Subido por Ezequiel Zeta

introductiontocommonrail-160122141255 (1)

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SUMMARY:
Diesel injection systems in history
page 2
Generality
page 3
Hydraulic layout
page 4
Electrical layout
page 5
High pressure pump
pages 6-7
Rail
page 8
Pressure control (hints)
page 9
Injector
page 10
Solenoid injectors
pages 11-12
Piezo injectors (indirect drive)
page 13
Piezo injectors (direct drive)
page 14
ECU - injection strategy (hints)
pages 15-16-17
Diesel injection systems in history
In-line pumps
Distributor pump VE
Mechanical
injection
Distributor pump VP
Pump-injector
Electronic
injection
Common Rail
2
Generality
The system common rail (CR) is now the fuel system of the fuel mostly used in
compression ignition engines
Major advantages over predecessors:
Pressure Injection independent of the rotation regime of the engine
Flexible control of injection pressure (pressure range 300 2200bar)
Flexible and accurate control of the injection quantity
Possibility of several injections per cycle depending on the operating condition
Flexibility in the timing of the injections of TDC engine
Alfa Romeo 156 1.9JDT the first car equipped with
the common rail system (1997)
3
Hydraulic layout
Pressure regulatorr
Pressure sensor
High pressure
pump
Rail
High pressure circuit
Low pressure circuit
Filter
Electro injector
Tank
Booster pump
Main components of the hydraulic layout:
Low-pressure pump (usually installed inside the tank)
Fuel-filter
Pompa high pressure
Rail
Pressure sensor installed on the rail
Flow regulator (FMV) or pressure regulator (PCV)
Injectors
4
Electrical layout
Pressure regulator
Electronic control unit
High pressure
pump
Rail
Pressure sensor
Feed pump
The engine control unit (ECU) has as its main function is to manage the system injection:
Monitors the pressure inside the rail (injection pressure)
Controls the flow regulator or the pressure regulator
Controls the injectors managing the duration, the number and timing of the injections
5
High pressure pump
The high-pressure pump receives the fuel from the low pressure circuit and sends it
to the rail at pressures are in the range 300 to 2200 bar depending on the operating
condition of the engine and on which the system is installed.
It is generally composed of a shaft with eccentric (1) realizes that by rotating the
suction stroke and the delivery of a number of pumping elements (3).
The pump is lubricated by the fuel itself and on it you can be installed of devices for
adjusting the delivery pressure.
6
High pressure pump
Pump CP1 with integrated
pressure regulator to the outlet (PCV)
Pump CP4 with flow
regulator integrated suction (FMV)
CR 1° generation
A pressure regulating valve electronics (PCV) is installed on the high
pressure side of the pump. It is controlled by the control unit to adjust
the injection pressure by downloading or less fuel from the high
pressure circuit.
CR 2° generation
A flow control valve electronics (FMV) is installed on the low pressure
side of the pump. It is controlled by the control unit to regulate the
inflow of fuel to the pump in relation to the injection pressure required.
7
Rail
Pressure sensor
Pressure regulator
The rail is an accumulator fuel to which are connected
the high-pressure pump and the injectors.
On it is installed a pressure sensor that the control unit
uses to monitor the injection pressure (PRAIL).
It may also be present a pressure regulator (PCV),
if it is not already present on the pump. Is there any
configuration of the system where the regulator on rail
is coupled to the flow control (FMV) installed on the
pump.
8
Pressure control (hints)
How realize the conditions of the mapping for a given operating condition?
The control unit must be able to adjust the pressure inside the rail to
obtain the value required by mapping (PRAIL).
Reading of the pressure inside the rail by means of
the integrated pressure sensor.
Control the pressure in the
rail by adjusting the flow
rate sucked by the high
pressure pump.
Comparison of the detected
pressure with the required
value in the corresponding
map for a given operating
condition.
Control the pressure in
the rail by recirculating or
less part of the fuel in the
tank.
9
Injector
The injectors are classified according to the type of drive according to the type
of hydraulic layout.
In the solenoid-operated injector,
Solenoid injectors
an electromagnetic force,
generated in a solenoid crossed by
Operate:
current, is exploited to actuate the
injector.
In the piezo injectors utilizes the inverse
Piezoelectric injectors
piezoelectric effect, that is the capacity of the
piezoelectric material to deform when subjected
to an electric voltage.
The electric drive is not directly
connected to the pin, there is
Injectors indirectly actuated
interposed a pilot valve.
Injectors direct actuated
Hydraulic layout:
The electric drive is directly
connected to the needle through
a mechanical linkage.
10
Solenoid injectors
Injectors are indirectly actuated, the solenoid controls a pilot valve the opening of which
causes an imbalance of the forces acting on the needle such as to allow the lifting.
Pilot
valve
A
B
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
injector at rest
injector operating
Fuel recirculation
Electrical connector
Solenoid
Input fuel (by rail)
Ball valve
Hole A
Hole Z
Control chamber
Control rod
High pressure line
Pin
11
Solenoid injectors
Because of the complex internal hydraulic circuit and the presence of mechanical parts
with a not negligible inertia, the injection is not synchronized with the electrical
command supplied to the injector from the engine control.
12
Piezo injectors (indirect drive)
The piezoelectric actuator, the extension of which is amplified hydraulically, it acts on a
pilot valve which opens to download the environment upstream of the needle, which then
will rise due to the effect of the pressure of the fuel in the delivery chamber.
The layout of the valve is such that the
leaking fuel are much lower than those of
the injectors solenoid seen previously.
Fuel
recirculation
Piezoelectric actuator
Input fuel
Hydraulic amplifier
Pilot valve
Pulverizer
Pilot
valve
Hole A
Control chamber
Bypass
Hole Z
Pin
13
Piezo injectors (direct drive)
The piezoelectric actuator is directly connected to the pin by means of a mechanical
linkage, then NOT is no pilot valve.
Advantages:
1) The dynamics of the injector is improved;
2) It is not necessary to recirculate fuel to actuate the injector(efficiency
).
Disadvantages:
1) The piezoelectric actuator must be larger in order to generate the forces necessary to raise the needle;
2) It is necessary to control the injectors with very high voltages (≈ 160 volts) that may require a special
shielding of the electric circuit of the injection system
14
ECU - injection strategy (hints)
Mapping unit
The basic strategy of injection include:
Reading throttle position (load);
Reading of the speed of rotation of the engine (rpm);
Reading maps of control:
1. Depending on the load and the speed of rotation
is chosen, the related map, the amount of fuel
to be injected to the cycle (mb) and the injection
pressure (PRAIL);
2. Based on the amount to be injected (sc) and the
injection pressure (PRAIL) is chosen, from
another map, the duration of the electrical
command to be supplied to the injectors (ET).
15
ECU - injection strategy (hints)
After choosing injection pressure and
duration of the electrical control to the
injectors, the control unit must choosing a
number of other parameters with the aim to
maintain the engine in top
possible conditions, minimizing (to the extent
possible) the emission of pollutants and fuel
consumption.
In addition the unit constantly monitors the
conversion efficiency of the devices of aftertreatment of the exhaust gas (oxidizing
catalyst, DPF, DeNOx) using, when
appropriate, strategies regeneration.
16
ECU - injection strategy (hints)
17
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