6. Diagnosing the Task 107 AppLIcATIon oF THE DEcISIon-MAKInG MoDEL Now that your decision-making style has been selected for the case example from Box 6.1., the VYJ (Vroom, 1973; Vroom & Jago, 1978, 1988; Vroom & Yetton, 1973) model should be applied in diagnosing the task. Vroom (1973) and Vroom and Yetton (1973) developed the decision model using a tree format; it is commonly referred to as the decision-making tree, shown in Figure 6.2. This tree can be described as a series of questions that move through the situational parameters of the model (Chemers, 2000). Notice that there are seven questions across the top of Figure 6.2. Questions A, B, and C refer to the variable of quality, and questions D through G refer to the variable of acceptance. Referring to the case in Box 6.1, it is necessary to start at the left of the model, Question A, and answer the question in a yes or no format. If the answer to Question A is “no,” then follow the “no” line to the next node and answer the question on top of that node. Follow this format until the tree ends with a decision-making style. It should be noted that each successive question in the quality and acceptance sets of variables asks more specific information concerning the variable. This process is similar to programmed history taking when an answer of yes to “history of familial diabetes,” for example, results in more specific questions concerning this matter being asked. The decision model conceptually is communicating the following: Copyright © 2012. Springer Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1. 2. 3. If acceptance of decision by followers is crucial, then get the group involved in solving the problem. If quality is important, with expertise being a requirement, then find people who have the expertise and solve the problem with their input. When both quality and acceptance are required, then bring the experts and the group together for problem solving. The purpose of the decision-making tree, however, is to integrate the variables of quality and acceptance and to suggest a decision-making style that will take the shortest amount of time, considering the requirements of the task. Time increases as one moves down is styles from AI to GII. Hence, if style CII is suggested at the end of the decision-making tree, quality and acceptance are important so one should not use styles AI, AII, or CI because the group would not be involved to the degree required in these styles. But one could use GII if the leader thought that the group was mature enough to solve the problem using that style and had the time available. The problem would be solved more quickly in style CII than in style GII. Concluding simply, any decision-making style at or below the one indicated by the decision model in Table 6.1 is fine to use. More time, however, would be needed to solve the problem as the styles move downward. Rigolosi, Elaine La Monica, EdD, JD, FAAN, and La Monica Rigolosi Edd, Jd Elaine. Management and Leadership in Nursing and Health Care : An Experiential Approach, Third Edition, Springer Publishing Company, 2012. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/tride Created from trident on 2020-12-13 11:58:34. No No C Yes Is the problem structured? No Yes D No No No No CII Yes AII Yes AI Yes AI Yes Is acceptance of decision by subordinates critical to effective implementation? E Yes Ye s AII No CII AI GII AI F No Yes Yes CII GII G s Ye No Is conflict among subordinates likely in preferred solutions? GII No Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be obtained in solving this problem? No No Yes No Yes If you were to make the decision by yourself, is it reasonably certain that it would be accepted by your subordinates? CI CII Note. Reprinted from “A New Look at Managerial Decision Making,” by Victor H. Vroom. Organizational Dynamics, Spring, 1973, © 1973. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier. All rights reserved. Yes B A STATE THE PROBLEM Do I have sufficient information to make a high-quality decision? Is there a quality requirement such that one solution is likely to be more rational than another? FIGURE 6.2 Vroom’s Decision Model (Tree) Copyright © 2012. Springer Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 108 II. Managerial Responsibilities Rigolosi, Elaine La Monica, EdD, JD, FAAN, and La Monica Rigolosi Edd, Jd Elaine. Management and Leadership in Nursing and Health Care : An Experiential Approach, Third Edition, Springer Publishing Company, 2012. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/tride Created from trident on 2020-12-13 11:58:34. 6. Diagnosing the Task 109 ­ ecision-making styles above the one indicated by the decision model should D not be used because the nature of the task requires more group interaction. Let us walk through the case example from Box 6.1 using the decisionmaking tree from Figure 6.2. to see if Vroom (1973) and Vroom and Yetton (1973) agree with your choice for the best style to use given the nature of the task. Begin by starting at the left and answering Question A. Question A: Quality—Yes There is quality requirement in this case. A number of possible ­solutions to the problem exist, and one could be better than another. There are several ways to solve this problem, and one way could ­result in more effective outcomes than another. Follow the “yes” line on the tree to the next node; look above it. Question B must be answered. Question B: Manager’s Information —No The assistant director obviously has neither the information nor the expertise to make a high-quality decision and to solve the problem. Follow the “no” line to the next node and answer the above further question on quality. Copyright © 2012. Springer Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Question C: Structure—No This question requires explanation. A structured problem is one in which the decision is based on quantitative (objective) data, the ­location of those data is known, and the data can be obtained and retrieved. An unstructured problem has a subjective element. The decision is a qualitative assessment—a value judgment—and/or the location of the information is unknown or cannot be obtained. In the case example, information that is required for solving the problem is qualitative and its specific location is unknown. Follow the “no” line to the next node, look above the node, and ­answer Question D. Question D: Acceptance—Yes Another way of asking Question D is: Do followers have to do anything in order for the problem to be solved? In this case, acceptance is critical. The followers must implement the new unit management system in order for the goal to be reached. One possible reason for why the system is failing may be that personnel were not involved in the initial planning. Follow the “yes” line to the next node and answer Question E. Rigolosi, Elaine La Monica, EdD, JD, FAAN, and La Monica Rigolosi Edd, Jd Elaine. Management and Leadership in Nursing and Health Care : An Experiential Approach, Third Edition, Springer Publishing Company, 2012. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/tride Created from trident on 2020-12-13 11:58:34.