies do not help Finland because they are trying to get Russia on their side. This
battle should have been easy for Russia because they greatly outnumbered and out
armed Finland, but all of their good officers had been purged by Stalin.
8 April
Hitler invades Norway to get control of the fjords to attack England
10-12 April
England sinks 9 Nazi destroyers, and isolates Nazi land force. The Nazi's eventually
wind and pose a huge threat to Britain's Atlantic coast.
27 May
Belgium Surrenders
15 June Nazis Occupy Paris
22 June
France Falls
Battle of Stalingrad
Turning point in the war –now Germany is losing
30 April
Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide in the Führerbunker as Soviet troops reach Berlin
1 May
Goebbels commits suicide
SL Topic 3: Mussolini
For this question focus on:
Mussolini Rise to Power
Abyssinian Crisis (Context to Invasions)
Mussolini Foreign Policy, Appeasement and Invasions
Context - Italy Following WWI & WWII
● Italy joined Hungary and Germany in the Triple Alliance in 1882
● In 1915, Italy was neutral, and was promised land from Britain/UK following Treaty of
London. Italy was small, but proud and confident - sure that the war would be fast and
● Treaty of Versailles resulted in Italy not getting the land it hoped for, Italians began to
distrust Britain and France
○ “Bad deal” for Italy crippled their economy, they were already operating under a
mountain of debt and inflation from the war. This, combined with the fact that
before Italy was united it was a series of separate warring states (with high-taxes
and high-inflation) angered many Italians.
○ 70% of businesses were on the verge of bankruptcy, nearly 30% inflation nationwide
● Soldiers came back to a country in disarray. Having fought years abroad, they thought
their home would be in better shape than it actually was. Soldiers got extremely upset,
were hungry for change
○ In total, 600,000 Italians died through WWI, lost 100s of kilometers of territory to
Germany. 2 million people were unemployed after WWI
● At home, the Catholic Church was seen to be responsible for dividing Italy and
introducing unwanted class-based societal systems. Voting, for example, was only given
to wealthy elite men till 1930,
● Led to the Biennio Rosso: Mussolini’s blackshirts vs Italian Government vs
Socialists/Communists at the time
○ Mass strikes and protests took place. People felt Italian Government was
incompetent and unable to give Italy what she deserves. More than 1 million
people involved
○ Black shirts were very effective at stopping the strikes from the Communists
(supported by the USSR). Most people, even conservatives, ended up supporting
Mussolini since the Fascists were seen as the “lesser of two evils” (the other
“evil” being Communist). It was clear to most people that the Italian Government
at the time was bound to collapse
○ This put Mussolini in the national spotlight - he was a big figure throughout the
Biennio Rosso, seen as the one capable of defending Italy from “the red evil”.
Mussolini’s Rise To Power
Socio Economic issues outlined above
○ People felt betrayed by the old Italian elite, tired of the political class system.
People were sympathetic to Mussolini’s messaging
July 1919 Mussolini published his “The Manifesto of Fascist Struggle”, outlining his
deeply militaristic and nationalistic view of Italy’s future
○ Became enormously popular, especially among industrialists and ex-military men
March on Rome
○ October 24th, 1992 Mussolini led a group of Fascists to Rome, threatening a
coup. King Victor Emmanuel III feared a coup. However, King Victor also felt he
could manipulate Mussolini, and force Mussolini to work under him, rather than
against him.
○ King Victor allows Mussolini to build his own Cabinet, also gave Mussolini power
to become Prime Minister
However, the Cabinet had people with many differing views. Mussolini forced Cabinet
Members (and Parliament Members) into submission with Fascist thugs. A few murders,
death threats, and beatings took place to “put everyone in line”.
Mussolini also enacted the Acerbo Law - stating that if a party got >25% of votes, it
would get 66% of all seats in Parliament
○ Mussolini also ordered armed Fascist thugs to watch voters and voting booths beat up anybody who voted against Mussolini. Pre-existing Parliament was also
forced to vote for enactment of Acerbo Law (by thugs)
○ Using the Acerbo Law, Mussolini also got the Fascists to control Parliament
In 1925, Mussolini’s thugs killed Matteotti (leader of the Socialist Party). There was a
huge uproar, Mussolini responded with even more violence. He banned all nonsupporting political parties and newspapers in Italy.
By 1927, there were no opposition parties in Italy due to new Secret Police (OVRA).
Unknown how many people were murdered, but an estimated 250,000 were killed by
○ People were forced to pledge allegiance to Mussolini. In the South, where the
Church had more power (since it controlled most of the land), most of the leaders
of the Vatican were threatened regularly by the OVRA
Foreign/Domestic Policy, Abyssinian Crisis & Appeasement
Factors that Influenced Policy
To make Italy great and powerful
Mussolini sought to develop national pride, consolidate post-war settlements, dominate
Balkans and Mediterranean, build an Empire (gain spazio vitale “living space”, like
Foster spread of Fascism, saw it as the only way to restore Italy to what it was like under
the Romans
Economic issues following WWI. Italy had few natural resources, south was less
industrialized than the North, poor literacy rates
Mussolini focused on heavy industry, and grain production. Overall, Mussolini’s
economic policies were failures, he had the “Battle For Grain”, “Battle for the Lira”
and “Mussolini Law” enacted in late 1920s
■ Failed to realise that soil in the South was not good for grain. Grain
production, overall, increased by 10% but imports dropped by 75%.
Overall a negative impact
■ Lira fell in value by 50% in 1927, high tariffs meant Italian consumers had
to pay more. Overall national wages dropped by 10% as well
Worked closely with USSR following Lenin’s RTP, realised that the USSR was a
necessary ally
○ Signed numerous trading and arms deals throughout the 1920s, support for
Mussolini in USSR never decreased despite death of Matteotti.
○ USSR leveraged Mussolini’s dissatisfaction with ToV outcome to bridge
Mussolini and Hitler together
Historian ‘Cippico’ believes that Locarno Pact of 1925 (meant to resolve issues following
ToV dissatisfaction) ushered in a new positive spirit, but still didn’t fulfill Mussolini’s
territorial ambitions.
Appeasement, Italy’s Capture of Territory
Seizure of Fiume, newly created Yugoslav State (this is not a big deal)
○ Mussolini invaded Fiume to undermine French influence in the region. He was
upset with France because France controlled Italian territories of Corsica, Nice
and Sardinia. France also controlled Balkan region, which Mussolini wanted to
○ LoN tried to step in, issued warnings, but Mussolini ignored them.
August 29, 1923 – September 27, 1923 Invasion of Corfu (Greece)
○ Mussolini wanted to invade Corfu, extract a fine of 50m lira. Mussolini also
bombarded Kofu, killing 16 civilians in the process. Mussolini also occupied Corfu
for a few weeks.
○ Eventually, Italy was forced to back down as Great Britain entered the matter,
forced Mussolini to leave Corfu. Mussolini realised that he could only “bully”
smaller states, but could not intimidate powerful nations like GB.
○ However, Mussolini still obtained the 50m lira fine, and a few territorial
concessions - portrayed to be a huge victory in Italy.
○ Once again, LoN tried to step in, issued warnings, but Mussolini ignored them.
1926 - Protectorate State established in Albania, intended to prelude to greater
conquests in the Balkans
Abyssinian Crisis
Mussolini was frustrated with Italy’s defeat the hands of the Abyssinians in the Battle of
Adowa in 1896
Extremely embarrassing defeat, since Abyssinia had tribal forces whereas Italy
had armed men with rifles
Mussolini triggered Walwal Incident in 1928 - a border skirmish between Italian forces
and Abyssinians. 50 Italians and 100 Abyssinians were killed.
○ Abyssinian government appealed to the LoN for help in mitigating tension
following the skirmish, but Mussolini kept saying Abyssinia was intent on
“provocation”, and threatened and all-out invasion
○ The LoN didn’t take Italy’s threats seriously, told Abyssinia that LoN could not
Mussolini was keen to increase Italy’s prestige, provide jobs, more resources, and more
land to fight off the effects of the Great Depression and flailing Italian economy following
WWI. Used the Walwal Incident as a reason to invade Abyssinia.
Italy used chemical weapons against Abyssinia, but LoN didn’t budge. In fact, USA
increased arms sale, while UK/France didn’t take any serious action.
○ UK and France, in 1935, approached Italy to propose the Hoare-Laval Pact,
which would have ended armed conflict but would still give Italy parts of
Abyssinia. The Pact was leaked to the public, and cancelled due to public outcry.
■ Still went to show how France/UK weren’t serious about LoN intervention
■ Consistent with policy of Appeasement - Appeasement, arguably, really
began with the Abyssinian Crisis
○ Mussolini turned to Hitler, who wanted to march into Rhineland (banned by ToV).
France panicked, allowed Italy to take all of Abyssinia as long as Italy fights
against Germany. Mussolini at this point was basically unchallenged in
Abyssinia, but also not loyal to French/UK since he’d realised that they were
weak (as was the LoN).
○ Pushed Mussolini and Hitler together - both distrusted France/UK, realised the
LoN was powerless
Italy’s Role in WW2
● In 1940, Italy made an alliance with Nazi Germany
○ Mussolini believed Hitler would win WWII, and that the concessions from the war
would reward Mussolini’s loyalty handsomely
● However, Mussolini and Italy’s military prowess was over-exaggerated. In speeches,
Mussolini regularly inflated Italy’s firepower
○ Some regiments had rifles from 1910, planes were still from WWI.
● When the Allies began attacking from multiple fronts, Italy’s resources were no longer
able to keep up - Nazi Germany could resist, but had little support from Italy
● Once the Allies took control of North Africa, they moved further North and captured
○ At this point, July 25 1943, Mussolini received a vote of no-confidence from the
parliament and was deposed. Italian leadership then signed an armistice with the
Allies, only to be invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany
● It took the Allies two years to rid Italy of Nazi Germany.
○ An estimated 400,000 Italians were killed or injured during WWII
WWII highlighted Italian military incompetence, foiled Mussolini’s bluff, and forced Italy
towards and alliance with the Allied Powers
Pollard: “Fascism was the agent of reaction” to the ToV
De Grand: “WW1 pushed Italy towards Crisis”
De Felice: Support for Abyssinian Invasion from Middle Class was evidence of Mussolini’s
success in promoting Fascism
Taylor: Mussolini was a “vain blustering boaster without either ideas or aims”
SL Topic 4: Cold War
Origins of the Cold War
Communism vs Capitalism
○ Communists resented socioeconomic inequality, saw it as the root of all social
○ Capitalists resented the idea of Nationalisation (of industry), thought private
businesses were fair
Political Differences
○ Lenin believed that there needed to be an international Communist Revolution so he set up the Comintern
■ “Ideology of Lenin was inherently hostile to the West and what the West
stood for”
Hostility of West towards Communism was demonstrated through
Western support against Bolsheviks during Russian Civil War
Pre-existing Tension
○ USSR refused to honour previous Russian debts to West
○ Nationalisation of economy resulted in Western companies losing money
○ British in particular were opposed to USSR - they had executed the Tsar, a
cousin of King George V
○ USSR didn’t receive recognition by LoN by 1930s
○ Appeasement of Hitler made USSR doubtful of Allie’s true intentions
○ The “Grand Alliance” (GB, USA, USSR working against Germany in WWII) was
particularly thorny
■ All parties recognised that the Alliance was pragmatic in nature, and
would most likely collapse after WWII. However, GB/USA opened the
Second Front extremely late - forcing Stalin to question their true motives.
○ Warsaw Uprising
■ Poles attempted to liberate themselves as Nazi/USSR forces were
treating. Nazi Germany mercilessly crushed the rebellion as USSR stood
by and watched. USSR was seen as heartless by the West.
● Yalta (Feb 1945) and Potsdam (July 1945) Conferences
○ Yalta: Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill were present
■ Red army occupied majority of Eastern Europe.
■ USSR was requested to join war to defeat Japan.
■ Poland was to be the boundary line between new territory (USSR wanted
to keep all the territory it conquered during WWII)
■ Nazi Germany was to be disarmed and demilitarized, split into 4 regions
○ Potsdam: Stalin, Truman, Atlee
■ Could not agree as to how to disarm and demilitarize Nazi Germany
■ Truman was not happy with treatment of Poland, or borders negotiated by
■ Stalin was extremely irritated by behaviour of new American/British
leadership, felt betrayed. As a result, relations were strained, the stage
was set for the Cold War
Berlin Blockade
East/West Germany had major economic differences. Allies invested lots of money in
Western Germany, to make it seem like a more desirable alternative to Soviet-controlled
Eastern Germany.
○ THIS WAS PART OF THE MARSHALL PLAN - America spent billions of dollars
re-building and supporting European nations (for their loyalty). USSR did not
accept America’s help via Marshall Plan.
British and Americans combined their territories to form Bizonia.
Introduced a new currency - the Deutschmark. Stalin saw this as a move to re-establish
a strong Germany, which would be a threat to the USSR
○ Stalin was already wary of American Nuclear weapons (Japan WWII bombings)
Stalin decided to blockade East/West Germany, believing that if people didn’t get
food/resources, they’d eventually give in
○ Stalin in the meantime would starve people, purge democrats, take resources,
and force Communism upon Germany.
East German elections were rigged by Soviets
In response, Allies employed policy of “Containment” and enact the Berlin Airlift
Over 200,000 planes flew over the blockade, supplying Eastern Germany.
Seen as a huge propaganda victory, Soviets eventually gave in
Stalin’s positive “Uncle Joe” reputation faded
USA was made a leader of European affairs, seen as a protector against USSR
Demonstrated the possibility of resisting USSR through determination and containment
Led to establishment of NATO (1949) and opposing Warsaw Pact (1955) military
Who Was Responsible for the Cold War (Historiography)
Orthodox View: Marxist/Lenninist vs Communism was to blame.
○ Stalin did not deal with opposition very nicely (executed or arrested them).
Having Truman/Atlee blatantly oppose him at Yalta was a significant blow to his
ego. Stalin’s totalitarian outlook on leadership made US/USSR diametrically
opposed from an ideological perspective
Revisionist View: USA had a nuclear monopoly. USSR’s economy was crippled, USA
was much stronger. Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine were modern forms of
Imperialism - made Europe dependent on USA (aka “dollar Imperialism”)
○ Stalin was merely attempting to protect a weaker USSR from a significantly
stronger USA
Post Revisionist View: Mutual fear from both sides led to numerous misunderstandings.
○ USA didn’t realise how threatening Open Door Policy and Marshall Plan were for
USSR. USSR didn’t realise how poorly their foreign policy impacted Western
opinion and view
“Realpolitik School” believes it was all a power-struggle. Both US/USSR wanted to upset
the balance of power, have a strong European sphere of influence
Korean War
USA believed in and worried about the “Domino Theory”
1949: USSR and USA pulled troops out of Korea. However, South Korean leader (Rhee)
boasted he would attack the North. North attacked, took Seoul in 3 days
1950: USA raised matter in UN. USSR was not present (sulking over China’s absence
from UN)
1950: UN forces (aka America) attacked North Koreans. American forces force North
Koreans past the 38th Parallel, into in the Yalu River (right next to China). This brings
China into the Korean War, as they felt Americans were being unnecessarily aggressive
Korean War set stage for Vietnam War, USA rearmament (300% military spending), 4
million dead, increased tension, showed American desire to stop Communism. Initiated
globalisation of the Cold War
○ Americans recognised Japan’s strategic importance, needed a strong antiCommunist Ally
■ Decided to re-modernise Japan. Introduced a “Bill of Rights” and a
“Renouncing War Forever” clause in the Constitution
■ Decided to introduce Democracy, felt that a focus on “the individual”
would move Japanese people away from their militaristic/nationalistic
■ US forces were allowed to be stationed in Japan, Japan’s economy grew
rapidly (Nintendo, Sony, Toshiba all grew under American help). Japan
was no longer at risk of Communism
● Taiwan
○ Placing the 7th Fleet to Taiwan Strait to keep peace was seen as (initially) a
success of Containment
○ USA gave substantial military and economic aid to Taiwan, it developed far faster
than the mainland China. Eisenhower was allowed to take whatever military
action he saw fit to defend Taiwan, as stipulated through the Fermosa Resolution
■ These were in-line with policies of Massive Retaliation and
Vietnam War
Cause: Waning french influence in Vietnam
Part of Domino Effect that the US was worried about
Truman (unlike Eisenhower) wanted France to stay in Vietnam
There were supposed to be elections in Vietnam in 1956 because French knew
Communists would win
3 million people died, America was held by guerrilla warfare
Surrendering would be a national embarrassment, but President Johnson was forced to
bring soldiers home after civilians got really upset with the war efforts
Consequences: Undermined US, USSR showed it could protect countries/Communists,
attempted to make Vietnam an example, millions dead, propaganda victory for Soviets
Cause: Rise of Communism in Cuba (Fidel Castro)
Castro was heavily Anti-American, saw Cuba as a satellite state to the USA,
dependent on American investment.
■ In particular, Americans bought Cuban wheat/grain/sugar
○ Attempted to re-negotiate economic deals with America and failed
○ USSR’s Khruschev opened up extensive relations with Cuba, assisted them with
military, economy, political support. In return, USSR placed nuclear weapons on
Cuba (as the USA had nuclear weapons pointing towards the USSR in Turkey
○ America launched the Bay of Pigs Invasion to oust Castro - but this failed
miserably (only anti-Castro Cubans were trained, America didn’t send its own
Tensions skyrocketed, put both powers on the brink of a Nuclear War
Kennedy and Khruschev then negotiated a deal, where the USSR publicly announces it
will remove its Nuclear Weapons from Cuba, and the USA (secretly) removes its
weapons from Turkey. Cuba was left out of all negotiations - Castro was unhappy.
Moscow-Washington hotline was established
Some Historians believe that the CMC was a result of fear on both sides, and a lack of
communication as diplomatic channels had been severed. Mutually Assured Destruction
is what averted nuclear war
Truman Doctrine
Proposed “Containment” of the Soviet Union, and any authoritarian state
Sought military threats with nuclear weapons (but no physical military intervention).
Driving away enemies of the USA via tactical economic investment in neighboring
countries (as seen with Greece and Turkey)
○ This was a method of derailing Soviet attempts to spread Communism, prevent
“Domino Theory” from coming into action
Congress was tasked with financing numerous countries (Marshall Plan for example) to
make them loyal to the USA.
Peaceful Coexistence
Came under Dwight Eisenhower’s reign over the USA
○ Eisenhower proposed “Massive Retaliation” Policy -- responding to any Soviet
threat with repeated nuclear strikes.
● Led to “Mutually Assured Destruction” idea, both US/USSR
realised Nuclear warfare is not a suitable solution
In the meantime, since Stalin had died the USSR faced a slight identity crisis - many
Communists sought to leave Stalin’s ideals. Eisenhower called on Soviets to
demonstrate they’d departed Stalinst-USSR
○ This was made possible by Khrushchev, who believed in Peaceful Coexistence.
His “Secret Speech” criticised Stalin for all the deaths.
○ This led to Khrushchev becoming the first Soviet leader to visit the USA on a
diplomatic mission!
Khrushchev went back to USSR and said “long live Soviet-American
Relations”, though before saying so he recognised American wealth and
said “tomorrow Soviets will be equally rich, if not richer” than America
Eisenhower also proposed “Open Skies” program. Khrushchev denied this because he
was worried USA would realise USSR is bluffing when it comes to USSR’s nuclear
P.C. ended on May 1st, 1960 when a USA U2 was shot down in Soviet airspace
○ At the Paris Summit (meeting to follow up a successful Geneva Summit)
Khrushchev stormed out of the meeting out of anger. At this point P.E. was over.
Sino-Soviet Relations during Cold War
Sino Soviet Relations
Under Stalin, relations were usually not very warm - Stalin was wary of Mao’s rise to
power and didn’t want Mao to be the face of Communism. Stalin supported KMT, Mao
did not trust Stalin as he felt USSR wanted a weak and divided China
○ A Sino-Soviet Treaty of Alliance was signed in 1950, when CCP won the Civil
War. This treaty took 2 months to sign, and was biased towards the Soviets. Mao
was extremely unhappy, said it was “Unfriendly treatment”.
○ During Korean War, Soviets demanded the Chinese pay for all military
Under Khrushchev, relations improved till the infamous “Split”. This was the result of:
○ Khrushchev’s Secret Speech, which Mao saw as an attack on his leadership
○ The Hungarian Uprising which the Soviets took time to crush (Mao thought this
was a weakness)
○ Peaceful Coexistence - Mao saw this as a deviation from true Communist
ideology). He called on the USSR to abandon this “Revisionism”. When
Khrushchev visited Mao to ease tensions, Mao made things extremely
uncomfortable for K (asking him to swim, for example). These talks were
USSR’s criticism of GLF failure angered Mao. USSR’s handling of CMC also angered
Mao, who felt that Khruschev was a weak cowardly leader.
Khruschev fell out of favour in USSR, due to his liberal policies and co-operation with the
USA. Hardline conservatives never trusted K.
K was replaced by Brezhnev, who enacted the Brezhnev Doctrine. Brezhnev Doctrine
was essentially that the Soviet Union reserved the right to use deadly force to protect
Soviet interests, and to ensure strict governing in nearby Communist states
○ Brezhnev wanted to extend Peaceful Coexistence however, did so through
Pressure to do so mainly came from spending (20% of government
budget on military was unsustainable), iron curtain acting as an economic
barrier, failing relations with PRC, desire to prevent Sino-American
relations, chance to share technological advancements
■ At this time, the USSR was starting to collapse - it had become an
inefficient bureaucracy
USA accepted Detente, Nixon realised they needed Soviet help in exiting Vietnam, and
could curb USSR expansionism.
○ Nixon and Kissinger came up with American policy of “retrenchment and
maneuvre”, which was essentially to avoid military conflict and co-operate with
the Soviet Union, treat it as an equal power (it had the same number of nukes as
the US did anyway)
○ Also introduced policy of “Triangular Diplomacy” - which allowed the US to
become allies with USSR/PRC, but to make USSR/PRC enemies
SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) 1 happened in 1969 - 5 year freeze on ICBMs,
was significant progress in relieving Cold War Pressure
During Moscow Summit in 1972, countries agreed to improve commercial and economic
ties, have joined space ventures, and work together for Science research.
Detente began to collapse due to the Helsinki Agreement (signed in 1975), where all
nations including the USSR pledged to protect Human Rights.
○ Soviet Union did not abide by the agreement (inside Russia and in
Czechoslovakia), angering the West. Congress refused to co-operate with the
USSR till human rights violations were accounted for and avoided in the future.
○ By 1975, USA also doubted that the USSR was abiding by SALT I as well.
President Ford took over after Nixon, was not allowed to use the word detente and
Congress refused to co-operate or spend money on improving ties with USSR till Human
Rights violations were adequately addressed
In 1977, SALT II talks were held. These did not materialise to much as President Carter
was angry that Brezhnev attempted to cut trade-links over human rights violations
Started in 1979 - this was the official end on Detente
Afghanistan was a poor nation, but close to an oil-rich Middle East
○ Afghanistan had been under Soviet influence since 1947, even though the US
gave it aid. The USSR had essentially installed a puppet government in
Afghanistan previously.
○ Through the Afghani Revolution, many extremist groups came into power. The
Soviet Union wanted to avert a power struggle, so they intervened.
The Rebellion/Revolution had been stopped, and another Soviet puppet leader (Babrak
Karmal) was installed. He was flown in from the USSR. This angered the the USA
USA responded by funding the Mujahideen, and sent US navy to protect oil routes out of
the Middle East
This triggered the War in Afghanistan, which Americans eventually won through guerilla
warfare, and anti-aircraft rocket launchers
One of his grandfathers rejected Collectivization, was given no grain
The other grandfather was arrested as part of Stalin’s Great Purges (despite being a
strong follower of Communism, and having posters of Lenin in his home)
○ Gorbachev from a young age rejected physical violence as a way of ruling,
believed in dignity and hard work, and respected private life. He believed in
socialism (as preached but never practiced by the USSR)
Gorbachev handed power over to President Yeltsin, effectively ending the USSR and
beginning Russia. Nobody truly understands why he did this, other than speculation that
he already knew that the USSR’s time was up.
End of the Cold War Summary
USSR Internal Problems: Political tension due to Peaceful Coexistence, heavy spending on
Nuclear weapons research, death of Stalin (and consequent disputes over his legacy), quality of
life decreased (due to unsteady economy following WWII), political instability in Eastern Europe
(numerous anti-USSR uprisings ex Hungary), Gorbachev, “Gerontocracy” (essentially all Soviet
leaders were old and ill), Chernobyl,
External Problems: Success of USA Containment policy (this includes Marshall Plan, Massive
Retaliation, prevention of ‘Domino Theory’ in Korea) and Afghanistan.
SL Topic 4a: Japanese Imperialism
International Response to Japanese Nationalism
America’s reaction was limited in the 1930s as President Roosevelt were bound by the
Neutrality Acts - which said that the US could not intervene in issues not directly
concerning them (re Sino-Japanese War)
Public opinion in 1937 was overwhelmingly in favour of isolation - 70%
○ Roosevelt did nothing more than give a speech which suggested the world
“quarantine” Japan
○ In the meantime however, USA traded with Japan - giving them a total of 40% of
funds needed to win the Sino-Japanese War through economic trade
By 1938, Japan declared that it wanted a new “East Asian World Order” prompting
American action - started by giving 25 million USD of oil to KMT
○ Americans also wanted to limit Soviet influence in China
By 1941, USA began giving China millions of dollars in funding, placing a total trade
embargo in 1941 along with Britain and the Netherlands
○ USA froze Japanese assets, also forced Japan to hunt elsewhere for their oil
Pearl Harbour pushed the USA into engaging with Japan through warfare
How and why did Japan modernize?
(A) Commodore Perry
(B) Meiji Restoration
(C) International prestige and fame - having colonies was fashionable
(a) Reversal of tributary system
(D) Great Depression damaged economy
(a) Silk market (Japan’s primary source of income) collapsed, needed to diversify
(E) Manchuria had resources that Japan needed following American sanctions
(F) The Great Kanto Earthquake - devastated infrastructure and economy (cost of 1 billion
USD, equivalent to 14 billion USD today)
Japanese Occupation of China
Mukden Incident: Mukden Incident - Japanese blew up a railway in Manchuria, blamed
China, used it as a pretense to start a war for Manchuria
Marco Polo Incident: battle between Japan and China. Commenced the war, as the
ceasefire announced after initial violence failed and the Chinese attacked
Rape of Nanking: occurred during the Sino-Japanese War, after Chinese had moved
their capital to Nanking. The Japanese managed to infiltrate the capital and devastate
the civilian population (estimated 80,000-200,000 people died)
○ Throughout the Japanese occupation of China, the Chinese never surrendered
officially, so the Japanese had to continue marching on
SL Topic 5: Mao
Mao concerned w/ Japanese expansionism, ruling elite, West exploitation of China for
political and economic gain
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) emerged after the failure of Chinese to regain
territory during the Versailles Peace Conference (led to the May 4th Movement)
Internationalism of Communist theory contradicted nationalism of the Chinese
Mao Zedong embraced Rural Communism developed by Li Dazhao
China affected by the Second World War in Asia and tensions of early Cold War
The Chinese Civil War (1946-1949) was both lost by the GMD and won by CCP
Mao Zedong viewed victory in October of 1949 as the completion of the first step in a
two-step process to transform Chinese society
1900: The Boxer Rebellion
1911: The “Double Ten” Rebellion
1912: China becomes a Republic
1912 - 1916: Presidency of Yaun Shikai
1916 - 1927 Warlord Era
1919: May Fourth Movement
1926: The United Front
1926 - 1927: Northern Expedition
1928 - 1934: Jiangxi Soviet
1930: The Futian Incident
1930 - 1934: The Five Extermination Campaigns
1934 - 1935: “The Long March” (CCP)
1934: The Zunyi Conference
1936: The Xian Incident
1937: The Second United Front
1937 – 1945: Sino-Japanese War (WWII)
1945: GMD-CCP Race for territory formerly held by the Japanese
1946 – 1949: Chinese Civil War
1945 - 1947: GMD Supported by the U.S. military
1946: Red Army renamed People’s Liberation Army (PLA)
Jan. 1949: Chiang Kaishek fled to Taiwan - declares it as “Republic of China”
Oct. 1949: People’s Republic of China (PRC) established
1912 - 1949 Republic Period
- Weak central government
- Western influence was shown by the promotion of "science" and "democracy" during the
New Culture Movement
- Attempt of the Nationalist government (est. 1928) to bring the entire country under its
control was thwarted by both domestic revolts and the Japanese occupation (1937-45)
- Nationalists fled to Taiwan after defeat by the Communists.
1949 - Present People's Republic of China
- Communist government
- The drive for remaking society ended in disasters such as the Great Leap Forward and
the Cultural Revolution
- Economic reform and political retrenchment since 1978
Warlord Period (1916 - 1927)
● Collapse of Qing prompted power struggle between govt officials and ex-generals. YSK
declaring himself as the new Emperor destroyed unity, attempted to enforce his own
1914 Constitution (after a 1912 Constitution). He also dismissed the National Assembly.
○ South supported 1912, North supported 1914
○ YSK died, govt officials started own cliques (ex: Duan Qi Rui led Anhui Clique).
○ Beginning of the warlord period
● Characterised by:
○ Extreme factional violence (ex: 1 million dead in Central Plains Battle)
○ No law enforcement, weak federal government control
○ Poor treatment of peasants (high taxes (as rice), disrespect, frequent looting)
○ Duan Qi Rui (largely support) declared war on Germany w/o
Parliamentary/Presidential approval. Lost his position (fired in 1917 by President
Li). Duan’s supporters in North declared independence - starting Anhui Clique
○ DQR then gets back in power, secures (more) loans from Japan, tons of fighting
occurs and nobody really wins other than Duan in the end.
○ Duan invites SYS over in 1924, but not really with the intent of listening
● Impact:
○ Everyone hated warlords, China was polarised (North vs South), chaos
intensified nationalist sentiment
May Fourth Movement: May 1919
● Chinese people protested that ToV didn’t give China the sections occupied by Germany
in WW1, but gave Japan territory in/close to China. Angry about ToV and 21 Demands
Essentially China joined WW1 in 1917 in the hopes that Shandong would then be
granted back to China → ToV recognised Japan’s territorial claims in Shandong
21 Demands: Shandong belong to Japan, Japan controls Manchuria, China can’t
give land to foreigners, Japanese advisors controlled China’s finance and police
Chinese became skeptical about Wilsonianism - their right to self determination has
been taken away from them (anti-foreign sentiment grew)
Mao contacted Comintern, formed alliance with KMT, led to First United Front in 1924
United Front gave CCP 88,000 new members
Part cultural revolution, part social movement.
○ Students inspired by Western thought, creating frustration with tradition. But, they
also realised that Western countries could not be trusted, and felt China needed
something new and more radical (Communism & CCP) to survive
■ Answers were sought on why China had lagged behind the West
Clan system and Confucianism were seen as the main causes
First United Front
● KMT and CPC came together to end Warlord Period by forming the National
Revolutionary Army (Northern Expedition). KMT received assistance from USSR
○ 100 thousand men marched north from Guangzhou in May 1926 with three main
targets: occupation of Fujian. Jiangxi and Nanjing
During this time, Mao became more involved with peasants in Hunan → gave him an
important grounding for the future
Became involved in First Party Congress → more involved with GMD & CCP, but
found peasant issues more interesting than national issues of the CCP
○ He was seen as a person who was against both the warlords and the landlords
Front collapsed because of ulterior motives (KMT = dominance, CCP = spread
○ Chiang went on a killing spree (Shanghai Massacre/White Terror), started the
Civil War. Mao denounced the First United Front, giving him more prestige.
KMT and CCP were ideologically similar, initially. Why did they split?
● Big part of it boils down to death of SYS. SYS was a figure respected by both the KMT
(he founded the KMT) and the CCP. In 1940, even Mao payed homage to SYS and
declared to put forward his 3 Principles of Nationalism, Socialism and Democracy
● When SYS died, the KMT had to re-organise themselves since he was at the centre of
many of their operations. There was an internal power-grab within the KMT, and
increased tension with the CCP as to who was the “true child” of SYS
● These power-grabs and arguments led to the backstabbing to follow during the First &
Second United Fronts. The failure of these fronts to sustain dialogue and co-operation
with the KMT and CCP ultimately destroyed their relationship.
Franz Michael
The descent into Warlordism can be traced back to the regional armies the Qing used
to defeat the Taiping Rebellion
Birth of the CCP
When was the CCP introduced?
● Mao was a librarian and had read the Communist Manifesto.
Awareness regarding Communism (Karl Marx Biography + Communist Manifesto) began
in 1905. Communism didn’t matter to people much till May 4th Incident in 1919.
Appealed to people since they were peasants, suffering from Warlord Period. Friendship
from Soviets was appealing too, different to Imperialist behaviour China was used to.
CCP was born out of Shanghai in 1920 after Soviet Comintern Agents offered to help Li
Daozho (Mao’s ally). Failed to gain traction since there was a disagreement between Li
and Chen as to if peasants < workers or not.
White Terror (Shanghai Massacre to kill all Communists) forced Mao and colleagues to
escape to the foothills → Jiangxi Soviet. Mao realised CCP/KMT cannot work together.
New Cultural Movement (1910 till mid 1920s)
● An intellectual movement that was designed to change the way people thought. China
wanted to progress further, move to a more “modernised and sophisticated” way of
thinking: “proponents sought to change the ‘thought base’ of Chinese Society
○ Some call this the “Chinese Thought Renaissance”.
○ Hsu believes that the CM is the third part of China’s response to Western
interaction (Stage 1: SSM, Stage 2: 100 Day Reforms, Stage 3: CM)
● The CM took place because Western ideals of rights, liberty, and free-speech became
very appealing to people who didn’t have those rights (peasants, farmers, essentially
everyone but the ruling dynasty).
○ Qing Dynasty collapse, Boxer Rebellion, 21 Demands, etc increased distrust,
made people want to have more power over their lives and their government.
Thus, Western ideals became extremely popular
○ More Western books/material available to the public. Lower class were
increasingly politically aware and conscious
● Important people
○ Chen Du Xiu: One of the founding fathers of CCP, participated in 1911
Revolution. Heavily influenced by Western political models. Known to be a
■ Introduced the “New Youth Shanghai” Magazine in 1915, with the
purpose of “rousing the youth of China to destroy the Chinese system
blocking progress”
● The Magazine focused on the individual, rather than the family,
since CDX believed that it is the family (and their outdated values)
that were holding back nationwide progress
● Guiding principles of the magazine were: be independent,
progressive, aggressive, utilitarian, scientific and cosmopolitan
● Note that in some ways, Mao’s Cultural Revolution turned back on
the 1920’s New Cultural Movement. NCM was all about “proWest”, and adopting change, whereas Mao’s CR was about
ridding China of Western influence!
This magazine was extremely important because it was one of the first
time in China’s history that any member of the public could engage in
political discourse
○ Peking University: breeding ground for radicals/free-thinkers. University students
were exposed to foreign material more than anyone else, were often the
strongest fighters for Cultural Reform.
○ Hu Shih - promoted pragmatism, known for his “plain language”
■ Influenced by John Dewey, argued that Confucianism is static and that
China needed to be “pragmatic” and “re-evaluate” its values
■ He believed Chinese culture was far too elitist and dead, felt that going
against the “classics” shouldn’t be a crime as it was in the time
The CM is very similar to the “old school vs new thought” war Mao waged during his time
in power
Following May 4th Movement (read later), the New Cultural Movement can be referred to
as a stepping stone to more radical schools of thought. May 4th Movement showed,
essentially, that “moderate reforms” will not prevent China from being bullied by Western
nations and Japan - that strength in China required a newer, more radical school of
thought. This pushed China towards Communism and the CCP.
Mao’s Revolution Ideology
● First Stage: New Democratic Revolution
○ Overthrow the rule of the bureaucratic-capitalist class
○ Wipe out foreign influence
○ Eliminate remnants of feudal tradition
○ Establish a Communist-led regime that would unify China
● Second Stage: Socialist Revolution
○ Transform the Chinese society under the leadership of the Communist regime
■ reform the economic system, political structure, and social life.
Michael Dillon
"The CCP could not have been formed without the example of the Communist Party of
the Soviet Union (Bolshevik), the CPSU (B) which is more commonly known as either
the CPSU, or just the Bolsheviks."
Rana Mitter
"Li Dazhao, one of the founders of the Chinese Communist Party, declared in 1918:
‘The victory of Bolshevism is the victory of the new spirit of enlightenment that all
mankind can share in the twentieth century."
Nanjing Decade 1927-37
The Nanjing Decade 1927-37
1927 Jiang turned on the communists - beginning of white terror
Chiang Kai Shek (Jiang Jieshi) controlled Nanjing. Nanjing was of great symbolic (Ming
Dynasty Capital) and strategic importance.
Frustrating period for China (but at least more stable than Warlord Period)
○ SYS 3 principles were not being followed by KMT, there was corruption,
nepotism, conflict within the government, prioritisation of warlords/private
○ Some economic growth (±1.5 - 3.8% growth per year)
○ Though there was economic progress, most people were unhappy. Very
displeased with how Japan invaded in 1931, took Manchuria in 1937
Survival of the CCP
● Following the white terror the GMD failed to eliminate the CCP
● 1927 - Mao led CCP to Jiangxi province and built up peasant support
● 1930-4 Chiang organised five extermination campaigns against the Jiangxi soviet
● Jianxi fell to GMD but Mao led the CCP on the Long March
● 1936 Chiang ordered GMD army in Shaanxi to attack the Tanan soviet they dragged
their feet as many manchurians were keen to fight Japan
● Chiang kidnapped by his northern generals when he flew to Cian
○ CCP negotiated Chiang’s release in return for the second united front
JAG Roberts
the roots of the nationalist defeat and the communist victory in 1949 lie in the failings
of the GMD during the Nanjing decade
The Long March October 1934-5
CCP had been chased by KMT for 1 year following Shanghai Massacre. Long March
was a glorified retreat.
CCP was outmanned, outgunned, had lost 60,000 troops by October 1934. Needed to
escape and rethink strategy (later adopted guerrilla warfare)
CCP noticed:
○ That 50% of peasants owned no land, sought to promise them land
■ By 1930s CCP had 2.5 million chinese under control
○ War-lords were too powerful and still had their own militaries
○ Chiang Kai Shek was busy fighting the Japanese in Manchuria
○ If peasants were treated correctly, CCP could have massive support base
Brief Timeline and Military Strategies Used
1. Escape from Jiangxi was ok, till they reached Xiang River and got battered by Nationalist
forces (86k soldiers → 36k survived)
Mao realised CKS wanted to destroy read army in Hunan, where Mao’s forces were
supposed to meet up with He Long’s forces. So Mao changed direction and went to
Guizhou (where CKS was weak)
Zunyi Conference → CCP Politburo discussing how not to lose battles
a. Local warlords didn’t want to help out GMD because they didn’t want to lose
forces. CCP, apart from being bugged a little, never really had problems with
local warlords.
April 1935: CCP was marching through the mountains. Approximately 9000 soldiers
were killed (lack of food, clothes and adjustment to high altitude)
CCP used guerilla tactics. Split up army into different smaller groups, move through
different provinces and bring smaller groups together at later point.
a. Used young boys as messengers.
b. Moved during nighttime
Results of Long March
1. Added to the legend of Mao Zi Dong, he became “the Founding Father” of Modern China
2. Heavy losses for CCP forces (after Long March only had 8,000 troops, 10% of original)
3. Mao emerged as the indisputable leader of CCP, showed how corrupt/incompetent KMT
4. Chiang was kidnapped in 1937 after people got tired of how obsessed with removing
Mao he was. Chiang was also too busy with Japanese, had bad relationship with
peasants, wanted to preserve some kind of class-based social order.
Larry Wortzel
- Nobody in Red Army really knew what was going on
- Mao didn’t have a plan, he just knew where he wanted to go
- Chose a particularly difficult route (through the Mountains)
- GMD seemed confident that the CCP wouldn’t survive the cold mountains.
- GMD was corrupt, bad relationship with peasants.
The Communists at Yanan (1935-45)- Red Army and
Rectification Campaign (1942-3)
Ideological Movement
Results: Consolidated Mao’s Rule, Cemented Marxist-Lenninsm, and Mao’s guiding
ideologies. Everyone in CCP supported Mao through Rectification Campaign.
Phase 1: Distribution of Maoist propaganda (gave his philosophy more support), Mao
ruined relationship between Zhou En Lai and 28 Bolsheviks, eliminated rivals 1by1.
Phase 2: Mao labeled remaining rivals “dogmatists” or “empirelists”. Forced them to
criticise each-other and themselves, trialed them based on these criticisms
Phase 3: Rewrote History, glorified Mao. Police force extracted confessions from more
rivals. KMT supporters were tortured and killed.
Michael Lynch
- suggests the CCP did not gain followers through ideological conversion; instead, “the
peasants followed the Reds because of the way they were treated by them”
- While some of the growth in party membership was driven by coercion, “the fact
remains that Yan’an marked a major propaganda victory for the Chinese Communists”
Japanese Occupation of China & Second United Front
The Second United Front
● The Second United Front was a ‘fragile alliance’ between the CCP and GMD Nationalist
forces from 1936 and 1947
● 1935, USSR urged Communist alliances to combat fascism and militarism (aka Japan).
● Slogan: “Chinese should not fight Chinese. Immediate war with Japan”.
● Chiang still wanted to keep fighting CCP, but Zhang ordered 150 to storm Chiang’s
headquarters and kidnap him. Dialogue between CCP and KMT followed, Chiang was
released, and CCP accepted SYS and his 3 Principles
● CCP used 2nd United Front to build support in countryside (peasants), took control of a
lot of land before eventually purging the rich owners.
● KMT consistently backstabbed CCP (ex: Anwei Incident, where KMT attacked
thousands of CCP troops). By end of war against Japanese, credibility amongst Chinese
population. Alliance eventually broke apart, with CCP far more popular.
● Alliance collapsed in 1946, KMT and CCP were at war again
The Second Sino-Japanese War
● Began from Mukden Incident, Japanese used that as an excuse to invade Manchuria in
in 1931
● Japan took territory quickly, occupied large parts of China. Known for treating civilians
brutally (ex: Rape of Nanking)
● Japanese troops began spreading out too thin, made easier for Chinese to fight
● By 1940, nobody was capturing any new territory
● End of 1940, China started fighting back, Japanese was pushed back towards coastal
regions. Foreigners begin to back China in war against Japanese
○ CCP at the forefront with their guerilla tactics. Chiang Kai Shek and GMD were
getting less and less popular. Cemented Mao’s control over CCP and over China
● Atomic bombs in 1945 destroyed Japan, ending the war.
● However, following Japan’s surrender, with the help of USSR and USA Chiang took over
cities from the Japanese and blockaded these cities to control countryside inflation,
corruption, and infrastructural problems. This policy was extremely unpopular, turned
middle class against Chiang, and ending American support for Chiang in 1947
Marc Blecher - weaknesses of GMD
GMD base began to crumble rapidly - couldn’t finance forced, corruption, unbeneficial
taxes (to neither capitalists or landlords), inflation etc.
Workers joined shop keepers in staging riots and strikes in Shanghai to protest at the
rising cost of food and declining standard of living
Peasant unrest grew - CHiang responded with repression which alienated many
Key liberals withdrew support
Chinese Civil War 1945-9
KMT received subsidies from the USA, CCP was advised by USSR. CCP (using guerrilla
warfare again) drove KMT out of China, sending them to Taiwan. Asserted control over
all of China except for parts of Manchuria.
P2 - Mao’s Rise to Power
Number 1
Number 2
Zhu Yi Conference
For this question focus on:
Ideology (supplement with Propaganda)
Use of Force
War/Political Factors
Economic Factors
Mao, through his policies, combatted economic inequality and widespread poverty through land
distribution, collectivization, and the removal of heavy taxation
● After war against Japan during WWII, Chinese economy collapsed
● GMD received lots of economic support from American and British
○ “Not patriotic”
● Heavy taxes on people, widespread poverty
○ Only 4% of the population controlled 50% of the land!
● Land distribution, education, collectivization can be discussed here as well
War/Political Factors
Mao capitalised on discontent within the Chinese population regarding the GMD in order to
promote their ideology and practical policies for China, winning over tremendous support
● During WWII CCP fought against invaders (Japanese) whereas GMD kept retreating to
preserve forces
○ CCP were recognised as true patriots, GMD = traitors
○ GMD even attacked the CCP while Japan was invading. GMD people were seen
as backstabbers.
○ CCP were better fighters because of guerilla tactics
GMD extremely corrupt, treated the peasants/farmers very poor
Following death of SYS, China began to split apart → GMD allied itself with Warlords
Mao had less competition for power within the CCP
CCP kept gained favour by redistributing land, controlling rent, raising literacy, stamping
out corruption, constructing homes/schools, hospitals and factories
GMD losing Civil War
Mao had support of Zhou En Lai and Peng De Huai (during Zhunyi conference 1935)
○ Used organisation and their military ability to further communist cause
Guerrilla tactics and organization of the PLA achieved under Zhu De → vital
Lin Biao transformed the PLA into a conventional army in 1947, led the CCP to
deliver blow to GMD in series of victories eg. The 1948-49 Huai Hai campaign
Party also assisted in winning over peasants for Mao through propaganda
Party was vital in providing Mao with the support for him to rise to power
Personality & Ideology
Mao’s shrewd and perceptive personality allowed him to gain support from within the CCP and
the masses, which was integral to the development of the CCP and Mao’s RTP
Personality was shrewd and opportunistic: 1935 Zunyi Conference during the Long
March to deliver a blistering attack on military leadership of 28 Bolsheviks
Mao himself came from a humble, working-class background. Abusive father.
Long March made Mao look like a father-figure for China. Mao regularly visited farmers
in the countryside to maintain his “humble father” persona
Adaptable/perceptive visionary: adapted Marxism-Leninism to suit China’s socioeconomic landscape in defiance of the Comintern, changing its emphasis on urban rev.
to one with a rural focus
○ Land reforms/land distribution attracted a core group of supporters to the CCP
with more than 80% of them being peasants; would form the bulk of the PLA to
defeat Jiang. Yenan Rectification and Nanjing Decade won him popular support.
Use of Force
Crush internal and external opposition
● Following Futian Incident and 1942 Yenan Campaign, Mao forced unity through force (to
eliminate internal opposition). 10,000 individuals killed
● Winning the Chinese Civil War (guerilla tactics vs GMD’s large, well equipped but poorly
trained army). Gave CCP, and thereby Mao, power over China
● Claimed anti-Bolshevik league had infiltrated communists, purged 2,000 party members
in late 1940s
Mao and the CCP relied heavily on propaganda to gain support from the rural peasants.
The CCP managed to turn the Long March, a 6,000 mile historic trek in a retreat from
Jiang’s forces from 1934-35,into a major propaganda victory
Although a military defeat with 90% of CCP members eliminated, Mao manipulated the
mythic significance of the Long March to turn the communists into heroes
Used events like the Luding Bridge incident to emphasize the bravery of the CCP
The heroism attributed to the Long March inspired many young Chinese to join the CCP
during the late 1930s and early 1940s
Would eventually form the PLA to fight against the GMD during the Chinese Civil
War•Used the Long March to discredit the GMD and raise its own prestige
Managed to present what had begun as a military defeat as an epic journey to fight their
way to their base in Yenanto engage the Japanese threat•Assume the role of the true
nationalists in China and allowed it to gain tremendous support
● Weakness of opposition: Jiang only had 8% of land, 25% of population under check
● Background: China just came out of warlord period, peasants were sick of warlords,
high-taxes and socioeconomic inequality
● 2nd United Front: GMD and CCP united to defeat Japanese. GMD Backstabbed, front
collapsed, GMD is unpopular
● Used Zunyi Conference (1935) to attack Bolshevik leadership, cement his own
● During Long-March, Zhang (Mao’s closest rival with larger army) was forced to come
under Mao after he ran into GMD at Shaanxi
● Mao and the CCP capitalized on the discontent of the Chinese population with the GMD
in order to promote their ideology and practical policies for China, winning over
tremendous support
Immanuel Hsu:
Was a giant step in his quest for supreme power by enabling him to emerge as the
undisputed leader of the CCP
P2 - Mao’s Consolidation of Power - Ary
Essay 1 - got a 7
Thorough summary of everything, nice presentations
For this question focus on:
Repression And Terror, link to 100 Flowers Campaign
Ideology (from previous outline)
Repression And Terror
● Resist America and Aid Korea Campaign (1950), Three Antis (1951), Five Antis (1952)
○ Estimated 250,000 “western sources of influence” purged
○ Extension of previous methods such as Yenan Campaign, to eliminate any new
● Public executions of top officials, made the entire population fearful of Mao since they
saw what would happen if they didn’t listen to him (Jung Chang)
● Labour Camps, Public “trials”, Social scrutiny (neighbours policing each-other in the
name of Nationalism), Mass Campaigns
Collectivization (1953-1957)
● Feared private ownership would lead to class divide, capitalist tendencies = against
Mao’s vision
● Collectivization allowed Mao to have control over richer and poorer portions of the
population, act as a kind of great equalizer
● Jung Chang: failures of Collectivization, and the following pursuit of steel-production, in
some ways undermined Mao
○ NOT TO BE MENTIONED IN ESSAY, but Collectivization failed as people over
promised and lied about their actual progress to cover up failure. State prioritised
accordingly, didn’t focus on agriculture since they thought it was under control
(when really it wasn’t). Nobody was willing to say they weren’t achieving,
everybody starved
100 Flowers Campaign (Thought Reform, 1956)
● Invited people to speak and criticise the government. Mao received too much criticism,
so he killed/jailed those who spoke out.
● He also purged intellectuals (artists, professors, etc) since he felt they valued freedom of
speech too much, and may go against him
● Sent people to labour camps, which he thought would encourage “Thought Reform”.
They’d understand what it was like to live and work like a peasant, so would be less
likely to oppose Mao’s policies
Propaganda (Creating the Cult of Mao)
● Portrayed as the saviour of women in China (banned arranged marriages, child
marriages, polygamy, gave right to vote, and right to property).
○ Enormously popular amongst women, propaganda frequently highlighted his prowomen policies
● 1.5 million propagandists working under Mao
● Roadside loud-speakers, posters, all newspapers were controlled, all films were
● LITTLE RED BOOK (everyone had to have one) to expose everyone to his Communist
ideals, hugely successful
Imposition of Military of Control
Military went around taking over territory (Tibet, Xinjiang, and Guangdong (KMT base))
Terror tactics
○ Purges against Democratic Leagues, GMD supporters
130,000 bandits and 28,000 others were killed in battles against triads
○ Neighbors spying on neighbors, children reported on their parents, workers
snooped on other workers
○ Dissent was not tolerated. Bourgeois elements weren’t allowed
Mao wanted to wipe out the middle-class (the bourgeois), he only wanted the proletariat
to be in power - the working class
Policies Towards Peasants and Landlords
Property of landlords was confiscated and redistributed. Most landlords were put on trial,
some were allowed to become peasants
Peasants were given land, millions of landlords were killed. Mao called them Kulaks
Happiness for peasants only lasted for 2 years. Mao took back the land given to them to
push for collectivization of the peasantry
● Political Structure: claimed to have “elections” for each official, when really they were all
hand-picked. Politburo was filled with people loyal to Mao, they would just rubber stamp
his policies
○ Military Commander and Political Commissar for each of the 6 sections China
was divided into were always from PLA - giving Mao control, regardless of who
the Chairman was, of each region and bureau
● Reunification campaigns: take back Tibet, Xinjiang and Guangdong. Stir up nationalism,
distract nation from internal issues
Great Leap Forward: failure, but a testament to Mao’s control since nobody opposed him
Jung Chang: Failures of Collectivization, and the following pursuit of steel-production, in some
ways undermined Mao
Hsu: Propaganda cemented Mao’s control over China
Economic and Social Policies
1956 - 100 Flower Campaign (see Mao Consolidation of Power Essay outline)
● 100 Flower Campaign resulted in the death of 10 million people
● Intellectual life died down, Mao was again the undisputed leader. CCP came together
more following 100 Flower Campaign
1966 - Cultural Revolution
● Mao wanted to eliminate more of his rivals (he’d gotten very paranoid by this stage).
Accused “revisionists” of being in the government who wanted to re-install Capitalism.
Mao wanted to remove his rivals through a violent class struggle.
○ He thought these people were obstructions to his vision of turning China into a
modern industrialized state.
● Millions were publically humiliated, party officials were purged (including Deng Xiaoping),
arbitrary imprisonment, hard labour, seizure of property and execution. Historical relics
were destroyed.
Five Year Plans
● First FYP (1953-1957)
○ Develop agriculture, produce steel, produce coal. Soviets provided technical
assistance and loans
○ Industrial production increased by 19%, agricultural output increased 4% a year.
However, agriculture was not keeping up with agriculture, Communist leadership
was worried. Also concerned that 78% of coal mines were in foreign hand (due to
foreign investment)
● Second FYP (1958 - 1962)
○ Expand heavy industry, catch-up agriculture, advanced scientifically
■ Huge failure. Heavy industry fell by 65%< heath hazards, Three Bitter
Years Famine (30 million dead), Drought, Floods, Industrial output
■ Agriculture fell by almost 40%
Great Leap Forward (1958 - 1962)
● Mao’s motto was “Overtake England and catch-up to America”. Wanted a collective,
national goal.
○ Had communal places to eat, take care of kids
● Wanted foreign trade to be a minimum - China should be self-sufficient. Removed Soviet
advisors from China.
● Every scrap of steel/metal was to be used for steel production. Mao wanted a railroad.
○ But the metal was of poor quality, and the furnaces they used (and peasants who
worked on them) were not of high enough quality
● Patriotic savings campaigns started - Chinese people put money in state bank to finance
● Government quotas - allowed government to take proportion of food from peasants
● Collectivization (see Mao Consolidating Power for more information) ensued. Farmers
over-promised during Collectivization. CCP thought agriculture was under-control after
hearing all these fake-promises, only to discover later on that China was well short of
food. Many farmers were moved to work on steel-production, nobody was looking after
food. Famine followed.
○ 1961 Peng De Huai wrote “save the people” after seeing what GLF resulted in
GLF ended up being a huge waste of time and manpower. People starved, China had to
give USSR grains as repayment while people starved.
Martial Law in 1962 as government feared mass revolution.
4 Pests Campaign (1958-1960)
● Wanted to take away mosquitoes, flies, rats and sparrows.
● People had to clean their homes.
● Citizens banged pans and beat drums to scare away sparrows. But, with no sparrows
insects thrived. Locusts swarmed country, eating everything in their way.
○ Famine grips rural China, 30 million die
Foreign Policy
Varied from issue to issue, but generally quite hostile. Towards the end of our syllabus, China
begins to believe that the USSR is a more dangerous enemy than the USA
● On North Korea: USA believed that the Crisis had been orchestrated by Mao and Stalin
to undermine American influence in the region. PRC organised mass demonstrations
against USA, called them Imperialist.
● On Taiwan: Taiwan was heavily guarded by American Navy, who thought it was an
important geopolitical base. In 1954, Chinese began bombing Taiwan, Eisenhower
threatened nuclear retaliation. Taiwan was used as a pawn during America’s policy of
“containment” for China, placing sanctions on China and aiding Taiwan
● Sino-American Cold War & Vietnam War: USA was worried about strength of Mao’s Cult
of Personality. Poked fun at failure of CCP and GLF. China said Vietnam War was
American Imperialism. Cultural Revolution at the time made it hard to restore ties.
● Detente: By 1969, USA began easing sanctions on China. 7th Fleet stopped patrolling
Taiwan. This happened because USA needed PRC’s help in exiting Taiwan, also
realised that PRC has ICBMs. Ronald Reagen came to power however, and started
another “Cold War” with China following the Tiananmen Square Incident
● Ping Pong Diplomacy: End of 1970s, Olympic games (and Ping-Pong games between
national teams) helped to restore ties. China and USA began talking to one another due
to athletic partnerships. PRC accepted these ties, since by now they’d realised that
USSR was their true enemy; friendship with the USA was intended to be temporary.
HL Topic 1: China
Nature of Qing Rule
Qing Rule accepted traditional Confucian Order, recruited Chinese scholars to work in
the government with Manchus - ethnic dyarchy within a political monarchy
Autocratic government, no sense of divided power or checks and balances
The emperor was the absolute ruler of every branch in the government
○ This kind of absolutism was inherited from the Ming Dynasty, as were the
government’s general structure
Extremely class-divided/segregated. Along with the royal family, the following classes
got preferential treatment by the Emperor:
○ Imperial clansmen (given land, official residences and silver/rise allowances)
○ Titular Nobles (civil/military officers who merited honour)
○ Bannerman (given pensions, land, rice and clothes). They were supposed to be
the old “warrior clan”, but by the Qing Dynasty had gotten notoriously lazy
Grand Council was corrupt - responsible for Revenue collection (taxes), war,
punishment, and public works. Public Works and Revenue Departments diverted funds
to officials and the Emperor
Qing Era was characterised by Han and Manchu tensions - Hans believed that Manchus
were outsiders and should not be ruling China
○ Policies enacted by Qing prevented many Hans from securing government posts,
or preferential treatment from the government at all. None of the Emperor’s
closest advisors were Han Chinese. Even if Han Chinese did well on the Imperial
Exam, they’d typically be grouped in the Public Works Department of the
Economy was very strong - around 5.9% growth each year. With that, population
surged and there was a lack of arable land
○ Total national income was around 48 million Taels by 1800 due to successful
Tribute System/trading with Asian partners.
Internal Rebellions
Internal Rebellions during Qing Dynasty were all Anti-Manchu.
Key Societies: Triad Society, Kolao Brotherhood Association, White Lotus Sect and
Heavenly Reason Sect
○ Triad Society/Kolao Brotherhood Association never conducted anything major,
they acted more as precursors to the White Lotus Sect (and it’s evolved, more
dangerous child the Heavenly Reason Sect).
○ Traid/Kolao mainly held discussions, spread some anti-Manchu propaganda,
protested etc.
White Lotus Sect (Secret Society)
○ Grassroots in Northern China, connection to the White Lotus Revolution of the
1300s through which Ming Dynasty was founded.
○ White Lotus Sect fought for restoration of Ming, strip Manchus of any power.
■ They were particularly aggravated by the 70% taxation they faced
○ Started the White Lotus Rebellion (cited famine, poor living conditions, corruption
and harassment from government officials as reasons to go war). Promised
Buddhist followers the return of Buddha (to end all suffering)
○ Used Guerilla Warfare - mobs, hit/runs, robberies. Very unsuccessful campaign,
quickly dismantled by the Imperial Army between 1796 and 1804
■ Government granted amnesty to those who abandoned WLS
○ However, WLS showed that China’s military was no longer “invincible”
■ Began to highlight Qing Decadence and corruption
■ Highlighted Qing Dynasty = incompetent - 60% of annual budget during
the period was spent fighting Guerilla fighters!
○ WLS promoted a revolutionary spirit in China, showed that revolution was
possible and prompted numerous smaller scale uprisings (as seen with Heavenly
Reason Sect)
Heavenly Reason Sect
○ Li Wen Cheng declared himself the “True Lord of the Ming” in 1812, declared
1813 was the year.
○ Li devised an uprising, was leaked, and he was arrested. Followers tried to save
Li from the palace, but were all captured and executed. Heavenly Reason Sect
was far more radical in its ideology, just a very poorly organised rebellion. They
managed to increase anti-Manchu sentiment in the region, many people
sympathised with the sect but took little action to support them due to lingering
fear of Chinese military (was not entirely obvious at the time that the Imperial
Army was weak)
Chinese Tribute System and Western Trade/Diplomatic
During the Qing Dynasty, missionaries were not taken seriously. Qing wanted to
maintain Imperialist China - were far too proud to recognise foreign
Missionaries did not have a national impact, they only interacted with progressives in
China. Qing Government was unhappy that foreigners didn’t recognise China as the
middle of the world (as indicated by “zhong guo”)
○ Introduction of foreigners, initially by trade missions beginning in the 1600s
(Spanish and English) broke down the isolationism, even though foreigners were
only allowed on certain ports/areas of China. Began exposing mainstream China
to foreign culture and ideology.
China had a strong trade system with neighboring countries known as the Tributary
System - countries like Japan and Korea which were smaller and considered weaker
had to “pay tribute” to China in the form of annual gifts send by Korean/Japanese
Trade was almost strictly tied to these nations in order to provide a “Sinocentric World
Mainly trade silk, food, tea and knowledge/scholars
Taiping Rebellion (1854 - 1864)
Hong Xiu Quan failed three rounds of Imperial Examination, went to Christian churches,
got inspired by Christ and God. Claimed he was the Brother of Jesus.
He created the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace.
○ Obtained support due to his charisma, class differences, laziness of bannermen
(political elite of Qing Dynasty), high taxes, corruption, increasing population,
increasing importance of Secret Societies
At the time, Qing Dynasty was in “Dynastic Decline” due to First Opium War
Taipings were known to be nationalistic, religious and politically engaged
Qing Government tried to destroy Taiping Rebellion, but resources were already
stretched (due to First Opium War)
○ Power was decentralized, regional warlords led provincial armies
Taiping weren’t really too bothered by this, battled and managed to reach Nanjing with
army of 700,000
Britain and France were also trying to get Nanjing. Tried working with Taipings (due to
common religion), but found out Taipings were crackheads
Zeng Guo Fan finally leads battles to defeat Taipings. Estimated 20-40 million dead
Taipings might have been precursors to Communism. Lingering sympathy for Taiping in
countryside got manifested as support for Communism.
First and Second Opium War (1856 - 1860)
First Opium War (1839 - 1842)
○ Series of battles between British and Chinese over ability to sell Opium in China.
Initially, there was a huge trade imbalance (China sold more silk/tea/etc to Britain
than Britain sold anything to China). Opium selling was to counter this.
○ Charles Elliot followed by Henry Pottinger were the British commanders. Qing
had no navy tactics (wooden Chinese boats vs British gunships)
○ Results of Opium War: Treaty of NK, Treaty of Whampoa with France and similar
treaty (Wanghia) with USA provided same privileges to France/USA as NK did
for UK
Treaty of Nanking (1842)
○ granted indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain
○ opened 5 Chinese ports to WEST
○ Cession of HK
○ Didn’t satisfy economic aims of the British, so they came up with Arrow Incident
Arrow Incident
○ Chinese officials arrested pirates with a British flag. Didn’t apologise for arresting
them, didn’t return all of them. British used this as an excuse for starting 2nd
Opium War
Resulted in Convention of Beijing (1860)
○ Granted freedom of religion, opium is legal, humiliated Qing Government (lack of
military prowess), taxation, repatriation, agricultural failure resulted in inflation
Self Strengthening Movement “Tong Zhi Restoration” from
1861 - 1864
By 1860s, Qing Dynasty was at the brink of collapse. Western Imperialism and internal
rebellions were threatening China (Opium Wars, Britain/France, Taiping Rebellion)
Self Strengthening Movement were supposed to restore power by embarking on series
of reforms. In hindsight, these reforms only extended Qing’s life by 50 years.
Cause: Western Imperialism, China wanted Western Military but Confucian ideals mixed,
began learning Western Science and Technology, reeling from Taiping Rebellion
Emperor Tongzhi was only 5, Cixi was the one in control. Motto of leadership was
““Resist foreign invasions, suppress internal rebellions””
First step towards Chinese modernisation, sowed seeds of Capitalism into China,
opened China up for more change
Reforms included:
○ National defense (arsenals, shipyards, military schools, send students abroad)
○ Education (translating schools, send kids abroad, missionary schools were
allowed, western subjects were taught)
○ Industry (industrial enterprises operated by government, coal mines, iron mines,
mints, cotton, paper mills set up)
○ Communication (railways constructed, ports, lighthouses, shipping and postal
○ Trade (Imperial Maritime Custom Service, modern banks, chinese allowed to
promote trade themselves)
○ Foreign Relations (set up Diplomatic Office, translation of international laws)
Important People:
Zeng Guo Fan: reorganised agriculture, restore Confucian education, foreign
○ Li Hong Zhang: main man. Focused on Chinese military (Jiangnan Arsenal,
Nanjing Arsenal, developed manufacturing
○ Prince Gong: modernise China’s foreign relations, opened up modern schools
○ Li Hong Zhang: modernise China’s business practices
Why did the SSM fail?
○ Conservatives/Progressives kept arguing amongst themselves
○ Emperor Tongzhi was too young to rule
○ Cixi diverted funds for herself (built a Summer Palace for herself)
○ Very conservative, anti-foreign, afraid of losing power
○ Corruption
○ Farmers (thought building railways would ruin Fengshui)
○ Scholars thought Western practices had no value.
○ Foreign businesses in China put local businesses out of business
○ Reformers thought only military made West great, forgot about culture/people
○ No money, no competent officials
Acceleration of Imperialism - Sino-Japanese War (1895)
Chinese/Japanese fought over Korea’s agricultural exports and natural resources
Consequences of the war
○ Taiwan, Penghu ceded to Japan
○ Japanese ships allowed in Yangtze
○ Japan now dominant power in Eastern Asia
○ Japanese prestige rose significantly
○ Triple Intervention - France/Germany/Russia forced Japan to give up Port Arthur
○ Korea began to buckle to Russian influence
China consequences
○ Failure in war leads to 100 days Reform
○ Total of 35 million casualties in China
○ War created 95 million refugees
○ Qing regime is further discredited
○ Massive reparations to Japan
○ Concessions as foreign powers wanted more territorial concessions from China
○ Increase in railway systems built in China because foreigners wanted so
○ Foreigners took advantage of the situation and pushed China harder
○ China’s prestige drops, renounces claim to Korea
100 Day Reform
Progressive Officials wanted it as follow up from Self Strengthening Movement
○ Wanted westernisation of military
Scholars were skeptical about SSM
○ After french defeated Chinese more were unsure about SSM
○ Thought/institutional reform was necessary
Western Ideas of reform
Younger generation were exposed to ideas of western reform
China’s defeat in First Sino Japanese War
Political Struggle (reform out of patriotism) from younger generation
Pressure from western powers
● Education reforms (took out eight legged essay, asked about current socio-economic
issues so that kids were more creative and aware of current events vs just
○ Modern military practice instead of swordsmanship at schools
○ Exam on political economy
○ University in Peking was founded - medical school
○ Publication of official newspaper
● Government
○ Abolition of sinecure posts and unnecessary offices, and some regional roles
○ Progressive minded officials appointed
○ Stricter anti corruption measures
○ Reform suggestions from private citizens
● Military
○ Military institutions created
○ Military structure reorganised
○ Built railways for better infrastructure
● Diplomatic improvements
● Restructuring of law
○ Based on Western Reform Examples
● Guangxu fired officials and undermined Cixi’s power
○ Government was a reactionary force now
● Cixi heard people were plotting to kill her
● Arrests people, executes 6 officials
● Vast majority of emperor’s reforms revoked, court now full of conservatives
● Progressive development now impossible
● Reactionary court didn’t know how to do anything
○ Leads to anti-foreignism and Boxer Rebellion
● More people realise only viable solution is a revolution. Reform was bs
● Conservatives back in power
● Beginning of mass political movements in China (establishment of Study Societies)
Why Fail?
● Many of reforms were just on paper not put in practice
● Reformers were opposed by some chinese people AND intellectuals
○ People thought government wanted to destroy chinese culture
○ Thought reforms were an excuse for Cixi to gain more power lol
● Manchus thought that Government was against them because there were few
conservative Manchus left in government who hadn’t been dismissed
● Lack of political leadership
○ Cixi was a really powerful figure, nobody stood up to her
○ Even though she retired in 1889, her followers controlled things for her
● Regional decentralisation from Taiping rebellion
● Reformers were inexperienced, knew little about West
● Lack of popular support
Lost Sino Japanese War
○ Increased foreign resentment. Foreigners were about to slice up China.
Flood in yellow river, famine, local industries suffering because westerners sold stuff for
cheaper, banditry, poor harvest.
Number of secret organisations
Boxers were one “support the qing, eliminate the foreigners” was their motto
Foreign leaders wanted Qing to fight boxers. Cixi eventually supported Boxers though,
thought they could help her rid China of foreigners.
○ Cixi wanted to vent anger against foreigners, stir up patriotism, remove foreign
military presence and eliminate foreigners who might’ve seen Qing crimes.
May 1989 Boxers were organised, attacked Christians mainly. Looted and killed them.
50,000 troops from foreign countries came to crush Boxers
Battle of Beijing = foreigners won
Cixi left, 130k dead. Foreigners stayed in BJ for a year, were pretty mean.
● Loss of life, more taxes, stopped foreigners from dividing up China, more nationalism
● Showed Cixi/Qing were incompetent, stressed demands for reform/revolution.
● Qing Dynasty was overthrown in 1911 basically because of this. People thought Qing
lost their “mandate from heaven”. Sparked KMT/SYS 1010 Revolution.
● Qing Decadence (laziness and incompetence) was highlighted, bannermen were no
longer strong warriors.
● Power was decentralised further. Chinese government could no longer protect its people
(warlords and treaties)
Xinhai/1010 Revolution (1911)
● Cixi’s reformed had failed (in large part due to Cixi’s lack of cooperation)
○ China was a weak, backward country vulnerable to foreign powers
● Government was corrupt and inefficient (Cixi built a Summer Palace instead of using
funds for the 100 Day Reforms/SSM)
● Foreign Intervention (Opium Wars), failed Boxer Rebellion made people realise that an
Autocracy with an Emperor/Empress in charge did not work
● Rising sense of nationalism, driven by SYS and his three principles. SYS wanted to
bring together CCP/KMT elements in one revolution. The 1010 revolution was built on:
○ Leninism => “democratic centralism” => if the party agrees on something all party
members must follow.
○ Anger at the way foreigners treated Chinese people, created “Blue Shirts
Society” => fascist paramilitary organisation. Crush communism, adopt
nationalist rhetoric.
○ Policy of “sinicization” => making all Chinese follow Han Chinese norms
○ New life Movement => crushing of foreign influences in China (Soviet, Western,
American), introduce Confucian ideals
They were different to the Boxer Rebellion, more intellectual => going to need
foreign help
Resentment towards Manchus (10% minority Manchus controlled 90% majority Hans)
● Abdication of Puyi on February 1912, ended 2 millenia of Imperial rule in China
● Essentially, a new beginning for China. Imperial China had disappeared, they were a
new country, a new republic.
● Brief civil War on whether YSK or SYS should be in control. SYS “resigned” after
realising China needed a military leader - YSK was one, SYS was not.
● New republic with a national assembly and a provisional coalition was founded, however
later it became clear that YSK was monopolising the system, trying to become an
Emperor on his own.
● Success of Xinhai Revolution, but failure to capitalise on newfound momentum led to
eventual rise of CCP in China
Post Mao
Following the end of Mao’s era, there was a power-struggle between the right-CCP and
the left-CCP
Zhou En Lai emerged as the supreme leader of the CCP (from the right)
○ Zhou had served with Mao since the Xinjiang Soviet, but was known to be more
pragmatic than Mao.
○ He believed that revolutionary ideology was not always a sound guide for
economic policies, that a nation’s current status and progress needed to be
assessed as well (rather than blindly following Marxist-Lenninism or similar).
Zhou recognised that the GLF had failed China.
Zhou En Lai was very close with Deng Xiao Peng and Liu Shao Qi - they were
“moderate” Communists who supported the Cultural Revolution
○ Zhou felt it was suitable for peasants to form a smaller commune, and farm on
their own plots of land. His beliefs backfired, CCP felt he was a traitor and was
“working against the CCP from the inside”. Deng was sent to Jiangxi and placed
under house-arrest, but was allies with Deng.
○ Zhou knew that Deng was rising to power quickly, and that Deng would ensure
more realistic and pragmatic policies.
● From the Left we had the Gang of Four, thought to be favoured by Mao
○ Dedicated group of four revolutionaries, more adherent to Mao’s ideology than
Mao himself was
○ Jiang Qing – Mao’s 4th wife, was the leader:
■ Former actress, became famous during the Cultural Revolution
■ Replaced traditional opera and ballet with productions that celebrated
the communist revolution and proletarian culture
■ Extremely fearless and tactful
○ Yao Wenyuan:
■ Based in Shanghai, Yao became an important figure of the party and the
■ It was Yao’s criticism of a play in 1966 that helped start the Cultural
■ Known for his radical interpretation of CCP ideology
○ Zhang Chunqiao:
■ Also based in Shanghai
■ Played a role in purging the Rightists
■ Wrote several articles denouncing the return of the Rightists
■ IN 1989, at the trial of the Gang of Four, he would not respond to
questions and seemed to spend much of the time sleeping
○ Wang Hongwen:
■ He was a prominent trade union leader
■ He was responsible for the ferocity of the Cultural Revolution in Shanghai
■ His nickname was ‘Helicopter Wang’ because of his very rapid rise from
factory worker to Party leadership
● Gang of Four ferociously enacted Cultural Revolution in Shanghai, quoting Mao’s little
red book and making it hard for anybody to challenge them.
○ They weren’t necessarily a strong force, since they lacked connection to the PLA,
but were big political and cultural players.
● Gang of Four were trialed and sentenced (based on 48 different offenses), only four
years after the CR since the right-CCP wanted their powerbase to dwindle. During the CR
the Gang of Four wielded significant power which CCP did not want to challenge
Huo Guo Fan
● 1976 appointed chairman of the CC, in 1977 formally endorsed as Mao’s successor
● His biggest challenge was the “demystification of Mao” (similar to de-Stalinization of
USSR). He wanted to end the Cultural Revolution, but maintained importance of Mao’s
ideas in speech titled “Two Whatevers”
○ The quote that supported this campaign was: “whatever decisions Mao made,
we firmly support, whatever Mao instructed we unwaveringly follow.”
○ Hua used extensive propaganda to demonstrate how he was Mao’s chosen
successor – promoted festivals, dancers, concerts, and other forms of public
displays of affection for Mao’s memory
○ Showed his loyalty to Mao
Hua Guo Fan Policies (1976 - )
● The Ten Year Plan
○ Hua did not just cultivate Mao’s image and legacy – he also pushed for an
ambitious 10 year plan in 1978
○ This economic programme promoted over 100 projects in various areas of the
economy such as steel production, oil, electricity, and transportation
○ However, there was not enough revenue to support these ambitious projects –
post Cultural Revolution and uncertainty revolving around Mao’s illness/death
brought about chaos and low production rates
○ To embrace Maoism, foreign investment (i.e. from Japan and Germany) was not
○ The plan emphasised traditional aspects of Maoist ideology such as the “role of
the masses” in bringing about the revolutionary power
○ Results from the Plan:
■ There were some successes such as the increase of steel production (i.e.
21 million tonnes in 1973 to 60 million by 1985)
■ However, the 180 million tonne goal by 1999 was not met
■ Optimistic assessments of oil production proved to be unfounded
■ This was due to the lack of professionals and trained experts – the
Cultural Revolution disrupted education (students were uneducated now,
did not possess the necessary knowledge)
4 Modernisations link
Initially established by Zhou En Lai in 1975. Wanted to develop national defence,
agriculture, science and industry to match the West.
Deng Xiao Ping was a far-sighted realist, he would say “it does not matter if the cat is
white or black, if it catches the mouse, it is a good cat”
○ Deng Xiao Ping believed that ideology could not lead to economic success,
GLF/Great Famine alarmed him
○ Communism vs Pragmatism
Open door policy was implemented, opening China to foreign investment (success of
Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan motivated Deng)
○ Government spent 40 billion for 100,000 construction projects
● Economic:
○ Steel production increased by 300% from 1985 to 1999
○ Coal production doubled
Electricity production increased 10% a year
State owned enterprises changed to collective ownership, were allowed to sell
any surpluses over and above their quota for a profit on the open market
○ Special Economic Zones (Zhuhai, Shenzhen, Xiamen) allowed for exports to
increase by 250%
○ Open Door Policy
○ Household Responsibility system was introduced (land remained public, but each
peasant received a plot of land and negotiated a contract with the commune
production team. Each household controlled the land and could sell surplus for a
○ Rise/wheat yield increased by 50%
○ China’s grain harvest topped 400 million tons
○ Land could be leased out for 50 years
Science and Technology
○ 800,000 professional researchers
○ Up to date research centers
○ State funds available for researchers, patent laws were introduced
Military Modernisation
○ Army’s leadership was restructured, improved salaries
○ Spent 300 billion USD on military equipment by 1985
Successes of 4 Ms
Failures of 4 Ms
Adoption of Western tech
- (New Leap Outward, instead of GLF)
- Deng introduced “Chinese style
Inflation estimated to be around 15%,
government budgets revealed growing
Foreign construction projects
Major cutbacks on foreign construction
projects (abruptly terminated in 1981)
Famine and poverty reduced (estimated
30%), but rural areas still quite poor
Emergence of new classes (new prestige to
scientists, engineers, plant managers, writers
and artists)
Generally greater quality of life in urban areas
(disposable income rose by 11%)
Income inequality - industrial workers earned
40 a month + bonus, peasants earned 5-7.
Demonstrated through Beijing bus drivers
going on strike in 1985
Modern military was loyal to the government
Crisis of confidence (youth lost faith in
Socialism), especially critical of classes
Loss of government revenue (short term),
loss of control over local investment due to
budgetary deficit
What caused Protests in Tianamen Square?
Market Socialism was developed in China between 1978 and 1989
○ China initiated some capitalist reforms, but there was discontent with the
outcome of these reforms. Led to a violent collision in Beijing’s Taijing Square in
Students (people who mainly initiated TS) were concerned that their study grants from
the government were not keeping up with inflation due to economic liberalization. They
came from a fiercely competitive school system where only the top 5% go on to
Agricultural workers saw huge disparities in incomes, creating resentment
○ Many peasants were unemployed as farmers became more efficient.
○ Countryside workers were unhappy over Mao’s preferential treatment of the
coast regions
○ Pollution was a problem due to a lack of environmental regulations
■ This led to health repercussions on people and crops
Intellectual groups (writers and artists) began writing about their experiences and the
poor state of the countryside (implicating Deng and the Reforms)
○ Hu Yao Bang goes against the anti-intellectual ethos, demands that intellectuals
become more valued
○ Deng agrees it’s acceptable to be an intellectual and part of the proletariat
One Child Policy, applied only to Han Chinese (ethnic minorities were exempt)
○ Goes against Confucianist thought
○ Couples with a second child lost economic privileges such as private food plots
○ Policy encouraged female infanticide, very lax implementation in rural areas
Balance between advancement and social discontent
○ When you give a nation a little bit of freedom, they end up wanting a lot more
Death of Hu Yao Bang
Loses his position in 1986 because he didn’t fire his more liberal partners
Dies of a heart-attack in 1989. Intense public pressure for a state funeral, 10 mile queue
of public mourners. CCP was caught by surprised
19th May - Zhao Ziyang
Zhao Ziyang asked students to end hunger strikes. In tears, he promised that the issues
over which they were protesting would be resolved
He was dismissed from his post in the same evening, however, the students voted to
end the hunger strikes but continue the protests
June 2nd - PLA moves into TS
● Deng was now more determined than ever to end protests. 350,000 troops controlled
access in and outside of the square, ignoring protests of the local people
● Deng wanted a violent end to the protests to prevent future protests (sends a message)
● Demonstrators were rounded up
● Zhao was imprisoned for 15 years, remains censored in China
● Peng remains powerful, Jiang Zemin replaced Zhao Ziyang as General Secretary
HL Topic 2: Japan
Tokugawa Shogunate
For this question focus on:
The Tokugawa Shogunate's rule of Japan.
The economic and social structure of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
The internal challenges and causes of discontent in the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Tokugawa Rule
● Tokugawa shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603
Japan was ‘unified’ - not completely centralised as daimyo still governed at local level
○ Shogun replaced opposing feudal lords w/ relatives & allies who were free to tuel
within their domains under restrictions
Period brought two and a half centuries of stability, prosperity, and isolation
○ Farmers produced more food, and the population rose
By 1700, roughly 5-6% of Japanese people lived in cities with populations
> 100,000 ⇒ Europe at time was less than ½ as urban, only 2% of
Europeans lived in cities of this size
■ Japan was one of the most urban societies in the world in 1700
○ Peasants, weighed down by heavy taxes, led lives filled with misery
○ Merchant class and the wealthy prospered
○ Everyone benefited from a flowering of Japanese culture
Political system evolved into the bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu
(shogunate)and han (domains) to describe the government and society of the period
Tokugawa Isolationism
● By 1600, European missionaries converted about 300,000 Japanese to Christianity
○ Success of the missionaries upset Tokugawa Ieyasu
Aspects of the Christian invasion troublesome – Missionaries actively
sought converts ⇒ scorned traditional beliefs & disturbed local politics
At first, Ieyasu did not take any action – feared driving off Portuguese,
English, Spanish, and Dutch traders who spurred Japan’s economy
○ By 1612 - shogun had come to fear religious uprisings more
■ Banned Christianity and focused on ridding his country of all Christians
■ Ieyasu died in 1616, but repression of Christianity continued off and on for
the next two decades under successors
○ 1637 - issue came to a head
■ Uprising in southern Japan of 30,000 peasants, led by dissatisfied
samurai, shook shogunate
■ Many rebels Christian – shogun decided Christianity at root of rebellion
■ Began to ruthlessly persecuted Christians
○ European missionaries were killed or driven out of Japan
■ Japanese were forced to demonstrate faithfulness to branch of Buddhism
■ Policies eventually eliminated Christianity and led to an exclusion policy
Closed Country Policy
○ 1633-9 – 5 edicts were issued that prohibited christianity, forbade travelling
abroad, prohibited Portuguese ships in japanese ports and strict trade
■ Tokugawa laws forbade travelling abroad as well as restriction of western
ideals – 1630 foreigners were essentially kicked out
■ 1641 – edict issued to confine dutch trading
By 1639 → sealed Japan’s borders – “closed country policy.” (Sakoku)
Japan in Isolation Most commercial contacts with Europeans ended, one
port, Nagasaki, remained open to foreign traders
■ Only Dutch and Chinese merchants were allowed into the port
■ English left Japan voluntarily, Spanish and Portuguese expelled
○ Shoguns controlled Nagasaki – now had a monopoly on foreign trade, profitable
○ For more than 200 years, Japan remained closed to Europeans
■ Japanese were forbidden to leave, so as not to bring back foreign ideas
■ Japan would continue to develop, but as a self-sufficient country, free
from European attempts to colonize or to establish their presence
It was Tokugawa Iemitsu who enforced isolation from much of the rest of the world
Economic and Social Structure of Tokugawa Shogunate
● Society under Tokugawa
○ Tokugawa society was very structured
■ Emperor had the top rank but was just a figurehead
■ Actual ruler was the shogun – supreme military commander
■ Below him were the daimyo, the powerful landholding samurai, then
samurai warriors came next, peasants and artisans followed them
● Peasants made up about four-fifths of the population
■ Merchants at bottom, but became important as economy expanded
In Japan, as in China, Confucian values influenced ideas about society,
according to Confucius, the ideal society depended on agriculture not commerce
→ Farmers not merchants made ideal citizens
In reality peasant farmers bore the main tax burden & faced more
difficulties than other class
Many farmers abandoned farm life and headed for expanding towns and cities
■ Mixed with samurai, artisans, and merchants
Standard of living grew for urban and rural dwellers
■ Literacy rate was high for a pre-industrial society
By the mid-1700s, Japan began to shift from a rural to an urban society → Edo
had grown from a small village in 1600 to perhaps the largest city in the world
Population was more than 1 million
Tokugawa became more powerful during first century of rule → land
redistribution gave them seven million koku, control of most important cities, & a
land assessment system reaping great revenues
Had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyōs and
the religious orders
Emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the
shogun → was the vassal of the imperial family
The Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by
rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands
● To ensure close ties with imperial clan and the Tokugawa family,
Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619
A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyō houses – 1615 shogunate
issued “Regulations concerning Warrior Households” (again modified in 1635)
■ Private conduct, restricted marriage to prevent alliances, dress, types of
weapons and numbers of troops allowed; required feudal lords to reside
in Edo every other year (the sankin kōtai system); prohibited the
construction of ocean-going ships; proscribed Christianity; restricted
castles to one per domain (han) and stipulated that bakufu regulations
■ Daimyō not taxed → regularly levied for contributions to military, logistical
support, & public works projects: castles, roads, bridges, palaces
■ Various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but
depleted wealth of the daimyōs → weakening their threat
■ Daimyo could not repair or build new castles
■ Passport system limited movement – need shogun’s approval to travel
■ Secret police and espionage system also setup to keep check
■ As a result, the rule of law overcame the rule of the sword
Culture under Tokugawa
○ Traditional culture continued to thrive
○ Traditional entertainment faced competition in the cities from new styles of
literature, drama, and art
■ The people also read haiku poetry
■ Townspeople also attended kabuki theater - actors in elaborate
costumes, using music, dance, and mime, performed skits about modern
Commodore Perry
● July 8 1853 Commodore Perry arrives in Japan with a squadron of military ships
● On behalf of the US govt. he forced Japan to enter into trade with the US and demanded
a treaty opening trade to the US and opening ports to US boats/merchant ships
○ “Black ships of evil men” – many leaders wanted to expel the foreigners
○ Abe Masahiro, the head of the bakufu’s Council of Elders, sought to gain
consensus by requesting all the daimyo to express their opinions – showed the
bakufu’s weakness
○ Commodore perry returned in February 1854
■ Forced Iemochi to sign unequal treaties
March 31 1854 Kanagawa Treaty of Friendship – a treaty was signed between
the US and Japan to allow trading at two ports
○ 1858 Harris Treaty – another treaty was signed which opened up more ports and
designated cities in which foreigners could reside
Clear that commodore perry could impose his demands by force – japanese had no
navy to defend their demands causing them to comply
○ Daimyo also displeased as their personal honour had been violated
○ Those in South (Shishi) became restless – saw Japan as sacred, hated treaties,
and didn’t like Iemochi for going ahead with treaties without emperor’s consent
■ Began movement of Sonno Joi: revere the emperor, expel the barbarians
Japan knew that Perry’s ships were just beginning of change – soon Russia, France,
Britain and Holland followed to set up treaties with Japan and open them up to trade
○ Did not just threaten japan, but also combined forces to defeat and disarm
Japanese forces
Trade brought a lot of foreign currency into the country, disrupting the Japanese
monetary system
○ Injection of forging currency disrupted the monetary system, resulting in inflation
Ruling Shogun seemed unable to do anything – Samurai began to demand a change in
○ Emperor actually interested in treaties – took power away from Shogun
Weakness of Tokugawa before western imperialism, and the trade itself, is what
ultimately led to the downfall of the Tokugawa regime
Issues with Tokugawa
● Short term/specific events
○ Mid 19th century foreigners attempt to trade in Japan again (Commodore Perry)
■ Emperor attempted to expel them – called the foreigners “barbarians”
■ Did nothing as they had better technology and military ships
■ Shogun was unable to stop foreign entrenchment – showed to many that
given isolation they are unable to resist foreign posters
○ Decline of Bakufu Authority (military)
■ Union of the Court and Bakufu (Kōbu gattai) – policy adopted following
the murder of the Prime Minister Ii Naosuke 1860. Assassination,
combined with popular upheaval against foreign encroachment, forced
Bakufu to soften political stance, and to adopt compromise policy – was a
union between imperial court and bakufu – last attempt to grab at power
○ Choshu Satsuma Alliance (Satcho Alliance) 1866
■ Came together to see the fall of Tokugawa
■ Saigo Takamori was leader
■ Believed strongly in Sakoku (no foreigners policy) and Jo-i (expulsion of
foreigners) – opposed modernisation and opening up to foreigners
■ Shogun’s failure to prevent terrorism/assassination reflected its weakness
○ Natural disasters
■ Earthquakes, floods, fires, crop failure and famines in 1830s
Twenty great famines between 1675 and 1837
Long term
○ Restrictions on entrepreneurial class and over emphasis on farmers
■ Government ideal of an agrarian society failed to square with the reality
○ Frustration over lack of meritocracy – samurai felt this way
■ Frustration on limits to limit social advancement (peasants in particular)
○ Contempt for Chonin (merchant class) but assumed big role with growing
■ Samurai and Daimyo also depended on them – alliances formed
■ Represented political movement against Tokugawa/feudal system
■ Peasants dependent on money lenders for seed supplies – often couldn’t
afford to pay back
○ Europeans come to Japan – disrupt lifestyle
■ Jesuits destroyed shrines resulting in Hideyoshi prohibiting christian
activities – missionaries expelled, and traders also removed with the
exception of one dutch group
■ Europeans get kicked out – many people were converted but this
challenged previously established customs and religions – disruption of
Japanese lifestyle
○ Economic issues
■ Financial stringency (not enough money to spend)
■ Failure to tax growing sectors
■ Daimyos faced levies on rice – responsible for rebuilding infrastructure
○ Social
■ Daimyo in heavy debt to merchants
● Daimyo converted tax collections of rice into money, by selling it –
at mercy of astute merchants & fell in debt to them
■ Samurai disappointed
● Mistreated by Daimyo, jealous of Gono merchants as they were
getting rich, and frustrated of feudal structure (lacked meritocracy)
● Rise of Gono and Merchant class - despite being at the bottom
● Ideological structure
○ No personal relation to the emperor, despite god-like
● Many samurai deprived of land – dependent on stipends
○ Stipends weren’t enough to keep up with the growing
merchant and artisan classes
● Peasant uprisings
● Osaka uprising in 1837
● Outbreaks directed against landlords, moneylenders, and officials
As 1867, drew to an end, contingents of armed rebels from Satsuma and Choshu moved
towards Kyoto.
○ January 3 1868, warriors from Satsuma stormed into the royal compound for an
imperial “restoration”
Later that day, a new Emperor Mutsuhito ascended the throne and took the title of ‘Meiji’
or the “Enlightened One”
○ Resistance continued till May 1869, when the Tokugawa navy surrendered
E.H. Norman
Geography was an ally of the exclusionist Japan
Tokugawa family depended on its maintenance on the fruits of self labour, as did the
lesser lords or daimyo – feudal in socio-economic sense
Described it as ‘centralised feudalism’ – feudal institutions were used to create
centralised political power, which was concentrated at the hands of the shogun. But
his dictatorship was sought to be sustained by furthering a feudal structure which
would include decentralisation (paradoxical)
Meiji Restoration 1868 & Era (1868 -1912)
For this question focus on:
Meiji Restoration (1868-1894)
1889 Constitution
Social, cultural and economic developments
Rise of Meiji
● Tokugawa Shogunate was officially ended on Nov 9 1867 – imperial rule restored (fully
restored on January 3 1868)
○ Meiji – means enlightened rule
● Arrive of American admiral Perry
○ Exposing the weakness of the Tokugawa Shogunate
200 years → ruled by 100s of feudal lords
○ Isolated from the rest of the world
○ No match to Western powers
Shishi started movement – Sonno Joi
○ Used this phrase “Japanese spirit, Western technology” to defeat Shogun
○ Other Daimyos too felt they didn’t need to listen to Shogunate anymore
Yoshinobu (shogun) wanted help to reform, but eventually resigns to serve as
○ 15 year old Meiji decided we needed full imperial restoration
■ Wanted to restore emperor who was a puppet
○ All Daimyos convinced to return lands to the Emperor. First time in Japan’s
history to do this – never a centrally controlled country
○ Meiji was still a boy, Meiji’s council was running the country.
○ This was not a public popular restoration – was top down. New government
enforcing new policies for modernisation, there aren’t many people in the streets
demanding that we have conscript army/european warships.
○ Conscript army made samurai obsolete.
■ Break away from feudal hierarchy to a unified
○ Japanable to keep progressing/developing unlike China because they were able
Abolition of feudal rights and privileges
○ More mobilisation between the classes (choose their occupation)
○ Rapid expansion of education
○ Land taxation
○ Creation of national army
○ Government departments committed to industrialisation
Zaibatsu → corporate building block
WW1 → Japan had strong government
Despite poor statistics it was shown that industry had grown
Powerful army (1894 Sino-Japanese War, Russo Japanese War 1904)
Embryonic democratic nation
Strong modernised army
Origin of success → Meiji Emperor
● 1850 – Restlessness in the ranks, no meritocracy
● Foreign exploitation of resources (whaling)
● Japanese Samurai and commoners were pretty worried by the climate – felt the elite
class was not serving the people of Japan properly
● Capital was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo => move designed to bridge East/West together
● Strong solidarity and clear goal among new leaders
○ Most reformers were middle-ranking Samurai – same socio-economic
background and had lived through foreign imperialism and Shoguns
● Wanted to counter imperialism – unfair treaties and foreign trade (by 1870, foreign
imports 70% of all trade)
● All round total modernisation
● Wanted to avoid national humiliation – saw China struggling
Meiji Constitution
● Enthusiasm at top and bottom of hierarchy, as it ends the feudal social hierarchy
People’s constitution written by middle class farmers → local constitution to govern
regional/smaller areas (organising themselves) → happened in many different villages
Farmers were reading Western political philosophy (i.e. Spencer)
Articles were devoted to civil rights, power with the people, not the monarch
Modernisation was always carried from the top to the bottom, but for the first time
modernisation was attempted from the bottom to the top
Late 1870s → democratic ideas were building in the countryside
Meiji leaders were pressured to install a democratic system
Persuaded to write constitution → assembly of elected representatives for people
The real power either lies within the emperor or the former senior statesmen (the people
that advise the emperor)
Social, Cultural, Political Changes in Meiji
● Goal of Meiji Reformers
○ Primary goal to modernise Japan to end unfair treaties
○ Two study missions send to find out how this could be done
■ Both reported that the West’s power seemed to lie in it advances Science,
economy and military
○ Had the slogan “Enrich the country, strengthen the military”
○ They essentially wanted to speed up the process of industrialisation
Iwakura Mission 1872, Hirobumi Mission 1882 → studied overseas to emulate
Western systems
○ Attempting to blend eastern and Western traditions
○ Study the Western ways
Problems facing Meiji Reformers
Social problems
Cultural problems
Japan divided socially by rigid
class/caste system (no
Confucian belief system under the
Tokugawa Bakufu discouraged change
to social system and Westernisation.
Fixed, hereditary system → no
Elements of society hostile to
Westernisation and development.
incentive for people to improve
their lives, reform or innovate.
Samurai stipends 50%
government expenditure in 1871.
No public school system in 1868.
Women had no rights in society.
Samurai culture/ ‘Bushido’ discouraged
Samurai from adapting modern warfare.
- Samurai way of life no longer
upheld in Japanese society
- Large pop. of Samurai no longer
had code of conduct to live by
Japanese national identity weak, many
not committed to emperor
Economic Problems
In 1869 Japan had an advanced
feudal economy but was still based
on agriculture . Silk was its main
No national tax system - lack of
government funds for development
and industrialisation.
Japanese industry faced foreign
competition on unequal terms,
unable to protect its own industries
Japan lacked raw materials for
Social Changes
○ Daimyo and Samurai abolish themselves
○ 1870s government took incremental steps to reduce the power of the Samurai
○ This was necessary in order to reform japanese society from a hereditary status
system to a meritocracy
○ Abolish the hereditary status, install a meritocracy
■ Hereditary status: I’m a samurai because my ancestors were
■ Meritocracy: Merit from the emperor (rewarded), do the job because
you’re best for the job
End of the Samurai
○ 1869 the Samurai ranks were reduced to two: Upper (shizoku) and lower
Samurai (sotsu)
1872 → large portion of lower samurai reclassified as commoners - Stipends
1873 → Stipends are taxed
No more free money → if you want money need to give some back
1873 → Compulsory national conscription
1874 → voluntary program to convert Stipends to government bonds.
Samurais are no longer needed → national army
Bonds promised 5 -15 years of income with 5-7% interest
Few accepted as Stipends were less
1877 → Satsuma Rebellion
■ Samurais rebel due to lack of benefits and downfall of their class
■ Imperial army defeat them comfortably
Other Social Changes
1870 → all non samurai in Japan were classified in legal terms as commoners
1870 - Tokugawa restrictions on modes of travel, clothes (i.e. they could not wear
their hair in a bun) finished
1871 → Daimyo summoned before the emperor where it was declared that land
would return back to the emperor
300 domains turned over, and put under control of a state governor, and
renamed as districts
1888 → several districts had merged to turn reduce to only 75
○ Class distinctions removed
Changes to Education
Mass schooling → like military conscription, a source of the economic and military
strength of the West
1872 → National system of elementary middle school and university education
■ 4 years compulsory national schooling
Emphasised practical and technical learning (math and science)
Taught children how to be patriotic to the emperor – moral training
Ex. success of Japanese patriotism → WW2 Kamikaze (suicide missions
to save the nation)
○ 1905 - 95%
Cultural Changes Westernisation
○ 1870s there was a fashion for anything western from ball-room dancing to beards
and top hats
○ Books, essays and novels all discussed western ideas, especially after Iwakura
■ Dutch books unbanned
Cultural Changes - Eastern Spirit
○ Shintoism was re-established as the state religion and personified in the
emperor and a new Shinto shrine for the nation was built in Tokyo
A way of uniting the people → all believe in the same Gods, morality
■ Making us more Japanese
○ Bushido was re-invented as the soul of japan
■ Make it applicable to everybody
Cultural Changes - Emperor Worship
○ A mixture of western ideas and Japanese traditions was symbolised by the
emperor himself
■ He is still emphasised as a living god in a modern way
○ The emperor became a unifying force for this new nationalism, and he came to
represent the social and national identity of japan
Economic Changes - Financing Growth
○ Samurai costs reached 50% of total government expenditure
1983 → National Land Tax was introduced for the first time (money instead of
○ Raw Silk Production and Export from 1868-1913 – increased by ⅓
○ Rice production grew 30% 1880-1894
Economic Changes - Industrialisation
○ Build new industries and model factories to imitate
Shipping, railways etc. → modern technology brought in
Not enough money → sell industries to private businesses and in return they
receive special privileges
Economic Changes - Other
○ Agricultural students sent abroad to learn new methods
■ New seeds and plants imported
■ Experimental agricultural stations and colleges founded
● Military changes
○ Nationwide draft in 1873 – every male over the age of 21 would serve in the army
for four years, followed by 3 more in reserves
○ Peasant class now had right to bear arms – extended to every male in the nation
● Political changes - strengthening the Meiji state
○ Abolition of feudalism 1871 – as compensation Samurai and Daimyo received
1/20 of clans original income
○ Elected parliament - diet - introduced
○ Men allowed to vote (1925 - technically apart of Taisho democracy period)
○ New criminal and civil code modelled off of european ones
● Political changes - power of Emperor
○ Emperor was believed to descend from the sun god – sacred and inviolable
○ New powers:
■ Supreme commander of army and navy
■ Could dissolve diet
■ Could veto decisions in diet
■ Was the only one who could initiate a change in constitution
Appointed and dismissed cabinet
Created noblemen and appointed some members of House of Peers
Declare war
Sign treaties
○ Nearly 200 uprisings 1868-78 – poor samurais and peasants
○ Some rural discontent eased through higher farmer incomes
○ Powerful army and navy
○ Highly centralised govt.
○ Highly educated population
○ Free of class restrictions
○ Established and growing industrial sector
Satsuma Rebellion
● Revolt of disaffected samurai in 1877 against new imperial govt. 9 years into Meiji
● Comes from Satsuma domain, which had been influential in restoration and became
home to unemployed samurai
● Samurai no longer needed
● Rebellion lasted from Jan 29 1877 – september
○ Crushed as Saigo Takamori, the leader, ended his life
Foreign Policy
● Wanted to guarantee the existing treaties pending revision
● British agreed to a new and equal treaty 1894
○ Other powers quickly followed suit – terminated situation of inequality
○ Meiji govt. decided to negotiate a revision rather than denouncing them – showed
commitment to open diplomacy
● New attitudes symbolised by the Rokumeikan – a pleasure pavilion built by 1880 where
PM Ito Hirobumi entertained westerners
○ Many disapproved
● Frontier demarcation and national security – affected relations with China, Russia and
○ Desire to make economic and strategic use of Korea
● Japan realised that possessions of overseas empire became national greatness
● Relations with Korea were put on a formal footing by the treaty of Kanghwa in 1876
○ 1894 – Japan sent troops into Korean peninsula and denounced the presence of
a Chinese army in Korea and Chinese reluctance to cooperate in reforming the
country’s administration
■ China refused to conciliate, an deas defeated in the war that ensued
○ Under treaty of Shimonoseki, signed April 1895, Japan received a large
indemnity and Taiwan
● Korea then found itself exposed to Japanese exploitation and political influence
○ Anti-japanese sentiments in Korea allowed for possible succor to Russia
Russia had been following an aggressive expansionist policy with building of
trans-siberian railway
■ 1900 was dominant power in Manchuria
○ Tsar wanted to expand into Korea – contested by Japanese
With negotiations having failed, war broke out 1904
○ Russo-japanese war 1904-5 – more serious than sino-japanese war
○ 200 000 Japanese and 300 000 Russians lost their lives/were wounded
○ Japanese troops led by General Nogi Maresuke, gradually won
Meiji Era ended on a note of resounding diplomatic successes
○ Treaty revision was accomplished, and national frontiers designed and secure
○ Japan’s army and navy won two wars, and generally recognised that Japan had
a natural sphere of influence
○ Japan has acquired two colonies: Taiwan (Formosa) and Korea
● Most serious of all, however, was the fact that Japan had come of age of a Great Power
civilization which, though outwardly stable and brilliant, was riddled with national hatred
and rivalries
○ Chinese and Russian empires continued to weaken rapidly, the emergence of a
new Power necessarily created new tensions
○ Japanese diplomacy had a background of unquestioned nationalism in theory
and a marked tendency toward opportunism in practice
○ Neither of these factors did anything to ease the tensions of the world where war
was still thought to be a legitimate extension of diplomacy
W.G. Beasley
○ Historian who argues that when compared with other revolutions like the
French or Russian, the Meiji Restoration did not constitute a revolution in the
classical sense - The Meiji Restoration, Stanford University Press: 1972
Andrew Gordon
○ Historian who states that the Meiji Restoration created fundamental changes in
Japanese society, thus meriting the term 'revolution' - A Modern History of
Japan from Tokugawa Times to the Present, OUP: 2000
Taisho Democracy 1912-1926
For this question focus on:
Brief overview of the period (it isn’t super key but just good to know for context in the lead up
to WW2)
Emperor Taisho was sick since he was young - contracted cerebral meningitis
○ He had limited political power, and this shifted to power to the Diet of Japan
Despite lack of political stability, modernisation efforts continues
Japanese citizens asked for more voice in the government and for more social freedoms
Most open they had ever been as a society
■ Literary societies, mass-audience magazines, and new publications
■ University cities like Tokyo witnessed a burgeoning culture of Europeanstyle cafés, with young people donning Western clothing
■ Thriving music, film, and theater culture grew
Until WW1 Japan enjoyed record breaking economic prosperity
○ People had more money to spend, more leisure, better education, and
development of mass media
○ Increasingly more people lived in cities, which caused them to experience
influence from abroad
■ Industrialisation undermined traditional values
Within this period, Japan experienced mass society – similar to the roaring 20s
○ Japanese people demanded universal manhood suffrage – won in 1925
○ Political parties increased their influence, becoming powerful enough to appoint
their own prime ministers between 1918 and 1931
At end of WW1, Japan entered a severe economic depression
○ Bright optimism of Taisho era ended
■ Party government was marred by corruption
■ Labor unions started large-scale strikes to protest labor inequities,
political injustices, treaty negotiations, and Japanese involvement in
World War I
■ Number of strikes rose from 108 in 1914 to 417 strikes in 1918
■ Post WWI – started with 49 labor organizations and ended with 187 at the
end, with a membership total of 100,000
1918 Rice riots – Japan was experiencing wartime inflation and low wages
○ Increase in the price of rice – impact on the entire country
○ August 1918 in the fishing village of Uotsu, fishermen’s wives attempted to stop
the export of grain from their village in protest against high prices – by october
there were more than 30 separate riots documented
■ They refused to load grain, attacked rice merchants, and protested the
continued high prices
■ Inspired other riots
Great Kanto Earthquake – September 1 1923
○ 7.8 earthquake
○ Earthquake and fires killed more than 150,000 people and 600,000 homeless
○ Koreans living in Tokyo were targeted, as rumors spread that they were
poisoning the water and sabotaging businesses
■ 2,600 Koreans,170 Chinese killed, with 24,000 detained by police
○ Imperial army imposed martial law, and used social unrest as an excuse to
detain political activists
■ After earthquake, relation between emperor and military shifted
■ Prime ministers and cabinet ministers began to make decisions for army
■ Political activists became more vocal, many abducted
Local police and army officials who were responsible claimed these socalled radicals used the earthquake crisis as an excuse to overthrow the
government – more repression and violence soon followed
■ Prime Minister Hara (1918–1921) was assassinated, and a Japanese
anarchist attempted to assassinate Taisho’s first son, Hirohito
Order was restored when conservative arm of the govt. gained influence and passed the
Peace Preservation Law of 1925
○ Threatened 10 years imprisonment for anyone attempting to alter Kokutai (rule
by emperor and imperial govt, as opposed to popular sovereignty)
■ Curtailed individual freedoms
○ The transition in the emperor’s role began with the death of Emperor Taisho on
December 18, 1926
■ Son Hirohito ascended to the throne and chose the name Showa,
meaning “peace and enlightenment.”
○ Began his reign by performing all the ceremonial duties flawlessly but appearing
in public only for highly orchestrated formal state occasions
○ As the political climate shifted more militaristic, so did the role of the emperor
■ One specific gesture is emblematic of the changes occurring in the role
and power of the emperor
○ 1936 – illegal for any ordinary Japanese citizen to even look at the emperor
Government and military, consequently, grew stronger, the parliament weaker
○ Industrial sector became controlled by a few giant businesses, the zaibatsu
○ Japan's international relations disrupted by trade tensions and growing
international disapproval of Japan's activities in China
○ Success in competing with European powers in East Asia strengthened the idea
that Japan could, and should, expand influence on Asian mainland by force
○ Japan's need for natural resources and the repeated rebuffs from the West to
Japan's attempts to expand its power in Asia paved way for militarists power
○ Insecurity in international relations allowed a right-wing militaristic faction to
control first foreign, then domestic, policy
○ With the military greatly influencing the government, Japan began an aggressive
military campaign throughout Asia, and then, in 1941, bombed Pearl Harbor
Taishō Growth
● 1914-1919 real growth (inflation adjusted) in manufacturing is 72% – the labor force
grew by about 42%
○ much of this growth is in heavy industry — areas of the economy which had
previously been profitable only because of the government subsidy
■ gross shipping tonnage grew by six-fold between 1915 and 1918
■ production of electric generators increased 10x
● large generators are for domestic consumption (this area was dominated by Mitsubishi
and Kawasaki)
● Japanese manufacturers of smaller generators make headway into Chinese market –
machine tools (lathes, boring machines)
domestic production did not exist before the war
Demand rose to 17,000 tons by 1918 – modernization of plant in light industry
like textiles
previously textiles remain based heavily on small, often rural factories
in 1914 only 8% of these use electric power, 1919 — 26% use electric power
overall in 1910 about 20% of Japanese factories used electric motors, 1920 about 60%
○ by 1920 only half of the Japanese labor force is the primary sector (agriculture
and forestry) one quarter each in manufacturing and service
Japanese Imperialism
For this question focus on:
Growing military power
Sino Japanese War
Russo Japanese War
Annexation of Korea
Japanese Invasion of Korea
Strengthening the Japanese Nation 1894-5
● Japan deeply affected by WW1 – wreaked economic repercussions
○ Due to the postwar production slowdown, increased trade barriers and tariffs
imposed by the West, and economic strains caused by Great Kanto Earthquake,
Japan fell into an economic depression two years before Great Depression
○ 37 banks forced to close after citizens tried to cash in government-issued
earthquake bonds that had been sold to raise funds for reconstruction
○ Economic crisis brought down civilian govt. and brought to power the zaibatsu
● Japan political and economically vulnerable – rise in political groups
● Cherry Blossom Society, Sakurakai, advocated for military insurrection and “Showa
Restoration” – would free Emperor Hirohito from all political affiliations
○ Believed that political parties established during Taisho were to blame from
economic struggles, and their elimination was key to freeing the nation
○ It only began with a few members sept. 1930 – grew in size quickly, an attracted
several hundred ultranationalist officers from army
○ October 1931 – Sakurakai attempted their first of two coup d’états, or overthrows
of the government, both failed
○ Had a receptive audience with Japanese military leaders
● Emperor was leader, actual power divided among advisers, police, and military
● By 1930s many military officers held legislative and executive power and formed an
independent body that was answerable to only the emperor
● 1920s and early 1930s, Japanese students taught about nation’s new status as a world
power and the responsibility they held in sustaining this status
Each school day began with a procession to a courtyard, Japanese flag was
raised and national anthem played, reinforcing strength and connection to
Japan’s imperial past with its current status
Scholarships for higher education were granted good grades/ hard work and to students
who personified the Japanese military ideal of discipline, tradition, strength, and loyalty
Early 1930s Japanese government established the Board of Information, which
censored the media and outlawed “dangerous thoughts,” ideas that originated in the
West and conflicted with the goals of the Japanese Imperial Army
History books revised and history classes transformed into courses on Japanese ethics
and morals
○ Books about divinity of emperor and the duty of every citizen to worship at the
imperial altar became compulsory reading in all high schools/colleges
Sino Japanese War
● Causes of the War
○ For the control of Korea
■ Loss of the Chinese port of Weihai
○ 1882: Treaty of Chemulpo
■ Provoked by an anti-foreign uprising in Seoul lead by Taewogun, Japan
and China sent troops to restore order.
■ War seemed imminent, China couldn’t afford war, punished Taewogun
(took to Tianjin)
○ China was also the “regional power”. Japan wanted to upset that.
○ Korea had agricultural exports and natural resources
○ Western powers were attempting to make inroads into the East Asia landmass,
so Japan was acting to show how powerful it is and also a preventative measure
against Westerners
■ Newly formed country
○ Japan saw an opportunity to take China’s place in strategically vital Korea after
the 2 Opium Wars that rendered China unable to defend itself
■ Wanted to expand the Japanese Empire
Prevent Russia from threatening Japan → prove their strength
1884 - pro-japanese reformist briefly overthrew the chinese leader?
■ Frustrated by China’s attempt to undermine their authority (suspicion)
○ Tonghak rebellion, pro-japanese koreans started attacking pro-Chinese officials
■ Japan invaded and took over Seoul, replacing the government with projapanese factions
Consequences of the war
○ Japan
■ Internal Consequences:
● The Treaty of Shimonoseki: Taiwan/Formosa, Penghu, and the
Liaodong Peninsula ceded to Japan; Japanese ships allowed to
operate on the Yangtze River, Japan allowed to open
manufactories in ports.
Japan is now the dominant power in Eastern Asia: A string of
decisive victories against the numerically superior Chinese forces
demonstrated the superiority of Western-style tactics which Japan
● Japanese prestige rose significantly.
External Consequences:
● The Triple Intervention: France, Germany and Russia forced
Japan to give up Port Arthur in the Liaodong peninsula;
● Korean started to buckle to Russian influence: The concession to
build a Seoul-Incheon railway(which was granted to Japan in
1894) was revoked and given to the Russians instead.
● Russia signs a 25 year lease on the Liaodong Peninsula and set
up a naval base at Port Arthur, infuriating the Japanese, who were
worried about Russian influence.
● Japan forms an alliance with Britain in 1902, stating that if Japan
were to go to war against a major power in the East and a third
party intervened, Britain would join Japan in said war. This was to
prevent German and French intervention in a possible war
between Russia and Japan.
■ Internal consequences:
● Failure in war leads to 100 Days Reforms.
Total of 35 million casualties in China alone → according to
Chinese sources
○ Western sources estimate 20 million
The war created 95 million refugees
The Qing regime is further discredited → young intellectuals begin
to look abroad for ideas (especially to Japan)
China had to pay reparations to Japan under Treaty of
○ Japan took Formosa (Taiwan) and the Liaodong Peninsula
in southern Manchuria and obligated China to give up its
interests in Korea, and to agree to pay a $25,000,000
The scramble for concessions is launched as foreign powers
demand moe territorial concessions in China itself → puts Qing
state under more pressure
Increase in railway systems built in the country → under the
demand of the foreign powers
Foreign powers took advantage of the situation in China and
gained land, port and trade concessions at the expense of
decaying the Qing empire
○ Countries such as France, Britain and Germany
External consequences:
● China’s international prestige reaches a new low after the defeat
● China loses her network of tributary states and regional role
■ Treaty of shimonoseki
● Recognised Korea’s independence
● China renounced claims to Korea
Tripartite Intervention: Japanese Nationalism Inflamed
● Japanese nationalist feeling incensed by diplomatic intervention of Russia, France and
○ Alarmed by Japan’s victory over China, jointly put pressure on Japan, in Tripartite
Intervention to renounce some of gains made under Treaty of Shimonoseki
● Japan forced to give up strategically important Liaodong peninsula
○ in 1896 accepted in Yamagata-Lobanov Protocol that Russia and Japan would
jointly exercise over Korea
○ Nationalist sentiment was further inflamed in 1898 when Russia forced China to
grant it a 25-year lease on the Liaodong Peninsula
Anglo-Japanese Alliance 1902
● Japan’s victory in the 1894-1895 war with China earned Japan further respect from the
western powers, who were already increasingly impressed by the modernization
achieved by Japan since the late 1860s
● By 1897, the foreign powers had given up their rights of extraterritoriality in Japan and
largely renounced their control over Japanese tariffs
● Further confirmation of Japan’s growing status was the signing of an alliance with Britain
in 1902, under the terms of which each was obliged to help the other if it found itself at
war with more than one country and to remain neutral if the other went to war with one
other country
Russo Japanese War
● Blocked in the Balkans since the Congress of Berlin (an international conference held in
Berlin after the Russian-Turkish War of 1877-1878 ended), Russia turned in the Far
East, encouraged by the weakness of the Chinese Empire
● In 1898, the Chinese government allowed Russia to build a railway across Manchuria
and granted it a 25-year lease on the Liaodong Peninsula, including Port Arthur
● Tsar Nicholas II’s ministers urged him to look to expand into Korea
○ Brought Russia into conflict with Japan
● In Japan, 1901, nationalists set up the Amur River Society, an organization committed to
promoting Japanese imperialist expansion
The society attracted a lot of support within Japan’s armed forces
Since 1897 the Japanese government had spent over half of its annual budget
on the military, creating powerful land and naval forces
Negotiations between Russia and Japan broke down in Feb 1904
Japan’s victory in the war with Russia earned it great respect internationally
○ Despite growing international recognition of Japan’s status as a power, once
again Japanese nationalists were deeply unhappy with Treaty of Portsmouth
particularly the failure to extract an indemnity from Russia and serious rioting
broke out in major cities
Martial law had to be imposed and PM Katsura resigned
○ In the year following its victory over Russia, Japan steadily expanded it control
over Korea brutally suppressing Korean resistance until, in 1910, it annexed
Korea and incorporated it into the Japanese Empire
Annexation of Korea
HL Topic 3: Korea
Korea: Isolation to Annexation
For this question focus on:
Why Korea was known as 'the Hermit Kingdom'
How Korean isolation ended and why
The influence of Queen Min (Empress Myeongseong) and what she represented.
The causes, progress and consequences of the Tonghak rebellion
The causes, progress and consequences of the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910
Korea relationship with its neighbours, particularly China and Japan
Decline of the Joseon Dynasty
Joseon Dynasty was the Golden Age of Korean history.
○ Advances in Math, Language and Art
The Joseon Dynasty declined because of Manchurian and Japanese invasions. Korea
was left in a state of corruption and poverty because of these invasions.
Since the late 1500s, the Korean government was run by factions. But, they soon started
meaningless arguments and no real discussion happened/no progress was made.
These politicians were elite scholars of the highest class.
Deep class segregations, highest class known as “Yangban”
But, the highest of the highest level politicians grouped together in Hyung-Syun. Too
much power was concentrated in their region of Korea - the interests of other states was
○ Leaders of these states took advantage of the situation, became corrupt
○ They stole tax money. The gap between rich and poor expanded rapidly.
○ The aristocrats forced peasants to give them money, land and additional taxes
when the price of rice was low, then get a lot of return back when the price of rice
was high in Spring
Powerful merchants manipulated inflation by storing money/products
King Jeongjo sought to fix these products
○ Sent inspectors to keep corruption in check.
○ Promoted bipartisan cooperation, less corrupt justice system.
○ But, Jeongjo needed support for these reforms, and brought in the powerful Kim
Korea: From Hermit Kingdom to Colony
Korea began entering a decline in 1800s after powerful clans began marrying eachother
○ Uprisings in 1811-1812, Rice Riot in Seoul in 1833
Yet, politically/economically it was still ok. Population was on the rise, agricultural
progress kept pace
VERY ISOLATIONIST. Koreans were forbidden to travel except on diplomatic missions
to Japan or China.
○ Koreans didn’t like Chinese because of barbarian Manchus in charge
○ Japan was viewed as less than fully civilized
○ Western people = clever barbarians
Koreans were proud of their orthodox Confucian teachings
But, white people tore apart Japan and China Korean people started getting worried
○ Some Koreans decided to go Christian and didn’t accept traditional Korean
teachings. Koreans executed a few hundred of them.
To combat this Taewongun carried out vigorous tax plan and removed Sowon (private
academics for rich people basically)
French and American ships came to Korea to try and force it out of isolationist state. But
Koreans fought back pretty well, sent French/Americans back
○ Taewongun said “to urge appeasement is to betray the nation”
But, it wasn’t able to cope with Japanese, Chinese, Russian and British pressure later
○ After Meiji Restoration the Japanese showed up in Korea all westernised and
disregarded diplomatic order of the East Asian world
○ Koreans were like ?? da fuq and refused to receive the Japs
Japanese got mad, in 1876 sent gunboats. Forced Korea to sign Treaty of Kanghwa
○ This treaty opened up Korean ports to Japanese traders. Began Japanese
penetration that would eventually undermine its economic and social order.
1876-1884 Chinese also got involved in Korea and got Korea to implement a few
In 1881 Kojong set up basically a Foreign Ministry and had a group of 80 cadets learn
from Japanese soldiers
○ Group of 80 were called “Special Skills Task Force”. Other troops were jealous
about SSTF and there was mutiny
○ Japan/China took this as an excuse to get even more involved. China sent a
huge army to settle down in Korea - occupied parts of Seoul even!
Japan tried to expose a small group of Koreans to western ideas that fueled Meiji
○ These Koreans were eager for something new, were quick to adopt a new set of
values and beliefs. They wanted tax reform, creation of modern police/military,
less pressure on peasants etc
■ Basically wanted a Meiji Reform in Japan
○ Eventually this resulted in the Political Disturbance of the Year Kapsin in 1884 coup attempt.
○ Coup failed after China intervened. Forced Korea to sign Treaty of Tianjing in
Next 10 years China bossed Korea under YSK, they didn’t want Japan to get too
important in Eastern Asia.
China tried cutting Korea off from the rest of the world. This was hard because China
was already in decline. Soviets were interested in Korea and also the Japanese were
still trading with Korea
Then we had the Tonghak Rebellion. Happened because Chinese and Japanese
merchants penetrated interior Korea, increasing taxes. Peasants got angry
○ Tonghak was a religious sect mixed of Confucians, Daoism and Buddhism
○ Rose up against Joseon Government
○ Korea called China for help but by the time China came in Rebellion was already
○ Chinese sent in troops, Japanese got unhappy, sent their own. Rebellion
Japan decided to kick the Chinese out of Korea with force - starting the Sino-Japanese
War. Tokyo wanted a pro-reform, pro-Japan government in place. China was defeated
quickly and had to sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895.
Between 1894-1896 Korean reformers supervised by Japanese leadership implemented
a series of reforms called the Kabo Reform. Had foreign affairs ministry, finance ministry,
justice, education, agriculture, defense, etc
Judicial system was rationalized, slavery was abolished, legal status of yangban (elite)
was abolished, we had a meritocracy in place. Japanese prestige was enormous after it
defeated China - Meiji Restoration sorta thing was seen as desirable within Korea
But, then Japan had to give up Port Arthur to Russia and other gains from its war with
China. In October 1895, a few Japanese thugs also broke into the palace and murdered
Queen Min (then burnt her body with kerosene). This was brutal and shocked the
Koreans = wave of Anti-Japanese sentiment in the region.
Because Japanese were waning in influence, Kabo reformers couldn’t maintain power.
1894 Tonghak Rebellion
● In 1894, Korean peasants and village officials rose up against the Joseon government
due to the crushing tax burdens
● Alike the Boxer Rebellion, the Tonghak Rebellion was very anti-foreigner
“Eastern learning” → “Drive out the Japanese dwarfs and Western barbarians”
As the rebels took provincial towns and capitals and marched towards Seoul, Emperor
Min urged Gojong to ask Beijing for aid → China responded in June 1894: Sent in 2,500
China soldiers to reinforce Seoul’s defenses
Japan expressed her outrage at China’s interference → used the rebellion as
pretext and sent 4,500 Japanese troops to Incheon over the protests of Min and
The Tonghak Rebellion lasted for a week, but the foreign forces (China and Jap) did not
○ Korea demanded that both sides withdraw their forces
July 23rd, 1894: Japanese troops marched into Seoul and captured Gojong and Min
August 1st, 1894: Japan and China declared war on one another
This led to the Sino-Japanese War from 1894-1895
The End of Sovereignty
Japan and Russia were fighting over control of Korea in 1895-1905
In 1896, Pro-Russian officials removed the king from the throne and sent him to Russia
People in Korea realised Korea had just become a pawn of these greater powers.
○ Formed Independence Club in 1896
○ Leader founded the Independent - newspaper with their ideals of reform and
government structure. Club sponsored public debates about returning the King
back to Korea. Guy in charge of the Indepence Club was So Chae Pil
○ When old Emperor came back from Russia So Chae Pil called himself Emperor
○ Wanted government to stop leasing land to foreigners, modernise the state
○ The government was all conservative and didn’t like Independence Club. King
ordered them to be dissolved. Reform efforts had failed
Government was now left with a bunch of incompetent fools who didn’t do much with
Korea for a few years
However, Korea was being opened up to the rest of the world. People started going to
school, intellectuals were re-examining Korea’s place in the world, railway systems were
built, cities got more cosmopolitan, korean alphabet was standardised (symbol of
Russo-Japanese war consolidated Japan’s control over Korea, set a new rule that Korea
couldn’t do any diplomatic deals/sign treaties without consulting Japan
In 1905 through Taft-Katsura Memorandum US basically said Korea was part of Japan’s
sphere of influence, as long as Japan recognises that Philippines is part of the US’s
sphere of Influence. Britain did the same.
Japan got Hirobumi (Meiji Restoration guy) to come to Korea. Got King Kojong to sign
through trickery, put his mentally-handicapped son in place. Also disbanded Korean
army (only 9k strong though)
○ By this time, most resistance forces people had either been killed or had
committed suicide or had fled Korea. Former Yangban and discharged soldiers
fought a guerilla war against the Japs for 3 years, but got wrecked and 17k
Koreans died
○ By August 1910, Korea had been officially annexed and became a Japanese
Why Did Japanese Annex Korea?
Meiji Restoration = Japan needed its own Empire
Yukichi believed that Japan had a right to protect Korea/China from invasion as the two
of them weren’t adapting
Koreans were inferior
Imperialism, economic (resources), military (russian expansionism in the region)
Order of Korean people: Taewongun, Kojong (Queen Min’s bich),
Queen Min’s death triggered all of korea, got them to hate Japs and Russians
Korea’s inexperience with the West, Tributary System with China, and pride in Confucian
values were the source of their ultimate downfall when the West did come by
A few intellectuals understood how complex Korea’s geopolitical situation was, but the
ruling elite didn’t understand. Chinese interference, Japanese expansionism, Russian
intrigue = all contributed to their downfall.
Greatest threat to Korea was a swiftly modernising Japan
Taewongun reforms
○ In 1864, King Kojong assumed the throne but was only 11. His father, Grand
Prince Yi Ha-eung assumed the role of regent (Taewn’gun).
○ Between 1864-73, he initiated some centralising reforms aimed at curbing
corruption, disciplining Royal Clans and taxing the aristocracy.
○ He also tried to protect Korea through an isolationist foreign policy – no treaties,
no trade, no Catholics, no West, no Japan!
● Kojong Comes of Age
○ In this regard the Taewn’gun had some successes, defeating foreign attempts to
‘open’ Korea: The French and Americans were defeated in 1866 and 1871.
○ However the Taewn’gun was forced into semi-retirement in 1873 when King
Kojong came of age, supported by his influential wife, Queen Min.
○ King Kojong was a weak king who often changed his mind but was open to
modernisation, seeking greater ties with Japan and the West.
● Treaty of Kangwha - 1876
○ However many conservatives, including his wife Queen Min who supported
continuing ties with Qing China, opposed contact with the Japanese.
○ The imposition of the Treaty of Kangwha in 1876 by the Japanese was therefore
hugely divisive.
○ The King had no choice but to sign and his Royal Court was split between proChinese (Queen), pro-Japanese (King) and anti-foreign (Taewn’gun) camps.
○ The Treaty forced Korea to end its policy of isolationism by opening its ports to
trade with Japan.
○ It exempt Japan from Customs Duties and gave Extraterritoriality Rights to
Japanese Citizens – similar to the Treaty imposed on Japan by Commodore
○ The Treaty also angered China. Korea was a tributary state of China but was too
weak to protest – both nations were now competing to control Korea.
● Kojong Reforms and Imo Mutiny 1882
Despite the resentment of the Treaty by many conservatives, the King pressed
ahead with reforms, accepting Japanese advice.
○ However the Taewn’gun opposed any reforms and changes to the policy of
○ In July 1882, he supported a military uprising in Seoul known as the Imo Mutiny.
Soldiers attacked the palace, over-ran the Japanese legation and killed
government officials including members of the Min Clan.
Kojong Reforms and Gaspin Coup
○ Queen Min appealed to the Chinese for help, and the Taewn’gun was promptly
arrested. The Koreans apologised to Japan, paid an indemnity and allowed
Japan to station troops at their embassy. The King pressed on, supported by
some Yangban officials, who created the Enlightenment Party in 1882, partly
inspired by the Meiji Reformers. In December 1884, they attempted a revolution,
known as the Gapsin Coup, with the help of the Japanese.
Tonghak Rebellion
○ Whilst the Tonghak Rebellion started as a religious movement for social change,
it quickly took on the aspect of a national peasant rebellion against the prevailing
system and the foreign influence that plagued Korea.
○ The inability of King Kojong to deal with the rebellion triggered the involvement of
China and Japan, which resulted in the Sino-Japanese War.
○ The end result was that the Tonghak Rebellion weakened Korea enabling Japan
to dominate and finally annex Korea in 1910.
■ Sino-Japanese War - The most immediate consequence was that the
Tonghak Rebellion triggered the involvement of China and Japan.
■ The Treaty of Shimoneski which ended the war in 1895 excluded Chinese
influence from Korea, leaving Japan in a position to control Korea.
Having huge influence over the the government enabled Japan to force
reforms on the Korean government, leading to the Kabo Reforms of 18941897 which modernised Korea.
■ The Japanese also consolidated their power by assassinating Queen Min,
who’s family oligarchy were resisting Japanese influence.
■ Finally, in defiance of the Japanese, King Kojong sought closer ties with
Russia, declaring himself Emperor of the Korean Empire – independent of
both China and Japan.
■ This would create tensions, ultimately leading to the Russo-Japanese
War in 1904-05.
Sino-japanese War
○ In 1894 the Tonghak Rebellion broke-out. The Korea government panicked and
pleaded for Chinese help. China sent over 3000 troops to Seoul led by Yuan
Shikai. Under the Tianjin Convention, Japan should have been informed but was
not. Japan then used this is a pretext to attack China, sending over 7000 troops
to Korea. The Sino-Japanese War had begun.
Treaty of Shiminoseki
○ Japan soundly defeated China and in the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, Korea
was declared an independent nation, no longer a tributary state of China. Japan
was now in control and the pro-Japanese government pressed ahead with
reforms. The Gabo Reforms of 1894-95 ended the old class system, ended civil
service exams, ended slavery and reformed the judicial and economic systems.
Assassination of Queen Min
○ Many conservative Korean officials who opposed these reforms rallied behind
Queen Min, who worked to block them. Japan decided to assassinate Queen Min
in order to remove this barrier to its progress. Some theories suggest the King
and the Taewn’gun were involved! However the assassination triggered
nationwide opposition to the Japanese, and even the King was angered, fleeing
to the Russian legation.
Brief Westernisation
○ King Kojong blocked Japanese reforms and ruled from the Russian legation for
over a year between February 1896 – February 1897. The King then pursued a
pro-Western foreign policy, allowing Russian and American businesses into
Korea as a counter-weight to Japanese influence. Trade and resource
concessions were given to Russia, and American & European businesses helped
to modernise the economy.
The Empire of Korea
○ In 1897, King Kojong, with the backing of Russia, announces the ‘Empire of
Korea’ with himself as Emperor and declares the Empire entirely independent of
Japanese influence. This angers Japan who are becoming concerned by the
growing influence of Russia in Korea. Japan begins plotting to destroy Russian
influence in Korea, signing the 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance, aimed against
Russian power.
The Russo Japanese War 1904-5
In 1904 Japan launched a surprise attack on the Russian navy at Port Arthur and
eventually beat Russia entirely. In the 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth, Russia was
forced to acknowledge Japanese control of Korea. The Treaty designated Korea
as a Japanese ‘protectorate’ and Ito Hirobumi was appointed as Japanese
Korea under Japanese Rule
For this question focus on:
The impact of Japanese rule in Korea
The nature of Japanese conscription of Korean soldiers
The nature of Japanese use of forced Korean labour
The nature of Japanese use of Korean 'comfort women'.
Under Japanese Rule
1873 → debate in Japan concerning whether or not to conquer Korea.
One faction insisted Japan confront Korea due to Korea’s refusal to recognize
the legitimacy of Emperor Meiji as head of the Empire of Japan, and for insulting
treatment to Japanese envoys attempting to establish trade and diplomatic
1876 → Treaty of Ganghwa - opened three Korean ports to Japanese trade and granted
extraterritorial rights to Japanese
Japanese influence increased with the subsequent assassination of Korean
Empress Myeongseong, also known as Queen Min, in 1895.
Rivalry between RUssia and Japan over Northern China and Korea led to Russojapanese war 1904-5 - Japan won
○ Treaty of Portsmouth, signed in September 1905, Russia acknowledged Japan’s
“paramount political, military, and economic interest” in Korea
Under Japanese pressure the reigning Korean ruler, Emperor Gojong, was forced to
relinquish his imperial authority and appoint the crown prince as regent.
Japanese officials used this to force the accession of the new emperor, Sunjong
→ Gojong never agreed
○ Sunjong was last ruler of the Joseon Dynasty, founded in 1392
May 1910, Japanese Minister of War Terauchi Masatake had mission of finalizing
Japanese control over Korea after previous treaties, the Japan-Korea Protocol of 1904
and the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty of 1907, formalized Korea as a protectorate of
Japan and had established Japanese hegemony over Korean domestic politics
○ On August 22, 1910, Japan annexed Korea with the Japan-Korea Annexation
Treaty signed by Lee Wan-Yong, prime minister of Korea, and Masatake, first
Japanese governor general of Korea
○ The governor general answered directly to the Japanese prime minister
○ All of the subsequent governor generals were high-ranking Japanese military
In 1912, the Government-General promulgated laws which allowed the Japanese to
basically have ownership of all Korean land
○ Japan implemented a large-scale resettlement program in which 98,000
Japanese owner-families settled in Korea prior to 1918
Soon, Korean farmers deprived of their own land and forced to work for Japanese
○ The fruits of their hard work would go to the Japanese government – constantly
on the brink of starvation
○ 724,727 Korean workers were sent to mainland Japan, Sakhalin, and parts of the
southern Pacific Islands as forced labor in the mining, construction, and
shipbuilding industries
The Governor-general, in 1911, forced measures that gave the Japanese freedom to fell
trees which allowed Japanese lumbering companies more authority in dealing with
Korean resources
○ May of 1918, the Japanese promulgated the Korean Forestry Ordinance, which
forced forestry owners to register with the colonial office. By controlling which
companies would be allowed to forest, the Japanese used the pretext of
nationalization to transfer the ownership of 1,090,000 hectares of village forests
and 3,090,000 hectares of grave forests to Japanese lumbering companies
In order to prevent resistance by the Korean people, Japanese Government-General
had to be careful of public awareness and education
○ “Thus, in a nationwide search conducted in 1910 for books on Korean history and
geography, 200,000 to 300,000 were confiscated and burned”
Japan also attempted to re-interpret Korean history in order to prevent nationalism
○ Historians ordered by the Japanese government to distort Korean history
The government tightened its control of traditional as well as private schools. Schools
were closed and children were denied the opportunity to learn, leaving 90% of the youth
uneducated and illiterate. Between 1910 to 1922, the number of private schools was
reduced from 2,000 to about 600.
Upon Emperor Gojong’s death, anti-Japanese rallies took place across Korea → March
1st Movement of 1919.
A declaration of independence was read in Seoul → An estimated two million
people took part in these rallies
The Japanese responded by violently suppressing the protests → 46,948 were
arrested, 7,509 killed, and 15,961 wounded, while the Japanese placed the
figures at 8,437 arrested, 553 killed, and 1,409 wounded
In theory, the Koreans, as subjects of the Japanese emperor, enjoyed the same status
as the Japanese, but in fact the Japanese government treated the Koreans as a
conquered people.
○ Until 1921 they were not allowed to publish their own newspapers or to organize
political or intellectual groups.
With the Japanese occupation of the peninsula, many former Korean soldiers and other
volunteers left for Manchuria and Primorsky Krai in Russia.
○ Koreans in Manchuria formed resistance groups - Dongnipgun (Liberation
Army), crossing the Korean-Chinese border to carry out guerrilla attacks against
Japanese forces.
○ Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1932 and subsequent pacification of
Manchukuo—the Japanese eventually creating a puppet government in
Manchuria—deprived many of these resistance groups of their base of
■ Forced to either flee west to China or to join communist-backed forces in
After 1937, when Japan launched the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) against
China, the colonial Japanese government decided on a policy of mobilizing the entire
country for war.
○ economy reorganized into a war footing & Koreans were to be assimilated into
the Japanese Empire
○ Government enlisted Korean youths in Japanese Army as volunteers in 1938 and
as conscripts in 1943
○ Worship at Shinto shrines became mandatory, and preservation of Korean
national identity were discouraged
Japanese rule was harsh, particularly after Japanese militarists began their expansionist
○ Internal Korean resistance virtually ceased in the 1930s as police and the military
gendarmes imposed strict surveillance and punishments against antigovernment
○ Most Koreans opted to pay lip service to the colonial Japanese government
while some actively collaborated.
December 9, 1941, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, formed in
opposition to Japanese rule under the presidency of Kim Gu, declared war on Japan and
Nazi Germany
○ The provisional government brought together Korean resistance groups such &
Tens of thousands of Koreans volunteered to be in of such groups & the National
Revolutionary Army and the People’s Liberation Army
○ The communist-backed Korean Volunteer Army (KVA) was established in Yenan,
China, outside of the provisional government’s control, from a core of 1,000
deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army
KVA eventually entered Manchuria, where it recruited from the ethnic Korean
population and became the Korean People’s Army of the Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea.
Prior to the annexation of Korea, Japanese merchants had begun settling in towns and
cities in Korea seeking economic opportunities → By 1910, the no. of Japanese in Korea
reached over 170,000, creating the largest overseas Japanese community in the world
at the time.
From 1939, labor shortages in Japan from the conscription of Japanese males led to
official efforts to recruit Koreans to work in Japan, initially through civilian agents and
later through coercion.
○ Labor shortage increased by 1942, Japanese authorities extended provisions of
the National Mobilization Law to include the conscription of Korean workers for
factories and mines on the Korean peninsula and in Manchukuo, and the
involuntary relocation of workers to Japan
■ Of some 5,400,000 Koreans conscripted by the Japanese for labor, about
670,000 were taken to Japan
● Those brought to Japan often forced to work in coal mines,
military plant/factories, military construction, often under
dangerous conditions.
■ An estimated 60,000 died between 1939 and 1945 from harsh treatment,
inhumane working conditions, and Allied bombing
● The total deaths of Korean forced laborers in Korea and
Manchuria was estimated between 270,000 and 810,000.
Beginning in 1938, Koreans both enlisted and were conscripted into the Japanese
military as the first “Korean Voluntary” unit.
In 1938, the Japanese began accepting Korean volunteers into the army of Manchukuo,
forming the Gando Special Force.
○ This unit specialized in counterinsurgency operations against Communist
1944, Japan started the conscription of Koreans into the armed forces.
○ All Korean males were drafted to either join the Imperial Japanese Army or work
in military-related industry
■ Before 1944, approximately 18,000 Koreans were inducted into the Army
■ From 1944, about 200,000 Korean males were drafted into military
service, the total number of Korean military personnel reaching 242,341,
of which 22,182 died during the war
Korean women became victims of the Japanese comfort women program, serving in
Japanese military brothels
○ estimated number ranged from 10,000 to 200,000, which included Japanese
women as well
○ There were reports that Japanese officials and local collaborators kidnapped or
recruited poor rural women from Korea and other nations for sex slavery under
the guise of offering them factory employment
Korean Society
● Factories were also built in Korea in attempt to rapidly industrialise
○ The urban population in Korea grew quickly
○ Though Korea remained agricultural to provide Japan with food
● The Japanese were repressive in their superficial reforms
○ 1919: Koreans took part in peaceful demonstrations for independence
Japanese responded by executing and arresting a lot of Koreans → thousands
were killed
After these demonstrations, the Japanese made some small, yet superficial reforms
Before the March First Movement, the level of education and length of education
terms/semesters in Korea was much shorter than ones in Japan → education in
Korea was replicated against modern education in Japan after these peaceful
Koreans were allowed to print newspapers and hold meetings
Also granted religious freedom → more respect towards Korean customs
1930s → Japanese tried to assimilate the Koreans
Forced them to adopt Japanese names
1938 onwards: Only Japanese education thrived in Korea
Schoolchildren were forbidden to speak Korean
Shinto (the Japanese state religion) was also forced upon Koreans
During WWII, many Koreans were forced to work in Japan
■ However, in 1945 when the Japanese surrendered to the allies, Korea
was no longer under Japanese hegemony
Comfort Women
● Background to the establishment of comfort stations
○ Comfort stations established in various locations in response to the request of
the military authorities at the time
○ Government documents cite as reasons for establishing comfort stations the
need to prevent anti-Japanese sentiments from fermenting as a result of rapes
and other unlawful acts by Japanese military personnel against local residents in
the areas occupied by the then Japanese military, the need to prevent loss of
troop strength by venereal and other diseases, and the need to prevent
● Timing of the establishment of comfort stations
○ Documents indicate that comfort stations established in Shanghai at the time of
Shanghai Incident in 1932, it is assumed that comfort stations were in existence
since then till end of WW2. The facilities expanded as the war spread.
Areas with comfort stations
○ Confirmed existence: Japan; China; the Philippines; Indonesia; the then Malaya;
Thailand; Burma; New Guinea; Hong Kong; Macao; and French Indochina.
Number of comfort women
○ No document has been found which either indicates their total number or gives
sufficient ground to establish an estimate. However, in view of the fact, as
described above, that comfort stations were operated in extensive areas for long
periods, it is apparent that there existed a great number of comfort women.
Comfort women's place of origin
○ Confirmed that the comfort women that came were: Japan; the Korean
Peninsula; China; Taiwan; the Philippines; Indonesia; and the Netherlands
○ Many comfort women transferred to the war areas were from the Korean
Operation and management of comfort stations
○ Many run by private operators, some areas Japanese military directly operated.
○ Even where un by private operators, the then Japanese military was involved
directly – by such means as granting permissions to open the facilities, equipping
the facilities, drawing up the regulations that set the hours of operation and tariff
and stipulated such matters as precautions for the use of the facilities.
Recruitment of comfort women
○ In many cases private recruiters conducted the recruitment of comfort women
○ Pressed by the growing need for more comfort women stemming from the spread
of the war, these recruiters resorted in any cases to coaxing and intimidating
these women to be recruited against their own will, and there were even cases
where administrative/ military personnel directly took part in the recruitments.
Transportation of comfort women, etc.
○ When the recruiters had to transport comfort and other women by ship or other
means of transportation, the then Japanese military approved requests for their
travel by such means as regarding such women as having a special status
similar to its civilian personnel serving in the military, and the Japanese
Government issued certificates of identification. Many women were transported
to the war areas by military ships and vehicles, and in some cases they were left
behind in the confusion of the route that ensued Japanese defeat.
- The rapid growth of the Korean economy under the Japanese rule, which as historians
note cannot be ignored in the analysis of the later economic success of South Korea,
continues to be the subject of controversy between the two Koreas and Japan. While
the growth is unquestionable, North Korea and South Korea point to alleged long-term
negative repercussions caused by how the acceleration of industrialization under
Japanese occupation was executed.
V Casual INFORMAL P3 Wrap-up for last min memorisation
Characterise Qing
Deeply Confucian, Autocratic
High taxes (up to 70% for some) booming economy (5.9% growth), booming population
Peasants/farmers particularly disadvantaged
Extremely corrupt Grand Council
Bannerman were lazy, sense that Qing had lost its mandate from heaven
People were unhappy, rural groups formed alliances to rebel against the Qing. Mainly due to
anti-Manchu sentiments, pro-Han sentiments. White Lotus Sect, Heavenly Reason Sect, were
all examples. Hit and run attacks, nothing major, but still enough to force them to spend 50% of
annual budget fighting off rebellions. Exposed weakness of Qing, made secret societies all the
more important.
Qing got screwed in the First Opium War (started by Brits to settle trade deficit), signed treaty of
nanking (granted indemnity, extraterritoriality, opening of 5 ports, cession of HK). Treaty of
Whampoa with France and similar countries too .Got screwed again in Second Opium War,
forced to sign Convention of Beijing (military occupation, freedom of religion, opening up more
ports, repatriation). Chinese ships were too noob to put up a fight.
Self Strengthening Movement
Qing were on brink of collapse after all the shit that happened to them. Decided they needed to
fix it by ripping off Western Science & Tech but still wanted to maintain Confucian ideals. Didn’t
really help much, they didn’t realise it’s the Western ideals that keeps them powerful, not their
technology lmao.
Anyway they improved the following:
national defence (arsenals, shipyards, military schools)
industry (new enterprises operated by government, coal mines, etc)
Communication means were set up (railways, light houses, shipping routes improved)
Trade was promoted
Foreign relations were set up
Important dudes: Zeng Guo Fan (agriculture guy), Li Hong Zhan (main man), Prince Gong
(basically Secretary of State)
SSM failed because Conservatives were too meh to change. Cixi was corrupt. Emperor Tongzhi
was too young to rule. Scholars didn’t see value in West. Farmers thought building new stuff
ruined Feng Shui (lmao). Qing didn’t have money to spend + officials were idiots.
Sino-Japanese War
in 1895 Japan wrecked China in a war. Territory was conceded, Japanese ships allowed to
move around in Chinese territory. Japan’s prestige rose significantly - tribute system was
dismantled. Massive reparations, 35 million casualties. Korea = Japan’s now. Led to 100 Days
HONG XIU QUAN (bae) thinks he’s the brother of Jesus lolololol. Demands change in Qing tired of corruption, high taxes, population, famine, Qing Decadence.
Has his own Heavenly Kingdom with a few hundred thousand soldiers/followers. They actually
wage war against the Qing - low-key supported by the white dudes - get all the way to Nanking
before foreigners storm in and destroy them.
40 million dead. RIP QING’S reputation. POWER WAS DECENTRALISED as warlords were
asked to fight Taiping
100 Day Reform
Tried to reform, failed again after recent failures with Taiping, Japan and SSM.
This failed too because there were tons of ideas but no action. Also the intellectuals swarmed in
and shat on everything as usual. Also Cixi was still pretty anti change.
Reforms were: education reform (modern military practice instead of swordsmanship),
conventional subjects, publication of a newspaper, establishment of university, abolition of
sinecure posts, progressive minded officials put in. Military was improved (institutions +
Nothing happened here they all failed.
Boxer Rebellion
Angsty teenage fighters led a revolution. Fighting for same stuff as Taipings basically. Except
Boxers thought they were bullet-proof (legit went into battle thinking guns couldn’t hurt)
Hated famine (duh), local industries were suffering, poor harvest, bla bla.
BUT, they wanted to “support the Qing, eliminate the foreigners”.
Cixi wanted to vent anger against the foreigners, low-key riled up the Boxers and supported
them thinking she could boot out the Foreigners with them.
THAT backfired, 50k foreign troops came in, crushed Boxers, occupied Beijing.
Cixi left, 130k dead, foreigners were pretty mean to locals.
Resulted in loss of life, more taxes, highlighted Qing decadence, sparked 1010. Further
decentralisation of power.
1010 Revolution
SYS the happy chum comes and wants a new government. Starts a revolution.
Built on SYS and his 3 principles: Nationalism, Socialism and Democracy
1010 Revolution also wanted “sinicization” => making all Chinese follow Han Chinese norms.
New life Movement => crushing of foreign influences in China (Soviet, Western, American),
introduce Confucian ideals.
Resentment towards Manchus
Led to abdication of Puyi, resignation of SYS (eventually). Failure to capitalise on momentum
led to rise of CCP.
4 Modernisations
Initially established by Zhou En Lai in 1975. Wanted to develop national defence,
agriculture, science and industry to match the West.
Deng Xiao Ping was a far-sighted realist, he would say “it does not matter if the cat is
white or black, if it catches the mouse, it is a good cat”
○ Deng Xiao Ping believed that ideology could not lead to economic success,
GLF/Great Famine alarmed him
○ Communism vs Pragmatism
Open door policy was implemented, opening China to foreign investment (success of
Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan motivated Deng)
○ Government spent 40 billion for 100,000 construction projects
● Economic:
○ Steel production increased by 300% from 1985 to 1999
○ Coal production doubled
○ Electricity production increased 10% a year
○ State owned enterprises changed to collective ownership, were allowed to sell
any surpluses over and above their quota for a profit on the open market
○ Special Economic Zones (Zhuhai, Shenzhen, Xiamen) allowed for exports to
increase by 250%
○ Open Door Policy
● Agricultural
Household Responsibility system was introduced (land remained public, but each
peasant received a plot of land and negotiated a contract with the commune
production team. Each household controlled the land and could sell surplus for a
○ Rise/wheat yield increased by 50%
○ China’s grain harvest topped 400 million tons
○ Land could be leased out for 50 years
Science and Technology
○ 800,000 professional researchers
○ Up to date research centers
○ State funds available for researchers, patent laws were introduced
Military Modernisation
○ Army’s leadership was restructured, improved salaries
○ Spent 300 billion USD on military equipment by 1985
Successes of 4 Ms
Failures of 4 Ms
Adoption of Western tech
- (New Leap Outward, instead of GLF)
- Deng introduced “Chinese style
Inflation estimated to be around 15%,
government budgets revealed growing
Foreign construction projects
Major cutbacks on foreign construction
projects (abruptly terminated in 1981)
Famine and poverty reduced (estimated
30%), but rural areas still quite poor
Emergence of new classes (new prestige to
scientists, engineers, plant managers, writers
and artists)
Generally greater quality of life in urban areas
(disposable income rose by 11%)
Income inequality - industrial workers earned
40 a month + bonus, peasants earned 5-7.
Demonstrated through Beijing bus drivers
going on strike in 1985
Modern military was loyal to the government
Crisis of confidence (youth lost faith in
Socialism), especially critical of classes
Loss of government revenue (short term),
loss of control over local investment due to
budgetary deficit
Characterise Tokugawa
Confucian, feudal system. Japan was one of the most urban countries in the world.
Heavy taxes, corruption, wealth inequality.
Isolationists, but in 1600 Christians invaded and converted people. Bugged the Shoguns.
1630s Samurai began murdering foreigners, especially Christians
Japan was closed again. Foreigners not allowed to come in except for Dutch traders. Japanese
people cannot leave. Shoguns had monopoly over economy.
Daimyo were not taxed
Why’d they fail
Trading with white people
Decline of Bakufu (military authority)
Natural disasters
Economic issues (financial stringency/inflation)
Daimyo in debt to merchants, feudal system
Commodore Perry’s arrival showed weakness of Japanese system.
Meiji Restoration
Tokugawa ended 1867. Meiji then came in.
Sonno Joi “Western technology, Japanese Spirit”
Powerful military. Conscript army.
Iwakura and Hirobumi Missions to learn from West.
Daimyo/Samurai classes abolished. Financial rewards given to them = gone.Abolition of feudal
Mass schooling (95% by 1905)
Renewal of Boshido and Shintoism. Emperor Worship. Elected parliament.
Industrialisation. All Daimyos returned land to Emperor.Zaibatsu = corporate building block
Satsuma Rebellion = samurai’s last stand
Revised existing treaties with foreign nations. Fought for Korea. Established Foreign Relations
Japanese Imperialism
Japan deeply affected by WW1 + great kanto earthquake. SEP consequences (37 banks gone)
Showa Resurrection was implemented = make Japan great again. Heavily military.
Outlawed dangerous thoughts, trained military more.
Fought for control over korea in Sino-Japanese War. Started by Tonghak rebellion
Annexing Korea
Elimination of Korean culture:
newspapers censored, only one allowed
Korean not taught in classrooms
Military police
170k Japanese bought Korean land. Historical sites (Inner Court) destroyed. Japanese
Modernisation of korea:
(modernisation = wanted by Tonghak). Railways, foreign ministry, moved away from feudal
system. Education. Productivity and output increased (Kabo Reforms)
Took advantage of Korea for own benefit:
Exploited resources
Exploited people (slaves, comfort women)
Treaty of Kanghwa == open Korea up
Assassination of Queen Min = send political leadership into disarray