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Material Complementario
Título:
Las Preposiciones
Autores: Lic: Katia García Hernández
Lic. Rene Arenas Gutiérrez
Téc: Nimia Salazar Hernández
E-Mail:[email protected]
Febrero 2006
Índice
» Introducción ………………3
» Desarrollo………………….4-15
» Datos de los autores ……….16
Introducción
Las preposiciones son palabras muy útiles, pero
también muy difíciles de usar correctamente en
cualquier idioma. Sin embargo, para leer en Inglés el
lector sólo debe conocer que cada preposición
suele tener uno o dos significados básicos, aunque
tenga otras posibilidades de traducción. Después
debe adiestrarse en cambiar la traducción literaria
de una preposición del Inglés al pasarla al español
si eso fuera necesario por su uso en nuestra lengua
materna. Por ejemplo, en inglés se dice: The man in
the white suit, que equivale a decir en español: El
hombre del traje blanco.
Igualmente en una frase como:...a package from
Spain, la preposición from significa desde (lugar de
procedencia); en español se dice:...un paquete de
España.
Desarrollo
Uno debe familiarizarse completamente con
las preposiciones más usuales y significados
básicos, tal y como aparecen a continuación.
Pero debe tener presente que con frecuencia
tendrá que recurrir al diccionario para buscar
otros significados cuando compruebe que los
que aquí se presentan no se adecuan al
contexto determinado que está leyendo.
after
against
along
among
at
before
behind
below
beneath
beside
between
beyond
but
by
después
contra
a lo largo de, junto con
entre
en
ante
tras, detrás
bajo
bajo
al lado de
entre
detrás de, más allá de
excepto, a excepción de
por, al lado de
concerning
despite
down
during
except
for
from
in
in front of
inside
in regard to
in spite of
into
like
respecto a
a pesar de
bajo
durante
a excepción de, excepto
para, por, durante
desde, de
en
delante
dentro
respecto a
a pesar de
hacia adentro
como
near
next to
of
on
outside
over
regarding
since
through
till
throughout
to
toward(s)
under
underneath
until
up
upon
cerca
al lado de
de
sobre
fuera de
encima, sobre
respecto a
desde
a través de
hasta
a través de, a lo largo de
a, para
hacia
bajo
bajo, debajo
hasta
arriba
en, sobre
with
within
without
con
dentro de
sin
A REVIEW OF PREPOSITIONS:
A preposition is used to connect nouns and noun
structures in the sentece. A noun structure
following the preposition is called the object of the
preposition.
The object of the preposition can be:
A noun:
We gave a present to our
secretaries.
A pronoun:
We gave a present to them.
A gerund:
We thought about giving a
present to them.
A noun clause:
We thought about giving a
present to whoever worked for us.
Placement of prepositions:
The preposition is usually placed before the object. But it may
be placed at the end of a sentece in:
A question:
Which country did you go to?
An adjetive clause: This map shows the countries which we
went to.
A noun clause:
We forget which countries we went to.
An adjectival prepositional phrase is placed after the noun it
modifies.
The book on the desk is mine.
The dog next door bothers me.
An adverbial prepositional phrase, like any adverb, may be
placed anywhere in the sentece. Or it may be placed at the:
End:
I came at nine o’clock.
Middle:
He leaves in two hours to visit his friends.
Beginning:
On Monday, I have my French class.
Types of prepositions:
There are one-and two-word prepositions:
One-word: in, at, over, among
Two-word: next to, instead of
There are times when prepositions can be used without
objects. At such times, they no longer function as
prepositions but become either (1) two-word verbs; (2)
adverbs; or(3) conjuctions.
Two-word verbs (verb+particle)
Examples: bring up (raise)
find out (discover)
call off (cancel)
catch on (understand)
These combinations have idiomatic meanings.
Adverb:
Example: Did you take the elevator? No, we walked up.
Conjuctions:
Examples: He came before I did.
Please, come before the meeting starts.
Prepositions:
Prepositions show relationships in time and space and
relationships between ideas (logical relationships).
Learn the set phrases with prepositions of space.
Harry lives
in Denver. (a city)
inColorado. (a state or province)
on Green Avenue. (street without a number)
at 261 Green Avenue. (street with a number)
in Room 261 or Apartment 210-A. (specific
room or apartment)
Harriet’s friend live in Canada. (country)
At or away from home.
On a farm.
In a dormitory, house, student hostel.
In poverty, wealth, a city, a suburb, a
town, a village.
In the South, West. (region or section)
The plane landed in Chicago
At O’Hare Airport
At the Chicago airport.
Harriet lives at 261 Green Avenue, Denver, Colorado.
The plane landed at O’Hare Airport, Chicago.
We are going to visit my cousin in Denver.
He is in college.
At the university.
Their house is (located) on the beach.
On the ocean.
At the shore.
In the mountains.
On the river, bay, lake.
In the dessert.
On the plains.
Note: When you do not put a preposition between
different pieces of information about a place, use a
comma.
Prepositions that show apace and movement often
introduce essential information that tells you wich one.
These phrases are adjetive phrases and follow the
noun or pronoun they modify.
The buses in the city run every ten minutes.
The houses on the bay were damaged by the
hurricane.
Learn the set phrases of time.
Paul always comes at ten o’clock. (specific time)
On time.
In time for class.
Paul visited Canada in 1980. (year)
In May. (month)
On May 18. (date)
On Wednesday. (day of the week)
In the morning, afternoon,
evening, daytime, the right.
At noon, midnight, night.
Datos de los Autores
• MSc: Katia C. García Hernández
Profesor Principal Inglés Instituto
Profesor Auxiliar Inglés
Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Julio Trigo López”
• Nimia Salazar Hernández
Asistente Técnico docente de Informática
Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Julio Trigo López”
• MSc: René Arenas Gutiérrez
Jefe de Departamento Investigaciones
Profesor Auxiliar Informática
Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Julio Trigo López”
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