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D. Ware, B. Beatty - Diccionario manual Ilustrado de Arquitectura

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Diccionario manual
ilustrado de arquitectura
D. Ware / B. Beatty
Diccionario manual ilustrado de arquitectura
Editorial Gustavo Gili, SL
Rosselló 87-89, 08029 Barcelona, España. Tel. (+34) 93 322 81 61
Valle de Bravo 21, 53050 Naucalpan, México. Tel. (+52) 55 55 60 60 11
D. Ware / B. Beatty
Diccionario manual
ilustrado de arquitectura
con los términos más comunes empleados
en la construcción
Versión del inglés notablemente aumentada por
Joaquín Gili (arquitecto) y Manuel Company (Ingeniero)
GG
®
Título original: A short dictionary of architecture
Cualquier forma de reproducción, distribución, comunicación pública o
transformación de esta obra sólo puede ser realizada con la autorización de
sus titulares, salvo excepción prevista por la ley. Diríjase a CEDRO (Centro
Español de Derechos Reprográficos, www.cedro.org) si necesita fotocopiar
o escanear algún fragmento de esta obra.
La Editorial no se pronuncia, ni expresa ni implícitamente, respecto a la
exactitud de la información contenida en este libro, razón por la cual no
puede asumir ningún tipo de responsabilidad en caso de error u omisión.
© George Allen & Unwin LTD, Londres
y para la edición castellana:
© Editorial Gustavo Gili, SL, Barcelona
ISBN: 978-84-252-2659-5 (digital PDF)
www.ggili.com
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A
Acanto
Ábaco
M o t i v o ornamental esculpido, baPlano superior o tablilla que c o sado en las hojas de la planta del
rona el capitel. (Lám. IV).
mismo nombre, que se encuentra
Abaluartar
Disponer baluartes o torreones
salientes en un recinto. (Fig. 29).
A b a s t i o n a r . Abaluartar.
A b e s t i o n a r . Abaluartar.
Abrazadera
Soporte de metal u otra materia
que sirve para sujetar alguna cosa,
ciñéndola.
Fig. I. ACANTO
A b r e v a r . Amerar.
en los capiteles corintios y comA b r o t a n t e . Arbotante.
puestos y como adorno de molÁ b s i d a . Ábside.
duras. (Fig. 1).
Ábside
Parte de una iglesia, comúnmente A c a r t e l a m i e n t o
Aumento progresivo de la altura
de planta semicircular, que sode una viga de hormigón armado
bresale en la fachada posterior;
en los apoyos o en los empotraoriginariamente se orientaba a
mientos. — Ensanchamiento anáLevante. (Lám. VI).
logo en los elementos de apoyo de
Á b s i d e lobulado
una viga.
Ábside circular o poligonal alrededor del cual se disponen varias A c a s t i l l a d o
capillas.
Dícese de cualquier parapeto o
Abujardar
pretil almenado. (Fig. 2). — D í Labrar la piedra con bujarda (marcese de la moldura ornamental, de
tillo de cantero con dos bocas
los siglos XV y X V I , que separaba
cuadradas guarnecidas de dientes).
en los revestimientos de madera
Acanaladura
los tableros del friso, formando
Ranura o estría.
c o m o un almenado en miniatura.
2
ACC
Acometida
Acceso
Empalme de un ramal o derivaPasillo o corredor entre dos habición con la cañería, línea o galetaciones.— Punto desde el cual las
ría principal.
instalaciones empotradas u ocultas
pueden ser alcanzadas para su inspección o reparación.
Fig.2.
ACASTILLADO
Acera
Paramento de una pared. — SiFig. 3. ACODO
llares con que se forman los paramentos de un muro. — Orilla de A c o p l a d u r a
la calle, generalmente enlosada.
Ensambladura, empalme, junta.
A c e r o dulce
Acoplamiento
Acero con pequeño contenido de
Yuxtaposición de dos maderos
carbono, que no admite el temple.
para conseguir una pieza de mayor
— Vulgarmente, hierro larninado.
escuadría. (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4. ACOPLAMIENTO
Acero moldeado
Acero fundido o colado.
Acicalar
Dar a una pared el último pulimento.
Acodalamiento
Acción y efecto de acodalar.
Acodalar
Poner codales.
Acodo
Resalto de una dovela por debajo. — Moldura que forma el
cerco de un vano. (Fig. 3).
Acotar
Poner cotas a un dibujo, plano,
levantamiento topográfico, etc.
Acrópolis
Recinto amurallado, en la parte
alta de algunas ciudades griegas,
donde se emplazaban los templos
y los edificios públicos.
Acrótera
Piedra labrada en el vértice o en
los extremos del frontón y que
sirve como ornamento o pedestal
de escultura. (lám. V).
3
AGL
Acroterio
lo alto de una fortificación. —
Pretil o antepecho que se hace
M u r o de una fortaleza.
sobre los cornisamentos para ocul- A d e n t e l l a r
tar el tejado
Dejar en una pared dientes o adaAcueducto
rajas.
Arcada que soporta un canal o A d i n t e l a d a
una tubería de abastecimiento de
Dícese de la arquitectura basada
agua.
en el dintel y la columna o pie
Acuerdo
derecho. (Fig. 5).
Enlace de dos alineaciones o superficies mediante líneas o superficies curvas o alabeadas.
A c u e r d o realzado
Moldura que disimula la junta de
dos elementos a diferente nivel
y que tiene un saliente mayor
que el del elemento más destaFig. 5. CONSTRUCCIÓN ADINTELADA
cado. (Lám. XVI).
A c u e r d o remetido
Moldura que disimula la junta A d o b e
Masa de barro en forma de laentre dos elementos a distinto
drillo, secada al aire.
nivel, pero sin sobresalir del elemento más saliente, en contra- A d o q u í n
Pequeño bloque de piedra, de
posición al acuerdo realzado.
forma de paralelepípedo, que se
Acuesto
emplea para pavimentar.
Inclinación de parte de la construcción. — Desviación de la ver- Afollarse
Ahuecarse o formar ampollas las
tical o aplomo.
paredes.
Acusar
Destacar mediante líneas, m o l d u - A f o r o
Capacidad de un recipiente, de
ras o superficies, distintas partes
un local, sala de espectáculos,
o elementos de una construcción.
etcétera. — Cantidad de agua que
Achaflanar
Chaflanar.
pasa por un conducto en una
Achique
unidad de tiempo.
Operación de sacar el agua que
inunda ciertos sitios, c o m o el A g l o m e r a d o
Dícese del material obtenido por
fondo de una excavación o de
moldeo de una substancia granuun p o z o de cimentación.
lada, por ejemplo, serrín de corAdaraja
cho, con un aglomerante o betún.
Diente formado en una pared para
enlazarla con otra que se cons- A g l o m e r a n t e
truirá más adelante.
Material de trabazón de los m o r Adarve
teros, hormigones, etc., com o la
Camino detrás del parapeto y en
cal, el cemento y el yeso.
AGO
4
Ágora
Plaza pública, generalmente rodeada de columnatas, donde los
antiguos griegos se reunían, principalmente para efectuar transacciones comerciales.
herradura o peraltados es típico
del arte árabe.
Ala
Parte de un edificio que se extiende a un lado del cuerpo o edificio principal.
Agramilar
Raspar los ladrillos para igualarlos. — Figurar hiladas de ladrillo
con pintura o estuco.
Agua
Vertiente del tejado.
Aguilón
Teja o pizarra cortada en ángulo.
—Madero puesto diagonalmcnte
(par de lima tesa) en las armaduras
de faldón.—Muro de aguilón: hastial.
Alabastro
Variedad de piedra de yeso con
apariencia de mármol; a veces es
blanco, otras veteado en castaño
rojizo. — Cierto
mármol
m uy
blanco y semitransparente.
Alacena
Hueco hecho en la pared, con
puertas y anaqueles, que se utililiza com o armario.
Aguja
Chapitel alto y estrecho de una
torre. — Barra con agujeros y
pasadores en sus extremos para
sujetar los tableros de un tapial.
— Obelisco.
Ahusado
Dícese de las columnas, soportes,
ornamentos, etc., tallados en forma de huso.
Aislamiento
Sistema de construcción usado
en un edificio para impedir el
paso del sonido, la luz, el calor o
las vibraciones, de un paramento
a otro.
A i s l a n t e térmico. Revestimiento
calorífugo.
Ajedrezado
Decoración de superficies m u rales o enlosados, formando cuadros como las casillas del ajedrez.
— Escaqueada.
Ajimez
Conjunto de dos ventanas arqueadas, separadas por una c o 'umna. El ajimez con arcos de
Alaroz
Armazón con que se reduce el
hueco de una puerta para poner
una mampara.
Albacara
Recinto murado en la parte exterior de una fortaleza. — Torr eón
saliente.
Albanega
Triángulo formado por las piezas de una armadura.
Albañal
Canal o conducto de desagüe de
las aguas sucias.
Albardilla
Hilada de coronación de una pared de cerca, con saliente por a m bos paramentos para protegerlos
de la lluvia, (fig. 6).
Alcabor
Hueco de la campana del horno
o de la chimenea.
Alcantarilla
Paso abovedado para canal o tubería, bajo un camino o edificación. — Canal subterráneo.
Alcatifa
Broza o relleno que se echa en el
5
ALF
suelo antes de solarlo. — Barro o
argamasa sobre la cual se sientan
las tejas.
Alcazaba
Recinto fortificado.
Alcázar
Palacio real, casa del rey o príncipe. — Castillo.
Alcoba
Aposento para dormir que recibe
luz y ventilación a través de una
sala, de la que se separa por un
gran vano sin puerta. En general,
dormitorio.
Alero
Borde inferior del tejado que sobresale de la pared. (Fig. 7).
Fig. 7. ALERO
Fig. 6. ALBARDILLA
Aldaba
Pieza de metal que se pone a las
puertas para llamar golpeando
con ella. — Barra o travesano con
que se aseguran, después de cerrados, los postigos o puertas.
A l e r o corrido
Término usado para indicar que
el alero es prolongación de la vertiente de cubierta, sin solución de
continuidad.
Aleta
Cada una de las dos partes del machón que quedan visibles a los
lados de una columna adosada.
— Cada una de las paredes que
arrancan del estribo de un puente
para contener los terraplenes de
acceso. — Cada uno de los dos
planos horizontales de una viga
doble te.
Aldabía
Madero que se apoya horizontalmente sobre dos paredes opuestas
para sostener un tabique colgado.
Aldabilla
Alfarda
Gancho que entrando en una hemPar de una armadura.
brilla, sirve para cerrar ventanas, Alfajía
Alfarjía.
cajas, etc.
Alfarje
Aldabón
Techo con maderas labradas y enAldaba, llamador de puerta.
trelazadas.
ALF
6
Alfarjía
Vigueta de madera. — Madero de
sierra que se emplea para los cercos de puertas y ventanas.
Alféizar
Vuelta o derrame que hace la
pared en un vano de puerta o
ventana.
A l g e z . Piedra de yeso.
Alhambra
Palacio de los reyes moros en
Granada.
Alhambrilla
Baldosín rojo rectangular.
Alicatado
Ornamentación de pared consistente en un revestimiento conti-
Alma
Pie derecho de andamio. — Plano
vertical de la viga doble te o de
la viga compuesta.
Almarbatar
Ensamblar dos piezas de madera.
Almarbate
Madero cuadrado del alfarje que
une las paredes de la armadura.
Almena
Cada uno de los prismas que coronan los muros de las antiguas
fortalezas, a manera de parapetos,
con vanos intermedios para tirar
contra el enemigo.
Almenado
Pretil o parapeto coronado con
almenas. (Fig. g).
Fig. 8. ALICATADO
nuo de losetas o azulejos de forma cuadrada o rómbica. (Fig. 8).
Alicer
Tabla con que se cubre el hueco
circunscrito por la solera, los tirantes y el almarbate en los techos
de alfarje.
Alineación
Línea que delimita la construcción de un edificio por el lado de
la calle. — Línea de fachada.
Alizar
Friso de azulejos que se pone c o mo adorno en la parte inferior de
las paredes interiores. — Azulejos
de los destinados para el alizar.
Fig. 9. ALMENADO
Almendra
Adorno de moldura en figura de
almendra.
A l m i l l a . Clavija.
Alminar
Torre alta y esbelta adosada a una
mezquita con un balcón en lo
alto, en voladizo, que la circunda.
Almocárabe
A d o r n o en forma de lazos usado
en las construcciones árabes.
AMI
7
Almohadilla
Parte sobresaliente del paramento
de algunos sillares que se disponen en esquinas, claves, etc., com o
elementos principales del aparejo,
por lo general en la fábrica mixta
de ladrillo y sillería. — Cojinete.
Almohadillado
Q u e tiene almohadillas. Aparejo
de sillería con las juntas labradas en
bisel o rehundido para dar la sensación de juntas anchas. (Fig. 10).
sobre la cual se celebra el sacrificio de la misa. — Conjunto formado por la mesa y el retablo.
Fig. 11. ALTAR
Fig. 10. ALMOHADILLADO
Almohadón
Sillar superior de la jamba o estribo, que da asiento al salmer o
primera dovela del arco. — B l o que sobre el capitel bizantino que
da un mayor apoyo a las dovelas.
Almojaya
Cada uno de los maderos transversales de un andamio, que soportan los tablones de piso y que
van apoyados en el espárrago y en
el mechinal.
Altar
M o n u m e n to dispuesto para ofrecer sacrificios a los dioses o para
quemar incienso.
(Fig. 11).—
Construcción en forma de mesa,
Altillo
Entresuelo, entrepiso.
A l t o relieve
Trabajo de escultura decorativa
cuyas figuras u ornamentación
sobresalen del plano que forma el
fondo más de la mitad de su bulto.
Alzado
Dibujo que representa la proyección de una fachada sobre un
plano vertical paralelo a l a misma:
alzado frontal, alzado posterior y
alzados laterales. (Lám. XVII a).
A m a r r e . Anclaje.
Ambón
Púlpito situado al lado del coro.
Generalmente suele haber uno en
cada lado, para cantar el Evangelio
en el uno y la Epístola en el otro.
Amerar
Regar o embeber con agua un
material u obra, c o m o se hace con
los ladrillos antes de colocarlos.
Amianto
Minera] fibroso, incombustible y
aislante, usado en la manufactura
de diversos materiales de construcción.
A M O
Amojonar
Señalar con mojones las lindes
de una heredad.
Anaquel
Cada una de las tablas puestas
horizontalmente en los armarios,
alacenas, estantes, etc.
Ancla
Pieza de hierro que se coloca en
uno o ambos extremos de un tirante, con que se asegura la función de éste. — Elemento que
sirve para afianzar la trabazón de
las vigas con la pared. — Pieza
de metal u otro material que, e m bebida en el espesor de un muro
y colocada entre los mampuestos
o sillares, asegura la trabazón de
la fábrica. — Elemento de anclaje.
(Lámina XIII. — Grapa.
Anclaje
Enlace de las partes de una construcción con elementos metálicos
(tirantes, pernos, anclas, etc.)
destinados a asegurar su inmovilidad. (Lám. XIII.)
Ancón
Cada una de las dos ménsulas que
se ponen a ambos lados de un vano
para sostener la cornisa.
Andamio
Construcción provisional de rollizos, tablones o piezas metálicas
sosteniendo plataformas, que sirven para la ejecución de las obras
de un edificio.
Anfipróstilo
T e m p l o con pórtico delante y detrás de la nave.
Anfiteatro
Espacio ovalado rodeado de gradas, utilizado primitivamente en
los espectáculos de gladiadores.—
Conjunto de asientos colocados
8
en gradas semicirculares, que suele
haber en las aulas y en los teatros.
Angrelado
Remate decorativo formado por
dientes menudos. — Véase Arce
angrelado.
Angular
Barra de metal, generalmente de
Fig. 12. ANGULAR
acero dulce laminado, con sección
en forma de L. (Fig. 12).
Anillo
Moldura o faja que rodea los
Fig. 13. COLUMNA CON ANILLOS
fustes de las columnas. (Fig. 13).
— Cornisa que sirve de base a una
cúpula.
ANT
9
Anodización
Protección obtenida por procedimientos electroquímicos en forma
de una dura película de óxido.
Anta
Pilastra, cuya base y capitel pueden no ajustarse a los de las c o lumnas del edificio, y que va
colocada usualmcnte en un extremo de pared lateral. — Pilastra
empotrada en un muro y con una
columna delante. — Cada una de
las pilastras que van a los costados
de la puerta de la fachada de un
templo. — Cada una de las pilastras que refuerzan y decoran un
muro.
Antecámara
Pequeño vestíbulo o acceso al que
dan una o más habitaciones.
Antefija
Ornamento sobre el alero de una
Entablamento
Antefyas
Tejado
res y hojas de la madreselva; se
presenta en muchas variaciones
en las arquitecturas griega y ro-
Fig. 15. ANTEMA
mana. (Fig. 15).
En general.
adorno inspirado en las formas de
la naturaleza.
Antemio. Antema.
Antepecho
Muro formado por la elevación
de las paredes exteriores de un edi-
Fig. 14. ENTABLAMENTO DÓRICO CON
ANTEFIJAS
cubierta, para ocultar los extremos
de las tejas. (Fig. 14).
Antehogar
Parte de la solera del hogar que
sobresale del frente de una chimenea de calefacción.
Antema
Ornamentación basada en las flo-
Fig. 16. ANTEPECHO
ficio sobre la azotea o construido
sobre la cornisa. — Muro protec-
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Aterrajar
Hacer molduras con la terraja.
Ático
Último piso de una casa, en general más bajo de techo que los
demás.
Aula magna
Gran aula habilitada para ceremonias, conferencias, etc.
Aureola
Halo que circunda una imagen
sagrada.
Avellanado
Depresión practicada en el material para embutir la cabeza del
Fig. 27. AVELLANADO
Fig. 26. ATAGUÍA
Atizonar
Enlazar con tizones, por ejemplo,
los dos tabicones de una pared
hueca. — Asentar la cabeza de un
madero en el espesor de una pared.
Atlante
Escultura masculina usada, en lugar de una columna, para soportar
el entablamento.
Atrio
Patio de entrada de la casa romana, descubierto pero rodeado por
el tejado en todos sus lados. Más
tarde se llamó también atrio a
espacio descubierto, y por lo c o mún cercado de pórticos, que hay
a la entrada de algunos edificios
Aula
Sala donde se enseña, en las universidades o centros de estudio.
tornillo o del clavo de manera
que ésta no sobresalga de la superficie. (Fig. 27).
Azolar
Desbastar la madera con azuela.
Azotea
Cubierta accesible y con tan ligera
pendiente que su revestimiento
tiene que ser continuo o de juntas
herméticas (plomo, asfalto, embaldosado, etc.).
Azuche
Hierro aguzado, que calza la
punta de un pilote de madera o
de hormigón armado, para facilitar la hinca.
Azulejo
Baldosa o pieza de moldura de alfarería vidriada que se usa para revestimiento de paredes exteriores
e interiores.
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CEM
33
Cascote
Fragmento de alguna fábrica de
albañilería deshecha o derribada.
— Escombro.
C a s e t ó n . Artesón.
Castañuela
Pieza de hierro que substituye al
gancho de la grúa para izar sillares. Tiene forma de cuña, y con
Fig.—41. CASTAÑUELAS
uno o dos suplementos de ajuste
se introduce en una caja a cola de
milano labrada en la cara de lecho
del sillar. (Fig. 41).
C a t a . Calicata.
C a u l í c o l o . Caulículo.
Caulículo
Cada uno de los vástagos que nacen de lo interior de las hojas que
adornan el capitel corintio y
que soportan las volutas. Aparecen dos de estos vástagos en cada
cara del capitel.
Caveto
Moldura cuyo perfil es un cuarto
de círculo. (Lám. XVI a).
Celosía
Enrejado que se pone en las ventanas para que las personas que
están en el interior vean sin ser
vistas. — Mampara calada, formada por dos series cruzadas de
elementos
paralelos. — Triangulación de una viga o armadura.
Celia. Naos.
Cemento
Compuesto calizo, natural o artificial cocido y pulverizado.
C e m e n t o de altos h o r n o s
El formado con un 3I por I00,
c o m o mínimo, de cemento portland y el resto de escorias granuladas de altos hornos.
C e m e n t o de alúmina. Cemento
fundido.
C e m e n t o de escorias
Mezcla finamente molida de escorias granuladas de altos hornos
en agua y cal apagada.
C e m e n t o de madera
Cemento Häusler.
C e m e n t o fundido
El obtenido por cocción hasta la
fusión de una mezcla de bauxita
y piedra caliza.
C e m e n t o Häusler
Llamado por su inventor «cemento de madera» (Holzzement),
se obtiene hirviendo alquitrán
mezclado con un I0 por I00 de
azufre.
C e m e n t o hidráulico
El que tiene la propiedad de poder fraguar bajo el agua.
Cemento lento
El que no comienza a fraguar antes de una hora.
C e m e n t o p o rtland
Cemento artificial fabricado con
cal y arcilla, con resistencia y
características garantizadas.
C e m e n t o portland de hierro
El formado con un 70 por I00,
como mínimo, de cemento portland y el resto de escorias granuladas de altos hornos.
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43
C R U
naves perpendiculares en una igleCristal e s t a m p a d o
sia. —A r c o crucero. — V i g u e t a , maVidrio laminado que lleva i m dero de sierra.
preso en una de sus caras un dibuj o , con más o menos relieve, y que Crujía
Espacio comprendido entre dos
tiene por objeto impedir la visión
muros de carga. — Cada una de
a su través. Puede ser colorado.
las naves o partes principales en
Cristal p l a n o
que, desde el punto de vista consVidrio transparente con ambas
tructivo, se divide la planta de
superficies esmeriladas, alisadas y
un edificio.
pulidas, para que resulten planas
y paralelas, dando así una visión C r u z
Ensamble a media madera de dos
sin distorsiones por reflexión ni
piezas perpendiculares.
por refracción.—Cristal de espejos.
Cruz de S a n Andrés
Cristal prismático
Ensamble de piezas que se cruzan
Cristal difusor.
en general según ángulos distinCristal semidoble
Cristal de ventana de dos a tres
milímetros de espesor y un peso
aproximado de 6 , 2 5 0 kg por metro cuadrado.
Cristal sencillo
Cristal comente de ventana de
1, 2 milímetros a 2 , 2 milímetros
de espesor y un peso aproximado de 4 kg por metro cuadrado.
Cromado
Delgada capa de plomo depositada electrolíticamente sobre otro
metal, para mejorar su resistencia
a la corrosión.
Crown-glass
N o m b r e dado al primitivo cristal
de ventana, que se fabricaba por
soplado y aplanado de la bola o b tenida; resultaba cada cristal con
una protuberancia en su centro,
Fig. 54. CRUZ DE SAN ANDRÉS
correspondiente al punto de desA) Aspecto de las piezas
B) Aspecto del ensable
prendimiento de la caña de soplar.
Crucería
Nervios moldurados que refuertos del recto; es un ensamble a
zan y ornamentan la intersección
media madera en el que se evitan
de las bóvedas.
los ángulos agudos. (Fig. 54).
Crucero
C r u z griega
Espacio en que se cruzan las dos
La de cuatro brazos iguales.
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E
Edí c u l o
Edificio pequeño .
Edi f i c i o de e n t ramad o . Entramado.
Ejión
Zoquet e de madera, en forma d e
cuña, que se asegura a un par de
armadura para que sirva de apoy o
a las correas, o a un alma de andamio para dar apoy o a una piez a
horizontal. (Lám. VII).
E m b al d o sad o
Paviment o solado con baldosas.
— Operació n de embaldosar o cu brir el suelo con baldosas.
Embarbi l l ar
Ensamblar en un madero , a caja
y espiga , la extremidad de otro
inclinado.
E mb arrad o
R e v o q u e de barro o tierra.
E m b asam e n t o
Basa larga y continuada qu e sirve
de cimiento al edificio.
E mb ro c h al ar
Sostener po r medi o d e un brochal
las viga s de un piso que no puede n
cargar en la pared . (Fig. 69).
E m b u d o d e b aj an t e
Extremo superior del bajante de
aguas pluviales , en forma d e em budo .
E mp al me
Ensambladura de dos pieza s para
que quede n en prolongación .
Fig. 69 . EMBROCHALAR
E m p añ e t ar
Ejecutar un enlucido .
E mp are j ar
Allana r la tierra nivelándola .
Emparri l l ado
Cuadriculad o de vigas , que se
apoya n sobre el terreno o sobre
las cabezas de los pilotes, para
dar asiento a los cimientos de un
edificio.
!
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67
las piezas de estuco previamente
moldeadas y desecadas.
Estuco
Material preparado con tiza, aceite de linaza y cola que se aplica
espeso c o m o revestimiento decorativo; una vez endurecido puede
labrarse, dorarse o pintarse. —
Pasta de cal apagada y mármol
pulverizado que se usa para enlucir habitaciones, y que se barniza después con aguarrás y cera.
— En general, revestimiento de
pared que proporciona una superficie lisa y de buena apariencia.
E s t u c o de mármol
Pasta formada con cemento, cal
o yeso, colorante y cola que se
aplica en revestimientos imitando
mármol.
E s t u q u e . Estuco.
Esviaje
Oblicuidad o inclinación de la
superficie de un muro o del eje
EXT
de una bóveda respecto al frente de la obra de que forman parte.
Euritmia
Disposición armoniosa de los elementos integrantes de una c o m posición arquitectónica.
Eustilo
Columnata con intercolumnios
iguales a cuatro módulos y medio.
E x á s t i l o . Hexástilo.
Exedra
Construcción descubierta, a m o d o
de vestíbulo, de planta semicircular o rectangular, con asientos
fijos. Se aplica este término algunas veces a un ábside o nicho de
iglesia.
Exento
Libre, aislado.
Extradós
Superficie convexa o exterior de
una bóveda o de un arco. — Línea
formada por la parte alta de las
dovelas. (Lám. I).
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73
cubierta o de la aguja de una
torre. (Fig. 97).
G a n c h o de canalón
Soporte de metal semicircular,
que sostiene el canalón para la
recogida de aguas pluviales y que
se fija a la cara inferior del alero,
al extremo de un cabio o en la
pared.
G a r u j o . Hormigón.
G a s ó n . Yesón.
Gatera
Hueco que se deja en la parte inferior de los tabiques para que
no graviten sobre el suelo.
Fig. 98. GÁRGOLA.
Fig. 97. GANCHILLOS
G a n c h o d e lima.
Gancho de hierro que calza el
alero de un caballete de lima tesa
para impedir que resbalen las tejas de la arista.
Garganta
Parte más delgada de las columnas, balaustres, etc.
Gárgol
Ranura longitudinal que se hace
en una pieza para que encaje el
canto adelgazado de otra.
Gárgola
Caña de desagüe sobresaliente de
un tejado, a menudo esculpida en
forma de figura quimérica. (Figura 98).
Geminado
Dícese de los huecos, arcadas o
ventanas unidas dos a dos. —
Véase Columna geminada.
Georgiano
Estilo arquitectónico inglés del
siglo xvIII y principios del X I X .
El georgiano primitivo abarca
aproximadamente desde el año
1715 al 1740, y el último geor giano corresponde al reinado de
Jorge IV.
Giróla
N a v e o galería que rodea el ábside de un templo de arquitectura
románica o gótica.
Glifo
Canal vertical p o c o profundo, en
general de sección angular, labrada en una superficie plana o curva.
(Figura 199).
Gnomon
Indicador de las horas en los relojes de sol.
Gola
Moldura con perfil en forma de S.
— Cima recta.
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HIP
gura 114). — Capilla
subterráneo.
o
edificio
amasada con agua (hormigón de
cemento, h o r m i g ó n de cal).
H o r m i g ó n apisonado
Dícese del amasado con poca
agua y que al colocarlo en obra
se somete a un apisonado enérgico.
H o r m i g ó n armado
El reforzado con armaduras de
hierro.
Fig. 113. ESQUEMA DE UN HIPOCAUSTO
SOBRE PILARES
H ipóst i l a
Dícese de la gran sala cuy o techo
está sostenido por numerosas c o lumnas que dan al interior la apariencia de un bosque.
H ipotra q uel i o
Estría que circunda la columna
dórica donde termina el fuste y
que indica la transición al capitel
(Figura 115).
Hoja
En las puertas, ventanas, etc.,
cada una de las partes que se
abren y se cierran.
H o j a de acanto
Véase Acanto.
Hojas
M o t i v o ornamenta! consistente en
la estilización de las hojas de ciertas plantas y que se aplica a la decoración de molduras, frisos, etc.
H o l z z e m e n t . Cemento Häusler.
H o r m a . Pared horma.
Hormigón
Mezcla de aglomerante, arena y
g r a v a , cascote o canto rodado,
Fig.
HIPOGEO
Aliado y Planta
H o r m i g ó n colado
El de consistencia flúida, que pue- puede correr por canales in clinadas.
Es el que se emplea para las obras
de gran masa.
,
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Zaboyar
Unir con yeso las juntas de los
ladrillos.
Zaguán
Pieza cubierta, inmediata a la
puerta de entrada y que sirve de
vestíbulo en una casa. — Atrio.
Zampeado
Obra de cimentación constituída
por losa de hormigón armado o
de mampostería encadenada, que
cubre toda la planta del edificio.
Zanca
Vig a inclinada de soporte de una
escalera, a la que se fijan las hue
llas y contrahuellas.
Zanca a la francesa
La de bordes rectos, que ocultan
lateralmente los escalones.
Zanca a la inglesa
La recortada superiormente si
guiendo el perfil de los escalones.
Las huellas se apoyan en la zanca
y vuelan algo sobre la misma.
Zanca de cremallera. Zanca a
la inglesa.
Zanja
Excavación larga y angosta que se
hace en la tierra para la cimenta
ción de construcciones, conduc
ciones, etc.
Zapata
Madero corto puesto horizontal
mente sobre la cabeza de un pie
derecho para sostener la carrera
Fig. 212. ZAPATA
y aminorar su vano. (Fig. 212).
— Tabla o madero que calza un
puntal. — Base de pie derecho.
Zapatón
Pieza horizontal de madera de
bajo de una carrera, apeada por
sus extremos con tornapuntas o
jabalcones.
Zaquizamí
Enmaderamiento de un techo. —
Desván.
I56
Z A R
Zarpa
Zincado.
Galvanizado.
Parte en que la anchura de un Zocalillo
cimiento excede a la del muro
Pieza de madera moldurada o
que se levanta sobre él.
hilada de azulejos de revestimenZarpanel.
Arco apainelado.
to, colocada horizontalmente a lo
Zigzag
largo de una pared interior, cuOrnamentación corriente de las
briendo la junta de ésta con el
molduras normandas.—Cheurrón.
suelo.
Zigurat
Zócalo
Pirámide escalonada, con rampas
Cu erpo inferior de un edificio
laterales ascendentes y con un
u obra, que sirve para elevar los
basamentos a un mismo nivel. —
M i e m b r o inferior del pedestal,
debajo del neto.
Zoco.
Zócalo.
Zoofórico
Dícese del soporte con figura de
animales.
Zoóforo
Friso decorado con figuras de
animales y personas. El más famoso es seguramente el del ParFig. 213. ZIGURAT
tenón.
Zuncho
templo en la cúspide, propia de
Abrazadera o anillo de hierro o
la arquitectura religiosa mesopode otro material, que sirve para
támica. (Fig. 213).
ceñir, sujetar o reforzar una pieza.
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