Subido por Francisco Galvez

QuantumRoles eng V3

New Profiles in Quantum Technologies
Francisco Gálvez
First Quantum Revolution occurred during XX century. At the beginning of that century, the Quantum
Theory was discovered, developed and its basic principles were understood, based on this knowledge, some
technologies, such as the electronics or lasers were developed. Now in the beginning of the XXI century we are
about to face the second Quantum Revolution. We have the knowledge and the tools to start building a
computer ruled by quantum laws. This computers will allow us to face new challenges and explore new paths
in science, technology, business that will contribute to build a better society. New professionals with specific
skills will be necessary. This is a first view of the profiles that probably will arise in the coming years related
to the quantum business.
At the beginning of the 20th century a group of physicist created and developed the quantum theory. The
understanding of quantum phenomena and their application gave rise to the so-called "First quantum revolution".
Because of this new understanding of nature, during the last century appeared electronic devices, silicon based
technology and the laser. These advances led to whas today is known as new technologies, ie digital communications,
computing, and nuclear energy to name a few.
Today the continuous investment in research, the sharing of knowledge and a more profound understanding of
quantum phenomena is giving rise to a new series of approaches and developments that make up what is called
“Quantum Technology”. These approaches suggest that quantum phenomena can be used to do computing processes.
and due to the developments that are taking place, it seems clear that in the near future, quantum computing is going
to play a prominent role first in the scientific and the in a more generic scope.
In the last forty years a great advance in the information technologies has been taken place, but we must bear in mind
that the computer base has always been the same. From the beginnings of computer science, the binary system was
adopted, and a bit later silicon integrated circuits step into and began to be used. As time went on this silicon based
technology was improved and the type of computation based on the digital system has been maintained. Based on it,
Operating Systems, programming languages, software libraries, has been build, improved and optimizing more and
more. Nowadays everything all those advances has led to technologies such as Parallel Supercomputing, Big Data,
Artificial Intelligence or Machine Learning. At the same time all these information technologies are used for the
development of communications, robotics, simulations or control processes.
However, the use of quantum phenomena in computing means a huge change in the very foundations of information
technology. It means the change of the digital base of 0 and 1 by a much more general basis than in addition to 0 and
1 also works with states that are a combination of these and that give rise to a series of new concepts and forms of
work that need to be understood, adopted and applied.
In October 2017, the European Commission launched the Flaship on Quantum Technologies, and as mentioned
before Quantum Computing is considered one the pillars of this new area.
New Profiles in Quantum Technologies
Quantum Computing. It is the most impressive technology. Currently there are several
prototypes of quantum computer in execution and it has already been demonstrated that the
execution of quantum algorithms in these systems can suppose a great advantage with respect to
the execution of classic programs on classic computer technology. The development of more
robust and scalable quantum computers, as well as algorithms and useful programs is one of the
biggest technological challenges at present.
Quantum Communication. Current communications uses encryption techniques that can be
broken by quantum computing techniques. This led to the need of creation and development of the
so-called post-quantum encryption that is, a set of encryptions techniques that will be immune to
attacks from a quantum computer. Currently there are already some solutions of this type in the
Quantum Simulation. One of the uses of current supercomputers is the realization of simulations
that recreate processes or environments for its detailed and controlled study. However, the
simulation of processes and environments with quantum behavior and with some complexity is
beyond the reach of the simulation performed by supercomputers. The quantum simulators are
assemblies that emulate the behavior of real quantum systems such as a set of electrons, atomic
particles or chemical bonds and enable the study of them under controllable parameters. This
allows to investigate phenomena such as superconductivity, chemical reactions, atomic and
nuclear processes, biological processes, etc.
Quantum Sensoring and Metrology. The quantum states are very sensitive to any signal or
alteration of the environment. This characteristic makes them very appropriate to be used as
sensors and measuring devices. The superposition and the coherence of quantum states are unique
quantum features that can be exploited in the construction of interferometers, solid state sensors,
or quantum imaging devices that improve the quality and accuracy of current devices.
The adoption of these new technologies, is going to be a major change in the current technological landscape.
Therefore, engineers and professionals working in information technologies need to arm themselves with the
knowledge necessary to understand and work in this new field.
To carry out this second quantum revolution, new profiles are needed. The new profiles have to be able of investigate,
advise, implement and develop projects in quantum technologies. These new profiles should understand and manage
the advances and technical know-how in Quantum Technologies, and herein they must transform knowledge in
applicable engineering, both in the form of devices and processes. They will have to add value from this new
quantum engineering and enable ways to make it profitable for society.
At the dawn of this new technological stage you can already forsee a series of profiles:
Quantum Scientist. This profile has deep scientific skills and is an
expert in quantum theory and technology. Currently this profile is
located in physicists and engineers who work in the area of
computation and quantum technologies from the experimental point of
His working environment is mainlyl the laboratory and research
departments of enterprises. The tasks are the design and optimization
of experiments, devices and processes of quantum nature in order to
generate scientific knowledge, to open new lines of research and to
promote the development of the technology.
The Quantum Scientist is a highly specialized profile in a specific
technology or area of knowledge and must be able to transmit and
communicate fluently, and have technical leadership skills to drive and
sustain new research projects. Also collaboration with other research
teams from all over the world is a desirable skill.
In collaboration with the engineers the Quantum Scientist will work to
bring the results of their experiments to their practical implementation
in the industrial world.
New Profiles in Quantum Technologies
Quantum Advisor. The Quantum Advisor has a wide knowledge of
quantum technology, as well as a business vision with technological
projection. A Quantum Advisor works in colaboration with Quantum
Engineers to be able to validate solutions that use quantum
technologies. Knowledge of quantum mechanics, optical
technologies, solid state and information technology is necessary
with practical applications in perspective. A Quantum advisor must
be able to transmit and explain quantum technology to a non-expert
audience. The task of the quantum advisor is to advise companies on
the convenience and advantages derived from the use of quantum
technologies for the development or improvement of their business
Quantum Engineer. Este This profile has a deep and detailed
understanding of quantum technology and can configure and design valid
and efficient solutions for specific problems. He must have a dialogue
with the Quantum Scientist and being able to understand the results and
the knowledge generated in the labs.
A Quantum Engineer may be specialized in a field of knowledge or
quantum technology, but he must be able to link to and combine different
quantum technologies with conventional technologies to make global
designs that solve complex situations. At the same time, as an engineer,
he should apply project control and execution techniques that guarantee
successful execution.
A mastery of quantum mechanics, electronics, photonic systems,
nanotechnology and information technologies is required. In summary the
goal of a quantum engineer is to plan, design and carry out projects that
make use of quantum technologies.
Quantum Developer. The Quantum Developer profile is the equivalent of
a systems programmer or application developer. It is someone with the
knowledge necessary to develop a program that works on a simulator or a
quantum processor. A Quantum Developer is able to develop programs and
routines using the quantum circuit model and using the available
programming techniques at their fingertips.
The developer must also know the fundamental concepts in quantum
mechanics. The scope of action of a quantum developer is Quantum
Computation and therefore it is required a deep knowledge of systems
programming as well as a good knowledge of quantum mechanics
It is therefore necessary to enable or modify the educational plans to accommodate new contents that enable the
creation of the aforementioned profiles. So far, the knowledge related to quantum phenomena have been almost
exclusive of physics degrees, but now on, we must expand this knowledge to other studies in the area of engineering
and information technology, and at the same time, begin to include it earlier and stepwise in secondary education
Francisco J. Gálvez Ramírez
[email protected]
Degree in Fundamental Physics (Univ.of Valencia)
Master in Advanced Physics (Univ.of Valencia)