2.2.- Estado del conocimiento de la resistencia a cortante

Anuncio
!
"
"
#
#
"
$
!
%
%
#
"
"
"
!
#
&
'
"
(
%
%
!
)
*
=
#
+
,
./
#
!
*
"
"
!
"
"
'
0
&
" #
"
*
"
)
" #
"
#
-
0
"
#
)
"
0
#
#
#
2
"*
"
!
#
"
3
!
#
#
!
4
4
%
%
&
4
3
(
5
%
5
%
2 6
" 2
3 '
#
"
"
*
#
#%
τ
,
-
5
"
#
%
5
4
!
"
"
'
0
4
%
#
#
7 !" # $ 8 % &'#&&
1
999:
(
<
)*
#!&$
$&$
# &#+ ,+- +! - ' # !$.- # ,+#+ +
+$
/ # +
# 0$ . ,+
!$ & +&#
=
>9
1 !0 "
"
1 !0
%
#%
"
%
#%
7
:
(
τ
, <-
23
5
2
3
"
!
#
%
"
bw
d
∆x
C+∆C
C
z
T+∆T
T
τ
∆M
z
τ=
V
bw z
T+∆T
T
∆x
∆x
(
∆T =
)4 &
! ,+ # ' &#+ $+# & + #+! '# #+ +
# 0$ . ,+ . $
!$+
# '#5,+6 -& $ # 7$'' +
&!0#''
8
;
@
>1A 9 +
.
%
@
#
.7
:
2 E ∆2
2
(
)
)
$ #'$ #' :-# +#; # 9 + -
<#&
!$ & +&#
"
""
#
>1? (#+2 !=
0
=
0
*
>;A * '$
(
=
@ .
7 ?
:
A# + 7 >?9:
C
7
"
?
: B #
"
@
#
A# +#!=
>>
"
)
> '
7 ?
:
@
.
%
.
"
%
#
'
6
9 +
@
>1;
0.
"
0
)
#
9 !0. 7 >>>:
*
% B +& 9 . 7 >?A:
#
7$'' +
0
"
#
0
4
4
0
#%
#
C0 $
"
#
7 >?>:
"
"
"
#
)
#
"
"
*
3
"
"
%
>?9
"
>?; C!0' !0
"
& 7 >?9: %
D =
"
"
"
A# +#!=
?
@
.
4
4
*
*
0
4
"
# %
D
>
, A-
..
"
0
7) 6=)3
!
D
E
*AA
!
, A-
B=C6! 7 >>9:
D =>9
F && 7 >1? >; :
0 , - 3
"
"
%
>>?:
#
0
*
"
!
(
G
H
!=
)
,
-
F &&
4
0
%
#
%
"
*
"
4 6
F
0
%
&
*
%
%
!
σ;!
D
7
D
!
:
" -&
&
(
G
!
H
!=
)
?
J !I
, 1-
%
#
7$'' +
%
>><
#
4
" &# '#
#
7 99 :
#
3
'
)
D
>
K
!
3
(
"
(?
H2 )
H2
)
6!
, ;-
8
"
"
D =>9 ,
"
, 199 : 3
- 7" &# '#
0
D
!
'
#
%
%
"
#
! != .$ #'; @ ''# $ #& '
.$ #'; % 3 +& L0 >?<:
%
>;1:
0 &
7: !& & $
7:! != +
"
2
D
4 2
D
7D C2:
7D C2
=
"
#!!0 $
7$'' +
>?1:
4 D C2
*
"
*
!
)3
=) 6
*AA
@
.
"
"
) "
*
"
*
#
<
=D
)3
=) 6
(
*A 1
>;<
#
=
>>?
)3
=) 6
* AA
*
4
3
"
%
0 3
"
#%
=
#"
#
3
#
"
#
#
%
*
9
#
"#
4
#
=
"
#
:
M '
"
%
%
(
)
#
$ #'$ # M '
#+7 >? :
""
#
7
#+ # !$ & +&#? !! ,+
)
#
#
4
"*
"
*
#
%
#%
"
"
σ-
µσ- 4
#
#
""
#
#
)
#
4
7
:
$
*
"
9 +
>;>
!
K
%
%
K
4
4
%
"#
0
?
#
"
'
.. 4
<<=! #
#
)
(
"
#
0
)
#
#
#
0
)
#
A
/
7
7'
#
#
7 99<:
#
#
!
"
:
..
..
"
>
%
0
"
3 '
D =>9
*
)HH
3 '
G<
) 6
#
0
3
"
"
%
4
)
0
*
"
A
=
)
II
#
A &&# 7 ?>>:
0
7 >9 :
"
*
7
:
1 !0
"
"
"
E
H
, ?-
2
#
#
2
8
8
(
&
>
)
$ #'$
# !#'$ / - $- # &$ )
>
) 6
7)3
=) 6
*AA :
"
8 # A &&# N 8 #
*
* ' $& 7 >9>:
1 !0
0
"
"
'
"
>;
#
J K
0
*
) C
3
&
3
" L
*
"
0
3
"
"
*
> ? M '&0#
G
""
#
0
9
"
"
"
%
A &&#
"
1 !0
3
"
0
%
3
0 %
" "
"
"
%
"
O#$+0
&
M '&0# 7 >1 :
"
3
"
&
0
#
9 - # 7 >1A:
"
*
<
#
#
D #' #+
>?; C!0' !0 %
%
>;
% #& - %
"
0
!
) 6< ?=>
0
"
"
5
"
F
2
"
"
7$'' + 7 >;A:
>;?:
%
2
4 2
&
7 C2 7$'' +
7D C2 #!!0 $ 7$'' + >?1:
4 D C2 7
:
D
>;A
C2
B=C6!
"
*
&!0#''
D
#
0
=
"
3
G
"
%
4
" %
"
"
D C2
4
"
#%
8
8
(
)
7(* 6*#$ / $ !
#' 7 .-$ # 7$.- # $+# 8)
8 &#+ $+# .#
N 8 &#+ $+# #+'
%# '
@ 7 >>A >> :
7PA$& & + ? + '# C$ &#+# ?*
$ #'; M)32D : )
)
"
>+
#
7 >> :
#
*
#
#
@
D C2
&
"
"
#
#
7: 5#
#
A
C
+ '# .$ #';:
#
'
0
2
99
!
#!!0 $
" 7&3CD :
%
D C2
%
D
"
#
"*
6
#
7 99 :
D C2
#!!0 $
"
&3CD
"
%
D C2
"
C
%
)
#
0 &
D
4
%
%
1 !0
θ
"
K
4
"
M=0
0.5 Nv z cos θ
f2
z
0.5 Nv
s
Av fv
s sin θ
s
(
K) 7$+ ! $+#
6
# #Q ' $ +.$ #'$ # !#'$ / # R+ '$
-& $ # 7$'' +
&!0#''
8
'#
"
K
(&
2
+SG!$&S )
, >-
"
D
!$&S
4
!
,
9-
,
-
"
& +S
3
4
"
%
7
θ
:
θ
"
*
!
θ
#
4
F
"
0
,
"
-
!
T
%
θ
"
#
!
"
θ
% β
β
:
θ
3
#
!
!
7θ ≈
(
GU !
)
!
!$&θ
3
"
3
0
,
-
,
<-
"
(
: A$&
)
!
-$ ' -' & ! ! ,+ # '$ !# !$
*
3
"
3
"
'
#%
"
1
"
!
"
D
#
B=C6B >>9
"
"
,
<#
#%
"
"
#
0
)
7 999:
#
"
4
#%
.. C# +
T
"
#
0
"
#
*
#
"
4
0
#
4
"
)
"*
3)=>A
#%
T V!
. 5
: A$&
-$ !$ & +&# #
3 '
-
φ
%
I
!
,
2
$ ' -' & ! ! ,+ #' 0$ . ,+
%
@
!$ 7 ' #
, >-
!
"
#
.
4#' >$3$ 7 >>;:
!=
"
"
<: A$&
4
-$ !$ & +&# #
$ ' -' & ! ! ,+ # '
.
& !! $+
"
4
!$&θ
%
"
.
A:
./+.
%
#%
#
!$ & +&#
4
#
!
"
#
#
;
A-
4
"
" "
!
"
4
F
"
W
W
X
+W
!
,
-
,
1-
,
;-
#
α
α
#
α
#
α
!
4
!=
%
3
2
M
A> 7 >>?:
≥
!
0
#
"
!
!
Y$ +
!
G
7 >>1:
'"
>
0
%
"
&
3)=>A ,
;-
≥
I
!
4
2
1.4
EHE-99
CSTR-49
1.2
CSA -94
1.0
7
T:
A v f y 0.8
b0 s
(MPa ) 0.6
0.4
(
T) 7$.- ! ,+ # '
.
./+. !$ & +&# - $ &
-$
# #+&# +$ . &
0.2
0.0
20
30
40
50
60
70
fck (MPa)
?
80
90
100
A
=! #
!
#
(
0
4
#
2
0
' 7$'' +
#%
#
0
!
"
"
4
!
#
"
" #
*
#
B
2
7)
AN A9N:
*
'
6
M
4
"
%
%
"
3
4
*
"
4
O
'(
G
-
!
-
G
,
!
#
#
%
?-
5
#
"
"
>
"
4
O
3
" #
"
(
≤
≤
,
,
>9-
5
"
4
"
5
"
"
"
4
"
#
'
L"
0
$
= 9+
θ+
+ 9+ +
!
α
θ
+
7
!
!
!
9
,
-
,
-
,
<-
:
%
9=
σ;!
<
+
σ !P
≤ 99
!
%
7
σ !P =
:
D
!
D
%
#
!
α
θ
L"
!
#
#
#
#
7
:
5
5
5
"
5
≤ !$& θ ≤
$
(
G
H
!=
)
7 %
!=
<9
?
J !I
,
D .. :5
A-
ρ
*
G
-
≤
H
,
-
,
1-
,
;-
,
?>-
!
G
!
*
"
"
3 +W ( !$& WG!$& S )
W
#
α
α
#
5
α
3
"
#
#
7
α5
#
3
#
7 %
!=
:5
D .. :5
"
!
(
G
U
θ#
W
!$& S?
9
!$& S# ?
!$& S?
U
!$& S# ?
≤
H
!=
)
J !I
?
θ≤
θ
,
θ ≤
θ≤ 9
, <9-
#
%
!$& S#
(
U
!& .
?
!& .
(J
5
GJ
!& .
?J
)GJ
5
J
≥
≤
!& .
σ5 σ
#
3
<
"
#
, < -
&
.
& + #
4
'
" #
&
"
"
≤ T ≤
≤
&≤
≤
≤
&
≤
..
..
..
&
≤
Z
[
4
"
W
W
+W
#
.
'$+ &
(
(
≥
, < -
!
"
#
>9N
+'
4
%
\*
" #
(
!$& S?
( !$&
SG!$& W )
#
#
"
#
(
( !$&
3 !$& S?
%
SG!$& W )
#
<
, <<-
, <A%
Descargar
Fichas aleatorios
Prueba

4 Tarjetas Arthas Quinzel

test cards set

10 Tarjetas Антон piter

tarjeta del programa pfizer norvasc

0 Tarjetas joseyepezsumino

tarjeta del programa pfizer norvasc

0 Tarjetas joseyepezsumino

tarjeta del programa pfizer norvasc

0 Tarjetas joseyepezsumino

Crear fichas