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UCT PM M1 U1 Notes

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Introducing project
Table of contents
1. Introduction
2. Introduction to project management
2.1 A brief history of project management
2.2 A local and global context
3. Defining project management
3.1 What is a project?
3.1.1 The difference between a project and operations
3.2 What defines a “successful” project?
3.2.1 The Project Management Triangle
3.3 What is project management?
3.3.1 The Five Project Management Processes
3.3.2 The 10 Project Management Knowledge Areas
3.4 Project management and industry specificity
3.5 Who needs to know about project management?
3.6 Project success and benefits management
4. Project management definitions
5. Conclusion
6. Bibliography
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Learning outcomes:
LO1: Recall the history of project management and the contexts in which the discipline
operates today.
LO2: Identify the difference between a project and operational activities.
LO3: Identify the factors that impact the success of a project.
LO4: Discuss the role of a project and the stakeholders involved in a project.
1. Introduction
There is some confusion between the terms “project” and “project management”. Simply put,
a “project” refers to a temporary endeavour with a specific goal. “Project management”
involves effectively planning the process of achieving a specific goal within given constraints,
and then making sure that all necessary actions are carried out. Essentially, project
management is making the project work, from planning to completion; it is the application
(or use) of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to meet project requirements.
This set of notes introduces the professional discipline known as project management, looks
at the differences between project and operational activities, and identifies ways to
determine whether or not a project is successful.
2. Introduction to project management
This section looks at the history of project management and the local and global contexts in
which the professional discipline operates today.
2.1 A brief history of project management
The skills and knowledge pertaining to project management have become a part of
contemporary life – whether you are planning an event, running a campaign or managing the
construction of a building. These skills have led to major achievements in human history. The
management of projects dates back thousands of years to the building of the Egyptian
pyramids of Giza. It can be further extended to the voyages of exploration and great cathedral
projects of the Renaissance. More recent examples include the scientific and industrial
revolutions that led to railway, manufacturing and other construction accomplishments in the
18th and 19th centuries. And finally, the military, electronic and digital advances of the 20th
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Watch the following video, which highlights key historical projects (such as the building of the
Egyptian pyramids and the Colosseum in Rome) and how they relate to modern-day project
management approaches and methods.
Video 1: Looking at historical projects using a modern project management approach. (Source: (Access this set of notes on the Online Campus
to engage with this video.)
It was only in the late 20th century that project management developed into a distinct form
and discipline. Project management as it is known today can be traced back to the beginning
of World War II. During the war, multidimensional projects that required the use of vast
resources had to be planned and managed within fairly challenging time frames. In the 1950s
during the Cold War, many of the foundational methods and formal frameworks of project
management were developed. Before this, project management was not seen as a
transferable skill set, but rather as a subset of technical knowledge in particular industries.
After World War II, the United States (US) Air Force, Navy and other related organisations
expanded on the experiments to plan complex technological and intelligence projects. These
are similar to the planning and control techniques used in civil engineering and construction.
Some of the modern project management frameworks that emerged, such as the Programme
Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM), are still well known
and used today, or serve as the foundation for other techniques.
The project management tools and techniques that emerged from the military, construction
and aerospace sectors became highly utilised within almost every industry by the end of the
20th century. Project management became formally established as a discipline in the 1990s.
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This means that as a discipline it encompasses a range of theories, methods and techniques
that are accepted as good practice by project management practitioners around the world
who have contributed to the development of this professional discipline.
There are a number of well-known organisations in the project management field, such as the
Project Management Institute, Inc (PMI®), which is based in the USA, and the International
Project Management Association (IPMA) covers Europe, Africa and Asia. These organisations
can be consulted for updated terminology and accepted project management methodologies.
South Africa has its own organisation, Project Management South Africa (PMSA). This
organisation offers training, conferences, networking opportunities, awards recognising
outstanding project management, and many other online resources. Although the topic areas
to be covered in this course are common to all projects, there are some differences between
the approaches. For example, various industries have their own specific conventions and
terminology. The materials developed for this course are broadly aligned with the Project
Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) published by PMI®. However, the course
also makes use of supplementary material and research that is unrelated to the PMI’s
PMBOK® Guide.
2.2 A local and global context
In 2008, an article of PMI®’s online journal discussed the project management skills shortage
in South Africa in the lead-up to the 2010 Football World Cup. Hunsberger quotes David
Jackson saying, “Project Management is now regarded as the fastest-growing form of
management worldwide, with its multidisciplinary skills in particular demand in South Africa”.
Furthermore, in a government gazette issued in June 2018 by the Department of Higher
Education and Training (DHET), project management was included in the list of national
occupations in high demand.
Project management is a key part of South Africa’s public and private sectors. In an
environment that must be highly responsive to change, challenge, and transformation,
projects are the mechanisms that drive change in society, and help to produce new products,
services, infrastructure, and organisational outcomes.
While the local context for project management is thriving in both the public and private
sectors of South Africa, it is important to consider the effect of globalisation and how it is
changing the current projects. Perhaps the projects you are participating in today involve
working with people and organisations from other countries, or perhaps the same deliverable
will need to be rolled out at company offices across several different continents. Technology
may seem to have facilitated the “global city”, helping people to communicate and coordinate joint ventures across vast physical distances. However, it is important to remember
that globalisation does make project management more complex, even as it presents many
new opportunities.
The tools and techniques covered in this course will form a strong foundation for project
management in any context, but it is important to remember that the profession is not
practised in a vacuum. Additional factors such as cultural differences, language barriers,
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political relations between countries, currency and exchange issues, or country-specific labour
practices and working calendars, are likely to come into play. It is useful to understand the
geopolitical contexts of the project participants’ countries – whether you are involved in a
major multinational event (such as staging the Commonwealth Games, for example) or
routinely interacting with customers, contractors or project teams from around the globe. Try
your hand (or tongue) at other languages and be aware of culture, customs and social
etiquette; this will help to build mutual respect and trust between project stakeholders.
3. Defining project management
Concepts related to project management are sometimes confused or understood differently
by different people or organisations. As a project manager (PM), it is important to know and
understand these differences. In this section, you will gain insight into:
What a project is;
What makes a project successful;
What project management is;
Project management and industry specifics;
Who needs to know about project management; and
The benefits and value of project management.
3.1 What is a project?
A project is a temporary endeavour that is undertaken to create a unique product, service, or
result. The temporary nature of projects indicates a definite beginning and end. However, a
project’s temporary nature does not necessarily mean it will have a short duration. A project's
end is reached when the objectives and goals have all been achieved or when the project is
ended because its objectives will not or cannot be met, or when the need for the project no
longer exists. The decision to end a project requires authorisation and approval by an
applicable authority.
The Standard for Project Management (ANSI/PMI 99-001-2017)
1. Projects are one-time events that have specific completion criteria and objectives:
Starting projects in a timely manner ensures that goals are reached within budget and
according to the project specifications. Projects have finite time frames; however,
actual dates may not be specified. Rather, the project ends once all objectives have
been achieved or when it is terminated prematurely. Simply put, a project is a
planned, one-time undertaking of related activities to reach an objective that has a
beginning and an end.
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For example, a project’s start date may depend upon the budget being approved, or
its end date may depend upon when the money runs out or whenever the last
deliverable is completed. Forecasting the start and end dates does not define the start
and end dates in actuals terms. It is important to ensure that the PM’s focus is on the
correct priority (for example, schedule or budget or quality) and is not distracted by
secondary objectives.
2. Projects are initiated to accomplish unique goals, outcomes or end results: Project
goals can include the development and delivery of products and services. For instance,
the construction of a new high-rise apartment block (a tangible outcome), or
developing a new wireless internet package (an intangible outcome).
Some projects, such as planning a staff year-end function, may be repeated from time to time.
You may be able to draw on plans you have developed previously, but these events are still
temporary, and result in a unique outcome. A “unique” outcome does not have to mean a
product or service that did not exist before. For example, birthday parties have existed for
decades, but each party has its own characteristics driven by the individual’s personality,
tastes and budget. The person celebrating their birthday might want a simple, pared-down
affair with a few friends for a simple dinner. Or they might want a lavish event for hundreds
of guests with a live band or DJ.
3.1.1 The difference between a project and operations
It is important to note that projects are different from operations. Operations are repetitive
and ongoing; these generally use the same process with similar results and no defined end.
Typical examples include the accounting activities of a business or the manufacturing of
products in a production facility. It should also be noted that there can be projects within
these operational activities.
For example, consider the following differences in running a household. In any given period,
you have to cook dinner, wash the dishes, do the laundry, mow the lawn, pay the bills, and
take out the rubbish repeatedly, all with similar results – these are the ongoing operations
needed to run a household. However, if you decide to put in a new pool, that would be a onceoff, time-bound project with a unique result. Management theory has generally focused on
the management of operations in businesses. However, there is now an increasing recognition
of the importance of project management at all levels of an organisation.
Here are some additional characteristics of a project (PMBOK® Guide—Fifth Edition):
A project’s goal is achieved through a series of interdependent activities: Projects
involve various activities to be carried out at specific times in a specific sequence.
Together these activities create the change necessary to achieve the objective.
A project requires resources: Resources may include people, materials, equipment
and facilities, amongst other things that are required. A resource can be defined as a
person or thing that does project work.
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A project has a sponsor or customer and several other stakeholders: The sponsor or
customer is the person or organisation that funds the project. For example, the
government might sponsor a research project, a private individual might fund the
building of a new home, or the board of a company could sponsor the development
of a new information system for the human resources department.
Besides the sponsor or customer, other stakeholders include those who may have an
interest in or chance to benefit from the completion of the project, and those who
may be influential in its progression. For example, the product user group, the project
leader and the project team members are all stakeholders. All stakeholders should be
taken into account. (In Module 2, ways of identifying and managing stakeholders will
be examined.)
A project involves uncertainty: The plan developed for each project relies on a
combination of assumptions and estimations, such as how long each activity will take
or how much the materials and labour will cost. As a result, there is a measure of
uncertainty regarding the successful completion of the project. For example, it may
be delivered on time but over budget because some of the initial cost estimates were
too low. This is why initial estimates are important to deal with in detail (which will be
covered in Module 5) and why they should be revisited and refined as new and more
detailed information becomes available, or as unexpected changes occur. Risk
management will be covered in detail in Module 3.
3.2 What defines a “successful” project?
When the Sydney Opera House was completed, it had cost 16 times more and took four times
longer to build than originally planned. From a conventional perspective, the project
management was a failure. However, the public loved the result and it is now difficult to
imagine the Sydney Harbour area without it. Now consider another project: London’s muchanticipated Millennium Dome, completed on time and within budget, and successful from a
project management perspective. However, it was a failure in the eyes of the public, who were
expecting much more than what was delivered. It is clear from these examples that “success”
is subjective and very difficult to define. Furthermore, there is a difference between project
success and project management success. A project may not be successful (in terms of stated
success criteria) but the result may be a success (Sydney Opera House); or, the project
management may be successful in terms of meeting success criteria, but the result may be a
failure (London’s Millennium Dome). In Module 2, the importance of consulting with
stakeholders during the early phases of a project will be discussed.
Projects are initiated to realise business opportunities aligned with an organisation's strategic
goals. Before initiating a project, a business case is usually developed to define the project
objectives and goals, the investment required, and the financial and qualitative success
criteria. The business case provides the foundational elements to measure success and
progress throughout the project life cycle by comparing the results with the objectives and
the initial success criteria.
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Projects are typically initiated because of one or more of the following strategic
A market demand
High-speed fibre
A business need or strategic opportunity
International business expansion
A social need
Access to basic healthcare
An environmental consideration
A customer request
Application enhancement
A technological advancement
Artificial intelligence
A regulatory or legal requirement
Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act
An existing or potential problem
Capacity constraints
3.2.1 The Project Management Triangle
Success in project management is generally defined by the “Project Management Triangle”
model (see Figure 1). This is also known as the “Iron Triangle” or the “Triple Constraint” model.
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Figure 1: The project management triangle.
This triangle traditionally contained the three primary and competing constraints of schedule,
cost, and quality that a project manager has to effectively balance in terms of scope in order
to deliver on the project objectives.
PMBOK® Guide—Sixth Edition expands on these traditional constraints by acknowledging how
“resources” and “risk” could equally impact a project. The concept of “tailoring” is also
introduced to accommodate the uniqueness of every project:
The importance of each constraint is different for each project, and the
project manager tailors the approach for managing these constraints based
on the project environment, organizational culture, stakeholder needs, and
other variables.
(PMBOK® Guide, 2017: 34)
Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK®
Guide) – Sixth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2017, Page 34.
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Think about the impact of a sudden and global economic recession on projects about to start
or already underway. Most projects would be subjected to some form of economic audit to
ensure that the expected value or benefits justifies their cost. The addition of a new and large
client can just as easily introduce delivery risk across an organisation with its adverse effect
on project resourcing. While the new business may yield more revenues, increasing resource
capacity takes time.
Regulatory and compliance changes from the external environment can also have a direct
impact on scope, pushing out project schedules and increasing project cost. For example,
consider how the introduction of the Protection of Personal Information (POPI) or General
Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Acts have influenced how data is stored, processed, and
managed locally and in Europe.
1. Schedule: A successful project begins and ends within the time frame stipulated in
the project plan. The use of a timeline ensures that project activities are monitored
and controlled efficiently. In the event that an activity cannot be completed within
the allocated time, the timeline should allow you to assess the impact of a delay (also
known as the schedule impact variance) on the overall project deliverables. For some
projects, it may be better to complete it a bit late rather than too early.
2. Resources: A successful project remains within the limits of the budget. When
commencing a project, you should first secure the resources required to meet the
objectives. The budget is used to measure the variance between the resources initially
allocated to the project, and what is actually used.
3. Scope (and quality): A successful project must deliver only the agreed scope whilst
meeting or exceeding the customer’s expectations. The completed project must meet
its intended purpose. A new theatre, for example, must provide adequate viewing and
good acoustics for its patrons. Scope is closely tied to quality, an objective that is often
overlooked; however, this should be prioritised above the other objectives in certain
projects. How the product performs is also important; users will be able to determine
how reliable and easy it is to use. It is essential that scope and performance (which
can be used to determine quality) are defined sufficiently from the outset of the
project, as they will influence its entire course. It is also important for quality to be
assessed during the project and not just at the end.
For example, the release of a new computer program may only require a modest level
of quality to be achieved (rather than perfection), as the aim would be to release the
product on or before the publicised release date. If necessary, updates that fix various
bugs can be pushed to users at a later date. As a second example, releasing a product
or service before the desired level of quality is achieved (for example, a new medical
treatment) could have serious consequences, thus making quality more important
than the schedule or budget.
The primary constraints when starting a project are cost (budget), time (schedule) and scope
(including quality). There is a close relationship that exists between these three project
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constraints. For example, if one is changed, then the remaining two will be affected in some
way. For example, if the schedule is compressed, some costs may go up whilst others may go
down. The nett result (cost increase or decrease) will depend on the nature of the project.
However, a rushed job may also diminish the quality of the final project if the schedule is
compressed but no adjustments to scope are made.
The clients’ expectations also have an impact on the “Triple Constraint”. At the beginning of
the initiation stage, the client will often voice their expectations in terms of cost, time and
scope. It is therefore important that the clients’ expectations be managed throughout the
project’s life cycle (from its initiation through to closure). The client needs to know what is
possible (feasible and reasonable) in terms of balancing the “Triple Constraint”.
If you understand how these three variables work together, it will enable you to plan and
manage your projects more effectively and better assess project risks associated with any
changes that may be required.
Although the criteria listed in the previous section are very important, recent studies suggest
that there are other factors that should be added to the project management triangle. These
factors include the following:
Organisational benefits: Successful projects can offer multiple benefits to an
organisation. These could include increased efficiency, rising profits or meeting
strategic long-term goals.
Stakeholder community benefits: These benefits can range from satisfied users
to the positive impact on the scientific or natural environment, from profits made
by contractors to personal and professional development among team members.
The information system: A successful project can develop an effective
information system: one that is reliable, valid and maintainable. Success is
therefore not only about “deliverables” (the resulting product or service), but also
about the effectiveness of the process itself, and the value created through this.
There are a number of other potential factors that contribute to a project’s success. These will
be further explored during this course.
3.3 What is project management?
Project management is the application of knowledge, techniques, tools and skills to project
work or activities to produce or meet project requirements and objectives. Project
management is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of the
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project management processes identified for the project. Managing a project typically
includes (but is not limited to):
Identifying the project requirements;
Addressing the varying concerns, needs, and expectations of all stakeholders;
Establishing and maintaining effective communication with stakeholders;
Managing resources; and
Balancing all the competing project constraints, such as:
Cost / Resources;
Quality; and
Project circumstances influence the prioritisation of each project constraint and also affects
how each project management process is implemented.
The Standard for Project Management (ANSI/PMI 99-001-2017)
Watch the following video, which provides a simple definition of project management. In the
video, the narrator discusses the reasons why project management is used to deliver
successful projects, as well as the importance of the project manager.
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Video 2: A brief introduction to project management. (Source: (Access this set of notes on the Online Campus to
engage with this video.)
Henry Gantt (1861–1919) and Frederick Taylor (1856–1915) made considerable contributions
to the development of project management.
Gantt chart:
Henry Gantt developed the Gantt chart in 1917. The Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart that
visually shows a project schedule. The chart illustrates the commencement and completion
dates of each project activity. The Gantt chart can be enhanced using various accepted means
to display additional project information, such as the resource requirements needed for each
Do you support the use of Gantt charts as an effective means to display and maintain a project
schedule? Take part in the poll below and share your opinion, or review how others feel about
Gantt charts and their usage.
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Poll: Are Gantt charts effective? (Access this set of notes on the Online Campus to engage with this
3.3.1 The Five Project Management Processes
Most projects, regardless of the industry, have similarities. The project management process
involves identifying project requirements, managing the expectations and delineated
requirements of the stakeholders throughout the duration of the project, as well as balancing
the “Triple Constraint”.
There are five project management process groups, as developed by the PMI®:
1. Initiating process group
2. Planning process group
3. Executing process group
4. Monitoring and Controlling process group
5. Closing process group
These will be explored further in Unit 2, as well as Video 3 in the section.
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3.3.2 The 10 Project Management Knowledge Areas
According to the PMBOK® Guide—Sixth Edition, the 10 knowledge areas for project
management are:
1. Project Integration Management
2. Project Scope Management
3. Project Schedule Management
4. Project Cost Management
5. Project Quality Management
6. Project Resource Management
7. Project Communications Management
8. Project Risk Management
9. Project Procurement Management
10. Project Stakeholder Management
Project management is a broad field, and any given project will include the following
elements, as well as others:
Drawing up initial objectives, ideas, rationales and estimates for the project in
consultation with the relevant stakeholders.
Mapping out how the approved objectives will be achieved within the given
Interacting and liaising internally with team members and management, and
externally with contractors, suppliers and other stakeholders from the conception of
the project through to its completion.
Securing and allocating resources to project activities.
Co-ordinating many simultaneous and sequential actions, among diverse individuals
and working groups.
Motivating, managing and supporting the team.
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Keeping track of time, costs and progress, and making adjustments or corrections
along the way when necessary. This includes documenting and reporting progress to
sponsors or steering committees.
Keeping track of risks to ensure that the appropriate control actions are taken to preempt or solve issues as they arise.
The project manager oversees the technical work of the project. They are also at times
responsible for an area of the technical work itself, but this is undertaken in the capacity of a
project team member. However, it is important not to attempt to work in full capacity as a
project manager and as a team member simultaneously. This will likely lead to one of the two
roles being neglected.
It is important to note that project “planning” is not “project management”, and the two terms
should not be used interchangeably. The following video explains the difference between
project planning and project management and how planning forms part of the five project
management process groups as outlined in the PMBOK® Guide—Sixth Edition.
Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK®
Guide) – Sixth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2017, Page 288-299.
The five project management process groups include initiating (first), planning (second)
executing (third), monitoring and controlling (fourth), and closing (fifth). The five process
groups should not be confused with the four generic life cycle phases (discussed in Module 2).
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Video 3: The difference between project planning and project management. (Source: (Access this set of notes on the Online Campus to
engage with this video.)
3.4 Project management and industry specificity
The discipline of project management is not industry specific. The skills and techniques you
learn in this course can be applied to any project you encounter, whether you are working on
a popular monthly magazine or in a small IT firm. The industry independence of project
management is one of the key reasons for its prominence in almost every organisation. In fact,
there are many project management consultancies that work in diverse industries, helping
their clients to formalise and map out their projects. However, these consultancies can only
facilitate the process and not enact it, as they do not have the necessary organisational and
industry-specific knowledge. So, although the discipline of project management is industry
independent, project managers are not. They are embedded in a particular business
environment and have specific knowledge and experience.
In addition to project management skills, project managers also need the following:
1. General management skills: Good management skills are required of any manager of
projects, people or operations. These skills may include team motivation, an ability to
achieve consensus and effective communication, organisational knowledge, problemsolving and negotiating skills, as well as financial and organisational expertise.
2. Technical competence: The foundation of good project management is a sound
technical understanding of the industry-specific activity at hand. You do not need to
be the best electrician in the group to be the project manager of a major rewiring
project. However, you do need to understand the processes and activities that you
are asking others to work with. You should have a sense of the risks, labour, time and
resources associated with these activities. As the project manager, you may not often
be involved in the technical aspects, but you should have some knowledge to be able
to assess it. This understanding will allow you to participate in problem-solving and
supporting team members who are carrying out the technical activities.
The figure below highlights these three skills and how they are interrelated:
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Figure 2: The three-interrelated skill and knowledge areas of a project manager.
Perhaps you have been chosen to lead a project because you have demonstrated
management skills and are technically proficient in your area. These are the industry and
person-specific elements of a good project manager. This course will help you develop the
industry-independent techniques of project management.
3.5 Who needs to know about project management?
The term “project management” has become essential in most organisations. However, it is
not only project managers who need to understand project management. All employees in an
organisation can benefit from a basic understanding of project management, as it is likely that
they will form part of a project team at some stage in their career.
For example, staff members who are part of ongoing operations in a particular department
will most likely be asked at some point to contribute their input to a project as a team
member. Team members who understand the processes of project management can also
support the work of the manager by assisting with planning and contributing to effective
monitoring and control. Functional managers (who manage departments and who are also
known as resource managers) may need to lead or supervise various projects within their
department, or they may be tasked with accurately assigning staff from their department to
a project team. Finally, at the very top, senior executives will usually select or sponsor projects
and oversee a company’s overall project portfolio and communicate with various project and
programme managers.
As you can see, project management skills and knowledge are beneficial throughout an
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3.6 Project success and benefits management
A benefits management plan describes when and how the benefits of the project will be
delivered and how they will be measured. The benefits management plan may include:
Target benefits: The expected business value to be gained by the implementation of
the product, service, or result.
Strategic alignment: How the project benefits align with and support the
organisation’s business strategies.
Time frame for realising benefits: The time frame in which the benefits of each phase
are expected to be realised (e.g. short term, long term, or ongoing).
Benefits owner: The accountable person or group that monitors, records, and reports
realised benefits throughout the planned time frame.
Metrics: The measurements used to show the benefits realised.
Risks: The risks associated with achieving the target benefits.
Both the business case and the benefits management plan are developed prior to the project
being initiated, and both are referenced after the project has been completed. They are
therefore considered business documents rather than project documents or components of
the project management plan. However, these business documents may be inputs to some of
the processes involved in managing the project, e.g. developing the project charter.
Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK®
Guide) – Sixth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2017, Page 285.
Interesting fact:
According to PMI®, 71% of projects that meet their original goals and business intent exist
within organisations where “project management culture” is a high priority (2016).
4. Project management definitions
Project managers are required to understand and differentiate between important terms and
definitions related to the professional discipline of project management. As mentioned,
project management is a broad discipline that often requires the use of industry-specific
jargon. It is also important to understand these terms and definitions to avoid the negative
effects of miscommunication.
Below is a list of useful resources that include standardised terminology and definitions.
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It is advisable to download and browse through all of the free-to-use resources listed below.
However, your primary focus should be on the first four, which you can use as a reference
throughout the course if you are unsure of any specific terms.
1. PMI Lexicon of Project Management Terms, Version 3.2 (Project Management
Institute, Inc)
2. The APM Body of Knowledge 6th Edition – Definitions
3. APM Online Glossary (extended)
4. PRINCE2® Glossary of Terms (English)
5. Praxis Framework – Comparative glossary of project, programme and portfolio
6. Managing Successful Programmes (MSP®) Glossary of Terms (English)
7. Management of Portfolios (MoP®) Glossary of Terms (English)
8. Management of Risk (MoR®) Glossary of Terms (English)
9. Portfolio, Programme and Project Offices (P3O®) Glossary of Terms (English)
10. Management of Value (MoV®) Glossary of Terms (English)
11. AXELOS Common Glossary
You can use these glossaries as a reference if you are unsure about any specific terms. The
first four are the most important for now, but please feel free to view or download them all.
Note that you will have to create a PMI account in order to access the first free resource.
Becoming a PMI registered user holds no cost. You can use the same user account to apply for
your PMI membership online, should you decide to do so. For most of you, your first port of
call will be the PMI Lexicon of Project Management Terms, which is linked to the Guide to the
Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide).
5. Conclusion
Projects are temporary endeavours that produce unique outcomes and drive infrastructural
and procedural change in organisations and society. Project management, which stems from
the meticulous planning and executing of plans during World War II and the Cold War
respectively, has become a distinct discipline. Project management theory and the practice
thereof is independent and can be applied across all industries; however, depending on the
industry you are in, you will need to have knowledge as a project manager of the industry in
which the project takes place.
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Tel: +27 21 447 7565 | Fax: +27 21 447 8344
Website: | Email: [email protected]
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The techniques and discussions covered in this course will help you to navigate the journey as
a project manager.
6. Bibliography
Azzopardi, S. 2016. The evolution of project management. Available: [2018,
October 8].
Hunsberger, K. 2008. Skills shortage in South Africa. Available:
[2018, October 8].
Jackson, D. 2008. South Africa: business must solve dire skills shortage. Available: [2018, October 8].
Meredith, J.R. & Mantel, S.J. 2011. Project management: a managerial approach. 7th ed.
New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Project Management Institute. 2013. A Guide to the Project Management Body of
Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide). 5th ed. Pennsylvania: Project Management Institute, Inc.
Project Management Institute. 2017. A Guide to the Project Management Body of
Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide). 6th ed. Pennsylvania: Project Management Institute, Inc.
The Saylor Foundation. n.d. Project management in a complex world. Available: [2018, October 8].
PMI and PMBOK are marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.
© 2019 UCT / GetSmarter
All Rights Reserved
Tel: +27 21 447 7565 | Fax: +27 21 447 8344
Website: | Email: [email protected]
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