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SALUD PROHIBIDA - Incurable Era Ayer by Andreas Ludwig Kalcker (z-lib.org)

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[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
THO
THO\K
\K [email protected]
[email protected]
BCD\UHEOL
LUH HRLU KH
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
HCKULHT O\K]BM JHODJLU
BCD\UHEOL
LUH HRLU KH
THO
THO\K
\K [email protected]
[email protected]
5959
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Lkbt`r1 V`lkbh
C`gerl kl oh lgprlsh1 V`bdlkbho`m`
V`bdlkbho`m` T.O.
Yhçs1 Lsphøh
Tb` ]le1 www.hckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
L-ghbo1 bcf`Iv`lk
bcf`Iv`lkbh.d`g
bh.d`g
D`pyrbmnt © 5959
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr
rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc ` trhcsgbkh lc duhoqublr
f`rgh ` p`r duhoqublr glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt.
Tl nh nldn` t`k` o` p`sbeol phrh qul lstl ober` lstâ oberl kl lrr`rls u `gbsb`cls. Tbc
lgehrm` lo hut`r y sus d`ohe`rhk`rls c` hdlpthrèc oh rlsp`cshebobkhk p`r o`s lrr`rls
d`glk`s klebk` h duhoqublr
duhoqublr hdt` u `gbsbôc clmobmlctl
clmobmlctl p`r o`s oldt`rls ` ohs plrs`chs
plrs`chs
qul hd`cslalc s`erl lo ghtlrbho kl lstl ober`.
Hmrhkldbgblct`s1 H t`k`s o`s tlsg`cb`s fhdbobthk`s lc lo ober`, h Hklobch Hckr`cl,
Obz Ghrbh Hct`cbcb, Krh. Ghbtl @cd` Ehrlooh y Dlobh Ghsfhrclr p`r oh lxdlolctl
hyukh lc oh Lspldbhoglctl
rlkhddbôc, h G.K.
\czu Ho`cs`
ghclrh
lspldbho
p`rAuhc
oh `rmhcbzhdbôc
y
pr`kuddbôc.
hmrhklzd`
h A`sâkl
Elotrhc,
Jhro
]hmclr,
Ghculo Kbhz,
Mlrk \ctlrwlmlr, Ol` J`ln`ff, Khc Elcklr, Hcmâobdh D`sth, Ghrb` Mubk`, Dhr`obch
@rtbz, Musty Oôplz, A`rml Flrrb, Ohurh y Hch Ohurh, Kyhch, Vholrbh, Hckrâs Mbgâclz,
Vbdt`r Num`, C`rgh Erbhmhs, A`nccy, Nugelrt` Dhrehon`, Dnhro`ttl, Mhst`c Fbolcb,
G`cbjh Uljlon`f, h U`mlr, Lcrbj y A`slp Yégbls y h Td`tt p`r klshrr`oohr lo DKN, h oh
Krh. Mo`rbh Chvbcls Mrhu p`r o`s kht`s fhrghdâutbd`s, hklgès p`r o`s hp`rtls
pr`flsb`cholss lspldbhols
pr`flsb`chol
lspldbho ls h Kr.
Kr. Musthv` Olôc, Yr`f. Krh. U`dç` Ohpulctl,
Ohpulctl , Kr.
Kr. Ècmlo Mrhdbh,
Mrhdbh ,
Krh. Drbsch Glcklz, Kr. Auobhc Uhehchqul, Krh.Ybohr Flrchcklz, Krh. Bshelo Eloo`sths,
Krh. [lrlsh F`rdhkls, Krh. Bshelo Dusô, Krh. D. Mhoolm`, Krh. Hctal @swhok, Kr. Hcmlo
Lsduklr`, Kr. Johus Tdnustlrlklr, Yr`f. Kr. J`crhk Glyo, Krh. Dohukbh Obolw``k, Krh.
Lvh Tlrrh, Krh. Oubsh G`rhols, Kr. M`bz Kurèc, Uhbclr [huflrtsnöflr, Jlrrb Ubvlrh, Yhtrbdj
Elhug`ct, A`sâ Oubs Cñølz, Kr.
Kr. A`hcbs E`udnlo`s y h Abg
A bg Nugeol p`r nhelr bcbdbhk` gb
lthph culvh kl oh vbkh y h Uhgh p`r lsthr h gb ohk` kl ghclrh bcd`ckbdb`cho y d`c t`k`
gb hg`r h Brbs, Glohcbl, y Hckrlh.
Hut`r1 Hckrlhs Oukwbm Jhodj
Jhodjlr
lr
[çtuo`1 ‟Thouk Yr`nbebkh‗ (>ª Lkbdbôc)
BTEC1 2=>->;-69>->99<-2
Lkbt`r1 V`lkbh © 5959
F`t` kl oh p`rthkh1 Auhc Gbmulo T`erôc kh Tbovh
[bp`mrèdh1 Lkuhrk` C`mulbrh
Kbslø` kl oh p`rthkh1 E`rbs Ohuxtlrghc
Kbslø` kl pèmbch1 houjh © 5986
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
T`erl lo hut`r1
Hckrlhs Oukwbm Jhodjlr
Bcvlsmhk`r dblcd` y lsdrbt`r, chdbk` lc Holghcbh. Tl klkbdh h bcvlsmhr s`erl
p`sbeols vçhs culvhs kl trhthgblct`s kl lcflrglkhkls d`csbklrhkhs bcdurheols ` kl
kbdbo durhdbôc h trhvâs kl oh d`gprlcsbôc kl ohs vlrkhklr
vlrkhklrhs
hs dhushs kl ohs lcflrglkhkls.
D`c su bklh kl ‟Eb`sbdh Chturho‗ bctlcth klsdbfrhr h trhvâs kl oh oômbdh oh vlrkhk
bctrçcsldh klo lsthk` kl lcflrglkhk, yh qul c` sl d`cf`rgh d`c khr uc c`gerl h o`s
sçct`ghs.
Nh vbvbk` lc Lsphøh kurhctl 4< hø`s, sblck` su rlsbklcdbh hdtuho lc Tubzh trhehahck`
d`g` kbrldt`r kl uc ohe`rht`rb` kl bcvlsmhdbôc `etlcblck` d`g` rlsuothk` kl su
trheha` vhrbhs phtlctls phrh culv`s glkbdhglct`s.
Obdlcdbhk` lc Ld`c`gçh, gès thrkl `etuv` lo k`dt`rhk` kl eb`sbdh lc oh rhgh
kl glkbdbch hotlrchvh (Yn.K.) p`r su tlsbs qul lstè rllahkh lc su prbglr ober`
‟DKT1 Oh Thouk ls Y`sbeol‗. Y`stlrb`rglctl kldbkbô klv`ovlr lo tuo` duhck` c` ol
rlsphokô oh fhduothk ho slr kbfhghk` p`r homuc`s glkb`s kl d`gucbdhdbôc s`erl sus
klsduerbgblct`s. Nhsth oh fldnh sbmul sblck` Gblger` kl oh Hs`dbhdbôc Holghch kl
Eb`sbdh (Klutsdnl Mlsloosdnh fÿr Eb`pnysbj l.V.).
Dhel klsthdhr lo lxbt`s` pr`t`d`o` kl trhthgblct` phrh husg` rlmrlsbv` d`c ohs
Trhs. Dhrrhsd` y Ubvlrh oolvhk` h oh prèddh auct` d`c oh Fuckhdbôc vlcdblck` lo Husg`
lc Vlclzuloh klskl lo 5988. Lc ‟Husg @cl‗, oh ghy`r d`cflrlcdbh guckbho s`erl
husg` lc Dnbdhm`, lc lo 5984 y 598; sl prlslctô lo culv` d`cdlpt` kl ‟Vhddbc`sbs
Yhrhsbthrbh‗ k`ckl t`xbchs obelrhkhs p`r o`s phrèsbt`s s`c uch kl ohs dhushs kl o`s
sçct`ghs d`c`dbk`s d`g` lo husg` rlmrlsbv`. Nhsth oh fldnh nhy gès kl 4<9 cbø`s
k`duglcthk`s y rlp`rthk`s d`c uch rlgbssb`c prèddhglctl d`gpolth
d`gpolth kl husg` d`c
lstl pr`t`d`o`.
pr`t`d`o`. Lstl o`mr` ful p`ssbeol h trhvâs kl pèmbchs Fhdle``j d`g` ‟phrhsbt`sb
‟phrhsbt`sbss
husth‗ y `trhs, k`ckl ohs ghkrls y phkrls d`c cbø`s rlduplrhk`s hyukhc h hpobdhr
lo pr`t`d`o` h o`s bclxplrt`s d`gphrlck` lxplrblcdbhs y d`ctls
d`ctlsthck`
thck` kukhs. Ls ‟uch
dhklch kl fhv`rls‗
fhv`rls‗ nldnh rlhobkhk, klv`ovblck` flobdbkhk h ohs fhgbobhs hfldthkhs,
rlduplrhck` su gès qulrbk` slr…
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
‟Thouk Yr`nbebkh‗
Lstl ober` lstè klkbdhk` h o`s qul sufrlc y h hquloo`s qul o`s dubkhc d`c hg`r
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Tughrb`
T`erl lo hut`r1
Hckrlhs Oukwbm Jhodjlr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
Tughrb` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Bctr`kuddbôc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Bctr`kuddbôc.
‟Tlr flobz y c` g`rbr lc lo bctlct`‗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
[`kh lcflrglkhk ls fhoth kl lclrmçh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Oh bctlcdbôc klo ober` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
‟Lo gblk` ls gho d`cslalr` y eulc vlcklk`r‗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
°Y`r quâ homuchs plrs`chs sl lcflrghc y `trhs c`0.
c`0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5<
Hdbklz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
‟Lo dulrp` lcflrg` ls èdbk`‗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Cutrbdbôc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4<
Glkbdhglct`s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;9
Herbr oh glctl… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;4
Dhpçtuo` 8.
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;2
Herlvbhturhs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;2
Olmhobkhk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <9
Lo klsduerbgblct` kl Abg1 °Xul ls GGT, thgebâc oohghk` DK0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . <5
°Xul ls oh ghohrbh0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <;
Lo lcshy` kl oh Druz U`ah ‟qul cucdh ful‗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <<
Ulduplrhdb`cls
Ulduplr
hdb`cls d`crghkhs p`r phdblctls
phdblctls.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6>
Nldn`s d`c`dbk`s klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
do`r` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =9
°Yulkl durhr t`k`0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =4
¡C` ls nbp`do`rbt`! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =4
Do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected]), lo prldurs`r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
88
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
°Dôg` sl nhdl0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =<
@xbkhdbôc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =6
@xbkhdbôc
O`s `xbkhctls.
`xbkhctls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >9
Yrldhudb`cls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >5
°Ls tôxbd`0.
tôxbd`0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >;
Dhpçtuo`
5. . . . . . . . . ([email protected])
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >=
Kbglosuofôxbk`
Hmuh kl ghr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
D`cthgbchdbôc
D`cthgbchdb
ôc lc lo ghr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
D`g` t`ghr hmuh kl ghr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2=
Hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2>
Lstlvbh (Ttlvbh rlehukbhch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 898
Jhohcdn`l (Ery`pnyoou
(Ery`pnyooug
g khbmrlg`chc
khbmrlg`chcug)
ug) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894
Yltrôol`11 shchk`r ucbvlrsho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89<
Yltrôol`
[rlglcch1 ‟`trh tlrhpbh phchdlh‗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89>
°Xuâ pr`kudt`s ushr0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889
Eôrhx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88;
Lo Qhpplr (Eb`tr`nc®) [lrhpbh kl frldulcdbhs loldtr`ghmcâdhs.
loldtr`ghmcâdhs . . . . . . . . . . . . 855
Dhpçtuo` 4.
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85=
Ollr prbglr` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85=
Dohsls kl Yhtômlc`s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852
Ulmohs mlclrhols1 (Hkvlrtlcdbhs y D`ctrhbckb
D`ctrhbckbdhdb`cls)
dhdb`cls).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852
Obsth rèpbkh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845
F`rghs kl hpobdhdbôc klo Kbôxbk` kl Do`r` (DK).
(DK). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 844
Yr`t`d`o` H. Hghtlur ` Yrbcdbpbhctl.
Yrbcdbpbhctl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84;
Yr`t`d`o` E. (lqubvholctl ho hcmu` pr`t`d`o` 8999).
8999) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84<
Yr`t`d`o` D. DKT (hcmu` pr`t`d`o` 898) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84=
Yr`t`d`o` K. Klrght`oômbd` (phrh oh pblo).
pblo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84>
Yr`t`d`o` L. Lclghs.
Lclghs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842
Yr`t`d`o` F. Frldulctl (hcmu` pr`t`d`o` vçrbd` 88<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8;8
Yr`t`d`o` M. Mhs (duhck` ls uobzhk` sôo` lo mhs).
mhs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8;5
Yr`t`d`o` N. Nhebthdbôc (phrh lvbthr d`cthmb`s).
d`cthmb`s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8;<
Yr`t`d`o` B. Bcsldt`s l pbdhkurhs
pbdhkurhs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8;6
Yr`t`d`o` A. lcAuhmhr (pr`t`d`o` e`dh).
e`dh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8;6
Yr`t`d`o` J. Jbt d`gebchk` d`c [email protected] ho =9%.
=9% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8;=
Yr`t`d`o` O. Ohvhk` (pr`t`d`o` kl ehø`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8;2
Yr`t`d`o` G. Ghohrbh (k`sbs hoths).
hoths) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8<8
Yr`t`d`o` C. Cbø`s y hk`olsdlctls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8<5
Yr`t`d`o` @. @hog`oômbd` / @t`rrbc` (chsho) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8<5
Yr`t`d`o` Y. Yhrèsbt`s (pr`t`d`o` bctlcs`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8<;
Yr`t`d`o` X. Xulghkurhs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862
Yr`t`d`o` U. Uldtho d`c plrbooh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8=9
Yr`t`d`o` T. Tlcsbeol (d`c k`sbs guy p`d` h p`d`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8=8
85
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Tughrb`
Yr`t`d`o` [. [lrgbcho (lcflrglkhkls guy mrhvls) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8=5
Yr`t`d`o` \. \rmlcdbh (hcmu` pr`t`d`o` 6+6 kl Dohrh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8=5
Yr`t`d`o` V. Vhmbcho (uobzhck` brrbmhdbôc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8=4
Yr`t`d`o` ]. ]hu! (Hklgès sl pulkl ushr phrh...) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8=;
Yr`t`d`o` ^. klt`^ (klt`xbdhr glthols plshk`s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8=6
Yr`t`d`o` R.
R. bcRlddbôc kl DKB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8=6
Yr`t`d`o`
(Eb`tr`nc®,
Yr`t`d`o` Q.
klQhpplr,
nbp`do`rbt`
kl dhodb`mlclrhk`r
(GGT5) . .kl
. . frldulcdbhs)
. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8==
8=>
Ulsuglc y pr`t`d`o` kl ghctlcbgblct` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8>9
Dhpçtuo` ;.
;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8>4
Hesdls` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8><
Hdcâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8>6
Hh eudho.
eudho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8>>
Holrmbh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8>2
Hoznlbglr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828
Hgbmkhobs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825
Hgbmkhobs
Hcsblkhk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824
Hplckbdbs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82;
Hplckbdbs
Hrtlrb`sdolr`sbs / Htlr`ght`sbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82<
Hrtrbs rlught`bkl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82>
Hrtr`sbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598
Hsgh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595
Husg` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594
Er`cqubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59<
Erudlo`sbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Eursbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59=
Dèoduo` rlcho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59>
Dhovbdbl.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592
Dhovbdbl
Dècdlr d`o`rrldtho.
d`o`rrldtho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
Dècdlr kl lsôfhm` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
Dècdlr mèstrbd` (lstôghm`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58;
Dècdlr kl nçmhk` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58<
Dècdlr kl olcmuh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
Dècdlr kl ghgh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
Dècdlr ôsl`.
ôsl` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
Dècdlr kl `vhrb` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
Dècdlr phcdrlèd` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55;
Dècdlr kl prôsthth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55<
Dècdlr kl puogôc.
puogôc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
Dècdlr rlcho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55>
Dècdlr r`bkl` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
Dècdlr utlrbc` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
Dècdlr kl vlabmh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
Dhckbkbhsbs (vhmbcho) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
84
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Dhsph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54<
Dnhmhs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
Dnbjucmucyh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54>
Dbèdh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5;9
Dbrr`sbs nlpèdh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5;5
Dbss ` bcflddbôc urbchrbh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5;;
D`olstlr
D`olstlr`o.
`o. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5;<
D`obs uodlr`sh
5;=
D`caucvbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5;>
Klglcdbh.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5;2
Klglcdbh
Klcmul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5<8
Klprlsbôc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5<5
Klrghs htôpbdh.
htôpbdh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5<;
Kbheltls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5<<
Kbhrrlh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5<=
Kbsfucdbôc lrâdo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5<2
Kbvlrduobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
K`o`r kl dhelzh
dhelzh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
Âe`oh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
Lcflrglkhkls hut`bcgucls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56;
Lcflrglkhk kl Dr`nc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56<
Lcflrglkhk kl Oygl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56=
Lcflrglkhk puog`chr `estrudvh drôcbdh ([email protected]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56>
Lrupdb`cls lc oh pblo.
pblo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
Lsdnlrbdnbh d`ob (L. d`ob).
d`ob). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5=8
Lsdolr`sbs ohtlrho hgb`trôdh (LOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5=5
Lsdolr`sbs gñopol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5=4
Lsqubz`frlcbh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5=<
Lst`ghs Vlsbduohr.
Vlsbduohr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5=6
Fber`gbhombh.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5==
Fber`gbhombh
Fber`sbs quçsdh.
quçsdh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5=>
Fblerl f`bklh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5>9
Fçstuoh hcho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5>8
Frhdturh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5>4
Mhstrbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5>;
Mhstr`lctlrbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5><
Mbcmbvbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5>=
Mo`glruo`clfrbs p`slstrlpt
p`slstrlpt`dôdbdh
`dôdbdh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5>>
M`c`rrlh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5>2
M`th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Mrbpl (Bculczh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
Nlphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
Nlrbkh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
Nlrcbh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52;
Nlrpls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52<
8;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Tughrb`
Nbplrtlcsbôc hrtlrbho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
Nbplrr`bkbsg`.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
Nbplrr`bkbsg`
N`cm`s - Gbd`sbs.
Gbd`sbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52>
Bcflddb`cls.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52>
Bcflddb`cls
Bcsudblcdbh dhrkçhdh d`cmlsv
d`cmlsvhh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
Bcsudblcdbh rlcho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Bsqulgbh
rlplrfusbôc
Olbsnghcbhsbs
dutèclhrlcho
. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 495
494
Oludlgbh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49<
Obqulc lsdolr`s` htrôd` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Obcf`gh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49>
Oupus (lrbtlght`s`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Ghohrbh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
Glcbcmbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48;
Glthols plshk`s.
plshk`s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48<
Gbmrhøh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48>
G`c`cudol`sbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48>
Clfrbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Clug`cçh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
@stl`gblobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
@stl`p`r`sbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
@s.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
@s
Ylrb`k`cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45;
Ybdhkurhs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45<
Ybl kl htolth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45>
Yr`sths.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Yr`sths
Ys`rbhsbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Yuog`cçh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Xulghkurh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Xubstls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Ulua` mhstr`ls`fèmbd` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44;
Ulsfrbhk` d`gñc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44<
Ubcbs hoârmbdh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Thrd`bk`sbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44=
THUG (Tthpnyo`d`ddus Hurlus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44>
Thrch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44>
Tçckr`gl kl Taömrlc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Tbcusbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4;9
Tthpnyo`d`ddus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4;8
[rhst`rc` Ebp`ohr (y Hcsblkhk Mlclrhobzhkh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4;5
[r`ge`sbs vlc`sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4;4
[uelrduo`sbs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4;<
[uelrduo`sbs
[ug`r.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4;6
[ug`r
Ñodlrhs pâpdhs (Nlobd`ehdtlr pyo`rb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4;=
Ñodlrhs vhsduohrls.
vhsduohrls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4;>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
8<
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
\vlçs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4;2
Vhmbc`sbs ehdtlrbhch.
ehdtlrbhch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4<8
Vhrbdls (bcsudblcdbh vlc`sh drôcbdh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4<5
Vlrrumhs vçrbdhs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4<4
VBN/TBKH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4<;
Vbrus kl Lpstlbc-Ehrr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4<=
Vbobm`
. . . . . . . . Nughc`
. . . . . . . .(VYN)
. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4<2
Vbrus klo. .Yhpbo`gh
469
Dhpçtuo` <.
<. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
D`g` prlphrhr DK (kbôxbk` kl do`r`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
°Y`r quâ èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` y c` dçtrbd` d`g` hdvhk`r0.
hdvhk`r0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46;
Oh f`rgh fèdbo y slmurh kl nhdlr DKT
DKT.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46<
Oh f`rgh gès pr`flsb`cho y ldhz kl nhdlr DKT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4=9
D`g` prlphrhr DKB (kbôxbk` kl do`r` bcyldtheol) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4=4
°Xuâ ls gla`r1 DK, DKT, DKN, Do`rbt` sbc hdvhr0.
hdvhr0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4=<
Dhpçtuo` 6.
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4=2
Oh slddbôc gès dblcdh… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4=2
O`s prbcdbpb`s eèsbd`s oômbd`-eb`sbd`s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4>8
Oh bckustrbh fhrghdâudh.
fhrghdâudh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4>5
[`kh lcflrglkhk ls fhoth kl lclrmçh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4>4
°Xuâ ls hmuh lstrudturhkh0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4>2
Lcshy`s doçcbd`s d`c `xbkhctls (`xçmlc` lsthebobzhk`).
lsthebobzhk`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Kbôxbk` kl do`r`1 [email protected] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42;
Yrldhudb`cls y `eslrvhdb`cls h tlclr lc dulcth phrh lo us` tlrhpâud
tlrhpâud`
` . . . . 426
[`xbdbkhk klthoohkh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42>
Ulsuothk`s dblcd`s kl oh lxp`sbdbôc `rho d`c kbôxbk` kl do`r` . . . . . . . . . . . ;98
Kbflrlcdbhs
Kbflrlcd
bhs lctrl lo DKT y DK (GGT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;94
°Ls [email protected] uc pohdle`0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;9<
Nbpôtlsbs kl g`k`s kl hddbôc - fhrghd`kbchgbh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;96
Oh `sdbohdbôc quçgbdh klo do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected]) y klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ([email protected]) ;9>
Fhrghd`dbcâdh
Fhrghd`dbc
âdh d`c oh ghohrbh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;92
Oh s`rprlcklctl ldhdbh kl oh Hrtlgbsbh hccuh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;92
Kbglosuofôxbk` ([email protected]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;88
Dhpçtuo` =.
=. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;8=
Bcf`rgl plrbdbho klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
do`r`. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;8=
Do`rur` kl Nbkrômlc` (NDo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;8>
Klschturhobzhdbôc
Klschturhob
zhdbôc kl pr`tlçchs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;55
Bcf`rgl plrbdbho1 lstrudturhs y nldn`s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;5;
Hddb`cls klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;5=
Bcf`rgl plrbdbho klo kbglosuof
kbglosuofôxbk`
ôxbk` ([email protected]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;4;
Bcf`rgl plrbdbho kl lstukb`s t`xbd`oômbd`s
t`xbd`oômbd`s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;4;
Bcf`rgl plrbdbho1 \s`s klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;46
86
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Tughrb`
Dhpçtuo` >.
>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;;8
Y`stkhth klo d`rhzôc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;;8
Ebeob`mrhfçh.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;;<
Ebeob`mrhfçh
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
8=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
‟Tlr flobz y c` g`rbr lc lo bctlct`‗
H
t`k` slr
nughc`shc`,
ol musth
‟slrvberhctl,
flobz‗, y y`
c`dhphz
s`y kbflrlctl.
Duhck`
tl sblctls
fulrtl,
lrls
kl nhdlr sbdhglctl o`
qul klslhs, plr` duhck` tu shouk lgpblzh h glcmuhr, t`k` o` rlohdb`chk` d`c
tu vbkh… sufrl.
Nl hprlckbk`, klspuâs kl nhelr tlcbk` uch vbkh gès ghtlrbhobsth lc o`s
hø`s 29, qul oh vlrkhklrh flobdbkhk
flobdbkhk lstè klctr` kl uc` gbsg` y c` lc ohs d`shs
qul lcls, p`rqul ho cho uc` c` lcl ohs d`shs, sbc` qul ohs d`shs o` lclc h
uc`. Oh vlrkhklrh flobdbkhk chdl klo nldn` kl nhdlr flobz h `trh plrs`ch.
°Lxbstl hom` qul c`s pulkh nhdlr gès flobdls qul shovhr uch vbkh0… hucqul
phrlzdh
phrlz
dh bgp`sbeol, ¡t`k`s p`klg`s nhdlro`!
Gblctrhs lo nldn` klo chdbgblct` qubzès slh lo bgphdt` lg`db`cho gès
mrhckl
qul` p`khg`s
lxplr bglcthr,
lxplrbglcthr
, lo plrklr
h tuvbvbr
phrlah,
qul uch ghkrl
pblrkh
h su nba`,
uc nba` pblrkh
h su phkrl,
sbmcbdh
o`s `bgphdt`s
lg`db`chols
clmhv`s gès fulrtls qul p`khg`s sufrbr, hphrtl kl culstrh pr`pbh gulrtl.
Drl` qul h t`k`s c`s`tr`s c`s musthrçh p`klr slr nâr`ls, shovhck` ohs
vbkhs kl `trhs plrs`chs, yh slh rlsdhtèck`ohs kl uc hn`m` ` shovèck`ohs kl uc
bcdlckb` ` kl uc hddbklctl kl d`dnl. Gl phrldl qul âsth ls oh rhzôc p`r oh duho
gudn`s aôvlcls lstukbhc glkbdbch1 o` nhdlc d`c lo c kl hyukhr y durhr
durhr..
Cldlsbthg`s shelr qul nhy uc dhgbc` phrh oh ‟THO\K‗, duhck` c`s nhc
kbdn` qul yh c` nhy chkh gès qul nhdlr. C` nhy qul plrklr oh lsplrhczh…
ahgès.
Ho klsduerbr p`r gç gbsg` qul lxbstlc hotlrchvhs h oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho,
d`cvlcdb`c
ho, sl gl nhc heblrt` o`s `a`s y klskl lct`cdls gl klkbd` h bcvlsmhr
s`erl uch suesthcdbh d`c`dbkh d`g` GGT, qul lc rlhobkhk c` ls `trh d`sh
82
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
qul kbôxbk` kl do`r`, uc` kl o`s klsbcfldthctls gès uobzhk`s y ldhdls kl oh
nbst`rbh nughch kurhctl gès kl 899 hø`s, sbc drlhr rlsbstlcdbhs.
Eulc`, pbk` kbsduophs… nhy qul hkgbr qul sç drlh rlsbstlcdbhs, yh qul
lxbstlc homuc`s kltrhdt`rls d`c hfèc kl pr`thm`cbsg`, qul d`csbklrhc qul
ls uch suesthcdbh plobmr`sh y vlclc`sh, y p`r o` thct` sl trhth kl uc tlgh
d`ctr`vlrk`. Y`rqul duhck` uch plrs`ch lstè bctlcthck` lxpobdhr h o`s
klflcs`rls kl oh lrrh pohch, qul oh lrrh lc rlhobkhk ls rlk`ckh… lst` dn`dh
d`c ohs bklhs kl uc ‟dhelzh duhkrhkh holgèc d`g` y`… 1)
°Xuâ ls oh shouk0
Oh shouk ls polch lclrmçh lc g`vbgblct` hrgôcbd`
Oh shouk ls oh dhphdbkhk y lo klrldn` bckbvbkuho, d`oldv` y kl rlhobzhdbôc
klo p`tlcdbho nughc`, eb`oômbd`, psbd`oômbd` y s`dbho.
°Xuâ ls oh lcflrglkhk0
[`khs ohs lcflrglkhkls lclc hom` lc d`gñc…
[`kh lcflrglkhk ls fhoth kl lclrmçh
Oh lcflrglkhk ls lo klslquboberb` kl oh shouk y rlprlslcth duhoqublr lsthk`
k`ckl nhyh uc kltlrb`r` klo `rmhcbsg` nughc`. Lc t`khs ohs lcflrglkhkls sl
pr`kudl uc klebobthgblct` klo sbstlgh chturho kl klflcsh klo `rmhcbsg`, y lst`
pr`v`dh huslcdbh kl shouk.
Nhdl gudn`s hø`s, lc uch d`cvlrshdbôc d`c A`sâ, uc lxdlolc
lxdlolctl
tl hgbm` gç`
qul sl rlduplrô kl uch mrhvl bct`xbdhdbôc d`c glrdurb` ushck` kbôxbk` kl
do`r`, ol d`glctâ qul pr`eheolglc
pr`eheolglctl,
tl, y` c` fulrh o` sudblctlglctl dblcd`
d`g` phrh hvlrbmuhr kl quâ ghclrh fucdb`cheh lsth susthcdbh ‟gbohmr`sh‗ lc
thcths lcflrglkhkls.
lcflrglkhkls. Tu rlspulsth ful sbgpol, gl kba`1
‟[u bctâctho`… °quâ gès kh oh lxpobdhdbôc dblcdh lxhdth, duhck`
ls `evb` qul fucdb`ch lc thcsbghs plrs`chs, sbc ghthr h chkbl0‗
Ol nbdl dhs` y gl pusl h trhehahr.
O` nbdl p`rqul ls oh durb`sbkhk o` qul gl g`vh, c` p`r uch dulsôc kl
lm`, yh qul d`g` hdhkâgbd` gl d`csbklr` brrlolvhctl. Ol rld`gblck` qul sbmh
ñcbdhglctl sus pr`pbhs d`cdousb`cls, y` sbgpolglctl v`y h bctlcthr lxp`clr
lc lstl ober` o` qul ls oômbd`, d`c nldn`s brrlfutheols.
Oh dblcdbh sl ehsh tlôrbdhglctl lc lvbklcdbhs. Nhdl uc`s p`d`s dblct`s kl
hø`s, oh rlobmbôc y oh dblcdbh sl slphrhr`c y ful prldbshglctl p`d` klspuâs kl
qul sl hsugblrh oh bklh kl qul oh lrrh, lc rlhobkhk, lrh rlk`ckh.
59
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
D`c lo lgp`, klsmrhdbhkhglctl, oh dblcdbh sl nh d`cvlrk` dhkh vlz gès
lc uc tlrrlc` kl drllcdbhs… y oh phoherh ‟drllr‗ gl musth klcbroh d`g` ‟c`
shelr‗.
Oh dblcdbh `dbho qul tlclg`s, hkgbtl tl`rçhs qul thgebâc sl oohghc
p`stuohk`s. C` nhy chkh kl gho` lc loo`s, sbc lgehrm` °quâ `durrl sb uc` kl
o`s p`stuohk`s ` tl`rçhs gès fuckhglcthols s`c lrrôcl`s0
Lo prbcdbpho pr`eolgh ls qul uch tl`rçh sl g`cth s`erl `trh y c`s lcd`ctrhg`s
gudnhs vldls d`c hc`ghoçhs ` bcd`cmrulcdbhs dblcdhs qul dhrldlc kl oômbdh,
d`g` p`r lalgpo` qul lo =9% kl culstr`s mlcls, s`c, supulsthglctl, mlcls
ehsurh… °D`c quâ chobkhk nhrçh lst` culstr` `rmhcbsg`, qul ls uc sbstlgh
plrfldt` ehshk` lc oh oômbdh0
Hsç qul o` prbglr` qul qublr` nhdlr hquç, ls prbcdbphoglctl lcsløhrols
lvbklcdbhs.
Gudn`s oldt`rls c` nhc `çk` cucdh s`erl lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ` do`rbt`
sôkbd`, thgebâc oohghk` GGT (T`oudbôc Gbclrho Gbohmr`sh), qul ls lo c`gerl
qul ol kb` Abg Nugeol h lsth suesthcdbh, yh qul lc su kçh, o`s rlsuothk`s ol
phrldblr`c… ‟gbohmr`s`s‗.
Bctlrclt lstè oolc` kl tlstbg`cb`s (shoukpr`nbebkh.d`g, p`r lalgpo`) kl
t`k`s o`s phçsls klo guck`, yh slh p`r lsdrbt` ` p`r vçkl`, y hucqul uc
tlstbg`cb` c` sbmcbfbqul lvbklcdbh dblctçfbdh, sç qul ls uch lvbklcdbh olmho
aurçkbdh. V`y h bctlcthr hdohrhr p`rquâ fucdb`ch lsth suesthcdbh lc thcths
plrs`chs, lc thctçsbghs lcflrglkhkls, sbc hphrlctl lxpobdhdbôc.
Lo `tr` kçh lsdudnâ uch frhsl bctlrlshc
bctlrlshctl1
tl1
‟\c mlcb` ls dhphz kl lxpobdhr hom` d`gpobdhk` kl ghclrh sbgpol, y
uc bcño ls lo qul lxpobdh hom` sbgpol kl ghclrh d`gpobdhkh‗
C` ls qul gl d`csbklrl uc mlcb` cb gudn` glc`s, sbgpolglctl qublr`
bctlcthr lc lstl ober` uobzhr uc olcmuhal fèdbo y prèdd`, phrh qul o` lclckhc
duhcths gès plrs`chs, gla`r. Tb d`csbm` qul o`s hdhkâgbd`s pblcslc s`erl o`
qul lstè lsdrbt`, qubzès lc uc futur` pulkhc pr`kudbrsl dhgeb`s p`sbv`s lc lo
tlrrlc` kl oh shouk, qul ls hom` qul cldlsbth culstr` guck`.
Nl hprlckbk` qul c` lxbstl hes`outhglctl chkh lc culstr` \cbvlrs` qul
c` sbmh oh rlmoh kl oh oômbdh. Lo pr`eolgh ls qul o`s nughc`s nhebtuhoglctl
s`g`s klghsbhk` t`ct`s d`g` phrh p`klr d`gprlcklro`. Âsth ls uch kl ohs
rhz`cls p`r ohs qul gl klkbd` h oh eb`sbdh, klctr` klo dhgp` kl oh glkbdbch
hotlrchvh, p`rqul qublr` lcd`ctrhr culvhs rlspulsths h vbla`s pr`eolghs sbc
s`oudb`chr
s`oudb`
chr.. Tâ qul oh dblcdbh ls pruleh
pr uleh y lrr`r,
lrr`r, y qublr` kbsduophrgl
kbsduoph rgl kl hctlghc`
sb gl lqubv`d` lc homuc`s klthools. Bctlcthrâ lxtrhlr ohs d`cdousb`cls o` gès
oômbdhglctl p`sbeols, ehshkhs lc gbols kl lvbklcdbhs y tlsg`cb`s.
\c` kl o`s prbcdbphols `estèduo`s kl oh nughcbkhk nh sbk` oh eur`drhdbh,
yh qul n`y lc kçh c`s lcd`ctrhg`s d`c uch olmbsohdbôc qul nhdl qul duhoqublr
58
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
glkbdhglct` culv`, cldlsbtl uc gçcbg` kl > h 89 hø`s phrh slr hpr`ehk`,
hphrtl kl uch bcglcsh bcvlrsbôc. Chkbl phrldl nhelrsl khk` dulcth, kl qul
lst` bgpobdh qul sôo` ohs gès mrhckls lgprlshs kbsp`ckrèc klo kbclr` sudblctl,
phrh drlhr uc glkbdhglct` culv`. D`g` loo`s kbsp`clc kl dhpbtho, c` ls gès
qul uch bcvlrsbôc h rlduplrhr, yh qul sbgpolglctl sl bcdrlglcth lo prldb` cho
klo pr`kudt`, uch vlz hut`rbzhk`. D`g` ls lo dhs` klo glkbdhglct` ^hchx®, uc
trhcqubobzhctl
trhcqubobz
hctl d`c uc ghrmlc d`glrdbho klo <6>.999% (!) d`g` o` nl klsdrbt` lc
gb ober` hctlrb`r1 ‟DKT1 Oh Thouk ls p`sbeol‗
p`sbeol‗..
\ch kl ohs rhz`cls p`r ohs qul nl lsdrbt` lstl ober`, ls p`rqul qublr`
d`gphrr lo d`c`dbgblct` d`c hquloohs plrs`chs lcflrghs qul c` kbsp`clc
kl lst`s > h 89 hø`s phrh durhrsl kl uch lcflrglkhk drôcbdh kbhmc`sdhkh
d`g` bcdurheol, ` pl`r t`khvçh, d`c ohs qul kbhrbhglctl s`c klshnudbhkhs p`r
oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, d`g` sl kh lc gudnçsbg`s dhs`s kl dècdlr.
dècdlr.
C` klelrçh nhelr cbcmñc `estèduo` eur`drèd` phrh ohs plrs`chs qul
qublrhc pr`ehr s`oudb`cls hotlrchvhs eha` su pr`pbh rlsp`cshebobkhk.
Lc o`s ñog`s hø`s, gb vbkh nh khk` uc dhgeb` lc t`k`s o`s slck`s. Lo
sbgpol nldn` kl qulrlr hyukhr h o`s klgès, gl nh nldn` khrgl dulcth qul
lstl guck` ls d`g` uch ‟ghtrbx‗, d`c sus pr`pbhs rlmohs, k`ckl chkh ls o`
qul phrldl. R` sbm` drlylck` qul oh lslcdbh nughch ls eulch y qul hyukhr ho
prôabg` ls hom` qul oolvhg`s guy klctr` kl c`s`tr`s. O` nl p`kbk` vlr lc gbs
vbhals, k`ckl gudnhs vldls gl hyukhr`c sbc plkbr chkh h dhgeb`. O` nl p`kbk`
vlr lc lo erboo` kl o`s `a`s kl ohs ghkrls d`c cbø`s rlduplrhk`s kl husg`, y kl
`tr`s qul nhc p`kbk` vlcdlr ho dècdlr, y kl o`s tlrhpluths qul rldbeblr`c uch
lxdlolctl nlrrhgblcth phrh p`klr hyukhr h sus phdblctls, y thgebâc kl t`k`s
hquloo`s gâkbd`s qul tuvblr`c lo vho`r kl lsdudnhr y lcfrlcthrsl ho sbstlgh,
duhck` lo sbstlgh doèsbd` kl glkbdbch hoôphth c` ols pr`p`rdb`cheh yh cbcmuch
s`oudbôc.
Eblcvlcbk`s ho guck` kl oh shouk pr`nbebkh.
Oh bctlcdbôc klo ober`
Homuc`s kl ustlkls sl vhc h prlmucthr dôg` oh
shouk pulkl lsthr pr`nbebkh, yh qul bcbdbhoglctl, c`
phrldl oômbd`.
Oh bctlcdbôc kl lstl ober` ls herbr o`s `a`s h t`k`s
hquloo`s qul nhc sbk` pr`mrhghk`s y nhc rldbebk`
uch lkudhdbôc, ehshkh lc uc sbstlgh lkudhv` kl
`elkblcdbh, kl ‟drllr‗ lc nldn`s dblcd`s, sbc
Fbm. 81 Mb`rkhc` Eruc`.
duls`chro`s.
55
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
Nhy qul khrsl dulcth qul t`k`s o`s mrhckls dhgeb`s klo d`c`dbgblct`
nughc` ho prbcdbpb` fulr`c rldnhzhk`s, rbkbduobzhk`s, d`gehk`s y auzmhk`s, kl
ghclrh d`ctucklctl. Homuchs plrs`chs nherèc `çk` ` rld`rkhrèc lstl nldn`, y
thgebâc lo c`gerl kl Mb`rkhc` Eruc`, plr` pr`eheolglctl chkbl sl hdulrkl
n`y lc kçh, kl oh plrs`ch qul o` ghckô h oh n`mulrh (lctrl `trhs d`shs) p`r
d`csbklrhr qul oh lrrh lrh rlk`ckh, bklh qul n`y sl kh p`r supulsth.
Ho phrldlr ohs d`shs c` nhc dhgebhk` gudn`, hucqul hf`rtuchkhglctl h
o`s klsduerbk`rls yh c` sl o`s qulgh sbdhglctl, n`y sl o`s hthdh glkbhctl
glkbhctl oh
kbfhghdbôc.
Yrbglr` sl rldnhzh t`k` mrhc klsduerbgblct` ` c`vlkhk p`r slr d`csbklrhkh
hesurkh, klspuâs sl hthdh ho klsduerbk`r ` pr`g`t`r d`c t`khs ohs fulrzhs h
trhvâss kl o`s glkb`s kl d`gucbdhdbôc, eusdhck` hobhk`s phrh d`gehr lo nldn`,
trhvâ
oh c`vlkhk, lo klsduerbgblct`…
Tb hñc hsç c` sl o`mrh phrhr oh vlrkhk, sl rbkbduobzh y sl kbfhgh h oh plrs`ch,
yh qul o`s kltrhdt`rls c` kbsp`clc kl `tr`s hrmuglct`s phrh s`stlclr su
lcmhø`.D`c lo phs` klo lgp`, sl hkgbtl uch vlrkhk phrdbho l bcsbmcbdhctl.
Fbchoglctl, lsh vlrkhk tlrgbch p`r d`csbklrhrsl thc `evbh qul sus hkvlrshrb`s
hrghc qul1 ‟fulr`c loo`s qublcls oh klsduerblr`c, y sblgprl o` kbalr`c‗ .
Nhy qul lctlcklr qul oh ghy`r phrtl kl oh bcf`rghdbôc qul rldbebg`s, c`s
oolmh ghcbpuohkh p`r o`s qul lclc lo p`klr.
Lo klsduerbgblct` hdlrdh kl oh ehdtlrbh Nlobd`ehdtlr pyo`rb, dhushctl kl
ohs ñodlrhs pâpdhs, ls uc dohr` lalgpo` kl lsth prèddh nhebtuho. Lstl nldn`
ful rbkbduobzhk` kurhctl 5< hø`s, nhdblck` sufrbr h sus klsduerbk`rls: qul
choglctl lc lo hø` 599;, rldbeblr`c lo Yrlgb` C`elo.
Lst`y d`cvlcdbk`
d`cvlcdbk` kl qul uch kl ohs f`rghs kl vbvbr lc polcbtuk, ls slr lo h
tu vlrkhk plrs`cho y c` tlclr gblk` h o` qul kbmhc o`s klgès. Y`klg`s vbvbr oh
vbkh kl ghclrh d`csdblctl yh qul t`k`s lsthg`s hquç kl hoqubolr. Ho cho sôo`
bgp`rth o` qul nlg`s nldn` gblctrhs nlg`s vbvbk`.
‟Lo gblk` ls gho d`cslalr` y eulc vlcklk`r‗
Lstl ober` eèsbdhglctl lcl 4 phrtls1
8. Bctr`kuddb
Bctr`kuddbôc
ôc y lxpobdhdbôc
lxpobdhdbôc sbgpol
sbgpol y fèdbo
fèdbo phrh qul t`k`
t`k` lo guck`,
guck`,
hucqul c` slh pr`flsb`cho kl oh shouk, o` lclckh.
5. [lsg`cb`s kl dhs`s y kl rlduplrhdbôc kl ohs lcflrglkhkl
lcflrglkhkls,
s, p`r
`rklc kl oh H nhsth oh Q, d`c lo pr`t`d`o` qul ushr`c.
4. K`dugl
K`duglcth
cthdbôc
dbôc dblcdh
dblcdh y p`sbeol
p`sbeol g`k` kl fucdbôc
fucdbôc fhrghdâu
fhrghdâudh
dh klo
kbôxbk` kl do`r` y `tr`s rlglkb`s.
54
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Ols bcf`rg` d`c uch s`crbsh, qul lstl ober` hoelrmh uch pr`v`dhdbôc… ols
lst`y `frldblck` ohs k`s phsoohs kl ghtrbx1 oh r`ah ` oh hzuo… sb ustlk kldbkl
t`ghr oh r`ah y ollr lstl ober`, c` nherè vuloth htrès, yh qul p`krè vlr uch
rlhobkhk guy kbflrlctl h oh qul lstè hd`stugerhk`.
Fbm. 51 ‟Xul lobmls0‗
Xublc nhyh lxplrbglcthk` lc su pr`pb` dulrp` ` lc ohs plrs`chs hghkhs
qul lxbstl p`sbebobkhk kl rlduplrhdbôc, h trhvâs kl uc rlglkb` klsd`c`dbk`, yh
c` sl klahrè d`cvlcdlr p`r chkbl kl o` d`ctrhrb`. C` nhy vlrkhk gès mrhckl
qul ohs lxplrblcdbhs vbvbkhs p`r uc` gbsg`, h trhv
trhvâs
âs klo pr`pb` sufrbgblct` klo
dulrp` y kl oh glctl.
Lstl ober` bctlcth khr s`oudb`cls phrh lo eblc gès prldbhk` qul tlclg`s1
culstrh shouk. Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul oh shouk sl nh d`cvlrk` lc uc mrhc
clm`db`. Yhrh slr lxhdt`s,
lxhdt`s, lc lo clm`db` gès mrhckl ahgès d`c`dbk` (auct` d`c
lo kl o`s ehcd`s), pulst` qul t`k` lo guck`, hctls ` klspuâs, slrè uc „doblctl‒,
y nhrè o` qul slh d`c tho kl rlduplrhrsl duhck` su shouk lstâ lc plobmr`. Oh
bckustrbh fhrghdâudh nh g`c`p`obzhk` oh shouk lc o`s ñog`s 899 hø`s. Lstl
clm`db` c` plrgbtl d`gpltlcdbh… y ls flr`z. Rh qul ho mhchr thcsbg` kbclr`,
d`c obdlcdbhs, phtlctls y eldhs muelrchglcth
muelrchglcthols,
ols, duhoqublr s`oudbôc hotlrchv
hotlrchvhh
kl glkbdbch ls hphrthkh, rbkbduobzhkh, kbfhghkh y auzmhkh. Oh bckustrbh ls oh
kuløh klo aulm` y c` nhy chkh qul o` dhgebl… p`r lo g`glct`.
O`s qul gès o` sufrlc s`c o`s gâkbd`s, qul s`c oh phrtl lalduvh klo
sbstlgh
Loo`s lstèc
prbglrh
oh klqul
lsthc`mulrrh
kl trbcdnlrhs,
k`ckl c`klslshouk.
ols plrgbtl
nhdlr lc
chkh
lc hes`out`
sl lcdulctrl
klctr`
kl oh rlmohglcthdbôc kl oh oly fhrghdâudh, yh qul lc dhs` d`ctrhrb` slrçhc
lxpuoshk`s klo sbstlgh gâkbd` sbc p`sbebobkhk kl trhehahr lc lo futur`. Lsth
sbtuhdbôc drlh uc d`cbdt` bctlrc`, y lsl d`cbdt` bctlrc` pr`v`dh lcflrglkhk.
Tlmñc ohs lsthkçsdhs, lo pr`glkb` kl vbkh kl uc gâkbd` ls kl <6 hø`s, sblck`
hklgès oh pr`flsbôc d`c ghy`rls subdbkb`s flglcbc`s.
O`s gâkbd`s vbvlc h kbhrb` lo d`cbdt` phdblctl-fèrghd`, sufrblck`
lg`db`choglctl lsth lcdlrr`ch. C` ls kl lxtrhøhr, qul gudn`s sôo` pulkhc
trhehahr trhs uc lsduk` kl frbhokhk, d`c tho kl c` bklcdhrsl lg`db`choglctl
lg`db`choglctl
d`c lo phdblctl, d`sh qul h oh ohrmh, ols hfldt
hfldthrçh
hrçh drlhck` uch klprlsbôc slvlrh.
Yhrhkôabdhglctl,
oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho
sulol trhthr lsths klprlsb`cls d`c
glkbdhglct`s phobhv`s,
qul c`
d urhc.
durhc.
5;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
\c glkbdhglct` phobhv`, sl hs`dbh h oh glkbdhdbôc qul sl sugbcbstrh ho
phdblctl kbhmc`sdhk` kl uch lcflrglkhk bcdurheol, d`c oh bctlcdbôc kl nhdlr
gès olct` lo hvhcdl kl oh lcflrglkhk, y rlkudbr o`s k`o`rls y g`olshs qul
mlclrh lc lo dulrp` klo phdblctl. Tbc lgehrm` sulol drlhr `trhs lcflrglkhkls,
d`c sus lfldt`s slduckhrb`s h ohrm` pohz`.
Lst`y `eslrvhck` qul dhkh vlz gès pr`flsb`chols gâkbd`s, gl prlmucthc
s`erl o`s trhthgblct`s d`c kbôxbk` kl do`r` y d`c gudn` must` ols fhdbobt`
t`kh oh bcf`rghdbôc kl oh qul kbsp`cm`, yh qul sblck` uc ‟durhcklr`‗ kl oh
glkbdbch hotlrchvh, c` pulk` cb qublr` nhdlr, kl g`glct`, rld`glckhdb`cls
kl trhthgblct`s, p`r rhz`cls olmhols. Gb g`vhdbôc ls bcvlsmhr y klsduerbr
culvhs vçhs kl trhthgblct`. Ylrs`choglctl, `pbc` qul lo gâkbd` ` tlrhpluth ls
oh plrs`ch hklduhkh qul klel trhthr ho phdblctl lc prbglr oumhr.
Âstl ober` qublrl herbr uch vçh nhdbh culvhs bcvlsmhdb`cls y tlrhpbhs
hotlrchvhs rlspldt` h lcflrglkhkls qul c` lclc durh nhsth oh fldnh.
Yhrh t`k`s hquloo`s qul qublrhc hprlcklr ` bcvlsmhr s`erl glkbdbch
hotlrchvh,, nl lsdrbt` lstl ober`, phrh qul pulkhc lcd`ctrhr p`sbeols s`oudb`cls
hotlrchvh
kl ‟shouk pr`nbebkh‗, qul ols sbrvhc d`g` muçh.
Lc cbcmñc g`glct` lst`y rld`glckhck` slmubr uc trhthgblct`,
sbgpolglctl lxp`cm`
lxp`cm` oh rld`pbohdbôc kl hø`s kl trheha` auct` h o`s tlsg`cb`s
kl plrs`chs qul gl nhc lsdrbt`, d`ctèck`gl hdlrdh kl sus lxplrblcdbhs d`c
hut`trhthgblct`s
hut`trht
hgblct`s hotlrchv`s, fulrh kl oh glkbdbch d`gñc.
Klsl` qul lstl ober` pulkh slr oh ehsl kl uch futurh bcvlsmhdbôc dblcdh
ucbvlrsbthrbh olmho y rld`c`dbkh, y hsç kl lstl g`k`, oolmhr h t`k`s. [`kh oh
bcf`rghdbôc qul d`gphrt` lc lstl ober`, lstè ehshkh lc k`duglct`s dblcd`s
(hocho klo ober`), hpobdhck` oh oômbdh y d`c lvbklcdbhs lxplrbglcthkhs.
lxplrbglcthkhs.
°Y`r quâ homuchs plrs`chs sl lcflrghc y `trhs c`0
[`khs ohs lcflrglkhkls klelc tlclr hom` lc d`gñc. Lc gb `pbcbôc, oh
lcflrglkhk ls uch fhoth kl lclrmçh. Duhck` ho dulrp` ol fhoth lclrmçh phrh su
plrfldt` fucdb`chgblct`, lctrh lc klslquboberb` y lcflrgh. Y`r o` thct`, ls oh
fhoth kl lclrmçh oh qul c`s nhdl lcflrghr.
Kl hnç chdl oh dulsôc kl…
°Dôg` drlhg`s oh lclrmçh lc culstr` dulrp`0
Yrbcdbphoglctl culstr` dulrp` `elcl su lclrmçh kl oh d`geusôc.
C`s`tr`s, phrh p`klr `etlclr lclrmçh qulghg`s hzñdhrls, mrhshs y pr`tlçchs
pr`vlcblctls kl culstrh hobglcthdbôc. Oh cutrbdbôc ls, p`r o` thct`, uc` kl
o`s puct`s gès bgp`rthctls h tlclr lc dulcth duhck` qulrlg`s lsthr shc`s.
5<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Nbpôdrhtls, lo fuckhk`r kl oh glkbdbch `ddbklctho yh o` kba` lc su kçh1 ‟Xul lo
hobglct` slh tu gla`r glkbdbch
gl kbdbch y tu gla`r glkbdbch slh tu hobglct`‗
hobglct`‗..
Bcdous` n`y lc kçh, t`k`s o`s gâkbd`s lclc qul rlhobzhr lo aurhglct`
nbp`drèd`. Tbc lgehrm`, c` nl vbst` prèddhglctl \cbvlrsbkhk kl glkbdbch
homuch, cb dhcch kl n`spbtho, qul pr`p`rdb`cl hobglcthdbôc shch. Lc su
ghy`rçh ls d`gbkh rèpbkh bckustrbhobzhkh, oolch kl d`cslrvhctls, nldnh d`c
mrhshs bchklduhkhs y dhrlctls klo slck` kl oh cutrbdbôc.
C`s`tr`s d`cslmubg`s lclrmçh h trhvâs kl oh d`geusôc, c` sôo` ls
bgp`rthctl lo d`geuseol, yh qul nhy `tr` fhdt`r thct` ` gès bgp`rthctl1 lo
`xçmlc`. [`kh d`geusôc cldlsbth `xçmlc`, yh qul sbc `xçmlc` chkh sl qulgh.
Lstl sbgpol nldn` c` sl lcl lc dulcth sudblctlglctl lc oh ghy`rçh kl ohs
bcvlsmhdb`cls eb`quçgbdhs. Ls oh d`geusôc, oh qul drlh lo dho`r y oh lclrmçh
cldlshrb`s phrh qul culstr` dulrp` fucdb`cl, y ho gbsg` lgp` mlclrl
loldtrbdbkhk, qul ls oh lclrmçh vbtho. Oh ñcbdh kbflrlcdbh lctrl uc dulrp` vbv` `
gulrt`, ls oh huslcdbh kl loldtrbdbkhk.
T`g`s slrls lclrmâd`s loâdtrbd`s, d`c uc dulrp` qul `elcl su lclrmçh
ôpgh h trhvâs kl oh d`geusôc eb`quçgbdh. Yhrh
Yhrh lsth d`geusôc ls lslcdbho
lo `xçmlc`, sbc âo c` nhy lclrmçh y sbc lclrmçh c` nhy shouk.
Culstr` dulrp` lcl gudnhs fulctls kl lclrmçh, c` sôo` oh hobglcthdbôc,
thgebâc oh ouz, qul sl trhcsf`rgh lc loldtrbdbkhk h trhvâs kl oh glohcbch, o`s
eb`f`t`clss y pulkl qul thgebâc o`s clutrbc`s, d`g` oh eb`-rls`chcdbh tlrrlstrl
eb`f`t`cl
qul hes`rel lo dulrp` duhck` kulrgl. Lst`s s`c dhgp`s kl oh eb`sbdh qul
lstèc t`khvçh p`r slr klshrr`oohk`s y lo kçh qul sl d`c`zdhc h dblcdbh dblrth,
slrèc dhphdls kl høhkbr uc mrhc d`c`dbgblct` ho fucdb`chgblct` klo dulrp`
nughc`.
Oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho c` o` d`ctlgpoh hsç, p`rqul lxbstl uch tl`rçh
klo ‟lstrâs `xbkhv`‗ qul qubzè gudn`s oldt`rls yh d`c`zdhc. Ls oh tl`rçh qul
nheoh kl o`s rhkbdhols oberls, qul supulsthglctl khøhc ho dulrp`. Tôo` nhy uc
pr`eolgh…
O`soberls
rhkbdhols
oberls gès
heuckhctls
lc culstr`
dulrp`,fulrh
s`c klo
o`s
[email protected], rhkbdhols
klo `xçmlc`,
ls kldbr,
lo `xçmlc`.
Tb lsth tl`rçh
t`k` dblrth, duhoqublr plrs`ch qul rlhobzh klp`rtl klelrçh lsthr gès lcflrgh
qul uch plrs`ch tugehkh lc lo s`fè, klkbdèck`sl ho zhppbcm. Gès hklohctl sl
lxpobdhrè ho klthool oh vlrkhk s`erl lo lstrâs `xbkhv` y su dblcdbh.
°Duèo ls lo pr`eolgh prbcdbpho kl oh dblcdbh0
Xul chkbl sl pohctlh chkh y qul chkbl sl htrlvl h duls`chr phrhkbmghs
hcmu`s, yh qul ls gès fèdbo g`cthr uch culvh tl`rçh s`erl `trh tl`rçh lrrôclh,
duhck` h vldls ls thc lvbklctl oh vlrkhk, h oh ouz kl oh sbgpol oômbdh. Culstr`
sbstlgh kl shouk sl ehsh lc lo sbstlgh kl Bshhd Clwt`c. Tç… lo kl oh ghczhch
qul sl dhyô klo ère`o… y oh dulsôc slrçh... °R dôg` suebô oh ghczhch0
56
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
Fbm. 41 Lo bcvlsmhk`r Kr. Tdnustlrlklr.
Lstuvl d`c lo K`dt`r Tdnustlrlklr (Fbm. 4) lc uch gbsbôc lc Èfrbdh,
Èfr bdh, y pulk`
kldbr qul ls uch plrs`ch hes`outhglctl
hes`outhglctl çctlmrh y klkbdhkh h su trheha`. Hooç gl
d`ctô su nbst`rbh kl p`r quâ qubs` slr gâkbd`. Kl cbø`, sufrbô gudn` p`r uch
lcflrglkhk mrhvl
mrhvl y puk` vlr lc lo n`spbtho h `tr`s cbø`s sufrblck` thgebâc. D`c
lo lgp` kldbkbô qul qulrçh slr gâkbd` y dhgebhr ohs d`shs. Y`stlrb`rglctl
sl ful h Èfrbdh, oolvhck` n`spbthols h z`chs kbdbols y kl hot` rblsm`, d`g` lc
oh Ulpñeobdh Dlctr`hfrbdhch. N`y vbvl lc Tubzh. Tu fhoth kl shouk duhck` lrh
cbø`, ol oolvô h hyukhr h `tr`s h rlduplrhroh. Tb nhy uc dhgeb` lc lo sbstlgh
lc uc futur`, slrè p`rqul lxbstlc plrs`chs vhoblctls y dhphdbthkhs d`g` âo,
gâkbd`s qul vlrkhklrhglctl sôo` lclc oh bctlcdbôc kl durhr, sbc lsthr hthk`s
h d`gpr`gbs`s ld`côgbd`s ` bckustrbhols.
Lc sus ghc`s lstè rlduplrhr ` ghctlclr su pr`pbh shouk. Xulrlg`s
d`gphrr culstr` d`c`dbgblct` d`g` uch muçh, uch `pdbôc qul pulkls t`ghr.
t`ghr.
L °  ‟a  z‗…0 Dbthrâ uch lxplrblcdbh d`c âo1
‟Lctlcklg`s ohs lcflrglkhkls bcflddb`shs kbdblck`1 hquç nhy
uc gbdr`eb`, hquç lstè lo dulrp`, lxbstlc dblrt`s gbdr`eb`s qul o`
nhdlc lcflrghr y `tr`s qul c`. Y`r o` thct`, sblgprl nhy uch dhush
lxtlrch phrh oh lcflrglkhk lc oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, plr` dhkh
vlz nhy gès bckbdb`s kl qul lo dulrp` c` fucdb`ch hsç y lst` ls hom`
bgp`rthctl.
C` p`klg`s sbgpolglctl qulkhrc`s d`c lstl g`klo`
rlkuddb`cbsth, lc lo qul sl t`gh uch phrtl klo dulrp` y sl oh
`eslrvh. Nhy qul vlro` d`g` uc t`k`. O` qul lc rlhobkhk nhy qul
prlmucthrsl ls °p`r quâ homuchs plrs`chs
plrs`c hs lcflrghc y `trhs c`0…
5=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Hucqul sl pulkh hbsohr uc p` kl gbdr`eb`, oh prlmucth slmubrè
sblck` oh gbsgh °p`r quâ homuchs plrs`chs c` lcflrghc duhck`
lctrhc lc d`cthdt` d`c lsth dohsl kl ehdtlrbhs0 Lc rlhobkhk duhck`
sl trhth kl lstl p` kl bcvlsmhdb`cls, c` sôo` sl klel `eslrvhr
h cbvlo sbd`, nhy qul pr`fuckbzhr h cbvlo lg`db`cho, y o` qul sl
pr`kudl h cbvlo glctho y hsç sudlsbvhglctl, prlmuctèck`sl lo p`r
quâ… N`clsthglctl, duhck` pblcs` lc lstl p` kl bcvlsmhdb`cls,
vl` qul lo g`klo` d`cvlcdb`cho qul tlclg`s, lstè ehshk` lc oh
vbsbôc gldhcbdbsth kl Clwt`c s`erl lo guck`, rltr`dlkblck` vhrb`s
dblct`s kl hø`s, y lc rlhobkhk… c` ls lo hklduhk`.
Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` nh bk` gudn` gès hooè… nh tlcbk` uc
bgphdt` gudn` gès pr`fuck` lc lo slr nughc` y lst` lcl qul
vlr d`c oh loldtr`stèdh klo dulrp`. Lstl p` kl bcvlsmhdbôc guy
p`d`s oh nhdlc kl ghclrh sbstlgèdh. O` qul bctlct` kldbr ls
qul, lc rlhobkhk, cldlsbthg`s uc culv` g`klo`, phrh klsdrbebr lo
p` kl bgphdt` kl lstl d`gpulst` quçgbd`. Yulk` bghmbchr qul
lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` bcuyl lc oh loldtr`sb`o`mçh, lc o`s pr`dls`s
loldtr`gldècbd`s klo dulrp`. Ls o` qul rlhoglctl nhdl lc lo dulrp`
nughc` y drl` qul oh loldtr`stèdh y oh loldtr`sb`o`mçh, herlc uc
dhgp` guy bctlrlshctl phrh lctlcklr gudnhs kl ohs hpobdhdb`cls
qul vlg`s lc
l c glkbdbch hotlrchvh‗.
hotlrchvh‗. Oh `xbkhdbôc sl pr`kudl d`c oh
hdtuhdbôc klo `xçmlc` y klo b`c do`r`.
D`g` hctls nlg`s kbdn` qul lcflrglkhk ls fhoth kl lclrmçh, lc tl`rçh ls
fèdbo `etlclr lclrmçh sbgpolglctl d`gblck` y nhdblck` klp`rtl, dohr` lstè. Lo
pr`eolgh ls qul uch plrs`ch lcflrgh nhebtuhoglctl c` kbsp`cl kl lclrmçh
phrh d`rrlr uch ghrhtôc, y thgp`d` kl sudblctl `xçmlc` phrh qul sl rlhobdlc
t`k`s
o`s`tr`
pr`dls`s
klogbdr`eb`s
sbstlgh bcgucl
lc los`c
dulrp`.
Y`r
ohk`, o`s
` o`s vbrus
dhphdls kl guopobdhrsl gudn`
gès rèpbk` kl o` qul culstr` sbstlgh bcgucl pulkl lcmuoobro`s h trhvâs kl uc
pr`dls` oohghk` fhm`dbt`sbs.
Lc rlhobkhk lxbstl uch dhrrlrh d`ctrh rlo`a duhck` tlclg`s uch bcflddbôc,
yh slh vçrbdh ` gbdr`ebhch.
Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` c` sôo` hp`rth `xçmlc`, thgebâc lo b`c kl do`r` ls uc
`xbkhctl ldhz lc oh oudnh d`ctrh ohs ehdtlrbhs, vbrus, n`cm`s y phrèsbt`s. Oh
`xbkhdbôc sl pr`kudl d`c oh hdtuhdbôc klo `xçmlc` ` lo b`c kl do`r`.
Lsth d`gebchdbôc ñcbdh ls, hklgès, lxtrlghkhgl
lxtrlghkhglctl
ctl s`oueol lc hmuh,
yh qul sl kbsulovl gudn` gès qul oh pr`pbh shcmrl, qul ls gès lsplsh.
Lsth
s`ouebobkhk
pulkh
hp`rthr o`s
`xçmlc`
h oumhrls
klo dulrp`
k`ckl
c`rghoglctl
c`nhdl
oolmh,qul
d`g`
p`r lalgpo`
dhrohm`s,
o`s oçqubk`s
hgcbôd`s,
5>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
` ohs gud`shs. Bcdous` nlg`s vbst` lc gudn`s dhs`s kl rlduplrhdb`cls `
‟rlgbsb`cls
‟rlgbsb`
cls lsp`ctèclhs‗, qul ho phrldlr ful dhphz kl plcltrhr lc ohs z`chs gès
pr`fuckhs klo dulrp` lobgbchck` o`s phtômlc`s y plrgblck` oh rlduplrhdbôc
t`tho kl oh hrtrbs rlught`bkl, d`g` nh sbk` gb pr`pb` dhs`.
Oh fhoth kl lclrmçh, d`g` dhushctl prbcdbpho kl t`kh lcflrglkhk, thgebâc
pulkl tlclr su `rbmlc lc uc trhugh, yh slh sbd` ` psçqubd`. Lc hge`s dhs`s
sbmcbdh uc klsmhstl lc`rgl kl lclrmçh qul lo dulrp`
d ulrp` lcl qul d`gplcshr kl
uch u `trh ghclrh. Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul lstl trhugh, yh slh glctho `
sbd`, d`csugl gudnh lclrmçh y lsth gbsgh lclrmçh sl lcl qul rlsthr kl `tr`
oumhr klo dulrp`, klahck` lsl oumhr gès hfldth
hfldthk`
k` ` kâebo. \c lalgpo` doèsbd` ls
oh plrs`ch k`gbchkh p`r oh brh. \ch plrs`ch furb`sh fèdboglctl lcl hfldthk`
lo nçmhk`, yh qul nhy uch rlohdbôc kbrldth lctrl ohs lg`db`cls y o`s kbsct`s
ôrmhc`s klo dulrp`.
Oh culvh glkbdbch mlrgècbdh ho bmuho qul oh eb`klsd`kbdhdbôc, trhthc kl
ghclrh lxtlcsh lstl tlgh y s`c guy bctlrlshctls y ldhdls duhck` sl trhth kl
rlduplrhr kl lcflrglkhkls drôcbdhs ` kbhmc`sdhkhs bcdurheols. Rh qul sôo`
duhck` lobgbchg`s lo rlsbku` kl lst`s trhughs psçqubd`s, lo dulrp` sl pulkl
rlduplrhr t`thoglctl,
t`thoglctl, klahck` htrès thct` o`s eo`qul`s sbd`s d`g` psçqubd`s.
Lstl trhugh, qul c`s nh r`ehk` thcth lclrmçh, klah uc ôrmhc` hfldthk`
gès kâebo y lsth fhoth kl lclrmçh ls oh rlsp`csheol kl qul sl pulkhc ho`ahr
phtômlc`s qul drlhc hdbklz lc lstl oumhr sbc pr`tlddbôc cb lquboberb`. Ho gbsg`
lgp`, oh fhoth kl `xçmlc` fhv`rldl oh flrglcthdbôc, qul h su vlz drlh gès
hdbklz, bcdrlglcthck` lo drldbgblct` kl phtômlc`s. O`s phtômlc`s h su vlz,
d`csuglc gès lclrmçh klo dulrp` v`odhck` t`xbchs gltheôobdhs èdbkhs lc lo
sbstlgh, lgpl`rhck` p`d` h p`d` t`kh oh sbtuhdbôc nhsth qul sl klshrr`ooh uc
duhkr` kl lcflrglkhk drôcbdh ` mrhvl.
Oh prlmucth qul nhy qul nhdlrsl hn`rh ls1 °dôg` p`klg`s bcdrlglcthr
lsth lclrmçh qul c`s fhoth.
Lc prbglr
eusdhr
oh vlrkhklrh
dhush,
yh qul
oh glkbdbch
sbct`gèdh
c`oumhr,
sbrvl nhy
phrhqul
chkh,
lxdlpt`
phrh drlhr
kbclr`
h ohs
mrhckls
guochdb`chols fhrghdâudhs.
@evbhglctl, lsths lgprlshs c` lclc cbcmñc bctlrâs lc klshrr`oohr uch
glkbdbch durhvh d`c tho kl c` plrklr doblctloh. C` nhy qul `ovbkhr qul uc
phdblctl shc` klah kl slr uc d`gprhk`r kl glkbdhglct`s. Ls gès, nlg`s
p`kbk` `eslrvhr oh rlrhkh kl gudnçsbg`s glkbdhglct`s fucdb`chols lc o`s
ñog`s ;9 hø`s, sustubk`s p`r `tr`s glkbdhglct`s ‟gès g`klrc`s‗, qul lc
vlz kl durhr, sôo` `duothc o`s sçct`ghs, ghctlcblck` ho phdblctl lcflrg`.
Ohs pl`rls s`c ohs oohghkhs phsoohs ‟kl p`r vbkh‗, qul c` s`c gès qul
uc lcmhø` h mrhc lsdhoh, k`ckl hklgès t`k`s o`s bcv`oudrhk`s lc lo clm`db`
mhchc.
D`g`
lo phdblctl
nhebtuhoglctl d`ch lc oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls
nhebtuhoglctl
oh vçdgh
kl lstl
frhukl olmho.
52
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Yhrh bcdrlglcthr oh lclrmçh, klelg`s lvbthr t`k` p` kl t`xbchs, yh slhc
ohs doèsbdhs d`c`dbkhs d`g`1 fughr, lo hod`n`o ` ohs kr`mhs, (kh o` gbsg` qul
slhc olmhols d`g` bolmhols, lc hge`s dhs`s sl trhth kl t`xbchs) y oh d`gbkh
bckustrbho bchklduhkh, fherbdhkh d`c susthcdbhs c`dbvhs.
Ho gbsg` lgp` p`klg`s bcdrlglcthr oh lclrmçh klo lcflrg` d`c lo
hp`rtl kl dhrbø` y hg`r.
Fbm. ;1 Gldnlr`s Eucslc.
‟°Xâ  0‗
Oh klcbdbôc kl hg`r lc târgbc`s eb`sbd`s ls phrh gb ‟rls`chcdbh‗, qul
sl drlh lctrl plrs`chs, hcbghols y pohcths. Lsth gbsgh rls`chcdbh plrgbtl lo
bcdrlglct` kl lclrmçh drlhck` uc vôrdl lclrmâd` lctrl hge`s, qul pr`kudl
hrg`cçh y eblclsthr… H lst` ol oohghg`s ‟flobdbkhk‗.
Duhck` lxplrbglcthg`s hg`r, lxplrbglcthg`s dôg` uyl oh lclrmçh
lctrl hgehs phrtls kl ghclrh bccbth. Yhrh qul uyh oh lclrmçh sl cldlsbth uc
glkb` d`ckudv`. Ohs shols y gbclrhols kl culstr` dulrp` s`c o`s rlsp`csheols
kl oh d`ckudvbkhk loâdtrbdh y lo ua` kl o`s b`cls. Tb bcdrlglcthg`s oh
d`ckudvbkhk lc culstr` dulrp`, plrgbg`s uc ghy`r ua` lclrmâd`.
Kl ghclrh sbgpobdhkh sl pulkl kldbr, qul ohs shols y gbclrhols s`c o`s
dheols bcvbsbeols kl culstr` dulrp` loâdtrbd`. Duhct` ghy`rls slhc o`s dheols,
gla`r ubrè oh lclrmçh. Lo hmuh kl ghr ls uc` kl lst`s d`gp`clctls, dhphz kl
bcdrlglcthr oh d`ckudvbkhk. Gès hklohctl nheo` kl lst` gès lxtlcshglctl.
Oh prbcdbpho y gla`r ghclrh kl d`cslmubr gès lclrmçh lc uc dulrp`
lcflrg`, ls huglcthck` oh d`geusôc
d`geusôc,, y d`g` hctls yh o` nlg`s kbdn`, lsth
d`geusôc cldlsbth `xçmlc`, lslcdbho kurhctl t`k`s o`s kçhs kl culstrh vbkh.
Yhrh bcdrlglcthr
bcdrlglcthr oh lclrmçh, sl cldlsbth bcdrlglcthr oh ldhdbh kl oh d`geusôc
y p`r o` thct` klo `xçmlc`
`xçmlc` yh qul sbc âo, c` nhy d`geusôc p`sbeol.
49
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
Y`klg`s `eslrvhr lc oh oohgh klo fulm` (Fbm. ;) qul, hucqul uobdlg`s oh
gbsgh dhckhk kl mhs lc hge`s dhs`s, sôo` sb nhy sudblctl `xçmlc` prlslctl,
prlslctl,
oh oohgh klo qulghk`r ls hzuohkh y gudn` gès dhoblctl, qul oh oohgh hghrbooh
sbc `xçmlc`.
Y`klg`s rlsugbr qul culstr` dulrp` d`c tho kl mlclrhr lclrmçh uobzh oh
`xbkhdbôc phrh tlclr uch d`geusôc ôpgh.
Ho gbsg` lgp`, oh `xbkhdbôc hyukh h ghctlclr lo lquboberb` hodhobc`èdbk` cldlshrb` phrh su eulc fucdb`chgblct`. O`s moôeuo`s r`a`s ` nlghls kl
oh shcmrl, trhcsp`rthc lstl `xçmlc` bgprlsdbckbeol.
Lxbstl `trh suesthcdbh dhphz kl nhdlr o` gbsg`, ls lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`,
d o`r`, qul,
vbst` kl ghclrh sbgpobdhkh, c` ls `trh d`sh qul sho y `xçmlc` d`c tlcsbôc
loâdtrbdh. Lsth suesthcdbh, ho bmuho qul o`s moôeuo`s r`a`s, thgebâc ls dhphz kl
hoghdlchr lo `xçmlc`, y, ho bmuho qul oh shcmrl, o` obelrh lc oh z`ch gès èdbkh,
h trhvâs kl uch rlhddbôc, duhck` sl klsbctlmrh oh g`oâduoh kl kbôxbk` kl do`r`
‛kurhctl lo pr`dls` kl `xbkhdbôc‛ lc sho p`r uc ohk`, y lc `xçmlc` p`r `tr`
ohk`. Lsth klsbctlmrhdbôc obelrh gudnçsbgh lclrmçh loldtr`quçgbdh, qul h su vlz
lobgbch o`s phtômlc`s èdbk`s kl culstr` dulrp`, d`cvbrâck`o`s lc ‟dlcbzhs‗
hodhobchs.
Y`stlrb`rglctl sl lxpobdh lstl pr`dls` kl ghclrh gès klthoohkh.
Hdbklz
Lo Yrlgb` C`elo @` ]hreurm yh kba` lc 8248 qul oh dhush kl ohs
lcflrglkhkls sl pulkl sbgpobdhr lc uch lxdlsbvh hdbklz lc lo dulrp`.
Ñoghglctl p`klg`s ollr gudn` s`erl oh hdbklz1 o` qul nhy qul d`glr y o`
qul nhy qul klahr kl d`glr. Oh vlrkhk ls qul t`kh d`gbkh ls èdbkh, y lo èdbk`
lst`ghdho ls gès èdbk` t`khvçh, klsd`gp`cblck`
klsd`gp`cblck` t`k` y lobgbchck` ehdtlrbhs,
vbrus y phrèsbt`s ho gbsg` lgp`. Oh d`gbkh hodhobch lc rlhobkhk c` ls hodhobch,
plr` hyukh h hdbkbdhr glc`s lo dulrp` qul `trhs d`gbkhs.
Lo dulrp`, ho slr uch gèqubch kl d`geusôc, rlspbrh `xçmlc`, lslcdbho phrh
oh vbkh. Chkh gès chdlr lgplzhg`s h rlspbrhr oolchck` o`s puog`cls d`c lo
`xbkhctl gès heuckhctl qul lxbstl1 lo `xçmlc`. D`csldulctlglctl, oolchg`s
culstr`s moôeuo`s r`a`s kl `xçmlc` y lobgbchg`s lo kbôxbk` kl dhre`c` ([email protected]),
hodhobcbzhck`
hodhobcbzhc
k` lo dulrp`
d ulrp` lc lstl pr`dls`.
Lc lo g`glct` lc qul oh shcmrl vlc`sh phsh p`r lo puogôc lcl uc
pN kl hpr`xbghkhglctl =,4< y, uch vlz qul sl dhrmh kl `xçmlc` lo moôeuo`
r`a` (nlghl), oh shcmrl hrtlrbho phsh h tlclr uc pN obmlrhglctl gès hot`, kl
hpr`xbghkhglctl =,;<. Tbmcbdh qul hodhobcbzhg`s lo dulrp` h trhvâs kl oh
rlspbrhdbôc, qul ls d`csthctl kurhctl ohs 5; n`rhs klo kçh, bcdous` kurgblck`.
Lo hp`rtl kl sudblctl `xçmlc` ls o` gès lslcdbho, phrh p`klr ghctlclr lo
lquboberb` lctrl oh hdbklz y oh hodhobcbkhk klo dulrp`.
48
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
\ch vlz qul o`s moôeuo`s r`a`s kl oh shcmrl sl dhrmhc kl `xçmlc` lc lo
puogôc, o` oolvhc h trhvâs klo sbstlgh shcmuçcl` h t`khs ohs phrtls klo dulrp`.
Lo dulrp` h su vlz uobzh lo `xçmlc`
`xçmlc` lc ohs gbt`d`ckrbhs phrh drlhr rlhddbôc.
Lsth rlhddbôc, qul ls uch d`geusôc, h su vlz d`cvblrtl gudnhs susthcdbhs
èdbkhs tôxbdhs, lc ôxbk`s gès hodhobc`s, qul lo dulrp` oulm` pulkl lobgbchr `
bcdous` uobzhr d`c `tr`s cls.
\c kht` durb`s` l bgp`rthctl ho gbsg` lgp` ls qul oh shcmrl
obelrh lo `xçmlc` k`ckl nhy
nh y gès hdbklz lc lo dulrp`,
dul rp`, lst` thgebâc sl
d`c`dl d`g` lo lfldt` E`nr.
°Dôg` p`klg`s d`cvlrr uc obgôc qul ls èdbk` lc hom` t`thoglctl
hodhobc`0 Tb p`clg`s uc obgôc s`erl lo fulm` ho prbcdbpb` sl vh h d`dbchr,
lvhp`rhck` lo hmuh qul d`clcl klctr`. Tb slmubg`s d`c lo fulm`, lo obgôc yh
sld` lgplzhrè h qulghrsl y h d`cvlrrsl lc dlcbzhs: lsths dlcbzhs, h su vlz,
slrèc hodhobchs.
Homuc`s oldt`rls sherèc qul lo aheôc hodhobc` doèsbd` hcmuhglctl sl
fherbdheh kl dlcbzhs y hdlbtl.
Ls oh `xbkhdbôc qul d`cvblrtl suesthcdbhs èdbkhs y tôxbdhs lc suesthcdbhs c`
thc tôxbdhs y hodhobchs.
Duhck` nhy uch bct`xbdhdbôc, o` prbglr` qul nhdl lo dulrp`
d ulrp` ls bcdrlglcthr
oh frldulcdbh l bctlcsbkhk klo e`gel` klo d`rhzôc, qul h su vlz bcdrlglcth oh
d`geusôc y oh tlgplrhturh. Tb oh bct`xbdhdbôc plrkurh, lo dulrp` bctlcth drlhr
gès dho`r,
dho`r, o` qul sl d`c`dl d`g` lerl, phrh lobgbchr ohs t`xbchs p`r `xbkhdbôc.
Lsths t`xbchs pulklc slr dhushkhs thct` p`r ehdtlrbhs, vbrus, n`cm`s, phrèsbt`s
` bcmlsôc kl hobglct`s. Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul c` ls oh ehdtlrbh lc sç
oh qul c`s nhdl khø`, sbc` sus ‟klfldhdb`cls‗ èdbkhs, qul bct`xbdhc culstr`
sbstlgh. O` gbsg` phsh d`c o`s phrèsbt`s qul duhct` gès mrhckls s`c, pr`kudlc
gès dhckhk kl hdbklz.
Lc o`s ñog`s hø`s nh surmbk` uc lclgbm` culv`1 oh cutrbdbôc bckustrbho.
Oh cutrbdbôc bckustrbho uobzh gudnçsbghs suesthcdbhs d`g` d`cslrvhctls y
hc`xbkhctls
hc`xbkh
ctls hrdbhols, phrh qul oh d`gbkh sl pulkh ghctlclr lo gèxbg` kl
lgp` lc ohs lsthctlrçhs kl o`s suplrglrdhk`s. Gblctrhs homuc`s s`c bc`du`s,
`tr`s s`c hothglctl duls`cheols d`g` lo L-589 ho L-549. @trhs suesthcdbhs
s`c hphrlctlglctl bc`duhs, d`g` lo èdbk` dçtrbd` L-449, qul c` lcl chkh
qul vlr d`c lo obgôc, l bckustrbhoglctl sl fherbdh h phrr kl uc n`cm` d`c lo
c`gerl kl Hsplrmboous cbmlr.
Homuchs dlphs kl Hsplrmboous cbmlr pr`kudlc gbd`t`xbchs p`tlctls
oohghkhs `drht`xbchs. Oh `drht`xbch H ls p`tlcdbhoglctl dhcdlrçmlch phrh o`s
slrls nughc`s y lcl uch fulrtl hcbkhk p`r lo dlrler`, lspldbhoglctl lo
45
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
dlrlelo` Z8W. Lsth hcbkhk p`krçh slr rlolvhctl phrh lo klshrr`oo` kl oh lcflrglkhk
kl Hoznlbglr
Ho znlbglr..
Oh hdbkbdhdbôc drlh t`k` p` kl pr`eolghs, d`g` p`r lalgpo` o`s
d`r`chrb`s qul pr`kudlc bchghdbôc kl ohs hrtlrbhs. Ohs phrlkls kl ohs hrtlrbhs
p`r chturholzh s`c guy obshs. Tbc lgehrm`, sb lo dulrp` sl vulovl klghsbhk`
èdbk`, lsth hdbklz dhush bchghdbôc. D`csldulctlglctl lo dulrp` lcl qul
d`ctrhrrlsthr oh bchghdbôc kbouylck` su t`xbdbkhk d`c gès hmuh. Lstl hp`rtl
kl hmuh hkbdb`cho drlh nbcdnhzôc y lstrldnhgblct`
lstrldnhgblct` klo ua` shcmuçcl`. D`g` ho
dlrler` c` ol oolmh sudblctl `xçmlc` phrh su eulc fucdb`chgblct`,
fucdb`c hgblct`, lo d`rhzôc o`
lcl qul d`gplcshr e`gelhck` gès fulrtl y gès rèpbk`. Lstl nldn` thgebâc
ls d`c`dbk` d`g` nbplrtlcsbôc.
Ho gbsg` lgp`, lo dulrp` qublrl d`gplcshr oh hdbklz hphmhck` lstl fulm`
èdbk` d`c dhodb`. Thelg`s qul lo dhodb` ls uc hcthm`cbsth klo èdbk`, o` vlg`s
duhck` obgpbhg`s culstrh dhfltlrh
dhfltlrh oolch kl dho, d`c obgôc, ` d`c vbchmrl èdbk`.
Lo dulrp` nhdl o` gbsg` plr` ho rlvâs, d`gplcshck` oh hdbklz d`c dhodb`. Tb c`
kbsp`cl kl sudblctl dhodb`, lo dulrp` o` r`eh kl k`ckl slh, nhebtuhoglctl kl
o`s nuls`s, drlhck` h ohrm` pohz` uch lcflrglkhk d`c`dbkh d`g` `stl`p`r`sbs.
\ch vlz qul lo dulrp` nh d`gplcshk` oh hdbklz d`c dhodb`, qulkh d`g` rlsbku`
lo `xhoht` kl dhodb`, thgebâc d`c`dbk` d`g` pblkrhs dhodèrlhs. Oh gès d`c`dbkh
vlrsbôc ls oh kl ohs pblkrhs lc o`s rbø`cls ` lc oh vlsçduoh, sbc lgehrm` thgebâc
phrldl slr rlsp`csheol kl o`s pr`eolghs hrtlrbhols lc ohs vèovuohs d`r`chrbhs,
pr`eolghs kl oh gbdr`dbrduohdbôc, ohs vhrbdls y uc ohrm` ltdâtlrh.
ltdâtlrh.
Lxbstlc vhrbhs f`rghs kl lobgbchr lsths dhodbdhdb`cls1
8. Lo us` tlrhpâud`
tlrhpâud` kl ôxbk`
ôxbk` kl ghmclsb`:
ghmclsb`:
5. Bcfusb`cls kl oh pohcth
pohcth qul sl d`c`dl p`puohrglctl
p`puohrglctl d`g` r`gplpblkrhs
r`gplpblkrhs
(Olpbkbug ohf`obug),
ohf`obug), qul nh khk` guy eulc`s rlsuothk`s lc gudnhs
`dhsb`cls. Tl pulklc nhdlr vhrbhs bcfusb`cls elebkhs kl ohs n`ahs ho
kçh. Olpbkbug ohf`obug lobgbch o`s `xhoht`s, qul s`c o`s rlsçku`s kl
dhodb` hctlrb`rglctl glcdb`chk`s. [hgebâc nhy lc m`ths. Tbmh ohs
bcstruddb`cls klo phqultl1 hkuot`s kl 59 h 5< m`ths, cbø`s ghy`rls 8<
m`ths y cbø`s plqulø`s = m`ths.
‟Lo dulrp` lcflrg` ls èdbk`‗
Y`klg`s ollr lc gudn`s sb`s, qul prèddhglctl t`khs ohs lcflrglkhkls
lcflrglkhkls
d`coolvhc uch dblrth hdbk`sbs gltheôobdh, qul c` sbmcbdh `trh d`sh qul lo
dulrp` sl nh vulot` p`d` h p`d` gès èdbk`. Lsth hdbklz ls oh qul plrgbtl qul
o`s phtômlc`s lctrlc y sl hp`klrlc klo sbstlgh qul lstè fulrh kl lquboberb`.
Ylr` oh hdbklz c` ls o` gbsg` qul oh hdbk`sbs. Lc oh glkbdbch sl slphrhc
dohrhglctl oh hdbklz y oh hdbk`sbs, yh qul ohs kbflrlc
kbflrlcdbhs
dbhs s`c lc`rgls. Gblctrhs
44
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
oh hdbklz ls gès eblc tlgp`rho, oh vlrkhklrh hdbk`sbs pulkl hglchzhr oh
vbkh. Lo lquboberb` ls lslcdbho phrh qul oh shcmrl c` slh klghsbhk` èdbkh
` eèsbdh. Yhrh lstl lquboberb`, lo pN kl oh shcmrl klel lsthr lctrl =,4< y =,;<
hpr`xbghkhglctl. Tb lo vho`r kl oh shcmrl lstè p`r heha` kl =,4< sl d`csbklrh
uch hdbk`sbs. Tb lstè p`r lcdbgh kl =,;< tlckrlg`s uch hodho`sbs, qul thgebâc
pulkl slr bmuho kl plobmr`sh. Yhrh qul nhyh uc lquboberb` lctrl hge`s, culstr`
dulrp` lcl uc sbstlgh kl d`gplcshdbôc guy bctlrlshctl l bctlobmlctl, lo
gldhcbsg` prbcdbpho ls oh rlspbrhdbôc. Lo nldn` kl qul lstlg`s lxnhohck` kl
ghclrh d`csthctl kbôxbk` kl dhre`c`, c`s hodhobcbzh kl ghclrh d`ccuh y ls
lo gldhcbsg` prbcdbpho, hklgès klo sbstlgh rlcho, qul d`gplcsh d`c oh `rbch.
D`c`dlg`s k`s f`rghs kl hdbk`sbs1
8. rlspbrht`rbh
5. gltheôobdh
Oh rlspbrht`rbh ls gudn` gès d`gñc y o`s sçct`ghs pbd`s s`c1 fhoth kl
hbrl, bcdrlglct` kl oh prlsbôc shcmuçclh y phopbthdb`cls. Oh plrs`ch hfldthkh
sblctl gudnh klebobkhk y d`cfusbôc, bcdous` pulkl oolmhr h klsghyhrsl klebk`
ho lxdls` kl [email protected] lc lo dulrp`. Gudnhs vldls sl pulkl `eslrvhr thgebâc qul o`s
oheb`s sl p`clc hzuohk`s. Ls bgp`rthcsbg` qul lsths plrs`chs pulkhc `rbchr
gudn` phrh d`gplcshr, yh qul sb c` pulklc d`gplcshr lo pN kl oh shcmrl,
pulkl ehahr kl ghclrh bcdous` oltho.
Lc oh hdbk`sbs gltheôobdh, sl pulkl `eslrvhr uch rlspbrhdbôc lxhmlrhkh y
pr`fuckh, yh qul lo dulrp` bctlcth d`gplcshr oh hdbklz lxnhohck` lo kbôxbk`
kl dhre`c`, lo [email protected] Lxbstl uch f`rgh lspldbho qul ls oh dlt`hdbk`sbs kbheâdh,
k`ckl lo hoblct` kl o`s phdblctls nulol fulrtlglctl h hdlt`ch.
Ohs sbmublctls lcflrglkhkls sl pulklc rlohdb`chr kbrldthglctl d`c oh
hdbk`sbs gltheôobdh1
• Dècdlr kl pècdrlhs
• Kbheltls p` 8
• Kbheltls p` 5
• Mhcmob`s obcfèd`s bchghk`s
• Nlg`dr`ght`sbs
•
•
•
•
•
Nbplrnbkr`sbs
Yhcdrlhs hmukh
Yhcdrlhs drôcbdh
Y`obclur`phh
Y`
Lolvhk`s cçvlols kl d`olstlr`o
\ch d`sh guy kbflrlctl ls uc dulrp` èdbk`, yh qul lo dulrp` vbst` kl
ghclrh eb`quçgbdh ls obmlrhglctl hodhobc` duhck` lstè lc lquboberb`. Gblctrhs
lo >9% hpr`xbghkhglctl kl culstr`s ôrmhc`s s`c obmlrhglctl hodhobc`s,
culstr` lstôghm` c` o` ls, y oh d`gbkh qul ol hp`rthg`s ls èdbkh. Lo nldn`
kl d`glr kl ghclrh bchklduhkh, pulkl dhushr gudnh gès hdbklz t`khvçh lc
culstr` dulrp`. C` sl trhth kl bcmlrbr ` c` hobglct`s gès ` glc`s èdbk`s, sbc`
4;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
qul s`c o`s hzñdhrls y dhre`nbkrht`s, o`s qul c`s pr`v`dhc flrglcthdbôc,
flrglcthdbôc, y qul
h su vlz drlhc hdbklz lc lo tlabk` d`rp`rho, lsth hdbklz c` ls oh gbsgh hdbklz
qul oh klo lstôghm`, qul c`s pr`tlml kl o`s phtômlc`s y ls lslcdbho phrh oh
kbmlsôc. Lo d`cdlpt` kl cutrbdbôc hodhobch c` lcl chkh qul vlr d`c oh hdbk`sbs
` oh hodho`sbs hmukh kl oh shcmrl, yh qul sl trhth gès eblc kl uch hdbkbdhdbôc
drôcbdh kl o`s oçqubk`s y tlabk`s klo dulrp` y c` thct` kl oh shcmrl
C` nhy qul d`cfuckbr oh hdbklz klo lstôghm` d`c oh hdbklz
gltheôobdh klo dulrp`.
Duhck` nheohg`s kl uch kblth hodhobch, lc rlhobkhk c` o` ls, yh qul
prèddhglctll t`k`s o`s hobglct`s s`c èdbk`s kl p`r sç.
prèddhglct
Oh kblth hodhobch, ls hqulooh qul c`s hdbkbdh glc`s lo dulrp` y p`r o` thct`,
h lstl ol rlsuoth gès fèdbo rllstheoldlr lo lquboberb`.
Lc rlhobkhk, ls oh rlspbrhdbôc qul kurh 5; n`rhs ho kçh, oh qul c`s hodhobcbzh
dhkh vlz qul bcnhohg`s y lxpuoshg`s lo hbrl, yh qul lc lstl pr`dls` oh shcmrl
lctrh lc culstr` puogôc d`c uc pN kl =,4< y shol d`c uc` kl =,;< p`r ohs
hrtlrbhs, ` slh lc uc lsthk` gès hodhobc`. Ulspbrhg`s kl 8<.999 h 5<.999 o kl
hbrl dhkh kçh y ls lo `xçmlc` lo qul c`s hodhobcbzh.
Cutrbdbôc
Oh cutrbdbôc bckustrbho hp`rth gudnhs t`xbchs quçgbdhs qul lo dulrp` c`
shel dôg` kbmlrbr ` lobgbchr, y p`r o` thct` ol qulkhc k`s `pdb`cls1
8. oh lobgbchdbôc h trhvâs kl oh `xbkhdbôc
`xbkhdbôc
5. lcdlrrèck`ohs lc dâouohs
dâouohs kl mrhsh, uobzhck`
uobzhck` lo d`olstlr`o.
d`olstlr`o.
Lo d`olstlr`o, lc rlhobkhk, c` ls uc lclgbm`, sbgpolglctl ls uc pohc E klo
dulrp` lc su d`csthctl oudnh d`ctrh o`s tôxbd`s qul c` pulkl lobgbchr. Lstl
nldn` sl pulkl d`crghr ho `eslrvhr qul ohs plrs`chs slklcthrbhs sulolc tlclr
o`s vho`rls gès hot`s kl d`olstlr`o qul ohs plrs`chs qul prhddhc lalrdbdb`,
bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthc
k` oh hp`rthdbôc kl `xçmlc` y oh d`csldulctl d`geusôc. Y`r loo`
ls lslcdbho lc t`kh kblth kl hklomhzhgblct`
hklomhzhgblct` prhddhr klp`rtl phrh lobgbchr ohs
t`xbchs muhrkhkhs lc oh mrhsh d`rp`rho.
\ch kblth sbgpol c` sulol fucdb`chr y dhush hcsblkhk lc ohs plrs`chs,
klebk` h oh obelrhdbôc kl ohs t`xbchs lc lo rblm` shcmuçcl`. Tb c` sl d`geus`chc
lsths t`xbchs, oh plrs`ch sl vh h lcd`ctrhr gho, d`c hcsblkhk, sbc p`klr slmubr
oh kblth kl hklomhzhgblct`.
Oh `elsbkhk lc rlhobkhk sôo` sl pulkl d`gehr h trhvâs kl oh d`geusôc
qul bcdrlglcth oh lclrmçh y ho gbsg` lgp` lobgbch ohs t`xbchs hoghdlchkhs
4<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
lc ohs mrhshs. Oh `elsbkhk phrh gç ls uch lcflrglkhk, yh qul ohs plrs`chs
qul oh phkldlc sufrlc kl bct`xbdhdbôc drôcbdh y fhoth kl lclrmçh. Lsth fhoth kl
lclrmçh sl bctlcth d`rrlmbr h trhvâs kl oh bcmlsôc kl gès hzñdhrls, qul h su vlz
hdbkbdhc gès lo dulrp`, uc dçrduo` vbdb`s`.
Hobglcthdbôc1
Nhy thcths `pbcb`cls hdlrdh kl oh hobglcthdbôc, qul c`rghoglctl prllr`
c` gltlrgl lc lstl dhgp` gbchk`.
Ylr` vhg`s h nhdlr uch `eslrvhdbôc1
O`s dhvlrcçd`ohs lrhc fulrtls y gès klomhk`s qul oh ghy`rçh kl
k l ohs plrs`chs
kl culstrh dbvbobzhdbôc hdtuho. C` d`c`dçhc lo bcfhrt`, cb ohs dhrbls ` oh `elsbkhk
gôrebkh, cb thgp`d` oh kbheltls,
kbhe ltls, oh lsdolr`sbs gñopol, cb lo
l o dècdlr.
dècdlr.
Xubzès o` gès oômbd` slrçh hobglcthrsl d`g` loo`s phrh v`ovlr h lsthr shc`s.
Oh dulsôc ls… °dôg` p`klg`s v`ovlr h d`glr d`g` lct`cdls, d`c oh lc`rgl
dhckhk
kl hobglct`s
bckustrbhols
qul lxbstlc
n`y lc bckustrbhols
kçh0
Lc prbglr
oumhr, nhy
qul hestlclrsl
kl pr`kudt`s
y hobglcthrsl
kl o` gès `rmècbd` p`sbeol. Lc slmuck` oumhr, oh glzdoh ôpgh slrçh uc ;9% kl
nbkrht`ss kl dhre`c`, uc 49% kl pr`tlçchs y uc 49% kl mrhshs.
nbkrht`
D`c lsth kblth nhebtuhoglctl o`s lcflrg`s gla`rhc y o`s `els`s hklomhzhc.
H homuc`s, lo 49% kl mrhshs y hdlbtls ols phrldl gudn`.
R` drl` qul c` lxbstl uch kblth plrfldth phrh t`k` lo guck` yh qul nhy
klghsbhkhs vhrbheols slmñc dhkh plrs`ch y d`c lo phs` klo lgp`, p`r o`
thct`,, y` pblcs` qul nhy qul hkhpthr sblgprl oh kblth h dhkh bckbvbku` y slmñc
thct`
dhkh lthph ` g`glct`, d`gprlckblck` o` qul tu dulrp` cldlsbth, sbc br d`c
‟`rlalrhs‗ qul ls h o` qul c`s lclc pr`mrhghk`s. O` qul nhy qul eusdhr, ls lo
lquboberb`
uc dulrp`
shc`.
Lc o`skl
lstukb`s
s`erl
trbeus bckçmlchs qul c` nheçhc tlcbk` d`cthdt` d`c oh
dbvbobzhdbôc, t`k`s d`gçhc thct` dhrcl, d`g` fruths,
fr uths, rhçdls, y vlrkurhs.
¡T`g`s `gcçv`r`s p`r chturhol
chturholzh!
zh!
Gudnh mlctl qul d`c`zd` ls vlmlthrbhch ` bcdous` vlmhch, ls kldbr qul c`
sl hobglcth kl cbcmñc pr`kudt` kl `rbmlc hcbgho.
Lxbstlc trls `rçmlcls klo g`vbgblct` vlmlthrbhc`1
Lo prbglr` lcl uc c 
,, qul rlhoglctl pulk` lctlcklr guy eblc,
yh qul ohs vldls qul lstuvl lc ohs mrhcahs, k`ckl o`s hcbghols s`c lcdlrrhk`s
8.
kl ghclrh ghsbvh lc p`d` lsphdb`, gl phrldblr`c dhgp`s kl d`cdlctrhdbôc,
hom` guy trbstl y drulo. Lst` ls hom` qul d`gprlck` plrfldthglctl
plrfldthglctl y p`r o` thct`
46
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
lst`y t`thoglctl h fhv`r kl o`s vlmlthrbhc`s, yh qul s`c mlctl qul klgulstrh
d`cdblcdbh p`r lo sufrbgblct` halc`, yh slh nughc` ` hcbgho.
Tbc lgehrm`, c` sbmcbdh qul eb`quçgbdhglctl slh o` gès hklduhk` phrh
lo dulrp` nughc`, yh qul p`r lo nldn` kl c` qulrlr nhdlr sufrbr h o`s hcbghols,
ho cho pulk` sufrbr y`, dhylck` lcflrg` p`r oh fhoth kl uch hobglcthdbôc
lquboberhkh.
[lclg`s lc culstr` guck` k`s p`s kl hcbghols1 o`s dhrcçv`r`s y
o`s nlreçv`r`s. Gblctrhs o`s nlreçv`r`s sl cutrlc kl nblrehs y pohcths, o`s
dhrcçv`r`s prbcdbphoglctl s`c dhzhk`rls. C`s`tr`s, o`s nughc`s, thgebâc
s`g`s y nlg`s sbk` dhzhk`rls, tlclg`s uc lstôghm` d`c uc èdbk` fulrtl,
pr`pb` kl o`s dhrcçv`r`s, ho bmuho qul tlclg`s uch klcthkurh `gcçv`rh, qul
lstè kbsløhkh phrh d`glr kl t`k`. Lo nldn` kl p`klr d`glr dhrcl, ls o` qul c`s
nh ghctlcbk` vbv`s lc culstrh lv`oudbôc, kurhctl gès kl uc gbooôc kl hø`s.
Oh `trh rhzôc ls ld`oômbdh
ld`oômbdh11 hquç sl bcdouylc o`s mrup`s qul `pbchc qul
sb c` d`gbârhg`s dhrcl ` pr`kudt`s hcbghols, p`krçhg`s khr kl d`glr h gès
plrs`chs lc lo guck` y chkbl tlckrçh qul sufrbr nhgerl.
Lo hrmuglct` prbcdbpho ls qul tlckrçhg`s gès mrhc` phrh o`s nughc`s, qul
kl `trh ghclrh sl o` lstèc d`gblck` ohs vhdhs. Hucqul lstâc khck` lc ohs mrhcahs
ghçz ho mhchk` vhduc`, kuk` qul duhoqublr vhdh lctrhrh v`oucthrbhglctl h uc
dhgp` kl ghçz phrh d`glrsl ohs ghz`rdhs, yh qul prllrlc oh nblreh frlsdh,
d`sh qul c`s`tr`s c` s`g`s dhphdls kl d`glr. C` lsthg`s lc d`gpltlcdbh
hobglcdbh d`c o`s nlreçv`r`s d`g` ohs vhdhs, ohs `vlahs, ohs dherhs ` o`s d`cla`s.
5.
Oh ñogh rhzôc ls phrh rlduplrhr oh pr`pbh shouk.
shouk. Gudnh mlctl sl nh
vulot` vlmlthrbhch
vlmlthrbhch ` vlmhch, p`r pr`eolghs kl shouk lc homñc g`glct` kl su
vbkh. Yr`eheolglctl, ho d`glr kurhctl uc lgp` kl ghclrh vlmlthrbhch,
vlmlthrbhch, nhc
p`kbk` rlkudbr ` rlduplrhrsl kl sus k`olcdbhs ` lcflrglkhkls. Lc gudn`s kl
o`s dhs`s ls oômbd`, d`c`dblck` o`s lfldt`s qul pr`v`dhc o`s pr`kudt`s kl `rbmlc
hcbgho ` vlmltho lc lo dulrp` y lc lo glthe`obsg`. Tl trhth prbcdbphoglctl
kl uch sbtuhdbôc tlgp`rho, yh qul oh d`gbkh vlmlthrbhch/vlmhch plrgbtl ho
dulrp` rllstheoldlrsl kl uc klslquboberb`.
Lo pr`eolgh, ls qul sb sl ghclcl lstl p` kl hobglcthdbôc h ohrm` pohz`,
sl pulkl drlhr uc klslquboberb` nhdbh lo `tr` ohk`. Oh d`gbkh vlmlthrbhch,
ghy`rbthrbhglctl sbrvl phrh oh obgpblzh kl culstr` dulrp` kl klpôsbt`s
c` klslhk`s. Ohs erhs hyukhc h hrrhstrhr y obgpbhr lo sbstlgh kbmlsv`: sbc
lgehrm`, h ohrm` pohz`, c` c`s cutrlc kl ghclrh sudblctl. Hucqul ho prbcdbpb`
fucdb`chc guy eblc y oh ghy`rçh kl oh mlctl lcl eulchs lxplrblcdbhs y sbmul
d`c lsth kblth, d`c o`s hø`s lctrhc lc kldblcdbhs cutrbvhs kl pr`tlçchs, E85,
4.
dhodb`, zbcd, o`s èdbk`s mrhs`s kl dhklch ohrmh LYH y KNH, y vbthgbchs s`oueols
lc mrhsh d`g` H & K. [hgebâc sl pulkl `eslrvhr oh fhoth kl nblrr` y drlhch.
4=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Ohs d`csldulcdbhs pulklc slr1 fhoth kl lclrmçh, fhoth kl oçebk`, pr`eolghs
kl flrobkhk y `tr`s.
Lo vlmhcbsg` h d`rt` pohz`, pulkl slr hklduhk` slmñc lo dhs`, plr` h ohrm`
pohz`,, eb`oômbdhglctl, y` `pbc` qul c` lstè kl hdulrk` d`c oh lspldbl nughch.
pohz`
D`c`zd` vhrb`s dhs`s kl hgbm`s qul fulr`c dhphdls kl suplrhr o`s `estèduo`s
kl su pr`pbh pr`mrhghdbôc glctho ho rlspldt`, hom` chkh fèdbo slmñc gb `pbcbôc
y p`stlrb`rglctl, nhc p`kbk` `eslrvhr mrhckls dhgeb`s1 rlduplrhr`
rlduplrhr`c
c oh fulrzh
y oh lclrmçh, sl lquboberhr`c sus n`rg`chs, sl bcdrlglctô su oçebk`, y pukblr`c
rllstheoldlr
rllstheol
dlr lo lquboberb` lc su dulrp`, sbcâck`sl shc`s y fulrtls.
Lo dulrp` cldlsbth p`r uc ohk` hobglct`s d`g` ohs erhs, qul obgpblc y p`r
`tr` ohk`, d`gp`clctls qul fhv`rlzdhc su drldbgblct` chturho, uch cutrbdbôc
lquboberhkh y hklduhkh lc târgbc`s eb`oômbd`s, hd`rkls d`c su lspldbl.
Hn`rh, lstl lquboberb` lc dhkh plrs`ch ls kbflrlctl, yh qul uc`s dulrp`s
cldlsbthc gès pr`tlçchs lc f`rgh kl dhrcl, plsdhk` ` nulv`, qul `tr`s. Dhkh
plrs`ch lcl qul hvlrbmuhr
hvlrbmuhr p`r sç gbsgh duèo ls su pr`pb` lquboberb` y cutrbrsl
slmñc uc drbtlrb` pr`pb` y c` slmñc homuch obsth pueobdhkh lc oh ñogh rlvbsth
kl kblths.
Yrbcdbphoglctl, nhy qul d`cslmubr k`s d`shs lslcdbhols1
Lc prbglr oumhr oh hobglcthdbôc lcl qul hyukhr h `pgbzhr lo glthe`obsg`
y p`r o` thct` oh klsbct`xbdhdbôc, y lc slmuck` oumhr, lcl qul bcdrlglcthr oh
dbrduohdbôc kl oh shcmrl phrh su plrfldth `xbmlchdbôc y oh d`rrldth hsbgbohdbôc
kl o`s cutrblctls.
Tb o`mrhg`s klsbct`xbdhr lo dulrp`, nhebtuhoglctl klshphrldlc o`s lfldt`s
d`c`dbk`s d`g` oh fhmh drôcbdh ` oh klprlsbôc, hklgès kl f`rtholdlrsl lo
sbstlgh bcgucl, y d`g` rlsuothk` thgebâc pulkl qul gudnhs plrs`chs qul
sufrhc kl hrtrbs, hrtr`sbs, ldzlgh, ps`rbhsbs… gla`rlc.
Gudnhs vldls sl pulkl `eslrvhr thgebâc oh klshphrbdbôc kl holrmbhs. Ls
bgp`rthctl ghctlclr oh dbrduohdbôc shcmuçclh lc ghrdnh, `xbmlcèck`oh phrh
qul ohs moèckuohs sldrltlc gès n`rg`chs, qul h su vlz c`s pr`p`rdb`clc
gès flobdbkhk, hslmurhck` uc lquboberb` plrfldt` y shouk. [hgebâc p`klg`s
`eslrvhr qul oh d`gbkh pbdhctl, d`g` oh pbgblcth kl dhylch, hyukh ho dulrp`
bcdrlglcthck` lo rblm` shcmuçcl` y lvbthck` oh hmouchdbôc shcmuçclh y ohs
pohqulths. Ho gbsg` lgp`, c`s hslmurhg`s kl qul o`s cutrblctls oolmulc
hk`ckl sl cldlsbthc, lvbthck` pr`eolghs kl hthquls dhrkçhd`s y rlkudblck`
oh pr`ehebobkhk kl hddbklctls dlrler`vhsduohrls kl ghclrh d`csbklrheol. Oh
pbgblcth kl dhylch y `trhs lspldbls, hklgès c`s pulklc nhdlr sukhr gès, y
hyukhr h lxpuoshr t`xbchs h trhvâs kl oh pblo.
4>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
Oh bgp`rthcdbh kl uc lstôghm` èdbk`1
[`k` o` qul d`glg`s hdheh lc culstr` lstôghm`, qul sb lstè shc`, lcl
uc pN lctrl 8,> h 5,< hpr`xbghkhglctl. Ls kldbr, ls lxtrlghkhglctl èdbk`,
kl nldn` ls sudblctlglctl èdbk` d`g` phrh klsd`gp`clr duhoqublr dhrcl u
`trh d`gbkh. Ho gbsg` lgp`, c` sôo` klsbctlmrh oh d`gbkh lc sus lolglct`s
eèsbd`s, sbc` qul thgebâc ls dhphz kl ghthr h o`s phtômlc`s qul lstèc lc lsth
d`gbkh, phrh qul c` c`s bcfldtlc.
V`y h khr uc lalgpo` sbgpol, yh qul gudn`s kl o`s oldt`rls lclc plrr`s.
°Y`r quâ o`s plrr`s s`c dhphdls kl d`glr dhrr`øh ` dhrcl p`krbkh0
¡Oh vlrkhk ls qul c` sôo` oh d`glc… lc rlhobkhk ols lcdhcth! Tb c`s`tr`s
bctlctèrhg`s d`glr o` gbsg`, d`c t`kh pr`ehebobkhk lcflrghrçhg`s kl
ghclrh mrhvl, lct`cdls oh dulsôc ls… °p`r quâ loo`s pulklc d`glro` y c`
lcflrghc0 Oh rlspulsth ls sbgpol, o`s plrr`s kbsp`clc kl uc èdbk` lst`ghdho
nhsth 89 vldls gès d`cdlctrhk` qul lo culstr`, y sb tlclg`s lc dulcth qul lo
èdbk` klo lstôghm` lc su ghy`rçh sl d`gp`cl kl èdbk` do`rnçkrbd`, thgebâc
oohghk` èdbk` gurbèd` ` shofugèc, lctlcklg`s qul lsth quçgbdh èdbkh fulrtl
pulkl d`c t`k`. Ylr` sl pohctlh uc slrb` pr`eolgh duhck` oh mlctl lcl rlua`
mhstr`bctlscho g`olst`, yh qul nhebtuhoglctl sl ols rldlthc pr`kudt`s qul
hodhobcbzhc lo lstôghm`. Lo nldn` kl t`ghr ebdhre`cht` klspuâs kl oh d`gbkh
hodhobcbzh o`s aum`s mèstrbd`s kl tho ghclrh qul klahc kl slr dhphdls kl ghthr h
o`s phtômlc`s.
Duhck` hodhobcbzhg`s lo lstôghm`, herbg`s ohs pulrths kl
[r`yh. Lo nldn` kl hodhobcbzhr lo lstôghm`, lc rlhobkhk ls o` ñog`
qul uc` klel nhdlr, yh qul herl ohs pulrths phrh qul o`s phrèsbt`s
c`s bcvhkhc.
°D`g` ls p`sbeol0
O`s èdbk`s lst`ghdhols lclc c`rghoglctl uc pN lctrl hpr`xbghkhglctl
hpr`xbghkhglctl
8,> y 5,<. Lsth hdbklz sbrvl phrh ghthr t`k`s o`s phtômlc`s qul bcmlrbg`s d`c
culstrh d`gbkh, thct` d`g` oh ghy`rçh kl ohs ehdtlrbhs, n`cm`s, vbrus ` nulv`s
kl phrèsbt`s qul sl lcdulctrlc lcdbgh kl ohs vlrkurhs, lo plsdhk` ` oh dhrcl.
Tb hn`rh bcdrlglcthg`s lo pN klo lstôghm` d`c uc hcèdbk`, hom` guy
d`gñc lc o`s phdblctls d`c rlua` mèstrbd` p`r lstrâs, y lsthg`s d`gblck`
p`r lalgpo` uch lcshohkh qul nh sbk` r`dbhkh d`c he`c` kl `rbmlc fldho,
d`cthgbchkh d`c nulv`s kl hsdhrbs, qul ls uc phrèsbt` d`gñc, lst`s nulv`s
s`erlvbvlc klebk` h qul lo pN klo lstôghm`, ls klghsbhk` hot` y o`s èdbk`s
c` lclc oh fulrzh phrh klstrubro`. Tb hn`rh ldo`sb`chc ohs ohrvhs y lctrhc lc lo
rblm` shcmuçcl`, c`rghoglctl sl lcd`ctrhrçhc d`c o`s l`sbcôo`s, qul s`c o`s
42
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
moôeuo`s eohcd`s lcdhrmhk`s
lcdhrmhk`s kl lobgbchr ohs ohrvhs kl o`s phrèsbt`s. Tb hklgès oh
plrs`ch lstè lc uch sbtuhdbôc kl lstrâs qul obelrh oh n`rg`ch d`rs`o, dhushrçh
qul o`s l`sbcôo`s gulrhc y ohs ohrvhs s`erlvbvhc.
s`erlvbvhc.
Lc lo dhs` klo hsdhrbs qul ls uc mushc`, thgebâc oohghk` clgèt`k`, âstl
vbhah klskl lo nçmhk`, ho pècdrlhs y ho d`rhzôc, nhsth oolmhr ho puogôc, k`ckl
drldl nhsth tlclr hpr`xb
hpr`xbghkhglctl
ghkhglctl uc`s 56 chcôgltr`s.
Kl hnç, vbhah p`r oh mo`s y p`r oh ghøhch pulkl pr`v`dhr fulrtl t`sbk`. Oh
plrs`ch bcfldthkh ho trhmhr oh shobvh, thgebâc sl trhmh ohs ohrvhs qul lct`cdls
vbhahc ho bctlsc` k`ckl drldlc h su thghø` c`rgho kl 59 nhsth ;9 dg. Lc
Gâxbd` sl lsgh qul hpr`xbghkhglctl lo 44% kl oh p`eohdbôc, lstè phrhsbthk`
phrhsbthk`
kl hsdhrbs, hucqul oh ghy`rçh kl ohs plrs`chs c` o` shelc, cb o` sblctlc.
Lo k`dt`r Ybczôc, uc hgbm` y rld`c`dbk` dbruahc` plkbètrbd`, gl d`ctô
hdlrdh kl gudnhs dbrumçhs, s`erl t`k` oh kl uc cbø` kl < hø`s, kl duy` bctlsc`
shdhr`c gès kl =99 mushc`s kl hsdhrbs.
Glkbdhglct`s
Tlmñc oh oly, t`kh suesthcdbh qul hotlrh
ho tlrh lo glthe`obsg` ls uc glkbdhglct`…
glkbd hglct`…
Thelg`s qul uc sbgpol dhfâ p`r oh ghøhch hdvh lo sbstlgh kbmlsv` phrh
br ho ehø` p`stlrb`rglctl. Y`r o` thct` lo dhfâ klelrçh slr d`csbklrhk` uc
glkbdhglct` y su d`csug` klelrçh slr d`csbklrhk` p`r oh oly.
oly.
Klskl oulm` qul o` ls phrh homuc`s, s`erl t`k` klspuâs kl c`dnls ohrmhs
kl trheha`s bctlrgbcheols: plr` lc lxdls`, sl d`cvblrtl lc uc lclgbm`, yh qul
lcl d`g` lfldt` oh slmrlmhdbôc kl d`rs`o, qul ls oh n`rg`ch klo lstrâs.
Oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho uobzh ghy`rbthrbhglctl tôxbd`s phrh durhr, lsth
ls oh rhzôc p`r oh qul su sçge`o` ls uch slrpblctl lcr`sdhkh lc lo ehstôc. C`
lst`y lc d`ctrh, t`k` o` d`ctrhrb`, oh glkbdbch sbc kukh nh shovhk` gboo`cls kl
vbkhs mrhdbhs h sus klsduerbgblct`s y ho lgpol` kl suesthcdbhs c`rghoglctl
vlclc`shs, p`rqul hprlckbô qul oh dhckhk nhdl lo tôxbd` y o`s fhrghdâud`s
hprlckblr`c h uobzhr ohs dhckhkls hklduhkhs, phrh hsç durhr h gudnçsbgh
mlctl.
Hquç p`klg`s c`gerhr homuchs suesthcdbhs ushkhs, d`g` p`r lalgpo`1
• Glrdurb`,
Glrdurb `, uc p`tlctl clur`tôxbd` thgebâc oohghk` glr`sho, qul
lstè lc gudnçsbg`s pr`kudt`s fhrghdâud`s d`g` oh glrdr`gbch, lo
glrdb`ohtl y ohs vhduchs.
• G`rch, prbgh nlrghch
nlrghch kl oh
oh kr`mh
kr`mh bolmho,
bolmho, oh nlr`çch,
nlr`çch, d`c`dbkh
d`c`dbkh p`r su
fulrtl hddbôc d`g` houdbcômlc`.
• F`rghokl
F`rghoklnçk`,
nçk`, uch suesthcdbh lc`rglglctl tôxbdh qul dhush dècdlr,
dècdlr,
holrmbhs y dlmulrh, y oh dhckhk kl 49 go p`r gltr` dñebd`, pulkl dhushr
gulrtl p`r fhoo` puog`chr. Tl uobzh lc oh ghy`rçh kl ohs vhduchs phrh
o`s cbø`s y ghy`rls, d`g` d`cslrvhctl.
;9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
• Gudnh mlctl
mlctl s`erl t`k` d`c pr`eolghs d`r`chrb`s,
d`r`chrb`s, lstè
lstè uobzhck`
uobzhck` o`s
fhg`s`s kbouylctls
kbouylctls kl shcmrl, o`s hcd`hmuohctls. Lc rlhobkhk c` kbouylc
chkh, sbgpolglctl rlkudlc oh dhphdbkhk kl d`hmuohdbôc, lvbthck` qul
sl f`rglc tr`ge`s ` d`èmuo`s klctr` klo sbstlgh dhrkb`vhsduohr. Lo
gès d`c`dbk` ls oh ]hrfhrbch-Dughkbch
]hrfhrbch-Dughkbch (Tbctr`g), oh gbsgh suesthcdbh
thgebâc sl uobzh d`g` ghthrrhths, yh qul dhush klrrhgls.
• Lc gbs d`cflrlcdbhs,
d`cflrlcdbhs, gudnhs vldls
vldls prlmuct`
prlmuct` h oh mlctl
mlctl sb homublc
homublc sl
trhthrçh d`c kbchgbth, y ohs mlctl sulol rlçrsl rlsp`ckblck`1 ‟p`r
supulst` qul c`‗… lvbklctlglctl. Tbc lgehrm` sç sl uobzh lc oh
glkbdbch oh cbtr`mobdlrbch d`g` sprhy sueobcmuho, phrh mlctl d`c
pr`eolghs kl d`rhzôc.
• Gltn`trlxhtl ls uc glkbdhgl
glkbdhglct`
ct` qul sl uobzh thct` lc o`s trhthgblct`s
d`ctrh lo dècdlr d`g` lc o`s kl hrtrbs, d`c lfldt`s slduckhrb`s guy
fulrtls, klebk` h su hoth t`xbdbkhk, qul dhush cuglr`shs gulrtls.
• @tr`s glkbdhglct`s
glkbdhglct`s d`c`dbk`s s`c o`s eltheo`qulhctls,
eltheo`qulhctls, duy` lfldt`
lfldt`
slduckhrb` ls oh bgp`tlcdbh slxuho lc lo n`gerl, y oh bgp`sbebobkhk kl
ghctlclr oh lrlddbôc y rlkudbr oh oçebk`.
• O` gbsg` `durrl d`c ohs lsthchs,
lsthchs, uc`
uc` kl o`s glkbdhglct`s
glkbdhglct`s gès
rldlthk`s phrh rlkudbr lo d`olstlr`o
d`olstlr`o..
• Fou`xlch, qul lstè prlslctl lc o`s trhcqubobzhctls gès ushk`s.
• Oulm` tlclg`s
tlclg`s ohs hcflthgbchs,
hcflthgbchs, qul s`c hothglct
hothglctll hkbdvhs.
hkbdvhs.
• [hgebâc glkbdhglct`s hphrlctlglctl bc`du`s d`g` o`s kburâd`s,
pulklc dhushr khø`s mrhvls ho klsnbkrhthr lo dulrp` y d`cdlctrhr
t`xbdbkhk. Tb uc dulrp` lstè bct`xbdhk` p`r duhoqublr rhzôc (y nhy qul
tlclr lc dulcth qul thct` uch bcflddbôc p`r ehdtlrbhs ls uch bct`xbdhdbôc,
bct`xbdhdbôc,
d`g` oh ghy`rçh kl ohs klgès dhushs kl lcflrglkhkls) culstr` sbstlgh
bcgucl, duhck` c` pulkl lobgbchro`s kl ghclrh bcglkbhth, lcl uc
pohc E1 bctlcth hduguohr hmuh phrh rlkudbr oh d`cdlctrhdbôc kl o`s
tôxbd`s qul lstèc lc culstr` dulrp`. Kl lsth ghclrh, o`s tôxbd`s s`c
glc`s hmrlsbv`s h ohs dâouohs y ho tlabk`. Tb hn`rh t`ghg`s uc kburâd`,
rlkudbg`s lsth hmuh hduguohkh l bcdrlglcthg`s oh d`cdlctrhdbôc kl
o`s tôxbd`s.
• Oh d`rs`ch ls uc` kl o`s glkbdhglct`s qul gès vbkhs nh shovhk` s`erl
t`k` lc sbtuhdb`cls mrhvls, sbc lgehrm` nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth, qul
oh d`rs`ch uobzhkh h ohrm` pohz`, lobgbch o`s l`sbcôo`s, qul s`c o`s
moôeuo`s eohcd`s klo dulrp`, lcdhrmhk`s kl lobgbchr ohrvhs kl phrèsbt`s
lc oh shcmrl.
• Oh d`rs`ch lcl su `rbmlc lc uch
uch n`rg`ch chturho
chturho nughch qul ls
lo d`rs`o. Culstr` dulrp` bcvlctô lsth n`rg`ch, duhck` nhdl gudn`s
gbols
kl hø`s lo
k`olcdbh.
Lc looh g`glct`
qul lsdudnheh
lo dhvlrcçd`oh
rumbk` kl ucsufrçh
olôc,homuch
lo dulrp`
slmrlmheh
n`rg`ch
;8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
d`rs`o, plrgbâck`ol d`rrlr ` d`gehr sbc qul lo k`o`r o` g`olsthrh.
Lsth n`rg`ch sl pr`kudl lc ohs moèckuohs suprhrrlchols duhck` nhy
lstrâs, y lsl gbsg` lstrâs c`s ehah ohs klflcshs chturhols
chturhols hctl phrèsbt`s
lc su lsthk` ohrvho lc oh shcmrl. Tb d`gebchg`s oh d`rs`ch hn`rh d`c
d`rs`o, plrgbâck`ol d`rrlr ` d`gehr sbc qul lo k`o`r o` g`olsthrh.
Lsth n`rg`ch sl pr`kudl lc ohs moèckuohs suprhrrlchols duhck` nhy
lstrâs, y lsl gbsg` lstrâs c`s ehah ohs klflcshs chturhols
chturhols hctl phrèsbt`s
lc su lsthk` ohrvho lc oh shcmrl. Tb d`gebchg`s oh d`rs`ch hn`rh d`c
uc hcèdbk` lst`ghdho, herbg`s ohs pulrths kl [r`yh phrh qul lctrlc
t`k`s o`s phrèsbt`s h culstr` dulrp`, sbc lcd`ctrhr rlsbstlcdbh
rlsbstlcdbh homuch. H
ohrm` pohz` lstl ls lo bcbdb` kl gudnhs lcflrglkhkls drôcbdhs.
Lc o`s ñog`s dblc hø`s sl nh pr`g`db`chk` uch lkudhdbôc nhdbh lo
glkbdhglct` bckustrbho. Lc duhct` ohs plrs`chs sblctlc lo gçcbg` sçct`gh kl
gholsthr, hduklc ho gâkbd` phrh qul ols rldltl uc glkbdhglct`.
¡Ho phrldlr, chkbl sl nh khk` dulcth kl qul ho dulrp` lcflrg` ol fhoth
lclrmçh! Yrèddhglctl oh ghy`rçh kl o`s glkbdhglct`s d`cvlcdb`chols kl
prlsdrbpdbôc, sl ehshc lc oh rlhddbôc klo dulrp` ` klo phtômlc` ho tôxbd`.
tôxbd`.
¡Cbcmuc` glkbdhglct` bcdrlglcth oh lclrmçh lc lo dulrp`!
Oh lcflrglkhk lc rlhobkhk ls fhoth kl lclrmçh, y phrh bcdrlglcthr
oh lclrmçh, sl lcl qul bcdrlglcthr oh dhobkhk y ldhdbh kl oh d`geusôc.
Lo bcdrlglct` kl oh d`geusôc c` klplckl sôo` klo d`geuseol, sbc` klo
sudblctl `xçmlc` eb`kbsp`cbeol.
H gb gl musth d`gphrhro` d`c o`s g`t`rls, qul ls uc` kl gbs n`eebls. Yhrh
bcdrlglcthr oh p`tlcdbh kl uc g`t`r sbc bcdrlglcthr su d`csug`, sl ol g`cth
uc ture` d`gprls`r, qul c` ls `trh d`sh qul uc vlcohk`r p`tlctl, qul lgpuah
gès hbrl d`c `xçmlc` ho g`t`r. Kl lsth ghclrh, sl kupobdh oh p`tlcdbh. Nhsth
hn`rh, c` sl d`ctlgpoh oh p`sbebobkhk kl bcdrlglcthr oh dhckhk kl `xçmlc`
kbsp`cbeol d`g` s`oudbôc tlrhpâudh lc oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, d`c homuch
lxdlpdbôc, d`g` lo `z`c`. Ho phrldlr, lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` bcdrlglcth oh dhckhk
kl `xçmlc` kbsp`cbeol lc shcmrl klspuâs kl rlhddb`chr, d`sh qul nlg`s p`kbk`
d`gpr`ehr dblcdhglctl lc uchs prulehs kl mhs`gltrçh vlc`sh.
Lstl bcdrlglct` kl `xçmlc` slrçh uc` kl o`s rlsp`csheols kl ohs rèpbkhs
rlduplrhdb`cls
rlduplrhdb
`cls lc thcths plrs`chs, d`c thc kbflrlctls lcflrglkhkls, rlp`rthkhs
rlp`rth khs
p`r gbols kl tlsg`cb`s.
;5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
¡Herbr oh glctl…
\ch kl ohs thcths d`shs qul gl vblclc h oh glctl, ls qul t`k` o` qul c`s
phsh, ls lc rlhobkhk uch plrdlpdbôc.
• Y`klg`s d`csbklrhr lo s`o
s`o herhshk`r
herhshk`r ` cutrbrc`s
cutrbrc`s kl su dhobklz.
dhobklz.
• Y`klg`s d`csbklrhr oh oouvbh g`olsth ` fhctèsdh phrh ohs pohcths.
Kurhctl lo lgp` qul lsthg`s hquç lc lstl guck`, prbcdbphoglctl
plrdbebg`s h cbvlo lg`db`cho o` qul c`s r`klh y ehsèck`c`s lc oh bctlrprlthdbôc
kl lsths plrdlpdb`cls, t`ghg`s culstrhs kldbsb`cls. Lshs kldbsb`cls h su
vlz, sblgprl trhlc d`csldulcdbhs h vldls p`sbvhs, hucqul h vldls thgebâc
clfhsths. Ylr` dubkhk` d`c lsth d`csbklrhdbôc, p`rqul ho kldbr clfhst`, lsthg`s
auzmhck`
auzmhck
` culvhglct
culvhglctll o` qul c`s
c`s `durrl, y lst`
lst` c` ls
ls gès qul `trh plrdlpdbôc...
Oh vbkh ls uc dhgbchr, k`ckl h dhkh phs` qul khg`s, c`s lsplrh uc mrhc
hprlckbzhal phrh slmubr hvhczhck`.
°Dôg` qublrl vbvbr su vbkh0
Tblgprl lcl oh `pdbôc kl lolmbr1 lolmbr dhgebhr, pr`ehr hotlrchvhs h o`
qul hd`stugerh nhdlr, tlclr culv`s plcshgblct`s y hddb`cls, lc klcbvh…
lv`oudb`chr. Hvlcturâg`c`s ho dhgeb` phrh lo hquç y lo hn`rh, y phrh lo futur`
kl o`s qul qulkhc p`r vlcbr. Herhg`s oh glctl h uch culvh f`rgh kl shchr
culstr` dulrp`. \stlk kldbkl, y` o` bcvbt` h slmubr olylck`…
Lc prbglr oumhr gl musthrçh qul lo oldt`r fulrh dhphz kl herbr su glctl,
p`r o` thct` ol v`y h khr uc lalgpo` lc `tr` dhgp`. C`s`tr`s c`rghoglctl
c` s`g`s d`csdblctls kl duèct` nlg`s sbk` pr`mrhghk`s klskl plqulø`s,
klskl oh lkudhdbôc, ghcbpuohk`s p`r o`s glkb`s kl d`gucbdhdbôc qul lstèc
d`ctr`ohk`s p`r uc`s p`d`s, y thgebâc lsthg`s d`ctr`ohk`s klskl oh prlsbôc
s`dbho klo ‟quâ vhc h plcshr kl gb‗. Klspuâs kl uc plqulø` lalgpo` kl uch
lxplrblcdbh qul tuvl, o` lctlcklr
lctlcklrè.
è.
Fuç bcvbthk` h uch ucbvlrsbkh
ucbvlrsbkhk
k phrh nheohr lc uc plqulø` d`gbtâ
d`c sbd`s, bcdous` d`c uc Yrlgb` C`elo guy hgheol y lkudhk`, s`erl lo
klsduerbgblct` klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`. Klspuâs kl gb dnhroh,
d nhroh, uch kl ohs k`dt`rhs
kl sbdh sl gl hdlrdô d`glctèck`gl qul trhehaheh phrh oh CHTH lc lo tlgh
kl lx`eb`o`mçh. Ol rlsp`ckç qul oh lx`eb`o`mçh ‛ls kldbr, oh bcvlsmhdbôc
eb`oômbdh s`erl `ealt`s qul c` s`c kl oh lrrh‛ ls uc tlgh qul gl bctlrlsh
y gl musth gudn`. Uèpbkhglctl looh gl bckbdô qul c` lcl qul vlr chkh d`c
n`gerldbt`s vlrkls cb d`c `vcbs y qul looh sôo` sl klkbdh h hchobzhr gltl`rbt`s
lc lo klsblrt`. Ol prlmuctâ sb looh drlçh lc lo flcôglc` kl o`s `ealt`s v`ohk`rls
c` bklcdhk`s y gl d`ctlstô d`c `a`s mrhckls1 ‟Y`r supulst` qul c`, yh c`s
;4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
nueblrhc bcvhkbk`‗. Tbc bctlcdbôc kl drbdhr h oh p`erl dblcdh, p`klg`s vlr
dohrhglctl uch pr`mrhghdbôc s`dbho lc su rlspulsth.
Vhg`s h gbrhro` kl dlrdh1
Fbm. <1 @ealdt`s v`ohk`rls c` bklcdhk`s1 Ulhobkhk ` ddbôc0
°Duècth mlctl lc lo guck` nh rlp`rthk` lc o`s ñog`s =9 hø`s, nhelr
vbst` uc pohoo` v`ohctl0 Oh rlspulsth ls dblct`s kl gbols kl plrs`chs. Klctr`
kl lsths plrs`chs nhy pbo`t`s kl hvbhdbôc d`glrdbho, d`ctr`ohk`rls hârl`s,
plrs`cho gbobthr kl hot` rhcm`, p`obdçhs, c`thrb`s, m`elrchk`rls y uc sbcc kl
plrs`chs drlçeols.
Lo 84 kl ghrz` kl 822=, gbols kl plrs`chs pukblr`c vlr lc Yn`lcbx Hrbz`ch
y lc T`c`rh Gâxbd`, uchs oudls qul shoçhc kl uc @VCB lc`rgl, klo thghø` kl
uc p`rthvb`cls, kl f`rghdbôc trbhcmuohr, qul sl g`vçh olcthglctl sbc pr`kudbr
cbcmñc s`cbk` s`erl lo hârlh, lc kbrlddbôc Gâxbd`. Lo m`elrchk`r, ho c` tlclr
uch rlspulsth, kldbkbô rbkbduobzhr lo hsuct`, d`sh qul lcfhkô h gudnçsbg`s
tlsm`s qul d`csdblctlglctl nheçhc kldohrhk` qul c` lxbsh chkh lc culstr`
guck`, cb lc thghø` cb lc tldc`o`mçh, slglahctl h o` qul nheçhc vbst`. Vhrb`s
hø`s gès thrkl, lo gbsg` m`elrchk`r hkgbô nhelr vbst` hquloo` thgebâc, y
qul o` qul fulrh, c` p`kçh tlclr su `rbmlc lc culstr` guck` hdtuho.
D`g` lstl, nhy gudnçsbg`s dhs`s, y uc` kl gbs n`eebls ful kurhctl hø`s,
d`olddb`chr kht`s kl hvbsthgblct`s.
hvbsthgblct`s. Nhy qul kldbr qul oh mrhc ghy`rçh s`c fhos`s
` lrrôcl`s, plr` lo sbgpol nldn` kl qul sôo` uc` kl t`k`s lst`s dblct`s kl
gbols kl hvbsthgblct`s
hvbsthgblct`s fulrh dblrt`, sbmcbdhrçh qul c`s nhc glck` o`s ñog`s
69 hø`s kl ghclrh klobelrhkh. Ls d`gprlcsbeol, yh qul ohs d`csldulcdbhs
slrçhc guy krèsdhs lc t`k`s o`s ègebt`s1 lc oh dblcdbh, lc ohs rlobmb`cls y o`s
m`eblrc`s… yh qul dhgebhrçh culstrhs drllcdbhs, ghctlcbkhs nhsth oh fldnh.
Durb`shglctl, nl p`kbk` vlr fhosbdhdb`cls kl oh gbsgh CHTH,
hkaukbdèck`sl lo pr`yldt` kl uc hvbôc gbobthr slglahctl h uc pohoo` v`ohctl.
Hucqul
f`t`sy dbrduohck`
dbrduo
p`rd`gpr`ehr
bctlrclt klholstl
‟poho o`ohs
‟pohoo`
klof`t`s
hbrl‗,`rbmbchols,
hbrl‗,
s`c t`k`s
g`cthalslxbstlc
kbmbthols,
o` nl hck`
p`kbk`
lcd`ctrhr
;;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
tho d`g` o` lxp`cm` lc gb wle (www. hckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g). Xulkh oh prlmucth1
°p`r quâ oh CHTH cldlsbth fhosbdhr klobelrhkhglctl
klobelrhkhglctl lst`s `ealt`s, kldohrhck`
qul sl trhth kl sbgpols hvb`cls gbobthrls d`c f`rghs kl pohoo`s v`ohctls0
°Xuâ tlglc0 °Xuâ shelc0 °Xuâ prltlcklc0
Fbm. 61 Oh tlcul oçclh lctrl oh rlhobkhk y oh ddbôc.
Xubzès suslh vlrkhklr
p`rqul h c`lxbstlc
qublrlc
rld`c`dlr
vlrkhklrh
lxbstlcdbh.
dbh.
C`s bctlcthc kbsuhkbr kl oh vlrkhk,
drlhck` d`pbhs fhoshs, d`c lo dohr` c
kl klsbcf`rghrc`s, yh qul lo ghy`r
plobmr` lxtrhtlrrlstrl slrçh tlclr qul
rld`c`dlr 69 hø`s kl glcrhs. Tôo` uch
vlz sl nh rld`c`dbk` oh lxbstlcdbh kl vbkh
lxtrhtlrrlstrl kl ghclrh `dbho y kurhctl
uc`s p`d`s kçhs1 duhck` nue` lc auob`
kl 82;= lo bcdbklctl U`swloo lc Culv`
Gâxbd`…
plr`, lsth d`cvlcdlr
ls `trh nbst`rbh.
C` prltlck`
h chkbl,
sbgpolglctl herbr oh glctl y lgplzhr
h bcvlsmhr h trhvâs kl t`khs ohs fulctls
kl Bctlrclt, phrh d`cstrubrc`s ho cho
culstrh pr`pbh `pbcbôc, lsqubvhck` gbols
kl fhosbdhdb`cls.
Hn!… y p`r dblrt`, sb ustlk oolmh h oh
d`cdousbôc kl qul sç lxbstlc hoblcçmlchs
qul c`s qublrlc nhdlr lo gho l
bcvhkbrc`s…
bcvhkb
rc`s… °Y`r quâ lsplrhrçhc
lsplrhrçhc h qul
tuvbârhg`s hrghs htôgbdhs y klflcshs
gbobthrls kl klstruddbôc ghsbvh0
Fbm. =1 D`ctrhstl lctrl vlrkhklr`
vlrkhklr` y fhos`.
;<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Tb rlhoglctl qubsblrhc bcvhkbrc`s, yh o` nueblrhc nldn` nhdl dblct`s `
qubzès gbols kl hø`s.
Gb `pbcbôc ls qul uch rhzh ghoâdh hdheh hut`klstruyâck`sl h sç gbsgh
d`c lo lgp`… d`sh qul p`klg`s `eslrvhr hn`rh gbsg`, lc culstrh pr`pbh
nughcbkhk.
Nhy gbols kl hrghdb`cls lc oh dblcdbh qul lc rlhobkhk phrldlc gès drllcdbhs
d rllcdbhs
rlobmb`shs qul nldn`s dblcd`s, ho d`cstrubrsl s`erl nbpôtlsbs qul sbgpolglctl c`
duhkrhc.
D`g` yh nl kbdn` hctlrb`rglctl1
Drllr 7 c` shelr
Tb oh dblcdbh rlhoglctl sbmcbdh ‟shebkurçh‗, c` klelrçh hdlpthr tl`rçhs qul
c` lstèc d`gpr`ehkhs, y qul p`r o` thct` s`c drllcdbhs. Lo plobmr` ls qul sb nhy
uch nbpôtlsbs ` tl`rçh fuckhglctho lrrôclh, t`khs ohs klgès sl g`cthc lcdbgh
kl looh, drlhck` hc`ghoçhs.
Hquç homuc`s lalgpo`s1
• °Kl kôckl vbc`
vbc` oh lclrmçh
lclrmçh klo Ebm Ehcm, sb oh lclrmçh c` sl pulkl
pulkl drlhr
kl oh chkh0
• °Lo s`o rlhoglctl ls uch lxpo`sbôc, d`g` c`s qublrlc nhdlr drllr0
°Lct`cdls, p`r quâ lcl lc sus dhphs lxtlrb`rls uch tlgplrhtu
tlgplrhturh
rh kl
gboo`cls kl mrhk`s dlcmrhk`s, gblctrhs lc su suplrdbl sôo` lcl
hpr`xbghkhglctl >999¹0 Tb lo s`o rlhoglctl ls uch mrhc lxpo`sbôc, ohs
ghcdnhs s`ohrls qul s`c gès `sdurhs klebk` h uch tlgplrhturh glc`r,
klelrçhc slr gès erboohctls, yh qul su slglahctl lc oh lrrh ls lo ‟`a`
klo nurhdèc‗
nurhdèc‗..
Lsth bklh kl oh lxpo`sbôc s`ohr ls hdlpthkh h cbvlo dblcd`, sbc lgehrm`, sb
gbrhg`s o`s klthools phrldl qubzès thc hesurkh d`g` oh lrrh pohch. Y`r sbgpol
oômbdh phrldl gès eblc uch bgpo`sbôc qul htrhl ho nbkrômlc` oberl klo lsphdb`,
kl ghclrh d`csthctl. Lo nbkrômlc`, lo èt`g` gès heuckhctl klo lsphdb`, qul
hklgès c` sl pulkl vlr, ls htrhçk` p`r oh mrhvlkhk klo vôrdl s`ohr, k`ckl, lc
su cñdol` nhy uc hmualr` clmr` y lo `xçmlc` sl fusb`ch lc ohs dhphs lxtlrb`rls
klo s`o oberhck` o`s f`t`cls kl oh ouz. Lst` thgebâc lxpobdhrçh p`rquâ sl f`rghc
o`s pohclths ` o`s s`ols drldlc
d rldlc nhsth d`cvlrrsl
d`cvlrrsl lc uch suplrc`vh.
Yhrh herbr oh glctl p`klg`s nhdlrc`s prlmucths,
prlmucths, qul oh dblcdbh kl n`y c`
shel d`ctlsthr1
;6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Bctr`kuddbôc
• °Xuâ ls d`cdblcdbh eb`oômbdh0
• °Y`r quâ o`s nughc`s lclc thc
thc p`d`s mlcls,
mlcls, lc d`gphrhdbôc d`c ohs
pohcths0
• °Xuâ d`ctr`oh oh rlmlclr
rlmlclrhdbôc
hdbôc kl ôrmhc`s0
• °Dôg` sl muhrkh oh glg`rbh0
• °Y`r quâ k`rgbg`s0
• °Xuâ ls mrhvlkhk0
• °Y`r quâ nhy ghmclsg`0
• °Xuâ fulrzh lxphckl lo ucbvlrs`0
• °Xuâ ls oh lstrudturh kl hmuh0
• °Dôg` lcdulctrhc
lcdulctrhc pr`tlçchs sus phrlahs
phrlahs lc lo dulrp`0
dulrp`0
• °Xuâ ghclcl
ghclcl lo trèd` bctrhdlouoh
bctrhdlouohrr fucdb`chck`
fucdb`chck` sbc pr`eolghs0
• °Dôg` sl d`pbh oh gbt`d`ckrbh lc oh
oh gbt`sbs0
gbt`sbs0
• °Dôg` shel lo ôrmhc` duhck` phrhr kl drldlr0
drldlr0
• °Y`r quâ s`øhg`s0
Rh sl o` kbal ho prbcdbpb`1 ‟chkh ls o` qul phrldl‗.
* * *
;=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
;>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
D 8
Lstl ober` lstè plcshk` d`g` muçh ño phrh t`khs hquloohs plrs`chs qul
kldbkhc uobzhr lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` y `trhs susthcdbhs t`khvçh
t`khvçh c` rlmbstrhkhs, phrh
qul c` d`glthc lrr`rls ` bgpruklcdbhs, bckbdhck` s`erl t`k` ohs prldhudb`cls,
hkvlrtlcdbhs l bcvlsmhdb`cls, y thgebâc o`s rlsuothk`s `etlcbk`s lc plrs`chs
v`oucthrbhs qul kldbkblr`c t`ghro` d`g` trhthgblct`. Oh shouk ls uc klrldn`
fuckhglctho y dhkh uc` klel p`klr lolmbr p`r sç gbsg` d`g` prlslrvhroh.
Herlvbhturhs
DK
7
Do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected]) + hdbk` do`rnçkrbd` (NDo) d`g` hdvhk`r ho ;%.
DKB
7
Kbs`oudbôc kl kbôxbk` kl do`r`, [email protected] 5 lc s`oudbôc shobch (ChDo ho 9,2%).
DKT
7
Kbs`oudbôc kl kbôxbk` kl do`r`, [email protected] 5 lc hmuh (mhs kbsulot` lc hmuh).
DKN
7
Do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected]) + èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` (NDo) d`g` hdvhk`r ho
Do-
7
Bôc Do`rur`.
Do5
7
Mhs Kbdo`r`, mhs do`r`.
Do
7
Do`r`, lolglct` kl ‟theoh plrbôkbdh‗.
[email protected]
7
Kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
[email protected]
7
B`c do`rbt`.
[email protected]
7
B`c do`rht`.
;% hdvhk` d`c lgp`.
;2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[email protected];-
7
B`c plrdo`rht`.
[email protected]
7
B`c nbp`do`rbt`.
[email protected]
7
Kbglosuofôxbk`.
GGT
7
[email protected] 7 Do`rbt` kl s`kb` + hdvhk`r (èdbk` dçtrbd`)
GGT5
7
(klc`gbchdbôc kl Abg Nugeol).
Nbp`do`rbt` dèodbd` 7 Dh([email protected])5.
ChDo
7
Do`rur` sôkbd` (sho d`gñc).
[email protected]
7
Nbp`do`rbt` kl s`kb` (olaçh).
[email protected]
7
Do`rbt` kl s`kb`.
[email protected]
7
Do`rht` kl s`kb`.
[email protected];
7
Ylrdo`rht`
Ylrdo`rh
t` kl s`kb`.
YYG
7
Yhrtls p`r gbooôc, la. 4999 ppg 7 9,4%.
Olmhobkhk
Y`r o` thct` sl prlslcth uc kbolgh lc duhct` h oh olmhobkhk1
°Ulhoglctl pulkl slr olmho klahr g`rbr h plrs`chs p`r lo sbgpol nldn` kl
qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc k`sbs hklduhkhs l bc`duhs c` lstâ
l stâ hpr`ehk` d`g` pr`-
kudt` gâkbd` p`r uch bcstudbôc0
°Xubâc ls lo rlsp`csheol kl lsths gulrtls, y quâ sl pblrkl d`c lo sbgpol nldn` kl bctlcthro`, duhck` oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho yh o` nh khk` t`k` p`r plr kbk`0
Nhy gudnhs plrs`chs qul sbgpolglctl c` kbsp`clc kl lgp`. Nhsth qul
oh susthcdbh sl olmhobdl h trhvâ
trhvâss kl trègbtls gboo`chrb`s, qul pulklc kurhr dbcd`
hø`s ` gès, y pulkhc slr hpobdhkhs. R`, plrs`choglctl, tlcm` guy dohr`1
C` pulkl nhelr cbcmuch oly muelrchglctho p`r lcdbgh kl oh
oly nughch, qul trhtl kl prlslrvhr oh vbkh kl ghclrh kbmch.
<9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
Hsç qul v`y h klflcklr lo klrldn` kl lxplrbglcthr d`c uc` gbsg`, s`erl
t`k` phrh hquloohs plrs`chs qul c` lclc `trh `pdbôc, ho lsthr phkldblck` uch
lcflrglkhk tlrgbcho ` guy mrhvl. Duhoqublr oly qul pr`nçeh lo us` v`oucthrb`
kl uch susthcdbh d`c cls durhv`s sl bcvhobkh h sç gbsgh yh qul ls drbgbcho
hthdhr lo klrldn` fuckhglctho h oh vbkh. Cbcmñc m`eblrc` pulkl lsthr p`r
lcdbgh klo klrldn` h oh vbkh y h oh hut`kltlrgbchdbôc.
Lo us` klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` (DK) eha` oh klc`gbchdbôc GGT, qul fulr`c ohs
sbmohs bcvlcthkhs p`r Abg Nugeol, nh sbk` pr`nbebk` lc gudn`s phçsls, p`r c`
d`cthr d`c uch hut`rbzhdbôc d`g` glkbdhglct` kl oh shouk pñeobdh. Lst` c`
sbmcbdh qul oh susthcdbh do`rbt` sôkbd` y èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` d`g` hdvhk`r,
hdvhk`r, lstâc
pr`nbebk`s. Tl nh ushk` y sl sbmulc ushck` lc gudnçsbg`s pr`dls`s bckustrbhols,
d`g` p`r lalgpo` lc oh klsbcflddbôc y p`thebobzhdbôc klo hmuh, k`ckl sl uobzhc
klskl nhdl gès kl >9 hø`s sbc bcdbklcdbhs clmhvhs, cb rlsbstlcdbhs hkqubrbkhs
p`r phrtl kl ohs ehdtlrbhs, vbrus u n`cm`s.
Lo DK (kbôxbk` kl do`r`) ls gès dhr` qul lo nbp`do`rbt` sôkbd` (olaçh
`
plr` Tl
bccbthglctl
târgbc`s
klohvhckbch)
dhobkhk, yhphrh
qulklsbcflddbôc,
c` dhush dècdlr.
uobzh phrhgla`r
fruthslc
y vlrkurhs
y lstè hut`rbzhk` p`r oh FKH. [hgebâc phrh klsbcfldthr oh dhrcl
kl p`oo`, dlrk` y vhduc`, phrh mhgehs kl hdubduoturh, dlrvlzhs
dlrvlzhs y
elebkhs. Yhrh lo d`ctr`o kl n`cm`s, phrh lobgbchr oh tlgbkh olmb`cloh
lc ohs t`rrls kl rlfrbmlrhdbôc kl o`s n`spbthols, phrh oh klsbcflddbôc
kl bcstruglct`s qubrñrmbd`s lc frç`, phrh klsbcfldthr oh shcmrl kl
k`chctls y gudnçsbghs gès hpobdhdb`cls.
Gl ghckhr`c lo `tr` kçh uch dhrth qul lcvbhr`c ho Gbcbstlrb` kl Thcbkhk1
GLCTHAL1
N`oh, s`y uc bcvlsmhk`r klo pr`kudt` GGT ` kbôxbk` kl do`r`
qul nheâbs pr`nbebk` lc Lsphøh, gl musthrçh shelr dôg` d`cthdthr
d`c oh plrs`ch qul nh t`ghk` lsth kldbsbôc, yh qul c` vl`
rlsuothk`s ghobdb`s`s phrh lo `rmhcbsg`. Nheo` kl lstl hrduo`1
np1//www.hlgps.m`e.ls/bcf`rgh/c`thsBcf`rghvhs/
glkbdhglct`s\s`Nu-ghc`/glkBolmhols/5989/CBPG\NP
BolmholsP9<-5989.ntg
<8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Gl musthrçh shelr lc qul lstukb`s doçcbd`s ` dblcd`s `s
nheâbs ehshk` phrh pr`nbebro`, yh qul slmñc gb d`c`dbgblct` y lo
kl gudn`s bcvlsmhk`rls, nlg`s oolmhk` h oh d`cdousbôc kl qul
sl bcbdbô lc `tr`s phçsls p`r uc d`cbdt` kl bctlrlsls, hom` guy
klobdhk`.
\c shouk`, Bvèc.
OH ULTY\LT[H KLO GBCBT[[email protected]
Lsghk` Tr. G`rlc`,
Oh rlrhkh klo glrdhk` h oh qul nhdl rlflrlcdbh, sl pr`kua`
d`g` d`csldulcdbh kl trhthrsl kl uc glkbdhglct` bolmho, yh qul
duhoqublr glkbdhglct` rlqublrl, hctls kl su d`glrdbhobzhdbôc, oh
hut`rbzhdbôc kl oh Hmlcdbh Lsphø`oh kl Glkbdhglct`s y Yr`kudt`s
Thcbthrb`s. C` nhy, p`r thct`, cbcmñc bcf`rgl kl lvhouhdbôc, yh qul
lo pr`kudt` c` ful cb sbqublrh prlslcthk` phrh su hut`rbzhdbôc.
hut`rbzhdbôc.
Thouk`s d`rkbhols.
[email protected]\TBÔC1
D`g` p`kâbs vlr, lo m`eblrc` cb sl nh g`olsthk` lc d`gpr`ehr
d`gpr` ehr
sb lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lcl uc lfldt` eulc` ` gho` phrh lo dulrp`,
kbrldthglctl o` nhc thdnhk` kl bolmho y… hkbôs… Guy trbstl. R c`
sâ v`s`tr`s, plr` y` c` sl nhdlr lstukb`s doçcbd`s y duhck` nl bk`
h hsls`rhrgl lc o`s n`spbthols, gl nhc pulst` gudnhs trhehs.
Lo Lsthk` klel lcdhrmhrsl klo eblclsthr klo dbukhkhc`, y p`r o`
thct`,, klelrçh slr `eobmhdbôc klo Gbcbstlrb` kl Thcbkhk, bcvlsmhr y
thct`
rlmuohr lstl pr`kudt`. Ylr` c`, loo`s c` gulvlc uc klk`.
Lo klsduerbgblct` kl Abg1 °Xul ls GGT, thgebâc oohghk` DK0
GGT ls oh klc`gbchdbôc qul kb` Abg Nugeol h oh glzdoh kl do`rbt` sôkbd`
([email protected]) hdvhk` d`c èdbk` dçtrbd`, lc su g`glct`.
g`glct`. N`y yh c` uobzhg`s lo èdbk`
dçtrbd` ho <9%, sl uobzh lo èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` (NDo) ho ;%. Yhrh lvbthr d`cfusb`cls,
o` vhg`s h oohghr DK (Dno`rbcl Kb`xbkl), qul sbmcbdh kbôxbk` kl do`r`. Lo DK
ls gudn` gès suhvl y ldhz qul lo hcmu` GGT hdvhk` d`c èdbk` dçtrbd` ho
<9%, y hplchs dhush lfldt`s slduckhrb`s, d`sh qul gès hklohctl lxpobdhrâ lc
lstl ober`.
Hucqul phrldl glcrh,
glcrh, t`khvçh
t`khvçh lxbstlc
lxbstlc nbst`rbhs qul phrldlc
phrldlc vlcbr kl uch
c`vloh, k`ckl uc` sl prlmucth sb s`c rlhols. Oh nbst`rbh qul qubzès gès gl nh
<5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
bgphdthk` lc o`s ñog`s hø`s, ls oh kl Abg Nugeol, uc bcmlcblr` qul trhehaheh
lc oh pr`splddbôc kl `r` y qul p`r dhsuhobkhk phrldl nhelr lcd`ctrhk` uch
durh phrh uch kl ohs pl`rls lcflrglkhkls bcflddb`shs klo guck`1 oh ghohrbh.
Lsthck` kl pr`splddbôc kl `r` lc oh aucmoh kl Muhyhch y hpr`xbghkhglctl h
;99 gboohs kl duhoqublr n`spbtho
n`spbtho y lc polch slovh, su lqubp`
lqubp` lcflrgô kl ghohrbh.
Ho c` nhelr sbk` hkvlrk` s`erl lsth p`sbebobkhk, lo lqubp` c` oolvheh cbcmñc
glkbdhglct` qul o`s pukblrh hobvbhr. Oh ñcbdh d`sh qul tlcçh Abg Nugeol, lrh uc
klsbcfldthctl
klsbcfldt
hctl kl hmuh p`theol oohghk` `xçmlc` lsthebobzhk`.
lsthebobzhk`. Ho cho kldbkbô khr
uchs p`dhs m`ths h su mlctl, qul lstheh d`c gès kl ;9 ˑD kl lerl, klobrhck` lc
polc` hthqul kl ghohrbh. Tu s`rprlsh ful, qul klspuâs kl duhtr` n`rhs, Abg o`s
lcd`ctrô h t`k`s rlucbk`s horlklk`r
horlklk`r klo fulm`, rlduplrhk`s kl uch kl ohs pl`rls
lcflrglkhkls
lcflrglkhk
ls bcflddb`shs klo guck`, ¡d`g` sb c` nueblrh sudlkbk` chkh! Y`d`
klspuâs, âo lcflrgô kl ghohrbh y ¡thgebâc ol fucdb`cô! Ylcsâ qul lsth nbst`rbh
lrh thc bcdrlçeol qul vhoçh oh plch slr bcvlsmhkh gès h f`ck`.
GGT1
DK1
DKT1
Ls oh glzdoh kl do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected]) hdvhk` d`c èdbk` dçtrbd`.
Ls oh glzdoh kl do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected]) hdvhk` d`c èdbk` do`rnçkrbd`.
Ls lo mhs kl oh glzdoh kbsulot` lc hmuh.
°Xâ  A Ne0
Yhrh d`ctlsthr h lsh prlmucth, kldbkb vbsbthrol lc Thct` K`gbcm`, k`ckl
rlsbkçh.
Fbm. >1 Hckrlhs
Hck rlhs Jhodjlr
Jhodjlr d`cvlrshck` d`c Abg Nugeol.
<4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[ldolhck` su c`gerl lc M``mol `etlcm` 82 gboo`cls kl rlsuothk`s. Tb kl
lst`s 82 gboo`cls oh gbthk fulrhc clmhv`s, qulkhrçhc 2 gboo`cls. Tb kl lst`s
2 gboo`cls, sôo` lo 8<% kl ohs plrs`chs nh pr`ehk` lo GGT, slrçhc 8.4<9.999
plrs`chs ohs qul nhc bcmlrbk` lsth suesthcdbh sbc dhushrsl uc gho ghy`r ` oh
gulrtl: yh qul sôo` lxbstlc lc oh nbst`rbh gâkbdh dbcd` dhs`s kl bct`xbdhdbôc
p`r do`rbt` qul lstâc k`duglcthk`s, y sl pr`kualr`c d`c dhckhkls dblct`s
kl vldls ghy`rls kl ohs qul bckbdh Abg
A bg Nugeol.
N`y,, Abg Nugeol y y` d`gphrg`s
N`y
d`gphrg `s uch mrhc hgbsthk, y lo nldn` kl bcvlsmhr
dhkh uc` p`r su dhgbc` s`erl lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, kl ghclrh pr`fuckh, kurhctl
hø`s.
Duhck` lo do`rbt` sôkbd` oolmh ho lstôghm`, qul d`clcl èdbk` do`rnçkrbd`,
thgebâc oohghk` shofugèc, hmuh fulrtl, èdbk` gurbèd`, èdbk` kl sho…) sl
pr`kudl uch rlhddbôc lctrl lsths k`s susthcdbhs qul pr`kudl oh obelrhdbôc kl
uc mhs oohghk` „kbôxbk` kl do`r`‒. Ls lstl mhs lo qul sl hes`rel fèdboglctl lc lo
hmuh y p`r o` thct` p`r ohs gud`shs y lo sulr` shcmuçcl`, lo rlsp`csheol kl lsths
durhs ‟gbohmr`shs‗. Lsth ls oh rhzôc p`r oh qul bcbdbhoglctl Abg Nugeol, ol kb`
lo c`gerl kl GGT (Gbclrho Gbrhdol T`ou`c - T`oudbôc Gbclrho Gbohmr`sh), yh
qul c` sôo` fucdb`cheh d`c oh ghohrbh, sbc` qul thgebâc lrh dhphz kl fucdb`chr
d`c gudnhs `trhs lcflrglkh
lcflrglkhkls,
kls, sbc lxpobdhdbôc, kl g`glct`.
°Xul ls oh ghohrbh0
Oh ghohrbh ls uc pr`eolgh mo`eho qul hfldth
hfldth h gès kl 899 phçsls. Lctrl 499
y <99 gboo`cls kl plrs`chs sl lcflrghc kl ghohrbh dhkh hø` y lsth lcflrglkhk
lcflrglkhk
ghth hpr`xbghkhglctl
hpr`xbghkhglctl 4.999.999 kl plrs`chs lc lo gbsg` plrç`k` kl lgp`.
Ls kldbr, lo k`eol kl o` qul sl s`spldnheh. H qublcls gès hfldth ls h o`s cbø`s,
yh qul gulrlc d`c gès fhdbobkhk, p`r ohs lerls hoths.
Y`r dhkh n`rh qul phsh, oh ghohrbh ghth h gès plrs`chs qul oh lpbklgbh klo
âe`oh. Durb`shglctl, oh ghohrbh c` ls rld`c`dbkh lc lo prbglr guck` d`g` uch
dhtèstr`fl kl shouk pñeobdh, d`g` o` ls lo sbkh ` lo âe`oh. Nhy qul tlclr lc
dulcth qul oh ghohrbh ghth hcuhoglctl, dhsb oh gbsgh dhckhk kl mlctl qul lo
sbkh nh ghthk` kurhctl o`s ñog`s 8< hø`s.
Tb uc g`squbt` p`rthk`r kl ghohrbh pbdh h uc nughc`, obelrh d`c su shobvh
uc hcd`hmuohctl guy ldhz d`c vhrb`s dblct`s kl lsp`r`z`çt`s kl oh ghohrbh.
Âst`s gbmrhc h trhvâs kl oh shcmrl nhdbh lo nçmhk`, k`ckl lctrhc lc ohs dâouohs
klo tlabk`, trhcsf`rgèck`sl lc glr`z`çt`s y uch vlz klshrr`oohk`s, vulovlc h
obelrhrsl lc oh shcmrl.
Lst` c` `durrl kl bmuho ghclrh lc t`k`s o`s p`s kl ghohrbh, yh qul
homuc`s pulklc lsthr glsls ` bcdous` hø`s sbc slr kltldthk`s p`r lo sbstlgh
bcguc`oômbd`. \ch vlz qul lo phrèsbt` lstè lc oh shcmrl, plcltrh lc o`s moôeuo`s
r`a`s, thgebâc oohghk`s lrbtr`dbt`s y sbmul guopobdèck`sl, khck` oumhr h
<;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
uchs f`rghs pbdhglctl hcuohrls, qul p`stlrb`rglctl pr`v`dhc oh rupturh
klo moôeuo` r`a` obelrhck` o`s mhglt`dbt`s lc lo rblm` shcmuçcl`. Tb oulm` oh
plrs`ch ls pbdhkh p`r `tr` g`squbt`, âstl hkqublrl o`s mhglt`dbt`s y sl bcbdbh
`tr` dbdo` slxuho klo pohsg`kbug lc lo g`squbt`, qul h su vlz pulkl bcfldthr h
`trhs plrs`chs culvhglctl, h trhvâs kl ohs moèckuohs shobvhols.
Duhck` choglctl rlvblcthc o`s moôeuo`s r`a`s `duphk`s p`r lo phrèsbt`,
sl obelrhc susthcdbhs tôxbdhs y èdbkhs qul hfldthc ho nbp`tèohg`, pr`v`dhck`
lerls rlplcchs guy bctlcshs. Âsths sl rlpbtlc dhkh k`s ` trls kçhs, slmubkhs
kl uc lgp` kl hphrlctl c`rghobkhk, bgpobdhck` uc mrhc lsfulrz` phrh lo
`rmhcbsg` qul lc lo dhs` kl o`s cbø`s, sulol oolvhr gudnhs vldls h oh gulrtl.
H ohs gualrls lgehrhzhkhs, ohs pbdhkurhs klo g`squbt` kl oh ghohrbh ols
pulkl pr`v`dhr rlsuothk`s clfhst`s, klebk` h oh slcsbebobkhk klo flt`, qul
t`khvçh c` lcl uc sbstlgh bcgucbthrb` klshrr`oohk` phrh p`klr d`gehro`.
Lstl phrèsbt`, d`c lo c`gerl kl fhodbphrug, lvbth slr kltldthk` p`r lo
sbstlgh bcgucbthrb`,
bcgucbthrb`, plrghcldblck` klctr` kl o`s moôeuo`s r`a`s y pr`kudblck`
pr`tlçchs qul sl plmhc h o`s vhs`s shcmuçcl`s, pr`v`dhck` nlg`rrhmbhs
d`gpobdhkhs. Lsths pr`tlçchs s`c hothglctl vhrbheols, hsç qul lo sbstlgh
bcgucbthrb` c` ohs pulkl rld`c`dlr y sb o` nbdblrh, c` slrvbrçh kl chkh, yh qul
ho dhe` kl uchs slghchs, lsths pr`tlçchs dhgebhc d`gpolthglctl,
d`gpolthglctl, klahck` o`s
hcdulrp`s bcñols.
Lo lcshy` kl oh Druz U`ah ‟qul cucdh ful‗
Lo ]UD kl Oh Druz U`ah Bctlrchdb`cho nbz` lo 85/85/5985 lc \mhckh
uc`s lstukb`s d`c 8<; plrs`chs d`c kbhmc`sbs p`sbvh kl ghohrbh.
Ohs prulehs fulr`c rlhobzhkhs p`r sglhr gbdr`sdôpbd` y tlst kl
hcmlc` y kblr`c clmhv` h ohs 5;-;> n`rhs kl nhelrols sugbcbstrhk` oh
k`sbs kl kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
8;4 plrs`chs rlduplrhkhs d`c uch s`oh k`sbs kl 8> m`ths lc 5; n`rhs
y ohs 88 rlsthctls d`c uch slmuckh k`sbs lc ;> n`rhs
Vbkl` ho rlspldt`1
1//./9>MX
Lxbstlc trls vçkl`s kbflrlctls kl lstl lstukb` doçcbd`
d oçcbd` pbo`t` (YNHT[), oolvhk`
h dhe` p`r lo ]UD (]htlr Ulflrlcdl
Ulflrlcdl Dlctlr), obho kl oh Druz U`ah bctlrchdb`cho,
lc d`cauct` d`c o`s Gbcbstlrb`s kl Thouk
T houk y oh Druz
D ruz U`ah Chdb`cho kl \mhckh, qul
<<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
klgulstrhc oh ldhdbh klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ([email protected]), uc purbdhk`r kl hmuh d`gñc,
lc oh lobgbchdbôc kl oh ghohrbh.
Dhkh ;9 slmuck`s uc cbø` gulrl p`r lsth lcflrglkhk,
lcflrglkhk, hpr`xbghkhglctl
hpr`xbghkhglctl
5.999 cbø`s p`r kçh lc t`k` lo guck`. Lc Èfrbdh, lsth lcflrglkhk tr`pbdho sbmul
sblck`, klsmrhdbhkhglctl,
klsmrhdbhkhglctl, uch kl ohs prbcdbphols
pr bcdbphols dhushs kl gulrtl. Oh s`oudbôc
slrçh guy sbgpol, sb sl hkgblrh pñeobdhglctl qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` durh
oh ghohrbh, plr` lo pr`eolgh ls oh fhoth kl rlcthebobkhk ` oh bgp`sbebobkhk kl
phtlcthr
phtlct
hr lsth susthcdbh p`r oh bckustrbh.
Fbm. 21 F`t`mrhh kl mrup`.
Lc lstl lstukb` doçcbd` kl dhgp` phrdbphr`c =>8 phdblctls, k`ckl sl
rlhobzhr`c hcèobsbs kl shcmrl lc uc tlst k`eol. Yrbglr` uc tlst p`r rlhddbôc
quçgbdh y t`khs ohs plrs`chs qul kblr`c p`sbv` lc o`s hcèobsbs, fulr`c rlvbshkhs
`trh vlz, d`c gbdr`sd`pb` d`cvlcdb`cho.
Tl nh p`kbk` kltlrgbchr kl lsth ghclrh, trhs lo lstukb` rlhobzhk` p`r
gâkbd`s y pr`flsb`chols kl oh gbsgh Druz U`ah kl \mhckh, qul 8<; plrs`chs
phkldçhc kl ghohrbh. Kl loo`s, 8;4 lcflrg`s sl rlduplrhr`c lc uc s`o` kçh, d`c
uch k`sbs ñcbdh kl 8< h 8> m`ths kl do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected]), hdvhk` d`coh gbsgh
dhckhk kl m`ths kl èdbk`. Ohs rlsthc
rlsthctls
tls 88, sl rlduplrhr`c ho kçh sbmublctl, d`c
uch slmuckh k`sbs.
Lo âxbt` ful kl uc 899% y lstè d`crghk` p`r lo rlsp`csheol kl oh Druz U`ah
qul, klsmrhdbhkhglctl, gès thrkl sl kbsthcdbô kl ohs hrghdb`cls nldnhs lc
lstl vçkl`. Yr`eheolglctl nhyh rldbebk` gudnh prlsbôc klskl oh dlctrho kl oh
Druz U`ah bctlrchdb`cho lc Mbclerh, `eobmèck`o` h klsglcr o`s rlsuothk`s, ho
phrldlr,, p`r rhz`c
phrldlr
rhz`cls
ls ld`côgbdhs: oh bckustrbh vlckl pr`oèdd`s kl ghohrbh p`r
gès kl 89.999 gboo`cls kl kôohrls ho hø`.
C`plrs`chs
lxbstl cbcmuch
kukh
hdlrdh
kl bctlcdb`cls,
qul o`s v`oucthrb`s
oh Druz
899%
n`crhkhs
y kl
eulchs
hucqul,klnhy
qul U`ah
tlclrs`c
lc
dulcth qul o`s kbrldv`s guy eblc rlguclrhk`s y oh Flklrhdbôc Bctlrchdb`cho
<6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
kl oh Druz U`ah lc Mbclerh, lstèc guy bgpobdhk`s d`c o`s bctlrlsls ld`côgbd`s
kl oh bckustrbh fhrghdâudh, g`vblck` mrhckls dhckhkls kl kbclr`, y sblck`
dhok` kl duov` kl d`rrupdbôc… ¡chkh ls o` qul phrldl!
D`g` hctlrb`rglctl nl glcdb`chk`, lc kbdblgerl kl 5985 oh Druz U`ah
kl \mhckh rlhobzô uc`s lcshy`s doçcbd`s d`c lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, h pldbôc klo
]UD (]htlr Ulflrlcdl
Ulflrlcdl Dlctlr), obho kl oh Flklrhdbôc bctlrchdb`cho kl Druz U`ah
kl Mbclerh lc Tubzh. Lo ]htlr Ulflrlcdl Dlctlr ls uch lgprlsh fuckhkh p`r oh
Druz U`ah kl Mbclerh, duy` prlsbklctl ls Drbst`ok Dnly, thgebâc prlsbklctl kl
oh D`gbsbôc kl Fbchczhs kl oh BFUD (Flklrhdbôc Bctlrchdb`cho kl ohs Drudls U`ahs
y oh Glkbh Ouch U`ah) lc Tubzh, hkgbcbstrhk`r kl oh Fuckhdbôc Dnly y dôcsuo
kl C`rulmh, lctrl `trhs lgprlshs y fuckhdb`cls.
Y`r d`bcdbklcdbh ` tho vlz p`r sulrtl, sl oolvô h dhe` uc lstukb` lc
d`ohe`rhdbôc d`c oh Druz U`ah kl \mhckh, k`ckl sl puk` trhthr d`c GGT,
kurhctl duhtr` kçhs h uc eulc mrup` kl plrs`chs, lc uc n`spbtho kl Ouudh,
Bmhcmh.. Oh Druz U`ah lstheh bctlrlshkh lc lo bgphdt` p`sbv` qul tlcçh lo kbôxbk`
Bmhcmh
kl do`r` s`erl oh shouk kl ohs plrs`chs, plr` prbcdbphoglctl lstheh bctlrlshkh
lc d`gpr`ehr sb lrh ño lc oh durh kl oh ghohrbh, y sb ohs hrghdb`cls kl Abg
Nugeol lrhc dblrths.
Lstl pr`yldt` pbo`t` vbc` prldlkbk` p`r slghchs kl bctlcs`s prlphrhv`s,
k`ckl o`s klthools kl ohs thrlhs sl trhthr`c kl hctlghc`, uc` p`r uc`.
uc` . @rmhcbzhr
duhoqublr lvlct` lc Èfrbdh sup`cl gudnh drlhvbkhk y lsthr prlphrhk` hctl
duhoqublr bgprlvbst`. Lc uc prbcdbpb` c` sl sheçh duèct`s phdblctls hdukbrçhc h
lstl lstukb` y p`r supulst`, c` sl qulrçh klahr chkh ho hzhr.
Fbm. 891 Fhsl kl rlmbstr`.
Hquç sl pulkl vlr oh shoh k`ckl gudnhs plrs`chs nheçhc oolmhk` d`c
pr`eolghs kl shouk kurhctl lo prbglr kçh y sl lcd`ctrhehc h oh lsplrh kl su
<=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
trhthgblct`. Yrlvbhglctl ho gbsg`, sl hpucthehc dubkhk`shglctl o`s c`gerls
trhthgblct`.
y `tr`s kht`s rlohdb`chk`s kl o`s sualt`s qul sl behc h trhthr, sl hrdnbvhehc lc
dhrplths y sl rlmbstrhehc lc lo `rklchk`r.
Klspuâs kl qul lo gâkbd` nbdblrh uc lxhglc bcbdbho, sl hc`thehc o`s
sçct`ghs y sl nhdçh uc kbhmcôsd`, qul sl rlmbstrheh lc oh dnh klo phdblctl.
Dhkh plrs`ch tlcçh uc cñglr` d`cdrlt` kl pruleh kl ghohrbh, âstl lrh hc`thk`
lc lo f`rguohrb` kl dhkh phdblctl. Lc lstl lstukb`, h dhkh sualt` sl ol nhdçh uc
tlst bcbdbho, d`c uch pruleh kl kbhmcôsd` rèpbk` kl ghohrbh. Tb lc oh vlcthch
mrhckl klo tlst c` hphrldçh uch rhyh ghrdhkh, oh plrs`ch c` tlcçh ghohrbh. Y`r
lo d`ctrhrb`, sb lc oh rh kl pruleh hphrldçh uch oçclh ghrdhkh lc r`a` lc oh
vlcthchh mrhckl, bckbdheh qul oh plrs`ch sufrçh kl ghohrbh.
vlcthc
Fbm. 881 Yruleh kl kbhmcôsd`
kbhmcô sd` rèpbk` kl ghohrbh.
Hquç sl pulklc hprldbhr ohs k`s oçclhs lc oh vlcthc
vlcthch,
h, o` qul sbmcbdh qul oh
slmuckh rhyh ls uch pruleh kl d`ctr`o phrh shelr sb lo prbglr tlst kl ghohrbh
lstuv` eblc nldn`. Hsç, o`s phdblctls qul kblr`c p`sbv` lc lo prbglr tlst kl oh
ghohrbh, fulr`c kbrbmbk`s ho ohe`rht`rb`, k`ckl sl ols nhdçh uch slmuckh
s lmuckh pruleh
d`c lo gbdr`sd`pb`.
Fbm. 851 Tlmuckh pruleh, hn`rh ho gbsdr`sd`pb`.
<>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
Lc lo ohe`rht`rb` t`k` lstheh guy eblc dubkhk` y `rmhcbzhk`, sl hpucthehc
o`s kht`s lc uc ober` hphrtl. Lst`s kht`s s`c cldlshrb`s phrh lvhouhr gla`r
o`s rlsuothk`s. Yhrh lsthr d`gpolthglctl slmur`s, sl lstukbô oh shcmrl eha` lo
gbdr`sd`pb`, phrh d`crghr lo tlst hctlrb`r. Kl lsth ghclrh sl puk` nhdlr uc
rldulct` klo cñglr` kl phrèsbt`s kl ghohrbh lc dhkh pruleh y lvhouhr lo mrhk`
kl bcflddbôc lc lo qul sl lcd`ctrheh dhkh phdblctl.
[rhthgblct`1
Klspuâs kl qul o`s phdblctls nueblr`c phshk` p`r oh lcflrglrçh, sl
hdlrdhehc h oh glsh, k`ckl sl ols hkgbcbstrhe
hkgbcbstrhehh oh k`sbs. Dhkh phdblctl t`gô lo
kbôxbk` kl do`r`, thgebâc oohghk` GGT, kl oh sbmublctl ghclrh1
8. Tl hmrlmhr`c
hmrlmhr`c uc dblrt` cñglr`
cñglr` kl m`ths (vlr
(vlr duhkr`) kl do`rbt` kl s`kb`
lc uc vhs` sld`.
5. Dôg` hdvhk`r,
hdvhk`r, sl uobzô lo èdbk` dçtrbd` ho
ho 44%, høhkblck` bmuho cñglr`
cñglr`
m`ths. kl lsplrhr vlbctl
4. kl
Klspuâs
vlbctl slmuck`s phrh su hdvhdbôc, sl høhkbô h oh
s`oudbôc uch thzh kl hmuh. Ghs hmuh phrh o`s hkuot`s y glc`s phrh o`s
cbø`s y eleâs.
;. Y`r ñog`, h t`k` lo guck` sl ol kb` uch e`tlooh kl hmuh gbclrho phrh
krlchr gla`r o`s phtômlc`s klspuâs kl oh bcmlsôc klo purbdhk`r kl
hmuh.
Lo cñglr` kl m`ths klplckçh kl oh lkhk y sb khehc p`sbv` ` clmhv` lc
Ghohrbh d`g` gulstrh lstl duhkr`.
Yhdblctls
G Y
G C
C
Hkuot`s
8> m`ths hdvhkhs
> m`ths hdvhkhs
Cbø`s
> m`ths hdvhkhs
6 m`ths hdvhkhs
Eleâs
5 m`ths hdvhkhs
5 m`ths hdvhkhs
O`s phdblctls qul rldbeblr`c lo trhthgblct` d`ctrh oh ghohrbh rlmrlshr`c
ho kçh sbmublctl phrh rlhobzhr uch slmuckh pruleh kl shcmrl, phrh d`gpr`ehr
sb lo trhthgblct` nheçh fucdb`chk` ` c`. Lc o`s f`rguohrb`s kl o`s phdblctls, sl
d`crgô qul o`s phdblctls kl pruleh s`glk`s h uc slmuck` hcèobsbs, yh c`
tlcçhc phrèsbt`s lc shcmrl, ls kldbr
kldbr,, sl lcd`ctrheh
lcd`ctrhehc
c shc`s y oberls kl ghohrbh.
Lc lo k`duglct` klo phdblctl, sl d`crgheh d`c oh rgh klo plrs`cho kl
ohe`rht`rb`, oh lobgbchdbôc kl oh ghohrbh: y sl lctrlmô, ho cho, p`r phrtl klo
gâkbd` alfl, oh d`crghdbôc doçcbdh mlclrho phrh d`gpolthr lo pr`yldt`.
<2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Lo kbstrbt` kl Ouujh ls uch z`ch rurho, y oh doçcbdh sl lcdulctrh h trls duhrt`s
kl n`rh lc d`dnl kl oh dbukhk dlrdhch gès mrhckl. Oh Druz U`ah Chdb`cho kl
\mhckh nheçh lolmbk` lstl oumhr p`rqul yh nheçhc nldn` hooç prlvbhglctl uch
bcvlsmhdbôc rlohdb`chkh d`c oh shouk y lo hmuh. Oh bctlcdbôc lrh bcdoubr o`s
rlsuothk`s kl lstl pr`yldt` lc o`s lstukb`s rlhobzhk`s d`c hctlrb`rbkhk.
Yhrh nhdlr qul oh mlctl phrdbphrh lc lo pr`yldt`, oh Druz U`ah o` hcucdbô
lc k`s lgbs`rhs kl rhkb` o`dhols, klskl k`ckl sl d`gucbdheh h oh p`eohdbôc,
qul sl hdlrdhslc h oh doçcbdh, phrh uc lxhglc lc lo p`eohk` kl Ouujh.
Fbm. 841 V`oucthrb`s prlphrhck` oh glzdoh phrh hkgbcbstrhdbôc.
Ulsuothk`s1
Kurhctl o`s duhtr` kçhs qul kurô lo lstukb`, fulr`c hdlrdèck`sl dhkh kçh
gès y gès plrs`chs.
Lo `ealv` lrh trhthr h 599 phdblctls kl ghohrbh, d`c lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
Ho cho klo duhrt` kçh, sl trhthr`c h =>8 plrs`chs, kl ohs duhols 8<;
kblr`c p`sbv`.
• Kl ohs 8<; plrs`chs,
plrs`chs, trhcsdurrbkhs 5; n`rhs,
n`rhs, 8;4 lsthehc
lsthehc oberls
oberls kl oh
lcflrglkhk.
• O`s 88 qul
qul hñc kblr`c
kblr`c p`sbv`
p`sbv` kl ghohrbh, sl durhr`c klspuâs kl uch
slmuckh k`sbs.
O`s gâkbd`s kl oh doçcbdh lc Èfrbdh c` fulr`c bculcdbhk`s p`r lstl pr`dls`
y c` tlcçhc prlaubdb`s. C` sheçhc lc rlhobkhk sb lo trhthgblct` kl hmuh p`kçh
durhr hom`. Ylr` kurhctl lo slmuck` kçh, duhck` nbdblr`c ohs prulehs kl d`ctr`o
69
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
kl o`s phdblctls d`c ghohrbh y t`khs shoblr`c clmhvhs, sl qulkhr`c sbc nheoh,
c` shoçhc kl su hs`ger`. Ahgès nheçhc lxplrbglcthk`
lxplrbglcthk` lst` hctlrb`rglctl.
Nhsth lstl lstukb`, oh ghohrbh nheçh sbk` uch lcflrglkhk bcdurheol phrh
loo`s. Tbc lgehrm`, su s`rprlsh ful ghy`r lc o`s kçhs p`stlrb`rls, duhck`
rlsuotô qul gudn`s phdblctls qul sufrçhc kl `trhs lcflrglkhkls, qul nhsth
lct`cdls c` sl p`kçhc trhthr, thgebâc sl shchr`c. D`c lstl lstukb` sl `elcl
uch lvbklcdbh dblcdh dohrh kl qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, ls uch nlrrhgblcth
ldblctl lc oh oudnh d`ctrh oh Ghohrbh, y gudnhs gès lcflrglkhkls.
Klspuâs kl ls`s rlsuothk`s c`s bcvhkbô uch mrhc holmrçh, yh qul sl pulklc
lcd`ctrhr lc Bctlrclt cuglr`shs v`dls qul kukhc klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
Y`r c, tlcçhg`s uch lvbklcdbh k`duglcthkh eha` d`ckbdb`cls doçcbdhs, d`c
mlctl lspldbhobzhkh
lspldbhobzhkh lc oh ghohrbh.
Lcduerbgblct`1
Lsth holmrçh kurô p`d`, yh qul rldbeç uc l-ghbo kl Johhs Yr`lsghcs (kbrldt`r
]UD
obho kl
Druz
gl pr`nbeçh,
obtlrhoglctl,
nheohrchkh
kl o`s
rlsuothk`s,
yh oh
qul
kl U`ah),
slr hsç.k`ckl
âo klsglcrçh
o`s nldn`s.
C` lctlckç
lc
prbcdbpb`, plr` ehstô d`c slmubr oh pbsth klo kbclr`.
Lxbstl uc lsfulrz` mrhckl p`r vhduchr h t`kh oh p`eohdbôc klo phrèsbt`
kl oh ghohrbh, yh qul sbmcbdhrçh trhthr h t`kh oh p`eohdbôc, d`sh qul kh gès
kbclr` qul trhthr sôo` h o`s bcfldthk`s, ls kldbr sl mhch gudn` gès kbclr`
vhduchck` 899 qul durhck` 89.
O`s bctlrlsls kl oh bckustrbh s`c dohr`s, p`r o` thct` oh ld`c`gçh ls o` qul
prlvholdl. Hucqul oh ghohrbh sl pulkl durhr d`c uch s`oh k`sbs, c` bctlrlsh, `
qubzès prldbshglctl p`r lsth rhzôc, vh lc d`ctrh kl o`s bctlrlsls bckustrbhols. Oh
Druz U`ah rldbel ;.<99 gboo`cls kl kôohrls hcuhols phrh d`gprhr glkbdhglct`s
y p`r o` thct` lcl uc vçcduo` kbrldt` d`c oh bckustrbh fhrghdâudh lsthck` lc
lo gbsg` ehrd`.
Lvbklcdbhs1
8. Lvbklcdbh
Tl otrô ho gès pur` lso` ]bjbolhjs lo vçkl` qul loo`s gbsg`s nheçhc
mrhehk` y k`ckl oh Druz U`ah gblctl dohrhglctl duhck` kbdl qul lc cbcmñc
g`glct` phrdbpô lc o`s lcshy`s doçcbd`s kl oh ghohrbh y klsgblctl t`k` o`
qul gulstrh lo vçkl` k`ckl lo gbsg` Johhs Yr`lsghcs, kbrldt`r kl ]UD kl
oh Druz U`ah, hrgh klohctl kl oh dèghrh … qul lo 899% kl t`k`s o`s dhs`s, sl
nheçh durhk` lc thc s`o` 5;-;> n`rhs.
68
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
O FBDU        ‟‗
phrh klrr`thr oh ghohrbh (pueobdhk`1 8< ghy` 5984)
Oh Flklrhdbôc Bctlrchdb`cho kl T`dblkhkls kl oh Druz U`ah y kl oh
Glkbh Ouch U`ah (BFUD) sl kbs`dbh hes`outhglctl
hes`outhglctl klo d`ctlcbk` klo hrduo`
pueobdhk` kçhs htrès lc lo e`olc
e`olc Ghstlr
Ghstlr Gbclrho T`ou`c, tuohk` „Ghohrbh
chooy klflhtlk‒
klflhtlk‒, y lo vçkl` kl R`u[
R`u[uel
uel qul o` rlsphokh.
Oh BFUD c` hp`yh cb hvhoh lc hes`out` ohs hrghdb`cls nldnhs hdlrdh
kl lstl pr`yldt`, y lc cbcmñc g`glct` nh phrdbphk` lc o`s lcshy`s doçcbd`s
rlohv`s ho trhthgblct`
trhthgblct` kl oh ghoèrbh.
H lsdhoh guckbho, oh ghohrbh
ghohrbh hfldth
hfldth h 582 gboo`cls
gboo`cls kl plrs`chs p`r
p`r hø`
y dhkh gbcut` sl d`erh oh vbkh kl uc cbø`. Lc târgbc`s kl p`oçdh, oh BFUD
hknblrl h ohs kbrldtrbdls kl oh @rmhcbzhdbôc Guckbho kl oh Thouk (@GT),
qul lstheoldlc qul oh ñcbdh f`rgh kl d`gehroh ls hgpobhr oh prlvlcdbôc,
lo kbhmcôsd` y lo trhthgblct
trhthgblct`.
`.
Oh BFUD lxprlsh su hp`y` h oh Druz U`ah \mhcklsh, y rld`c`dl qul lc
dhobkhk kl huxbobhr kl o`s p`klrls pñeobd`s, lc oh ñogh kâdhkh lcdhelz
lcdhelzô
ô o`s
pr`mrhghs kl prlvlcdbôc
prlvlcdbôc lc t`k` lo phçs, d`c hrrlmo`
hrrlmo` h ohs kbrldtrbdls kl oh
@GT.
Fbm. 8;1 Dhpturh kl phcthooh kl oh pèmbch
pèmb ch wle kl oh Druz U`ah.
5. Lvbklcdbh
Hquç pulkl klsdhrmhr lo YKF `rbmbcho klo lstukb` klo ]UD kl oh Druz U`ah
s`erl su trheha` lc \mhckh1
1//...
1//..
. /5984/9=/
hushrelbtucm-umhckh-stukbl.pkf
65
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
Fbm. 8<1 Tlsbôc bcf`rghvh `rmhcbzhkh lctrl vèrb`s lolglct`s kl oh Druz U`ah.
Oh p`sbeol fulctl kl chcdbhdbôc1 oh lgehahkh kl Ahpôc oh hgpobhdbôc kl oh
f`t` kl o`s k`dt`rls lcdhrmhk`s klo pr`yldt` (Fbm. 86).
Fbm. 861 K`duglct` qul pruleh qul oh
lgehahkh kl Ahpôc nh phrdbphk` lc
lstl lstukb`.
4. Lvbklcdbh
Oh vhoblctl v`oucthrbh holghch kl oh Druz U`ah y tlsm` Jlrsc ]`adbl]`adbl dn`wsjb, lsdrbebô lc su eo`m plrs`cho yh lo 82 kl kbdblgerl kl 5985, s`erl lo
us` lxbt`s` kl GGT lc lo phoukbsg`.
64
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhcsdrbpdbôc
Klo 85 ho 86 kl kbdblgerl kl 5985 uch `rmhcbzhdbôc oohghkh ]UD
(]htlr Ulflrlcdl Dlctlr) lc d``plrhdbôc d`c oh Druz U`ah kl \mhckh obho
lc Bmhcmh nbz` uc lstukb` s`erl uc purbdhk`r kl hmuh d`gñc y sus lfldt`s
gâkbd`s lc plrs`chs p`sbvhs kl ghohrbh lc Ouujh kbstrbt` kl Bmhcmh. ¡R y`
lrh phrtl kl lo!
Lo rlprlslcthctl kl Eâombdh klo ]UD (]htlr Ulflrlcdl Dlctlr) Johhs y
lo lsdrbt`r n`ohckâs Ol` oolmhr`c lo gbârd`ols p`r oh ghøhch kl Jhgphoh h
oh `dbch kl oh Druz U`ah lc Bmhcmh.
C`s kblr`c uch erlvl slsbôc bcf`rghvh s`erl lo pr`mrhgh kl o`s kçhs l
bcf`rghdbôc s`erl o`s pr`kudt`s quçgbd`s phrh purbdhr lo hmuh qul çehg`s
h uobzhr. K`s vlnçduo`s lsthehc oolc`s kl e`tloohs kl hmuh, g`squbtlrhs,
lqubp` tâdcbd` y uc lqubp` kl hpr`xbghkhglctl 84 plrs`chs, lctrl loohs
uc dèghrh y slbs v`oucth
v`oucthrb`s
rb`s kl oh Druz U`ah kl \mhckh, Lcc` y y`, shobg`s
phrh lo kbstrbt`
kbstrbt` kl Ouujh.
Duhck` oolmhg`s h Ouujh yh nheçh mlctl lsplrèck`c`s. Kbflrlctls
slddb`cls bcdoubkhs oh kl rlmbstr`s, k`ckl sl nhdçh lo tlst rèpbk` kl ghohrbh,
lo ohe`rht`rb`, oh slddbôc kl o`s rlsuothk`s y lo kl oh kbstrbeudbôc kl hmuh
purbdhkh. H o`s v`oucthrb`s
v`oucthrb`s sl ols hsbmchr`c
hsbmchr`c sus rlspldvhs slddb`cls.
Lo lqubp` y y` tlclg`s qul klsthdhr lo nldn` kl qul tlcçhg`s t`kh
dohsl kl mlctl, klskl uc eleâ kl uc gls nhsth hcdbhc`s kl >9 hø`s qul
vlcçhc h nhdlrsl oh pruleh kl oh ghohrbh.
Yrbglr` sl ols rlmbstrheh y klspuâs sl ols nhdçh oh hchoçdh rèpbkh kl
oh ghohrbh. Tb oh hchoçdh kheh p`sbvh sl ols nhdçh `trh hchoçdh kl shcmrl
d`c uch rh eha` lo gbdr`sd`pb`. Thoblrhc ohs prulehs p`sbvhs ` clmhvhs
y sl ols kheh hmuh purbdhkh (lo hmuh prlphrhkh p`r U`chok,
U`chok, Lcc` y y`). Oh
dhckhk kl m`ths klo hmuh purbdhkh vhrbheh klplckblck` kl oh lkhk y lo
lsthk` lc lo qul sl lcd`ctrhehc p`r oh ghohrbh.
Klspuâs kl nhelr t`ghk` lo hmuh purbdhkh sl ols kheh uch e`tlooh
thgebâc d`c hmuh purbdhkh phrh oolvhr h dhsh, yh qul tlcçhc qul elelr
gudnh hmuh kl lsl quçgbd` phrh qul lo dulrp` rlhddb`chrh. Ho kçh sbmublctl,
sl ols kba` h o`s dhs`s p`sbv`s kl ghohrbh qul v`ovblrhc h nhdlrsl oh pruleh
y sl ols rlmhoheh uch g`squbtlrh. Ohs rlhddb`cls bcglkbhths klspuâs kl
t`ghr lo hmuh purbdhkh gl prl`duphehc. H oh mlctl c` ol mustheh lo `o`r
cb lo she`r, bcdous` homuc`s cbø`s v`gbthr`c.
Klsmrhdbhkhglctl, tuvbg`s qul d`gucbdhr h oh mlctl qul p`krçhc
tlclr lst`s sçct`ghs gblctrhs lstuvblrhc lc dhsh.
O`s sbmublctls kçhs g`strhr`c uc`s rlsuothk`s bcdrlçeols1 Lo pr`glkb`
qul tlsthg`s y trhthg`s fulr`c horlklk`r kl 8<9 plrs`chs p`r kçh.
Horlklk`r klo
klo 2<% kl ohs plrs`chs lxhgbchk
lxhgbchkhs
hs qul nheçhc khk` p`sbv`
p`sbv` lc
ghohrbh kblr`c clmhv` lc uc s`o` kçh, gblctrhs qul lo <% rlsthctl kblr`c
clmhv` klspuâs kl t`ghr `trh k`sbs ho kçh slmublctl.
s lmublctl.
6;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
Lctrl lo <% kl oh ghohrbh qul kb` p`sbv` lrhc cbø`s, h o`s qul nheçh
khk` uch k`sbs klghsbhk` plquløh klo hmuh purbdhkh yh qul lstèehg`s
prl`duphk`s p`r lo vôgbt`.
vôgbt`.
[lcm` qul kldbr qul lrh lsdâpdh s`erl lo purbdhk`r kl hmuh y t`k`
lo pr`yldt` kurhctl o`s k`s prbglr`s kçhs. Ylr` gl qulkâ d`gpolthglctl
s`rprlckbkh kl vlr qul lsths plquløhs ghrhvboohs lsthehc sudlkblck`.
D`g` lsth lxplrblcdbh gl nh rlg`vbk` gudn`, qublr` lsdrbebr s`erl
uch gualr qul kb` p`sbv` lc oh pruleh, sl ol kb` lo hmuh purbdhkh y ho
kçh sbmublctl oh pruleh ful clmhvh. Duhck` looh vbc` lo prbglr kçh, hplchs
p`kçh dhgbchr,
dhgbchr, c` nheçh d`gbk` chkh kurhctl
kurhctl dhsb trls kçhs, sl lsf`rzô p`r
trhmhr y sl klsghyô bcglkbhthglctl.
bcglkbhthglctl. Lstuv` tugehkh lc lo sulo` kurhctl
gès kl uch n`rh bcdhphz kl p`clrsl kl pbl y d`c hrdhkhs.
Gl slch thc gho p`r looh y lstheh slrbhglctl prl`duphkh p`r su
eblclsthr. Ho kçh sbmublctl, `tr` v`oucthrb` gl tuv` qul kldbr qul lsh lrh
oh gualr qul yhdçh lc lo sulo` lo kçh hctlrb`r, yh qul cb sbqublrh oh rld`c`dç
y ¡Gl qulkâ kl pblkrh! Vbc` nhdbh gç y gl kb` ohs mrhdbhs d`c uch mrhc
s`crbsh lc su r`str`. Bcdous` sl qulkô kurhctl `trhs k`s n`rhs nheohck` d`c
oh mlctl y gbrèck`c`s. Dhsb c` p`kçh drllr d`g` nheçh dhgebhk` su lsthk`
kl oh c`dnl h oh ghøhch ¡guy bgprlsb`chctl!
Lst`s quçgbd`s phrh purbdhr lo hmuh phrldlc tlclr lo p`tlcdbho kl
nhdlr uch mrhc kbflrlcdbh lc rlmb`cls k`ckl nhy ghohrbh, yh qul s`c
ehrht`s y, kl hdulrk` d`c oh mlctl qul trhehah d`c âo klskl nhdl gudn`s
hø`s, thgebâc lstè durhck` y prlvbcblck` `trhs lcflrglkhkls g`rthols.
Y`stlrb`rglctl, tuv` qul rlrhr y e`rrhr su eo`m, ho phrldlr p`r oh prlsbôc
hpobdhkh s`erl looh. Hquç uc lcohdl kl dhdnl kl M``mol muhrkhk`.
nps1//jhrfrlbthmsmrboo.ols.w`rkprlss.d`g/5984/9=/jlrscP
m`lsPumhckhPghohrbhPghohrbhPghohrbhP59858582.pkf
;. Lvbklcdbh
Lc lo vçkl` glcdb`chk` lc ‟lo lcshy` kl oh Druz U`ah qul cucdh ful‗ sl
prlslcth Johhs Yr`lsghcs (kbrldt`r ]UD obho kl oh Druz U`ah), lc lo gbc. 815<
d`g` lo n`gerl 899% rlsp`csheol kl ohs durhdb`cls, sbc glcdb`chr h Abg
Nugeol (lo klsduerbk`r), cb ho târgbc` GGT, duhck` lc rlhobkhk hprlckbô t`k`
o` qul shel s`erl lo GGT, lc uc durs` qul ol kbô Abg Nugeol lc oh Ulpñeobdh
K`gbcbdhch.
Y`stlrb`rglctl klsgblctl sus pr`pbhs phoherhs, pr`eheolglctl p`r
ôrklcls ‟kl hrrbeh‗, kl oh Druz U`ah bctlrchdb`cho kl Mbclerh. Bcdous` hglchzh
d`c t`ghr glkbkhs aurçkbdhs sb c` sl rlrh lo vçkl` kl R`u[uel, lc lstl l-ghbo
h Ol` J`ln`1
6<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
L-ghbo kl Johhs Yr`lsghcs
\ch vlz gès s`obdbt` lxprlshglctl d`c urmlcdbh qul e`rrl
bcglkbhthglctl lo vçkl` kl ohs prulehs kl Ouujh, \mhckh, kl R`utuel y
qul c` o` kbfuckh gès. C` sôo` rllah ohs pr`glshs bcdugpobkhs sbc` qul
hs`dbh lrrôclhglctl h oh Druz U`ah d`c hom` d`c o` qul c` qublrl lsthr
hs`dbhkh yh qul d`clcl bcaurbhs d`ctrh `trhs phrtls.
Gl tlg` qul, sb lst` c` `durrl kl bcglkbht`, eusdhrlg`s hsls`rhgblct`
olmho y t`ghrlg`s glkbkhs olmhols lc lo hsuct` auct` d`c Druz U`ah kl
\mhckh. \ch vlz gès nl bctlcthk` oohghrol lc rlflrlcdbh ho hsuct` kl ohs
pueobdhdb`cls lc R`utuel
R`utuel y rlvbsths.
rlvbsths.
Lc ohs rlucb`cls d`c oh Druz U`ah kl \mhckh y p`stlrb`rglctl p`r
lsdrbt`, 8= kbd (vâhsl gès heha`) hd`rkô c` d`gucbdhrsl d`c tlrdlr`s lc
rlohdbôc d`c ohs hdvbkhkls qul nbdbg`s lc Ouujh lc kbdblgerl kl 5985.
Mrhdbhs p`r su bctlrâs. T`g`s uch fuckhdbôc prbvhkh eusdhck` vblahs
y `ovbkhkhs tldc`o`mçhs. [email protected] sl lstè uobzhck` hdtuhoglctl lc \mhckh p`r
lo m`eblrc` d`g` uc purbdhk`r kl hmuh. Tôo` c`s ahg`s lc o`s lfldt`s qul
d`g` hmuh purbdhkh lcl lc lo dulrp` nughc`.
Y`r lo g`glct` c` nlg`s tlrgbchk` kl lsths prulehs y nhy uc hdulrk`
kl d`cklcdbhobkhk d`c t`k`s o`s bcv`oudrh
bcv`oudrhk`s.
k`s.
N`y c`s kbsthcdbhg`s kl duhoqublr e`olc kl c`dbhs, duhoqublr vçkl`
lc R`u[uel ` duhoqublr `trh pueobdhdbôc s`erl lstl tlgh.
Tbc lgehrm` lo gâkbd` alfl rgô
uc k`duglct` (Fbm. 8=) qul d`crgh ohs
rlgbsb`cls kl oh ghohrbh.
Fbm. 8=1 Dhrth lcvbhkh p`r lo gâkbd`
alfl Yhuo Jhewlru h rld`c`dlr o`s
lxdlolctls rlsuothk`s `etlcbk`s h
t`k`s o`s cçvlols.
D`cdousbôc1
Vbvbg`s lc uc guck` kl d`kbdbh k`ckl c` bgp`rth qul gulrhc dhkh hø`
gboo`cls kl plrs`chs, s`erl t`k` cbø`s ‛gès qul lc lo n`o`dhust`‛ p`r o`
vbst`, ls gès bgp`rthctl `etlclr 89.999 gboo`cls kl kôohrls hcuhols h trhvâs
66
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
kl o`s bcmrls`s kl pr`oèdd`s kl ghohrbh, duhck` d`c <9 gboo`cls sl pulkl
lrrhkbdhr oh ghohrbh lc t`k` lo d`cclctl.
O` bctlrlshctl klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ls qul ho phrldlr c` s`ohglctl
fucdb`ch d`c oh ghohrbh, sbc` thgebâc d`c gudnhs `trhs lcflrglkhkls, yh
qul hsç gl nh sbk` rlp`rthk` p`r gudnh mlctl, lc o`s tlsg`cb`s rldbebk`s
lc gb l-ghbo.
Xublr` rlghrdhr qul lc cbcmñc g`glct` lst`y nhdblck` pr`g`dbôc h oh
vlcth klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`. Gb ohe`r rlprlslcth uch rld`olddbôc kl kht`s, phrh
qul homñc kçh o`s pr`flsb`chols pulkhc bcvlsmhr gès h f`ck` s`erl lstl tlgh.
[hgebâc nhy qul kldbr qul nhy gudnhs plrs`chs qul klslhc slr bcf`rghkhs,
phrh p`klr rlduplrhrsl kl uch lcflrglkhk tlrgbcho.
Gl nl kldbkbk` pueobdhr lst`s d`c`dbgblct`s y lxplrblcdbhs, yh qul oh
bcvlsmhdbôc kl uc culv` glkbdhglct` thrkhrçh gudn`s hø`s, hø`s qul o`s
hfldthk`s c`rghoglctl c` kbsp`clc, nheblck` rlucbk` hquç homuchs kl ohs
lcflrglkhk
lcflrglkhkls,
ls, kl
ohs qul lxbstlc
tlsg`cb`s
qul d`crghc
nhelr
bcdous` nhelrsl
rlduplrhk`
p`r d`gpolt`,
mrhdbhs
h oh bcmlsôc
klogla`rhk`
kbôxbk` kl`
do`r` kboubk` lc hmuh.
‟Hucqul lo us` kl kbôxbk` kl do`r` c` slh olmho, lo nldn` kl c` p`klr
ushro` ls uc drbglc.‗
Vbvbg`s lc uc guck` kl ‟Thouk pr`nbebkh‗, plr` lxbstlc cuglr`shs phtlcphtlc tls phrh lo us` klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`. Hquç uch plquløh obsth kl homuchs1
Hcsâpd` c` tôxbd`
Yhrh d`gehr hglehs lc nughc`s
(Yht. ;94<;>4 / 82==)
(Yht.;526895 / 82>8)
D`ctrh klglcdbh dhushkh p`r sbkh
(Yht. <>==555 /8222)
Yhrh du
durhr lc
lcflrglkhkls kl
kl pb
pblo, kl
kl t`
t`k` p
p`
(Yht. ;=
;=4=49= / 82>>)
Yhrh klsbcfldthr shcmrl vbvh
(Yht. <982;95/ 8228)
Yhrh durhr nlrbkhs gès rèpbkhglctl
(Yht. <><<255 / 8222)
Yhr
hrhh t`k
t`k`
` p`
p` kl du
dubk
bkhk
hk`
` `rho
`rho … Yr`d
Yr`dtl
tlrr & Mhg
Mhgeo
eoll
(Yht
(Y
ht.. 65<
65<84
84=5
=5E8
E8 / 59
5998
98))
D`ctrh bcflddb`cls dhushkhs p`r ehdtlrbhs
(Yht. <5<54;4 / 8224)
[rhthgblct` kl qulghkurhs mrhvls
Yhrh rlmlclrhdbôc kl tuâthc` lc nuls`s
(Yht. ;48=>8;/ 82>5)
(Yht. ;><8555 /82>2)
6=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhthgblct` Hoznlbglr, klglcdbh ltd…
(Yht. >952>56E5 /5988)
Yhrh ls
lsguohr lo
lo sbstlgh bcgucl lc hcbghols
(Yht. 6922><< /5999)
Lsg
Ls
guo
uohc
hctl
tl klo
klo sbs
sbstl
tlgh
gh bcg
bcguc
uc`o
`oôm
ômbd
bd`
` … Eb`
Eb`xy
xy.. Bcd.
Bcd.
(Yht
(Y
ht.. <>49
<>49<8
<88
8 / 822>
822>))
Lsth obsth
hpobdhdb` cls dhkh
kçh. c` lstè d`gpolth yh qul lxbstlc gudnhs gès y culvhs hpobdhdb`-
Ulduplrhdb`cls d`cfbrghkhs p`r phdblctls
°Xul sl nh `eslrvhk`0
Oh sbmublctl obsth bcd`gpolth lstè lohe`rhkh h phrr kl o`s l-ghbos qul nl
rldbebk` kl plrs`chs qul ushr`c v`oucthrbhglctl lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, k`ckl
gl lxpobdhehc dôg` sl nheçhc rlduplrhk` kl lcflrglkhkls kl t`k` p`,
`frldblck` su pr`pb` tlsg`cb`.
Ue   1
Hesdls`s klcthols, hdbklz lst`ghdho, hdcâ, homuchs kbheltls,
homuc`s dhs`s kl lcflrglkhk dloçhdh, homuc`s dhs`s kl tuelrduo`sbs,
homuc`s pr`eolghs kl d`rhzôc, homuc`s p`s kl dècdlr, homuc`s p`s kl
phrèsbt`s, hcsblkhk, hrtrbs, hrtrbs rlhdvh, hsgh, ehelsbh, ehrt`clooh
ehrt`clooh,,
er`gnbkr`sbs, er`cqubs, erubsl, dhohgerls, dhs`s kl `stl`cldr`sbs kl oh
ghckçeuoh, dhsph, dohgbkbh, d`olstlr`o, d`obs uodlr`sh, d`ctusb`cls, durh
` ho glc`s gla`rh gudn` lo oupus, durh ` hyukh h gla`rhr oh lsdolr`sbs
gñopol, dècdlr kl pblo, dècdlr kl lstôghm`, dècdlr kl ghgh, dècdlr kl
pblrch, dècdlr
dècdlr kl
kl prôsthth,
prôsthth, dècdlr kl r`bkls, dèckbkh, klebobkhk, klg`klx,
klcmul, klprlsbôc, klshrrlmo`s klo dbdo` glcstruho, kbhrrlh, kbflrlctls
p`s kl phrèobsbs, kbvlrduobs, k`o`r hek`gbcho, k`o`r kl hrduohdb`cls,
k`o`r kl lsphokh, k`o`r kl ghckçeuoh, k`o`r kl gulohs, k`o`rls kl dhelzh,
k`o`rls lc ohs pblrchs, k`o`rls gusduohrls, k`o`r obcfèd`, lddlgh, lklgh,
lobgbch ehdtlrbhs, lck`dhrkbs, lcflrglkhk kl Dr`nc, lcflrglkhk kl
Oygl, lcflrglkhkls kl Ta`mrlc, lcslgh, lcvlclchgblct`s, LpstlbcEhrr, lrupdb`cls, lst`ghs, ls-trløbgblct`, er`gbhombh, lerl, lgh,
mhcmrlch, mrbpl, nhobt`sbs, nlphs E, nlphs D, nlrpls, nlrpls mlcbtho,
n`cm`s, bcflddb`cls lc mlclrho, bcflddbôc eudho, bcflddbôc kl oh pblo, bcflddbôc
klo trhdt` urbchrb`, bcflddbôc kl `çk`, bcflddbôc kl rbøôc, bcflddbôc kl vlabmh,
bcflddbôc lc o`s slc`s, bcflddbôc p`r lstho`d`d`s,
lstho`d`d`s, bchghdbôc kl oh vlsçduoh
ebobhr, bcs`gcb`, bct`xbdhdbôc hobglcthrbh,
hobglcthr bh, bct`xbdhdbôc gltèobdh, bct`xbdhdbôc
p`r ñ`r
ñ`r,, bct`x
bct`xbdhdbôc
bdhdbôc p`r glrdurb`, bct`x
bct`xbdhdbôc
bdhdbôc p`r po`g`, m`th,
olbsnghcbhsbs, obcf`gh, oohmhs, ghoh kbmlsôc, ghohrbh, gla`rh G`rmloo`cs,
6>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
gla`rh VBN / TBKH, gbmrhøhs, gb`phh, gud`sbkhk chsho, chuslhs, cldr`sbs,
clug`cbs, cbleoh glctho, `estruddbôc drôcbdh puog`chr, `o`r d`rp`rho,
`stl`hrtrbs, phrjbcs`c, phrèsbt`s,
phrèsbt`s, pârkbkh kl glg`rbh, kl pls`, `elsbkhk,
pbdhkurh kl hrhøh clvhb, pbdhkurhs
pbdhkurhs kl hcbghols, pbdhkurhs kl bcsldt`s, pbl
kl htolth, pb`rrlh, pohdh hrtlrbho, pr`eolghs dbrduoht`rb`s, pr`eolghs kl
hukbdbôc, pr`eolghs kl lstôghm`, pr`eolghs kl pblo vhrb`s, pr`eolghs lc
ohs suprhrrlchols, pr`eolghs lc o`s `a`s, pr`eolghs rlspbrht`rb`s, prurbt`
c`kuohr, ps`rbhsb
ps`rbhsbs,
s, qulghkurhs s`ohrls,
s`ohrls , qulrht`sbs hdcbdh, qulrht`sbs s`ohr,
qubstls, rlua` èdbk`, shcmrhk` kl ohs lcdçhs, slcsbebobkhk quçgbdh gñopol,
suk`rhdbôc lxdlsbvh, sçobs, sçckr`gl kl fhmh drôcbdh (TFD), sçckr`gl kl
bctlsc` plrglheol, sçckr`gl klo bctlsc` brrbtheol, sçckr`gl kl Ulbtlr,
p`s kl dèoduo` ebobhr, p`s kl fhmh, r`bkls, [GA / [GK, t`s, trhst`rc` kl
kâdbt kl htlcdbôc, trhst`rc` kl lstrâs p`strhugèd`, tug`rls, vhsduobs,
vlrrumhs, vlrrumhs mlcbthols (VYN), vlrrumhs pohcthrls, vbrus, holrmbhs, vbrus
klo phpbo`gh nughc`, vôgbt`s, ñodlrh kl pblrch kbheâdh, kbsct`s p`s
kl ñodlrhs.
‟¡L  …!‗ vhc h kldbr gudn`s hn`rh, s`erl t`k` sb s`c
gâkbd`s u `tr`s pr`flsb`chols kl oh shouk. O` tlcm` qul hkgbr, h gç thgebâc
gl phrldbô hom` t`thoglctl hesurk` y fulrh kl t`kh oômbdh. Tbc lgehrm` nl
p`kbk` vbvlcdbhr y` gbsg` oh lxplrblcdbh, yh qul tuvl hrtrbs lc gbs ghc`s, oh
duho gl bgplkçh g`vlrohs eblc nhsth tho puct` qul c` p`kçh olvhcthr uch shrtâc
kl ghclrh c`rgho.
H trhvâs kl gb lxplrblcdbh pr`pbh kl rlduplrhdbôc d`gpolth kl oh hrtrbs,
qul lxpobquâ lc gb prbglr ober` ‟DKT1 Oh shouk ls p`sbeol‗, gl `durrbô o`
qul prltlckçh lxpobdhr lc lo dhpçtuo` hctlrb`r d`c o`s `ealt`s v`ohk`rls c`
bklcdhk`s. Nheçh vbst` y lxplrbglcthk` lc gb pr`pbh pblo, qul lsth susthcdbh
lrh dhphz kl hyukhrgl h durhr hom` qul sl d`csbklrheh bcdurheol.
Tblck` uc holgèc t`zuk` d`g` s`y, 1) lvbklctlglctl yh c` gl pukblr`c
d`cvlcdlr kl o` d`ctrhrb`, y klkbquâ hø`s h bcvlsmhr lo fucdb`chgblct` klo
kbôxbk` kl do`r` y sus p`sbebobkhkls tlrhpâudhs. Lstl ober` ls frut` kl gb
eñsqulkh l bcvlsmhdbôc klo dôg` y lo p`rquâ kl lsth susthcdbh.
HN @UH
[email protected]
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LCLL [email protected] @[email protected]
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OLRL [email protected]
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R, [email protected] [email protected] KL [@[email protected], OH L^YOBDHDBÔC LT G\R OÔMBDH, HTÇ X\L
[email protected]ÈØ
[email protected]
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62
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Nldn`s d`c`dbk`s klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`
D`g` ho phrldlr oh susthcdbh hdvh kl t`khs ohs ‟rlgbsb`cls lsp`ctèclhs‗
glcdb`chkhs gès hrrbeh ls lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, vhol oh plch hprlcklr gès s`erl
sus pr`pblkhkls eèsbdhs, hsç qul vhg`s h bcvlsmhr hn`rh uc p`d`.
8. Nhoolr AF,
AF, C`rtnmrhvls ]].
]]. 82<<. Dno`rbcl kb`xbkl hck shflty.
shflty. [HYYB
[HYYB A`urcho
4>1822-595.
5. Khonhgc [.
[. 82<=. Dno`rbcl kb`xbkl. HGH Hrdn
Hrdn Bck Nlhotn 8<(5)1
8<(5)1 898-89=.
4. Tnb O, ^bl D. 8222. Lxplrbglctho `eslrvh`c `c hdutl t`xbdbty
t`xbdbty hck brrbthvl
brrbthvl
lldt `f stheol dno`rbcl kb`xbkl. Qn`cmmu`
Qn`cmm u` ^bh`kuxul Q. 86(8)142-;9.
;. Obc AO, Obg YT. 8224. Hdutl s`kbug dno`rbtl
dno`rbtl p`bs`cbcm hss`dbhtlk wbtn rlcho
fhbourl. Ulc Fhbo 8<(;)16;<-6;>.
<. Oueelrs AU, Dnhunhc T, Ebhcdnbcl AU. 82>8. D`ctr`oolk
D`ctr`oolk dobcbdholvhou`c
dobcbdholvhou`css `f
dno`rbcl kb`xbkl, dno`rbtl hck dno`rhtl bc ghc, Fuckhg H. [`xbd`o 8144;44>.
Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` d`gpulst` ([email protected]) c` ls uc klsduerbgblct` rldblctl.
Nugpnry Khvy nbz` lo mhs lc 8>8; ho rlhddb`chr èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` d`c do`rht`
kl p`thsb`. Lc o`s ñog`s hø`s, sl uobzh lo èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` phrh oh pr`kuddbôc
kl mrhckls dhckhkls kl kbôxbk` kl do`r`. Lc oumhr klo do`rht` kl p`thsb`,
c`rghoglctl sl uobzh do`rbt` kl s`kb` ([email protected]). Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ([email protected]) ls uc
mhs sbctâd` qul c` `durrl kl ghclrh chturho. Kbsulot` lc hmuh lcl uc d`o`r
hghrboolct`-vlrk`s`, d`c uc `o`r brrbthctl phrldbk` ho do`r`. Hucqul lo `o`r ls
guy phrldbk`, lo kbôxbk` ls guy kbflrlctl ho lolglct` klo do`r` lc sç, thct`
lc lstrudturh quçgbdh d`g` lc duhct` h su d`gp`rthgblct`, p`rqul ls uc
d`gpulst` clutr` klo do`r`, qul c` sl d`gebch fèdboglctl d`c `trhs susthcdbhs.
Oh dohvl kl lsths rlduplrhdb`cls kl kbscths lcflrglkhkls, h phrr klo
us`
kl uch ñcbdh
susthcdbh
(lo kbôxbk`
kld`gñc
do`r`) ylcd`crghkhs
tlsg`cb`s,
ls qul
klel nhelr
‟hom`‗ lc
t`khs loohs. p`r dblct`s kl
Yhrh d`glczhr, sl trhth kl uc `xbkhctl, ls kldbr, kl uch susthcdbh qul
fhdbobth oh d`geusôc p`rqul høhkl `xçmlc` h t`k`s o`s pr`dls`s, h kbflrlcdbh
kl `tr`s glkbdhglct`s qul nhebtuhoglctl fucdb`chc lcvlclchck` h o`s
phtômlc`s. Lo `xçmlc` c` sl hduguoh lc lo dulrp` y p`r o` thct` ls uc pr`dls`
fèrghd`kbcègbd` guy kbflrlctl. Oh `xbkhdbôc, hklgès, ls uobzhkh kl ghclrh
sbgbohr y chturho p`r culstrhs dâouohs kl klflcsh, d`g` o`s clutrôo`s lc lo
pr`dls` kl fhm`dbt`sbs, qul c` ls `trh d`sh qul lcmuoobr y d`geus`chr ho
lclgbm` (kbdn` kl ghclrh sbgpol).
Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc rlhobkhk ls uc mhs kl d`o`r hghrboolct` nhsth hghrboolct`
r`abz`,
qul
lvhp`rh
lc kbsulot`
lo hbrl, sblc
oh hmuh
tlgplrhturh
lstè p`rylcdbgh
kl o`s 88
¹D.slD`g`
mhs,rèpbkhglctl
duhck` c` lstè
ls guy rlhdv`
pulkl
dhushr uch klhmrhdbôc sb oh d`cdlctrhdbôc ls guy hoth y oh prlsbôc klo mhs lstè
=9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
p`r lcdbgh klo 89%. Âsth ls oh rhzôc p`r oh duho lc oh bckustrbh, nhebtuhoglctl
sl fherbdh lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc lo oumhr k`ckl sl cldlsbth. Oh bckustrbh trhehah
d`c lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc lo eohcqul` kl phplo, k`ckl sl uobzh kl ghclrh guy
d`cdlctrhkh y lc mrhckls dhckhkls, d`caucthglctl
d`caucthglctl d`c do`rht` sôkbd`.
@tr` kl o`s ghy`rls us`s h cbvlo bckustrbho, ls lc oh klsbcflddbôc kl hmuhs
pñeobdhs, d`c lo c kl drlhr hmuh p`theol shoukheol y slmurh phrh oh bcmlsôc
nughch. Ls uc klsbcfldthctl thc ldhz, qul sl uobzh thct` phrh oh klsbcflddbôc
kl hobglct`s, d`g` bcdous` phrh oh klsd`cthgbchdbôc kl hrghs eb`oômbdhs kl us`
gbobthr, d`g` lo èctrhx (dhreucd`).
Klebk` h oh dhphdbkhk kl lobgbchr vbrus, n`cm`s l bcdous` lsp`rhs, lo kbôxbk`
kl do`r` ls uch susthcdbh lxdlolctl phrh lo ohvhk` kl vlmlthols: ls slmur`
uobzhro` y dugpol d`c ohs rlmuohdb`cls hobglcdbhs. Tl uobzh lc ohs ghczhchs
phrh lobgbchr obstlrbh y oh ehdtlrbh L. d`ob, lc phthths d`ctrh oh dhsph kl phthth
y, lc dçtrbd`s, d`ctrh lo g`n` vlrkl y oh putrlfhddbôc hghrmh. Lc lo hmuh kl
pbsdbfhdt`rçh, d`ctrh oh hclgbh bcflddb`sh klo shogôc y oh cldr`sbs phcdrlèdh
bcflddb`sh. Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ls oh gla`r `pdbôc kl oh bckustrbh kl hobglct`s
(hkbv` hut`rbzhk` 7 L256) klebk` h qul lcl uch guy ehah t`xbdbkhk rlsbkuho y
nh klg`strhk` qul ls uc d`gpulst` slmur`, duhck` ls ushk` hklduhkhglctl.
\c` kl o`s hspldt`s gès bgp`rthctls ls qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ls
lxtrlghkhglctll s`oueol lc hmuh sbc drlhr lcohdls quçgbd`s, ls kldbr
lxtrlghkhglct
kldbr,, ls uc
mhs qul rlhoglctl sl kbsulovl p`r d`gpolt` lc lo hmuh. Lst` ls klebk` h qul
tblcl uch lstrudturh g`olduohr lxtrlghkhglct
lxtrlghkhglctll phrldbkh h oh g`oâduoh klo
hmuh y p`r âsth y `trhs rhz`cls gès, sl kbsulovl d`gpolthglctl. \ch vlz
qul lstè kbsulot` lc lo hmuh thgebâc ls dhphz kl rlhddb`chr rèpbkhglctl
d`c `tr`s d`gp`clctls, s`erl t`k` sb s`c kl pN èdbk`s. Duhck` lo kbôxbk`
kl do`r` rlhddb`ch lc lo hmuh, obelrh `xçmlc` p`r uc ohk` y p`r lo `tr` ohk`
f`rgh lo b`c kl do`rbt` ([email protected] 5-). Lo b`c ls uch g`oâduoh qul lstè loâdtrbdhglctl
dhrmhkh, d`g` sb fulrh uch ehtlrçh, y lc culstr` dhs` lo b`c kl do`rbt` oolvh
uch dhrmh loâdtrbdh clmhtbvh y thgebâc ls guy rlhdtbv`. Lo b`c kl do`rbt`,
qul tblcl uch dhrmh clmhtbvh, eusdh phrh d`gplcshrsl uch dhrmh p`sbtbvh,
phrh slr lstheol. Lc culstr` dhs`, ls lo s`kb`, y o` qul tlclg`s lct`cdls,
ls do`rbt` sôkbd`. Tb lst` h su vlz o` v`ovlg`s h kbs`ovlr lc hmuh, sl f`rghc
b`cls kl do`rbt` l b`cls kl s`kb`.
Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, ho slr guy rlhdv`, ls dhphz kl lxtlrgbchr
phtômlc`s lc lo hmuh
hmuh h trhvâs kl uc pr`dls` oohghk`
oohghk` `xbkhdbôc.
`xbkhdbôc.
Tl dhoduoh qul lc Lsthk`s \cbk`s uc`s 85 gboo`cls kl plrs`chs lstèc
lxpulsths
ho kbôxbk`
kl do`r`
ho b`c do`rbt`
lo hmuh
p`theol,
sbc lfldt`skbhrbhglctl
hkvlrs`s nhsth
oh fldnh.
Lxbstly bcdous`
homñc lc
dhs`
k`duglcthk`
kl s`erlk`sbdhdbôc hddbklctho lc uc puleo` kl Dnbch, kurhctl uc lgp`
=8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
pr`o`cmhk`, qul thgp`d` tuv` cbcmuch rlplrdusbôc clmhvh lc târgbc`s kl
shouk.
@tr` hspldt` bctlrlshctl klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, ls qul rlhddb`ch bcdous` d`c
oh ouz uotrhvb`olth y oh ouz s`ohr, d`cvbrâck`sl lc1 do`r`, mhs y `xçmlc`, y âsth ls
oh rhzôc p`r oh qul klel slr ghctlcbk` ola`s kl oh ouz s`ohr y uotrhvb`ol
uotrhvb`olth.
th.
Ohs e`tloohs kl drbstho ghrrôc s`c ohs gès hklduhkhs yh qul ohs e`tloohs
trhcsphrlctls ` kl drbstho hzuo klahc phshr oh ouz uotrhvb`olth, y ls dhphz kl
nhdlr rlhddb`chr lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
Tb sl bcmblrl lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, rèpbkhglctl rlhddb`ch d`c phtômlc`s èdbk`s
obelrhck` `xçmlc` y f`rghck` b`cls kl do`rbt`, qul klspuâs sl d`cvblrtlc lc
b`cls kl do`rur`, ls kldbr
kldbr,, oh sho d`gñc. Culstr` dulrp` glthe`obzh lsth gçcbgh
dhckhk lc sho sbc cbcmñc pr`eolgh, yh qul t`k`s culstr`s ubk`s s`c shobc`s.
Kl nldn`, culstr` dulrp` pblrkl sho kl ghclrh d`csthctl ho `rbchr y sukhr.
°Xuâ sl shel0
Tl shel qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ls lo gla`r klsbcfldthctl d`c`dbk`, yh qul
ls dhphz kl lobgbchr thct` ehdtlrbhs, n`cm`s y vbrus, d`g` phrèsbt`s kl thghø`
plqulø`, lc uc hgpob` rhcm` kl pN. Tl oolvh uobzhck` nhdl >9 hø`s phrh
klsbcfldthr
klsbcfldt
hr lo hmuh p`theol, sbc nhelr dhushk` pr`eolghs lc t`k`s lst`s hø`s.
Tl uobzh lc oh bckustrbh kl ghclrh hgpobh, phrh klsbcflddbôc. [hgebâc
sl uobzh phrh lo eohcqul` kl phplo, plr` lc d`cdlctrhdb`cls lxtrlghs qul
c` lclc chkh qul vlr d`c oh k`sbs kl bcmlsôc. [hgp`d` ls o` gbsg` oh
d`cdlctrhdbôc
klo èdbk`
do`rnçkrbd`
kl culstr`
lstôghm`
oh d`cdlctrhdbôc
ho 4=% y oh klo èdbk`
do`rnçkrbd`
bckustrbho…,
sb c`s
m`tlhrhd`c
lcdbgh
kl oh pblo, oh
kbs`ovlrçh bcsthctèclhglctl. Oh rhzôc klo us` klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, ls qul c`
klstruyl oh lstrudturh qul eohcqulh, ls kldbr, c` ls hmrlsbv` d`c oh susthcdbh
ehsl, bcdous` lc hoths d`cdlctrhdb`cls.
Lo lfldt` p`sbv` klo DK lstè ehshk` lc mrhc phrtl p`r su dhphdbkhk phrh
f`rtholdlr lo sbstlgh bcguc`oômbd` kl culstr` dulrp`, c` s`o` p`r oh `xbkhdbôc
kl o`s phtômlc`s, sbc` thgebâc p`r `tr`s lfldt`s gès d`gpola`s lxpobdhk`s ho
cho kl lstl ober`. [hgebâc ls guy bgp`rthctl su p`klr phrh hp`rthr `xçmlc` h
ohs dâouohs.
D`g` rlmoh mlclrho sl pulkl kldbr, qul duhct` gès lcflrg` sl lstâ, gès
p`d` h p`d` sl k`sbdhrè. Lc lstl pr`dls` kl `xbkhdbôc, nhy qul lctlcklr qul
o`s rlsbku`s lclc qul slr lobgbchk`s p`r lo `rmhcbsg`.
=5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
Yhrtl kl sus p`sbeols lfldt`s ‟clmhv`s‗ slrçhc ohs g`olshs klrbvhkhs
kl ohs lobgbchdb`cls p`r phrtl klo `rmhcbsg`, kl o`s rlsbku`s kl o`s phtômlc`s
y `tr`s hmlctls khøbc`s qul nhc qulkhk` klstrubk`s. Tl hd`cslah lgplzhr
sblgprl d`c k`sbs ehahs, ohs qul phuohchglctl sl p`krèc bcdrlglcthr,
phrh hsç br lobgbchck`
lobgbchck` ls`s rlsbku`s pr`mrlsbvhglctl
pr`mrlsbvhglctl y sbc g`olshs.
Duhct` gès lcflrgh sl lcdulctrl oh plrs`ch, gès dhrmhkh kl rlsbku`s
tôxbd`s lsthrè, y lsth ls oh rhzôc phrh bcdrlglcthr oh k`sbs p`d` h p`d`, d`c
plrs`chs qul sufrhc lcflrglkhkls mrhvls. Tl pulkl kldbr qul oh k`sbdhdbôc,
klplckl gès klo mrhk` kl shouk, qul klo pls` kl oh plrs`ch.
plrs`ch.
Oh g`oâduoh kl kbôxbk` kl do`r` ([email protected]) qulkh klstrubkh p`r oh rlhddbôc
quçgbdh1 lo `xçmlc` (@5) obelrhk` sl ucl ` eblc d`c nbkrômlc` (N) phrh f`rghr
hmuh ([email protected]) ` eblc d`c dhre`c` (D) phrh f`rghr kbôxbk` kl dhre`c` ([email protected]). Lo b`c
clutrho kl do`r` sl ucl h s`kb` phrh khr oumhr h oh sho d`gñc (ChDo).
°Yulkl durhr t`k`0
°Ls dblrt` qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` pulkl durhr t`k`0
Xublr` klahr dohr` hquç qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` c` pulkl durhr t`khs ohs
lcflrglkhkls,
lcflrglkhk
ls, s`erl t`k` uch kl ohs pl`rls lcflrglkhkls kl oh nughcbkhk1¡Oh
lstupbklz…!
Tôo` lo dulrp` pulkl durhr lcflrglkhkls, y lxbstlc nlrrhgblcths qul ol
hyukhc h rlhobzhr lsth ohe`r, duhck` c` ls dhphz kl nhdlro` lxdousbvhglctl p`r
sç gbsg`.
Abg hrgô lc su ober`, qul d`c lo GGT sl pulklc durhr t`k`s o`s dècdlrls…
lvbklctlglctl c` ls hsç, yh qul sl trhth kl uch lcflrglkhk d`gpolah, d`c
gudnhs dhushs, y hklgès lxbstlc gudn`s p`s. Tâ qul âo o` kba` kl t`k`
d`rhzôc, duhck` ho prbcdbpb` sl p`kçh vlr qul oh mlctl sl rlduplrheh, y o` qul
sç ls dblrt`, ls qul gudnhs plrs`chs sl nhc rlduplrhk` d`gpolthglctl kl
dècdlrls tlrgbchols, plr` c` ls o` gbsg` kldbr gudnhs qul t`khs.
@trh d`sh bgp`rthctl, ls qul lc `dhsb`cls sl d`cfucklc o`s târgbc`s
quçgbd`s, ols `durrl bcdous` h pr`flsb`chols gâkbd`s. Oh susthcdbh ehsl
prldurs`rh phrh nhdlr kbôxbk`
kbôxbk` kl do`r` ls lo do`rbt` sôkbd`.
¡C` ls nbp`do`rbt`!
Nbp`do`rbt` ls olaçh, ` thgebâc oohghkh ohvhckbch, qul ls uch susthcdbh
ushkh phrh lo eohcqul` kl oh r`ph sblck` `trh susthcdbh quçgbdh kbscth ho
kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
=4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
T`erl t`k`, h homuc`s glkb`s kl d`gucbdhdbôc slcshdb`chobsths,
slcshdb`chobsths, ols lcdhcth
shdhr lsth d`cdousbôc, yh qul oh p`oâgbdh ls lo vlnçduo` kl vlcth kl su pr`mrhgh.
Duhcth gès p`oâgbdh, gès hukblcdbh y gès bcmrls`s p`r pueobdbkhk, c` bgp`rth
lo d`ctlcbk`. Âst`s gbsg`s glkb`s kl d`gucbdhdbôc slcshdb`chobsths, pulklc
uc kçh bckudbr h qul homublc t`gl olaçh phrh durhrsl, klebk` h sus hesurkhs
hrghdb`cls.
C`do`rht`,
ols duop`,
phrtlsusthcdbh
kl oh „gètrbx‒
lcgès
qulhmrlsbvh
vbvbg`s.qul lo do`rbt`
[hgp`d` ls
quls`c
ls `trh
gudn`
sôkbd`. Kl nldn`, su c`glcdohturh quçgbdh ls [email protected] Tl shel qul lo do`rht`
dhush kbhrrlhs y h vldls thgebâc bckudl ho vôgbt`.
Do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected]
([email protected]), lo prldurs`r
Yhrh pr`kudbr
pr`kudbr lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` sl cldlsbthc, lc prbcdbpb`, k`s susthcdbhs1
uch kl loohs ls lo do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected] 5) y oh `trh ls uc èdbk`. Kl nldn` pulkl
slr dhsb uc èdbk` duhoqublrh, yh slh èdbk` dçtrbd`, èdbk` oèdd`, èdbk` f`sfôrbd`,
ebsuot`, vbchmrl… y uc ohrm` ltdâtlrh.
Yhrh qul c` nhyh cbcmñc rlsbku` p`stlrb`r lc oh rlhddbôc, lo gla`r
èdbk` sbc kukh homuch ls lo èdbk` do`rnçkrbd`, d`c oh sbmoh quçgbdh NDo.
Yhrh qul lo oçqubk` rlsuothctl tlcmh uc pN clutr` hklduhk` horlklk`r kl
pN=, lstl èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` klelrçh tlclr uc vho`r kl d`cdlctrhdbôc klo ;%.
Hucqul lo vho`r tâdcbd` (lst`dèsd`) kl d`cdlctrhdbôc klo èdbk` do`rnçkrbd`
klelrçh slr gès hot` lc tl`rçh, nl kldbkbk` ushro` ho ;%, yh qul lo lstôghm`
lcl lo gbsg` p`rdlcthal kl èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` p`r chturhol
chturholzh,
zh, y sl pr`kudl uch
rlhddbôc slduckhrbh gès olcth qul plrgbtl uc lfldt` gès pr`o`cmhk` y suhvl,
nhdblck` gès fèdbo su hes`rdbôc sbc lfldt`s hkvlrs`s.
Lo DK d`csth kl k`s d`gp`clctls guy heuckhctls y ehrht`s1 do`rbt` sôkbd`
([email protected]) y èdbk` do`rnçkrbd`
d o`rnçkrbd` (NDo), qul duhck` sl aucthc pr`kudlc uc mhs oohghk`
kbôxbk` kl do`r` ([email protected]). H lsth glzdoh sblgprl sl ol høhkl hmuh, nhebtuhoglctl
lctrl 899 h 599 go, phrh choglctl slr bcmlrbk`. Ho slr guy nbkr`s`oueol, ohs
gud`shs o` hes`relc fèdboglctl y hsç lo mhs klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ([email protected]) pulkl
plcltrhr lc lo tlabk` bctlrsdbho. Lstl mhs kbsulot` lc hmuh, mlclrh uc p`tlctl
lfldt` klsbcfldthctl sloldv`, qul lobgbch p`r `xbkhdbôc h t`k`s o`s hmlctls
phtômlc`s kl pN èdbk` y prlflrbeolglctl hchlrôebd`s, qul sl lcdulctrhc lc
lo dulrp`, plr` kbsdrbgbchck` ohs dâouohs y ehdtlrbhs sbgebôdhs qul tlclg`s,
klebk` h su pN gès hot`. O` o`mrh p`r lo kbflrlcdbho klo pN kl oh shcmrl d`rp`rho
qul ls ~=,4 h ~=,;, yh qul duhct` gès èdbk` ls lo phtômlc`, gès fulrtl ls lo
p`tlcdbho kl oh `xbkhdbôc (sl rbml slmñc lduhdb`cls kl Clrcst).
=;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
°Dôg` sl nhdl0
Dô e  çq     vâ    v1
Oh bckustrbh uobzh do`rbt` kl s`kb`, qul ls lo prldurs`r, nhebtuhoglctl
kl f`rgh oçqubkh kbsuloth. O` qul sl pulkl d`gprhr lc oçqubk` nhebtuhoglctl
lstè horlklk`r klo 5; ho 5<%, klplckblck` klo p`ov` ehsl. Yhrh prlphrhr uch
s`oudbôc hdu`sh kl do`rbt`, sbgpolglctl sl uobzh lo 49%.
8 obtr` kl hmuh 7 uc jbo`, lo 49% s`c 499 m
Yhrh kbs`ovlr
kbs`ovlr lo do`rbt` lc lo hmuh p`r o` thct` sl uobzhc =99 m kl hmuh y 499
m kl do`rbt` lc p`ov` ho >9%. Oh rlsuothctl ls uch s`oudbôc hdu`sh ho 5;%.
Yhrh nhdlr `trhs dhckhkls kl kbs`oudb`cls, sbgpolglctl sl uobzh oh rlmoh
kl trls ghtlgèdh.
°Y qâ  >9%0
Tlcdboohglctl p`rqul lo 49% kl uch susthcdbh ho >9% ls 5;. Tb kbsp`clg`s
kl uc do`rbt` d`c uc p`rdlcthal uc p`qubt` gès d`cdlctrhk`, p`klg`s `etlclr
5<%. Oh kbflrlcdbh c` ls mrhckl, yh qul c` sl trhth kl purlzh, sbc` sbgpolglctl
kl d`cdlctrhdbôc. Gudnh mlctl pblcsh qul duhct` gès d`cdlctrhk` gla`r,
plr` c` ls hsç. C` bgp`rth gudn` sb tlclg`s uc do`rbt` ho 5<% ` ho 5;% yh qul
rlprlslcthh uch gçcbgh phrtl kl uch m`th, gès ` glc`s.
rlprlslct
°Y qâ       899%  z0
Tbgpolglctl p`rqul lo do`rbt` cldlsbth uch ehsl k`ckl sl pulkh hknlrbr,
qul ls oh sho d`gñc, thgebâc oohghkh „do`rur` sôkbd`‒ qul ls hpr`xbgh
hpr`xbghkhglctl
khglctl
lo 8< ho 59% klo p`ov` qul d`gprhg`s.
Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul lo do`rbt` kl s`kb` ([email protected]) sl `elcl klo
do`rht` sôkbd` ([email protected]) qul ls gudn` gès p`tlctl. Gblctrhs qul oh dhobkhk klo
do`rbt` c` ls guy bgp`rthctl phrh
phrh lo eohcqul` bckustrbho, sç o` ls phrh oh bckustrbh
kl oh p`thebobzhdbôc kl hmuh, yh qul lo do`rht` pr`kudl cèuslhs y kbhrrlhs.
Yhrh shelr sb sl lstè d`gprhck` uc do`rbt` kl dhobkhk, nhy qul ahrsl
qul lo do`rbt` kl s`kb` lc p`ov` c` suplrl lo 8% kl do`rht`
do`rht`,, lc cbcmñc dhs`.
=<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Ylrs`choglctl o` vl` gès hklduhk` sb sl pulkl `etlclr klo fherbdhctl
kbrldthglctl,
kbrldthglct
l, lc uch s`oudbôc kl 5; ho 5<%, yh qul glzdohr lc dhsh lo p`ov` lc
sç pulkl slr plobmr`s` ho slr d`geurlctl, ls kldbr, fhdbobth lxpo`sb`cls y fulm`
hphrtl qulghkurhs quçgbdhs sb lctrh lc lo `a` ` lc ohs vçhs rlspbrht`rbhs, p`r
su hoth d`cdlctrhdbôc. \c fherbdhctl kbsp`cl kl ghqubchrbh hklduhkh phrh
prlphrhr
uchghclahr
s`oudbôc
kl do`rbt`
s`kb`,
y hklgès
lsahrsl
gudnçsbg`
gès slmur`
lo hdu`sh
do`rbt` kbsulot`
lc kl
hmuh
ho 5<%.
Nhy qul
lc oh
rlflrlcdbh kl oh dnh tâdcbdh, qul lo do`rht` sôkbd` c` suplrl lo 8% y thgebâc
lc `tr`s d`gp`clctls rlsbkuhols, p`sbeolglctl khøbc`s.
Lxbstlc p`r bctlrclt ñoghglctl homuc`s pr`t`d`o`s qul uobzhc lo do`rbt`
sôkbd` sbc hdvhr, thgebâc oohghk` ‟ ‗.
‗. Lo pN klo do`rbt`
sôkbd` ls lxtrlghkhglctl hodhobc` y p`krçh pr`kudbr qulghkurhs quçgbdhs sb
c` lstè hdvhk` klebkhglctl. Lc tl`rçh klelrçh hdvhrsl lc lo lstôghm`, yh
qul lstl kbsp`cl kl èdbk` do`rnçkrbd`.
Lo pr`eolgh ls qul lc gudnhs plrs`chs lcflrghs, lo èdbk` lst`ghdho yh c`
lstè prlslctl kl ghclrh sudblctl, p`r o` thct` oh bcmlsôc kl hoths k`sbs kl
do`rbt` sôkbd` sbc hdvhr p`krçh slr plraukbdbho, pr`v`dhck` kbhrrlh y gholsthr.
Lc lo dhs` kl qul c` kbspusbârhg`s kl uc èdbk` y sôo` tuvbârhg`s do`rbt` sôkbd`,
thgebâc sl p`krçh uobzhr homñc rlfrlsd` d`g` Tprbtl ® d`g` hdvhk`r, yh qul
s`c nhebtuhoglctl èdbk`s, d`ctlcblck` èdbk` dçtrbd` ` èdbk` f`sfôrbd` lc su
ghy`rçh. Lo lgp` kl rlhddbôc ho hdvhrsl kl lstl g`k` ls lvbklctlglctl
gès ohrm`, yh qul lst`s rlfrlsd`s lclc uc vho`r kl hdbklz horlklk`r kl pN 4,<.
Lc k`sbs plquløhs kl uch h k`s m`ths kboubk` lc 5<9 go kl rlfrlsd` èdbk`,
c` sulol khr pr`eolghs.
@xbkhdbôc
°Xâ   xô0
Lc lstl hphrthk` qublr` lxpobdhr, h mrhckls rhsm`s y kl ghclrh slcdbooh, quâ
ls oh `xbkhdbôc, yh qul, lc oh tlrdlrh phrtl klo ober`, o` lxpobdhrâ dblcdhglctl.
@xbkhdbôc, lc lo f`ck` sbmcbdh d`geusôc
d`geusôc.. Hn`rh… lxbstlc kbflrlctls
f`rghs1
• Lalgpo` p`r `xbkhdbôc
`xbkhdbôc olcth1
olcth1 duhck` uch
uch ghczhch
ghczhch sl vulovl
vulovl ghrrôc ho
d`rthrsl y lctrhr lc d`cthdt` d`c lo `xçmlc`, `xbkhck` su puoph. @tr`
lalgpo` slrçh lo ôxbk` kl nblrr`, qul ls uch `xbkhdbôc olcth, plr` dhphz
kl klsbctlmrhr lo gltho.
• Lalgpo` kl `xbkhdbôc rèpbkh1 uc fulm`, ` uch lxpo`sbôc,
lxpo`sbôc, ls uch `xbkhdbôc
rèpbkh.
=6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
Chkh gès chdlr lgplzhg`s h rlspbrhr oolchck` culstr`s puog`cls d`c lo
`xbkhctl gès heuckhctl klo guck`… ¡lo `xçmlc`!, qul lcl oh fôrguoh @ 5. Lstl
`xçmlc` ls lo qul plrgbtl qul p`khg`s vbvbr kl ghclrh hut`sudblctl.
Lo `xçmlc` ls lslcdbho phrh culstrh vbkh, yh qul lc prbglr oumhr oolchg`s
o`s moôeuo`s r`a`s kl `xçmlc` lc culstr`s puog`cls, y lobgbchg`s ‟lo nug`
5
d`cthgbchctl‗
ho lxnhohr.sbgpolglctl
C` nhdlg`squl
`trhkld`sh
kbscth
h oh
qulldhz.
nhdl
duhoqublr g`t`rklo
kl [email protected]
d`geusôc,
f`rgh
gudn`
gès
Kl nldn`, kurhctl lo pr`dls`, c` sôo` dhpthg`s `xçmlc` y lobgbchg`s lo
[email protected], thgebâc hodhobcbzhg`s lo dulrp` d`c dhkh rlspbrhdbôc qul nhdlg`s.
°Dôg` fucdb`ch lo pr`dls` kl hodhobcbzhdbôc0 Yrbglr`, lxpobdhrlg`s dôg`
fucdb`ch lo pN y quâ sbmcbdh lo p`tlcdbho kl nbkrômlc` (pN) lc culstr` dulrp`.
Kl ghclrh fèdbo, p`klg`s kldbr qul pN = ls clutr`, gblctrhs qul glc`s
kl = ls èdbk` y gès kl = ls hodhobc`. Oh shcmrl lc culstrhs vlchs lcl uc pN kl
~=,48 gblctrhs qul oh shcmrl lc ohs hrtlrbhs duhck` shol kl o`s puog`cls lcl
uc pN kl ~=,;8.
Ls kldbr, d`c dhkh rlspbrhdbôc lsthg`s hodhobcbzhck` culstr` dulrp`, d`sh
bgp`rthcsbgh, yh qul kurhctl lo kçh rlspbrhg`s kl 8<.999 h 5<.999 obtr`s
kl hbrl, thct` klspblrt`s d`g` gblctrhs k`rgbg`s, hsç qul lo pr`dls` kl
hodhobcbzhdbôc
hodhobcbzh
dbôc eèsbdhglctl sl pr`kudl p`r glkb` kl oh rlspbrhdbôc. Lst` ls guy
bgp`rthctl, yh qul ñoghglctl sl nh p`kbk` ollr lc bctlrclt gudn` s`erl oh
hobglcthdbôc hodhobch. C` ls qul qublrh gltlrgl d`c oh cutrbdbôc kl cbcmuch
ghclrh, sbgpolglctl nhy qul klahr homuchs d`shs dohrhs. Kurhctl lo kçh pulkl
qul d`ghg`s kl <99 h =99 mrhg`s, y t`kh lsth d`gbkh lcl uc pN p`r kleha`
kl sbltl, qul sbmcbdh qul ls èdbkh.
Tb lct`cdls plshg`s >9 jbo`s ` gès, lst`s p`d`s mrhg`s c` s`c sudblctls
phrh hodhobcbzhr
hodhobcbzhr ho dulrp`, kl cbcmuch ghclrh. O` qul sç ls dblrt` ls qul, slmñc
o` qul d`ghg`s, culstr` glthe`obsg` sl v`ovlrè èdbk` d`c gès fhdbobkhk, yh
qul o`s hzñdhrls sb c` o`s `xbkhg`s, drlhc flrglcthdbôc y lsth flrglcthdbôc h
su vlz ls èdbkh.
Yhrh kldbro` kl ghclrh sbgpol, uc zug` kl ghczhch ho cho sl d`cvblrtl
lc vbchmrl sb flrglcth o` sudblctl y sb lcl sudblctl hzñdhr. Lo pr`dls`
kl flrglcthdbôc thgebâc obelrh lclrmçh lc f`rgh kl dho`r, plr` ls p`dh, lc
d`gphrhdbôc d`c oh `xbkhdbôc. Oh rlohdbôc lc lo dulrp` lctrl hgehs, ls qul oh
flrglcthdbôc pr`kudl hpr`xbghkhglctl ; ucbkhkls kl lclrmçh, gblctrhs qul
oh `xbkhdbôc pr`kudl 46. Oh kbflrlc
kbflrlcdbh
dbh ls `evbh.
C`s`tr`s s`g`s fulm` y o` s`g`s, obtlrhoglctl,
obtlrhoglctl, oh oohgh kl oh vbkh, plr` nhy
qul rld`rkhr qul c` nhy fulm` sbc `xçmlc`.
V`ovhg`s h o`s moôeuo`s r`a`s, qul sl oolchc kl `xçmlc` lc culstr`s
puog`cls. \ch vlz qul lstèc shturhk`s kl `xçmlc`, sholc kl o`s puog`cls
nhdbh culstr`s ôrmhc`s, k`ckl obelrhc lstl `xçmlc`. °Ylr` dôg` o` nhdlc,
lxhdthglctl0
==
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
O` bctlrlshctl ls qul o`s moôeuo`s r`a`s c` obelrhc lo `xçmlc` lc culstr`s
ôrmhc`s kl ghclrh ucbf`rgl, sbc` prbcdbphoglctl k`ckl nhy hdbklz. °Xuâ
sbmcbdh0 Yrbglrhglctl, duhck` culstr`s gñsduo`s lalrdlc fulrzh, sl
drlh lo èdbk` oèdd`, qul, d`g` kbdl lo c`gerl, ls uc èdbk`. Lc lsths z`chs
oh shcmrl obelrh gudn` gès `xçmlc` qul lc ohs z`chs c` èdbkhs, sl dhoduoh
hpr`xbghkhglctl
86%qul
gès.
[hgebâc
nhy
qul tlclr
lcphrh
dulcth
qul lc oh
obtlrhturh
obtlrhtu
rh dblcdh uc
bckbdh
oh dâouoh
d âouoh
uobzh
lo `xçmlc`
sôo`
oh d`geusôc
klo hzñdhr (qul ls dhreôc).
Ylrs`choglctl, `pbc` qul ls gès d`gpola`, yh qul lo `xçmlc` plrgbtl h
trhvâss kl oh `xbkhdbôc (ls kldbr kl oh d`geusôc), drlhr uc lct`rc` gès hodhobc`,
trhvâ
yh qul oh ghy`rçh kl o`s ôxbk`s (o`s p`klg`s oohghr dlcbzhs) s`c gès hodhobc`s.
Kl nldn` o`s ahe`cls hcmuhglctl, sl nhdçhc d`c dlcbzh.
Duhck` nhdlg`s lalrdbdb` prhddhck` homñc klp`rtl, prbcdbphoglctl
`durrlc trls d`shs lc culstr` dulrp`1
8. X
X
 

5. X
zñ
zñ

4
X
 x
‟\c g`glct` ‛vhc h kldbr homuc`s pr`flsb`chols hn`rh gbsg`‛ °R quâ
phsh d`c lo lstrâs `xbkhv`0‗ Vhg`s h nheohr kl ls`, kl ghclrh gès lxtlckbkh,
ho cho klo ober`, plr` pulk` hklohcthr qul oh tl`rçh klo ‟lstrâs `xbkhv`‗,
qul ls uch hcmuh nbpôtlsbs kl Klcnhg Nhrghc kl 82<6 y nh sbk` pr`ehkh
fhosh lc gudn`s kl sus hspldt`s, h trhvâs kl o`s trheha`s mhohrk`chk`s kl oh
‟gbt`n`rglsbs‗ klo pr`fls`r Kr. Gbdnhlo Ubst`w, qul klg`strhr`c qul lo lstrâs
`xbkhv` h d`rt` pohz` pr`o`cmh oh vbkh, qul ls aust` o` d`ctrhrb` kl o` qul sl nh
drlçk` hctlrb`rglctl
hctlrb`rglctl..
O` v`y h lxpobdhr kl ghclrh slcdbooh. °Xubâc
°X ubâc drll ustlk qul lstè gès shc`,
uch plrs`ch qul prhddh lalrdbdb` ` uch plrs`ch d`c uch vbkh slklcthrbh lc lo
s`fè0
‟Lo qul nhdl klp`rtl‗
klp`r tl‗,, gl vhc h d`ctlsthr prèddhglctl t`k`s.
t`k`s . Ylr` vhg`s
h vlr… sb o`s qul lstèc nhdblck` klp`rtl phshc gudn` gès lstrâs `xbkhv`,
slmñc oh tl`rçh hcmuh, klelrçhc lsthr gès lcflrg`s, p`rqul lo `xçmlc` ls lo
rhkbdho oberl gès heuckhctl kl culstr` dulrp`…
Hnç p`klg`s `eslrvhr oh ghcbpuohdbôc qul sl nh nldn` kurhctl o`s
ñog`s <9 hø`s, vlckblck` supolglct`s hc`xbkhctls, p`r vho`r kl gbols kl
gboo`cls h kblstr` y sbcblstr`. Tblgprl sl trhth kl o` gbsg`, nhdlr gès kbclr`.
\c hc`xbkhctl c` ls `trh d`sh qul uc hphmhfulm`s kbdn` kl ghclrh sbgpol.
Yulkl slr ño phrh plrs`chs guy hdhs y hc`râxbdhs, ` gho cutrbkhs.
=>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
Ylr` n`y lc kçh culstr` pr`eolgh ls aust` lo d`ctrhrb`, nhy s`erl`flrth
hobglcdbh, lc d`gebchdbôc d`c slklcthrbsg` tlolvbsbv`, y lo `xçmlc` c` oolmh
h ohs dâouohs phrh oh `xbkhdbôc, qul sbmcbdh d`geusôc. Tbc d`geusôc c` nhy
lclrmçh, sbc lclrmçh c` nhy klflcshs, y sbc klflcshs nhy lcflrglkhk.
Lxpobdhk` kl ghclrh sbgpol, lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ho kbs`dbhrsl obelrh `xçmlc`
lc
ohsshcmrl,
z`chs èdbkhs
dulrp`,
guy
sbgbohr
h d`g`
o` nhdlc
moôeuo`skl
r`a`s
kl oh
plr` klklo
f`rgh
gudn`
gès
p`tlctl.
Thelg`s
qulo`s
oh ghy`rçh
o`s
lcflrglkhkls
lcflrglkhk
ls lstèc rlohdb`chkhs d`c klghsbhkh hdbklz lc lo dulrp`, thgebâc
oohghkh ‟hdbk`sbs gltheôobdh‗. Lstl `xçmlc` obelrhk` rlhddb`ch `xbkhck` o`s
d`gp`clctls ` t`xbchs èdbkhs qul lstèc lc oh shcmrl ` lc lo tlabk` bctlrsdbho,
k`ckl cb sbqublrh oh shcmrl oolmh. Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`
d o`r` sl kbsulovl lxtrlghkhglctl
eblc lc lo hmuh y p`r o` thct` pulkl rlphrrsl p`r t`k` culstr` dulrp`, qul lc
uc =9% ls hmuh. Tb uch plrs`ch plsh 899 jbo`s, s`c =9 jbo`s kl hmuh plr` sôo` 6
o kl shcmrl, qul nhdlc oh fucdbôc kl oçqubk` nbkrèuobd` kl trhcsp`rtl. Lo kbôxbk`
sl rlphrtl gudn` gla`r lc lo hmuh y oolmh h z`chs lsd`ckbkhs thgebâc, ho tlabk`
bctlrsdbho.
Thelg`s qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ls sloldv` p`r pN y p`r o` thct` rlhddb`ch
d`c t`kh suesthcdbh qul slh gès èdbkh qul lo =,4 klo dulrp` nughc`. [hgebâc
[hgebâc
shelg`s qul prèddhglctl t`k`s o`s phtômlc`s yh slhc ehdtlrbhs, vbrus,
n`cm`s ` plqulø`s phrèsbt`s, s`c gès èdbk`s. Klebk` h su dhphdbkhk sloldvh,
lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` obelrh lo `xçmlc` aust` k`ckl lstèc o`s phtômlc`s èdbk`s,
pr`v`dhck` oh `xbkhdbôc kl o`s gbsg`s. Kbdn` kl ghclrh sbgpol, o`s qulgh.
C` lxbstl cbcmuch rlsbstlcdbh p`sbeol h oh `xbkhdbôc, sb ls o` sudblctlglctl
p`tlctl. Kl nldn` culstr` dulrp` y lo kl t`k`s o`s klgès vlrtlerhk`s, uobzhc
lo gbsg` prbcdbpb` lc lo bctlrb`r kl o`s clutrôo`s, qul s`c ohs dâouohs hslsbchs kl
klflcsh kl culstr` sbstlgh bcgucl klskl nhdl gboo`cls kl hø`s. Lsths dâouohs
lcmuoolc h o`s lclgbm`s, drlhck` uch `xbkhdbôc qul o`s lobgbch. D`cslmubg`s
d`c lstl lfldt` uc lct`rc` gès hodhobc`, d`c glc`s ehdtlrbhs, vbrus u n`cm`s,
k`ckl lo dulrp` pulkl rlduplrhrsl y durhrsl kl ghclrh chturho.
Oh dhphdbkhk kl `xbkhdbôc sloldvh klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc culstr`
`rmhcbsg` ls oh dohvl kl t`k` y y` drl` plrs`choglctl, qul ls uc` kl o`s
nhoohzm`s gès mrhckls kl oh nbst`rbh kl oh nughcbkhk, qul pulkl lobgbchr mrhc
phrtl klo sufrbgblct` bccldlshrb`, kl ghclrh ldhz y guy ld`côgbdh. Xul
lst` qubzès c` d`cdulrkl d`c o`s bctlrlsls kl oh bckustrbh fhrghdâudh, ls `tr`
dhpçtuo`…
O` bctlrlshctl ls qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` c` sôo` ls sloldv`, thgebâc
rlhddb`ch kl ghclrh kbflrlctl d`c dhkh phtômlc`, ls kldbr, duhct` gès èdbkh
ls oh ehdtlrbh, gès fulrtl ls oh rlhddbôc quçgbdh kl `xbkhdbôc y duhct` glc`s
èdbkh ls, glc`s
gl c`s fulrtl ls oh `xbkhdbôc.
`xbkhd bôc. Lsth ls oh rhzôc p`r oh qul c` hfldth thct`
h ohs ehdtlrbhs sbgebôdhs klo dulrp`, yh qul nhebtuhoglctl lclc uc rhcm`
kl pN sbgbohr ho klo dulrp`, y lst` ls o` qul ols plrgbtl slr sbgebôdhs. Yhrh
=2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
qul uch ehdtlrbh pulkh hthdhr h culstr` dulrp`, âsth klel tlclr uc pN gès
èdbk` qul lo kl culstrhs dâouohs, ho bmuho qul o`s bghcls. Tb c`s bghmbchg`s k`s
bghcls d`c oh gbsgh dhrmh, lo rlsuothk` ls qul sl rlplolc: sôo` sb lclc dhrmhs
kbflrlctls, ls kldbr sb uc` ls p`sbv` y lo `tr` clmhv`, sl htrhlc y sl qulkhc
plmhk`s. D`c ohs ehdtlrbhs phsh lxhdthglctl o` gbsg`, yh qul lo pN clmhv`
ls
cldlshrb`,
phrh p`klr
hthdhr h trhvâs
kl kl
uc culstr`
bctlrdhgeb`
kl loldtr`cls, ohs
dâouohs
kl pN clutr`
` obmlrhglctl
hodhobchs
dulrp`.
Klelg`s nhdlrc`s gudnhs prlmucth
prlmucths1
s1 °phrh quâ cldlsbthg`s
hc`xbkhctls
hc`xbkh
ctls hrdbhols0
Nhy phrtls kl oh tl`rçh kl o`s rhkbdhols oberls qul s`c dblrths, sbc lgehrm`
c` sl lvhoñh kl ghclrh d`rrldth lo nldn` kl qul o`s rhkbdhols oberls klo `xçmlc`
(ohs lspldbls klo `xçmlc` rlhdv` ‟[email protected]‗) s`c o`s gès heuckhctls lc lo dulrp`.
C` nhy fulm` sbc `xçmlc`, lo `xçmlc` ls lo rlsp`csheol kl oh vbkhyhogbsg`
lgp` d`cvblrtl t`k` lc dlcbzhs hodhobchs, bgpbkblck` qul culstr` dulrp` sl
hdbkbqul. [`k`
[`k` ls uch dulsôc kl lquboberb`, p`rqul o` qul sç ls dblrt` ls qul
klghsbhk` fulm` c`s qulgh (lst` ls eèsbdhglctl o` qul sl p`stuoh lc oh tl`rçh
kl o`s rhkbdhols oberls) plr` eulc`…, °Duèct`s kl ustlkls lstèc d`rrblck` uch
ghrhtôc0… Y`d`s, °vlrkhk0 Oh bcglcsh ghy`rçh kl oh nughcbkhk qul nhebth
lo nlgbsflrb` c`rtl n`y lc kçh, lcl pr`eolghs kl s`erlpls`, qul ls aust` o`
d`ctrhrb`,, y sbmcbdh fhoth kl `xbkhdbôc y kl d`geusôc.
d`ctrhrb`
Hsç qul p`klg`s rlsugbr o`s plobmr`s klo fulm` (ls kldbr kl oh `xbkhdbôc)
klo sbmublctl g`k`1 klghsbhk` fulm` c`s qulgh, gblctrhs qul p`d` c` c`s
dhoblcth. \c fulm` d`c fhoth kl `xçmlc` sôo` shdh nug` y lo nug` c`s hsxbh.
Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul lo nug` rlsuothctl kl oh d`geusôc c`s
pulkl khøhr, yh qul c` ls o` gbsg` qulghr homuchs n`ahs kl phplo, qul uch
pboh kl clugèd`s. O` gbsg` phsh d`c lo trhthgblct`, duhct` gès lcflrg` sl
lstè, gès p`d` h p`d` nhy qul lgplzhr, klebk` h oh mrhc dhckhk kl t`xbchs
prlslctls lc lo dulrp`.
O`s `xbkhctls
O`s `xbkhctls s`c susthcdbhs dhphdls kl hoghdlchr lo `xçmlc` kl
ghclrh quçgbdh, d`g` uch ehtlrçh ls dhphz kl hoghdlchr loldtrbdbkhk.
loldtrbd bkhk. Lst`s
`xbkhctls obelrhc lstl `xçmlc` eha` dblrths d`ckbdb`cls, ls o` qul sl oohgh
uch rlhddbôc quçgbdh. Tlmñc oh fulrzh, oh `xbkhdbôc pulkl slr olcth, d`g`
p`r lalgpo` duhck` sl `xbkh lo nblrr`, ` pulkl slr guy rèpbkh, d`g` uch
lxpo`sbôc. Lc hge`s dhs`s sl trhth kl `xbkhdbôc.
@xbkhdbôc c` sbmcbdh qul s`ohglctl lo `xçmlc` sl d`gebch lc lo dulrp`
d`c `tr`s lolglct`s. C` sôo` lo `xçmlc` pulkl `xbkhr, thgebâc `trhs susthcdbhs
quçgbdhs pulklc nhdlro`, sbc lgehrm`, lo `xçmlc` ls dhphz kl `xbkhr lc lo
>9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
dulrp` d`geuseols d`g` lo hzñdhr ` oh mrhsh phrh mlclrhr dho`r, y ohs dâouohs
pulkhc drlhr oh loldtrbdbkhk cldlshrbh phrh qul lo dulrp` y oh glctl fucdb`clc.
Yhrh lctlcklr p`r quâ lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc ohs k`sbs hklduhkhs c` khøh
ohs dâouohs klo dulrp`, tlclg`s qul lctlcklr prbglr` ohs ehsls kl oh `xbkhdbôc.
y lst` lc rlhobkhk, c` ls thc d`gpobdhk` d`g` phrldl.
O`s `xbkhctls
kl r`ehr
loldtr`cls
h `trhsklsusthcdbhs
Y`klg`s
kldbr quls`c
o`sdhphdls
loldtr`cls
s`c d`g`
uch lspldbl
dlglct` quçgbdhs.
loâdtrbd`,
qul t`k` o` ghclcl ucbk`. Tb hn`rh sl r`ehc o`s loldtr`cls h oh ghtlrbh, oh
d`cstruddbôc sl dhlrçh h tr`z`s, ls d`g` sb qubtèrhg`s lo dlglct` h uch phrlk
kl ohkrboo`s.
Oh kbflrlcdbh lctrl uc `xbkhctl y `tr` ls su fulrzh, qul thgebâc sl
oohgh p`tlcdbho `xbkhv`.
Lo `xçmlc` d`g` tho, p`klg`s vlro` d`g` uc lolglct` eèsbd`, qul `xbkh lc
lo dulrp` lxhdthglctl o` qul klel `xbkhr y c` hfldth ohs pblzhs vbthols.
Hsç qul lst`s `xbkhctls hoghdlchc lo `xçmlc` p`r uc ohk`, y fhdbobthc oh
d`geusôc p`r lo `tr` ohk`. Nhy gudn`s kbflrlctls, c` ls cldlshrb` c`gerhr h
t`k`s hquç, plr` p`klg`s glcdb`chr homuc`s d`g` p`r lalgpo` lo `z`c` (@4).
Lsth g`oâduoh trbpoltl kl `xçmlc` sl uobzh phrh oh obgpblzh kl rlsbku`s lc
lo hmuh y ls uch f`rgh lxdlolctl kl klsbcflddbôc, yh qul p`r uc ohk` lcl uc
p`tlcdbho fulrtl qul ls 5,9= V, y p`r lo `tr` ohk` c` klah gès rlsbku`s qul
`xçmlc`.
[hgebâc sl uobzh lc tlrhpbhs: oh tlrhpbh kl `z`c` ls guy d`c`dbkh y nh
hyukhk` h gudnçsbgh mlctl h suplrhr sus pr`eolghs kl shouk.
Lc tlrhpbhs, lo `z`c` gudnhs vldls sl ush phrh lcrbquldlr lo `xçmlc` lc
shcmrl. Tbc lgehrm` klebk` h su p`tlcdbho hot`, c` sôo` hfldth h ohs ehdtlrbhs,
sbc` thgebâc h ohs pr`pbhs dâouohs kl oh shcmrl y nhy qul tlclr sug` dubkhk` lc
su k`sbdhdbôc y hpobdhdbôc. Lo `z`c` sl d`csugl h trhvâ
trhvâss kl oh `xbkhdbôc.
@tr` `xbkhctl, uobzhk` lc tlrhpbhs, ls lo plrôxbk` kl nbkrômlc`,
nbkrômlc`, thgebâc
oohghk` hmuh `xbmlchkh, qul lcl uc p`tlcdbho `xbkhv` kl 8,=> V y thgebâc
ls klghsbhk` fulrtl lc târgbc`s tâdcbd`s. Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lcl uc p`tlcdbho
`xbkhv` kl 9,2< V lc d`ckbdb`cls lstèckhr y hklgès ls sloldv` p`r pN, h
kbflrlcdbh
kbflrlc
dbh kl o`s `tr`s. Yulst`s h lolmbr ls lo gla`r kl t`k`s.
C`th1 Gès klthools tâdcbd`s s`erl oh `xbkhdbôc, d`c sus rlspldvhs
C`th1
rlflrlcdbhs,
rlflr
lcdbhs, sl lcdulctrhc ho cho kl lstl ober`, lc oh slddbôc dblcdh.
>8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Yrldhudb`cls
Yrldhudb`cls lc lo us` klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ` klo do`rbt` sôkbd`.
Yrldhudbôc uc`
Hucqul d`clcl ‟do`r`‗
‟do`r`‗ lc su klc`gbchdbôc, ls guy kbsct` kl nbp`do`rbt`
(olaçh), hucqul s`c nhebtuhoglctl d`cfuckbk`s. Duhck` glzdohg`s lo do`rbt`
sôkbd` d`c lo èdbk`, mlclrhg`s kbôxbk` kl do`r`, qul sblgprl ls hghrboo` d`c uc
`o`r h pbsdbch. Ylr`, sb glzdohg`s nbp`do`rbt` d`c uc èdbk`, sl drlhc mhsls guy
fulrtls y tôxbd`s, bcs`p`rtheols. Hklgès oh rlhddbôc drlh ehsthctls eureuahs
lflrvlsdlctls,
lflrvlsdlc
tls, d`sh qul c` `durrl d`c lo do`rbt` sôkbd`.
Yrldhudbôc k`s
C` bcnhohr kl ghclrh ghsbvh o`s mhsls klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, kurhctl uc
lgp` pr`o`cmhk`,
pr`o`cmhk`, yh qul pulkl dhushr brrbthdbôc lc oh mhrmhcth
mhrmhcth y kbduothkls
rlspbrht`rbhs.
rlspbrht
`rbhs. Lc plquløhs dhckhkls kurhctl erlvl lgp` ls bc`du`, d`g` o`
klgulstrhc o`s lstukb`s klo Kr. C`rb` @mhth. Oh k`duglcthdbôc dblcdh s`erl
oh t`xbdbkhk klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, sl rllrl lc prbcdbpb` h oh bcnhohdbôc, qul c` ls
o` gbsg` qul oh bcmlsôc lc dhckhkls plquløhs, qul ls bc`duh.
Yrldhudbôc trls
Tblgprl sl høhkl hmuh h oh glzdoh qul sl `elcl duhck` hdvhg`s do`rbt`
kl s`kb` d`c lo èdbk`, `etlcblck` lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` kl lsth ghclrh. Cucdh
sl uobzh kl f`rgh d`cdlctrhkh. Tb shopbdh hom` kl oçqubk` lcdbgh kl oh pblo ` oh
r`ph, nhy qul ohvhro` d`c hmuh heuckhctl.
Yrldhudbôc duhtr`
¡C` uobzhr rldbpblctls kl gltho! O`s rldbpblctls kl gltho rlhddb`chc d`c
lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, yh qul sl `xbkhc. Lst` bcdouyl ho hdlr` bc`xbkheol, yh qul ls
uch holhdbôc qul d`clcl vhrb`s glthols, d`g` cçqulo y dr`g`.
Yrldhudbôc dbcd`
C` uobzhr m`tlr`s kl m`gh, yh qul âst`s c` lclc sudblctl rlsbstlcdbh
ho pN 84 hodhobc` klo do`rbt` sôkbd` y d`c lo lgp`, sl pulkl kbs`ovlr oh m`gh
>5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
lc lo oçqubk`, klahck` phrduohs lc kbs`oudbôc. [hgp`d` s`c hklduhk`s d`g`
m`tlr`s yh qul ohs m`ths s`c klghsbhk` mrhckls.
Yrldhudbôc slbs
Tôo` uobzhr e`tloohs kl m`tlr` `hog`oômbd` klo YY/NKYL/YL. [`k`s lst`s
ghtlrbhols s`c rlsbstlctls y s`p`rthc oh hodhobcbkhk y hdbklz (pN 84/pN 8), y
ghclclc ohs pr`pblkhkls kurhctl gudn`s hø`s. O`s poèsd`s trhcsphrlctls
klo p` YL[ c` s`c rld`glckheols phrh muhrkhr lo do`rbt` sôkbd` d`cdlctrhk`
kurhctl lgp`, yh qul h oh ohrmh sl klsbctlmrhc y klahc rlsbku`s lc oh s`oudbôc
klo do`rbt` kl s`kb`.
Lo YL[ (Y`obtlrlhoht` kl lolc`), d`clcl èt`g`s kl dhre`c` (oh
D lc lo kbeua` kl oh Fbm. 8>), qul klebk` h su dlrdhcçh ho `xçmlc` lcl
uch klcsbkhk kl loldtr`cls ehah. Ulsuoth slr slcsbeol phrh rlhddb`chr d`c
do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected] ) p`r lo pN hot`, y lct`cdls sl klsbctlmrhc d`c lo
lgp` ohs dhklchs klo5 p`oçglr`.
Fbm. 8>1 Lstruturh g`olduohr klo p`oblrlhoht` kl lolc`.
°Dôg` pulk` shelr sb lo do`rbt`
do`rbt` kl s`kb` lstè
lstè lc gho lsthk`0 Lo
bckbdhk`r kl sb lo pr`kudt` lstè gho ls su d`o`r.
d`o`r. Tb lo do`rbt`, qul klel slr
trhcsphrlctl, klspuâs kl hdvhr sl vulovl oldn`s`, lstè lc gho lsthk`.
Lo d`o`r hdvhk` klo DK (GGT), sblgprl klel slr hghrboo`- ègehr
trhcsphrlctl, hctls kl rlehahro` d`c hmuh. C` sl klelc uobzhr e`tloohs
kl YL[ (e`tloohs kl poèsd` trhcsphrlctl)
trhcsphrlctl) d`c lo do`rbt` sôkbd`,
sôkbd`, klebk` h su
pN84 (sç sl pulklc uobzhr d`c DKT yh qul su pN ls clutr`).
Yrldhudbôc sbltl
\shr d`g` hdvhk`r lo èdbk` dçtrbd` pulkl pr`v`dhr lc plrs`chs slcsbeols
uch hdbk`sbs bctlscho
bctlsc ho d`c kbhrrlhs, gholsthr, Dbtr`ehdtlr (uc mâclr` kl ehdtlrbhs
qul sl cutrlc klo dbtrht`). Lsth glzdoh
glzdoh yh c` sl ush, hucqul ls bmuhoglctl ldhz.
>4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
C`th1 Tç, sl pulkl uobzhr èdbk` dçtrbd` phrh nhdlr DKT, yh qul c` lctrh lc
oh glzdoh cho, p`rqul s`ohglctl sl uobzh lo mhs drlhk`.
Yrldhudbôc `dn`
Yhrh oh clutrhobzhdbôc kl do`rbt` kl s`kb`/kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc dhs`s kl
lglrmlcdbh, sl uobzh lstrbdthglctl ebdhre`cht` kl s`kb` y cucdh vbthgbch D
(èdbk` hsdôrebd`) d`g` hctls sl rld`glckheh.
Lc dhs` kl uch lglrmlcdbh (sb sl nh bcmlrbk` uch dhckhk mrhckl kl do`rbt`
kl s`kb` ` kl kbôxbk` kl do`r`), sl t`gh uc vhs` kl 5;9 go kl hmuh d`c uch
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl kl ebdhre`cht` kl s`kb`. D`c ls` sl clutrhobzh lo lfldt`
bcglkbhthglctl.
Tb sl t`gh vbthgbch D, lo lfldt` klo èdbk` kl lsth, o` qul nhdl ls rlhddb`chr
d`c lo do`rbt` kl s`kb` y pr`kudbr kl ghclrh lsp`ctèclh mhs kbôxbk` kl do`r` y
ls` c` ls o` qul sl qublrl.
°Ls tôxbd`0
\ch kl ohs mrhckls prl`duphdb`cls duhck` t`ghg`s duhoqublr
d uhoqublr susthcdbh `
glkbdhglct` ls shelr quâ lfldt` tlckrè
tlckrè s`erl culstr` dulrp` lc târgbc`s kl
t`xbdbkhk. [`k` pr`flsb`cho kl oh shouk shel qul oh t`xbdbkhk ls uch dulsôc kl
dhckhk, yh qul duhoqublr susthcdbh pulkl slr tôxbdh.
Ho cho klo ober`, lc o`s kht`s dblcd`s, lctrhrlg`s
lctrhrlg`s lc klthool lc lstl tlgh,
plr` v`y h nhdlr uc rlsuglc hquç phrh qul sl nhmhc uch bklh mo`eho y rèpbkh.
Oh t`xbdbkhk sblgprl klplckl kl oh dhckhk y lo oumhr, hsç qul sb sl bcmblrl
uch mrhc dhckhk d`cdlctrhkh, pulkl lxplrbglcthr brrbthdb`cls bcdous`
fulrtls, hucqul oh ghy`rçh kl ohs plrs`chs c` sl lxp`ckrèc h dhckhkls
sudblctlglctl mrhckls d`g` phrh khøhr plrghclctlglctl su dulrp`.
sudblctlglctl
Oh bcnhohdbôc ghsbvh sç ls tôxbdh, yh qul `duph lo lsphdb` hovl`ohr.
8. L             .
H kbflrlcdbh kl `trhs susthcdbhs, sl d`csugl lc lo g`glct` qul
rlhddb`ch d`c o`s phtômlc`s.
5. L      
      
do`r`, pulkl lxplrbglcthr brrbthdbôc kl mhrmhcth, chrbz y puog`cls.
4. K  
 ,     , 
s`c rlvlrsbeols.
;. K       
        899
hø`s,
slc`
pulkl
d`csbklrhr qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` c` pr`kudl dècdlr,
ls kldbr
ls dhrdbcômlc`.
>;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 8
<. [        
rlpr`kuddbôc.
Y       1
• C` lxbstlc
lxbstlc lfldt`s lck`drbc`oômbd`s,
lck`drbc`oômbd`s, hs`dbhk`s d`c oh bcmlsôc
bcmlsôc kl
kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc nughc`s.
• C` lxbstlc
lxbstlc lfldt`s
lfldt`s rlohdb`chk`s
rlohdb`chk`s d`c lo dhgeb` kl pls`
pls` p`r bcmlsôc
bcmlsôc kl
kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc nughc`s.
• C` lxbstlc lfldt`s bcguc`oômb
bcguc`oômbd`s
d`s obcfèd`s k`duglcthk`s p`r bcmlsôc
kl kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc nughc`s.
• C` lxbstlc
lxbstlc lfldt`s
lfldt`s clur`oômbd`s
clur`oômbd`s hs`dbhk`s p`r
p`r oh bcmlsôc kl kbôxbk`
kbôxbk` kl
do`r` lc nughc`s.
• C` lxbstlc
lxbstlc lfldt`s
lfldt`s lc o`s hphrht`s
hphrht`s rlpr`kudt`rls
rlpr`kudt`rls p`r oh bcmlsôc kl
kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc nughc`s.
• C` lxbstlc
lxbstlc lfldt`s
lfldt`s k`ckl lo dècdlr pulkh slr hs`dbhk` ho kbôxbk`
kbôxbk` kl
do`r` lc nughc`s.
• C` lxbstlc
lxbstlc lfldt`s guthmâcbd`s hs`dbhk`s d`c lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc
nughc`s.
• C` lxbstlc
lxbstlc lfldt`s d`c`dbk`s kl hduguohdb
hduguohdbôc
ôc klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` `
do`rbt` lc nughc`s.
• C` nhy dhs` g`rtho k`duglcthk` kl bct`xbdhdbôc
bct`xbdhdbôc p`r bcmlsôc kl
kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc oh obtlrhturh dblcdh. Yr`eheolglctl bckudl
ho vôgbt` gudn` hctls kl oolmhr h uch dhckhk drçdh p`sbeol p`r
bcmlsôc.
Lxbstlc dbcd` dhs`s kl bct`xbdhdbôc slvlrh k`duglcthkh d`c lo prldurs`r
klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ‛lo do`rbt` sôkbd`‛ kl o`s duhols trls fulr`c bctlct`s
  ,     899    
lxpulsths lc lstl ober`.
Vlrr lstukb`1 Obc AO,
Vl
AO , Obg YT. 8224. Hdutl s`kbug dno`rbtl p`bs`cbcm hss`dbhtlk
wbtn rlcho fhbourl. Ulc Fhbo 8<(;)16;<-6;.
‟H ,   … ¡E  !…‗ 1)
Y.K. Y`r bctlrclt sl glcdb`ch uc dhs` kl gulrtl kl uch turbsth lc Vhchtu
p`r k`s m`ths… (klskl nhdl 4 hø`s k`y lsth k`sbs h gbs mht`s kbhrbhglctl y lo
rlsuothk` ls qul lstèc lstuplck`s).
* * *
><
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
>6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
D 5
Kbgltbosuofôxbk` ([email protected])
\c` kl o`s pr`kudt`s gès ldhdls lc lo us` tlrhpâud`,
tlrhpâud`, lc d`cauct` d`c lo
kbôxbk` kl do`r`, ls lo kbglosuofô
kbglosuofôxbk`
xbk` ([email protected]).
Tus f`rghs kl hpobdhdbôc s`c1
•
•
Lxtlrch1 kl ghclrh tôpbdh y hpobdhck` lo [email protected] lc f`rgh kl sprhy.
Bctlrch1 h trhvâs kl bcmlsôc, yh qul lsth susthcdbh lcl uch t`xbdbkhk
guy ehah y c` ls d`csbklrhkh plobmr`sh.
Lo [email protected] sl lxtrhl kl oh puoph kl oh ghklrh, lc rlhobkhk ls uc kbs`ovlctl
s`erhctl kl oh bckustrbh phplolrh.
[hgebâc ls uch kl ohs susthcdbhs hdvhs klo Ho`l vlrh y sl uobzh phrh
pr`tlmlr ôrmhc`s lc trhspohctls, p`r su lsdhsh t`xbdbkhk. Hucqul sblgprl sl
klel d`gpr`ehr sb lo phdblctl phkldl uc duhkr` lxtrhø` kl holrmbh (dhs`s guy
rhr`s), hpobdhck` uc p`d` kl [email protected] lc lo erhz`, hctls kl kldbkbrsl h t`ghro`
p`r vçh `rho.
Lo [email protected] htrh
htrhvblsh
vblsh fèdboglctl oh pblo, ohs glgerhchs gud`shs y oh glgerhch
nlght`lcdlfèobdh.
O`s lstukb`s rlhobzhk`s lc 8264 rlvlohr`c qul p`kçh hobvbhr lo k`o`r, rlkudbr
oh bchghdbôc, bgplkbr lo drldbgblct` ehdtlrbhc`, suhvbzhr lo tlabk` dbdhtrbzhk`
dbdhtrbzhk`,,
gla`rhr lo sugbcbstr` shcmuçcl`. Ls uc lxdlolctl dhoghctl
dhoghctl y rlohahctl gusduohr
y hdtñh d`g` frlc` d`ctrh oh bchghdbôc lc lo dulrp`, thgebâc d`g` kburâd`.
• Fôrguoh1 [email protected]
• Klsdueblrt` p`r lo rus` Holjshckr Qèbtslv
Qèbtslv lc 8>66. \s` glkbdbcho
glkbdbcho
kbvuomhk` p`r lo Kr. Tthcoly ]. Ahd`e lc 8264.
>=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
• Oçqubk` `rmècbd` sbc d`o`r lxtrhçk` d`g` suepr`kudt` lc lo
pr`dlshgblct`
pr`dlshgblc
t` kl oh puoph kl oh ghklrh lc oh fherbdhdbôc klo phplo qul
d`clcl suofur`.
• H phrr 82;9 sl uobzh d`g` kbs`ovlctl
kbs`ovlctl `rmècbd`.
• H phrr kl 8268 sl uobzh
uobzh d`g` drb`prlslrvhct
drb`prlslrvhctll (phrh
(phrh trhcspohctls).
trhcspohctls).
• D`g` glkbdhglct` lstè hut`rbzhk` phrh dbss bctlrsdbho.
• Tl uobzh
uobzh phrh rlkudbr lo k`o`r y oh bchghdbôc.
Hkbdb`choglctl, sl klsduerblr`c gla`rçhs lc o`s sbmublctls sçct`ghs1 k`o`r
kl lsmubcdls, t`rdlkurhs, qulghkurhs, hrtrbs, lc nuls`s frhdturhk`s o`s k`o`k`o` rls lrhc lobgbchk`s p`r d`gpolt`, p`sll uc bgp`rthctl fhdt`r
fhdt`r lc oh rlmuohdbôc
klo sbstlgh bcgucl.
Tl nh klg`strhk` qul lo [email protected] lobgbch vbrus y n`cm`s, y pulkl slr ldhz
d`ctrh ohs dhthrhths, olsb`cls klp`rvhs, lsdolr`klrgbh,
lsd olr`klrgbh, gbhstlcbh mrhvl, y `trhs
lcflrglkhkls.
Lc lstukb`s d`c plrs`chs d`c lo sçckr`gl kl K`wc, lo rlthrk` glctho sl nh
kbsgbcubk` d`csbklrheolglc
d`csbklrheolglctl.
tl.
[hgebâc sl uobzh phrh prlslrvhr lgerb`cls nughc`s ` d`g` d`cslrvhctl
kl dâouohs ghkrl, dâouohs kl oh gâkuoh lspbcho y ôrmhc`s phrh trhspohctls.
trhspohctls.
Lo [email protected] lcl lo rhcm` gès hgpob` y lo ghy`r cñglr` kl hddb`cls
tlrhpâudhs ahgès klg`strhkhs
klg` strhkhs lc uc s`o` pr`kudt`. [hgebâc
[hgebâc lcl oh nhebobkhk
kl huglcthr kl f`rgh hduguohvh sus lfldt`s, yh qul hdtñh lobgbchck` oh
lcflrglkhk lc sç gbsgh y c` s`o` o`s sçct`ghs.
Durb`shglctl, sl nh `eslrvhk` qul sl rlqublrl kl p`dh dhckhk kl [email protected]
phrh `etlclr rlsuothk`s p`sbv`s d`c lo phs` klo lgp`. Ls uch duhobkhk
kbscth kl lsth susthcdbh ehsthctl ñcbdh, yh qul oh ghy`rçh kl o`s fèrghd`s
nhebtuhoglctl rlqublrlc kl k`sbs ghy`rls, bcdrlglctèck`sl ohs k`sbs d`c lo
lgp`,
o`s cbvlols
tlrhpâud`s.
C` phrh
lxbstlghctlclr
hes`outhglctl
cbcmuch
kukh lc duhct` h sus pr`pblkhkls
eb`oômbdhs, sughglctl bctlrlshctls
bctlrlshctls y guy vhob`shs, y sl uobzh d`g` hkyuvhc
hkyuvhctl
tl
lc gudn`s pr`kudt`s gâkbd`s hut`rbzhk`s. \ch kl sus durb`shs pr`pblkhkls
ls qul sl kbsulovl thct` lc hmuh d`g` lc `tr`s s`ovlctls `rmècbd`s, hdlbtls,
hod`n`ols, hdlt`chs, ltd. Hklgès, ls dhphz kl htrhvlshr rèpbkhglctl
rèpbkhglctl oh lpbklrgbs
(ehrrlrh chturho) y ohs glgerhchs dlouohrls, y oh ehrrlrh nlght`lcdlfèobdh klo
dlrler`.
Kl g`glct` sl rld`c`dl lo us` bctlrc` p`r oh FKH phrh lo trhthgblct` kl
oh dbss bctlrsdbho, qul ls uch lcflrglkhk drôcbdh kl oh vlabmh.
Nhebtuhoglctl, sl uobzh d`g` trhcsp`rthk`r kl susthcdbhs h trhvâs kl oh
pblo,
nhy c`
qulglzdohr
tlclr dubkhk`
p`rqulc`dbvhs
trhcsp`rth
thct` o` eulc`
d`g` lc
o`
gho`,plr`
ls kldbr
d`c susthcdbhs
` vlclc`shs,
cb muhrkhro`
>>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
e`tloohs d`c m`tlr` kl m`gh, yh qul sl kbs`ovlrçh ho lctrhr lo oçqubk`, dhushck`
lfldt`s tôxbd`s.
Lc o` qul sl rllrl ho k`o`r, ls dhphz kl rlkudbro`, klebk` h su lfldt`
kl trhcsp`rthr hmuh u `trhs susthcdbhs h z`chs klsnbkrhthkhs, y p`r slr uc
vhs`kbohthk`r qul lsguoh oh dbrduohdbôc, gla`rhck` lo sugbcbstr` kl shcmrl.
Dhogh
rlkudl
tr`ge`s,
dhohgerls,
qulo`bkls,
dbdhtrbdls.
O` p`klg`s
uobzhryguy
eblcvhrbdls,
phrh hobvbhr
nlght`ghs
` lobgbchr
lo k`o`r
kl dhelzh.
Lc rlohdbôc d`c lo sbstlgh bcgucl, sl nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr lo huglct` kl oh
pr`kuddbôc kl moôeuo`s eohcd`s y ghdrôfhm`s, ho gbsg` lgp` qul sl `eslrvô
uch rlmlclrhdbôc lc lo sçckr`gl kl bctlsc` plrglheol y lo htrhs` lfldv` klo
dècdlr (Hyrl, 826=).
\ch kl ohs durb`sbkhkls klo [email protected], ls qul sl d`cmloh h tlgplrhturhs
rlohvhglctl hoths. Lo puct` kl d`cmlohdbôc ls kl horlklk`r kl o`s 8> ¹D phrh
uc [email protected] kl d`cdlctrhdbôc ho 22-899%. Lc lo dhs` qul `durrh, sbgpolglctl sl
p`cl ho ehø` ghrçh y sl klsd`cmloh.
Y`r lsth rhzôc sl rld`gblckh uobzhr [email protected] ho =9%, duy` puct` kl
d`cmlohdbôc ls gès eha`, y hklgès c` brrbth oh pblo, puls oh brrbthebobkhk sl
pr`kudl p`r oh hoth d`cdlctrhdbôc.
Yrldhudb`cls1
•
•
•
•
•
•
C` sl klel glzdohr y hpobdhr lo [email protected] d`c pr`kudt`s tôxbd`s, puls
plcltrhrçhc lc lo `rmhcbsg` h trhvâs kl oh pblo.
C` sl klel muhrkhr
muhrkhr lc e`tloohs kl drbstho d`c m`tlr` kl m`gh, yh
yh qul
ls uc kbs`ovlctl y o`s suepr`kudt`s kl lsth rlhddbôc lctrhrçhc lc oh
s`oudbôc.
C` sl rld`gblckh nhdlr lclghs d`c
d`c [email protected], p`rqul sl lsthrçhc
lsthrçhc
rlbctr`kudblck` t`xbchs ho sbstlgh.
Lo [email protected] pur`
pur` sl d`cmloh h sôo` 8> ¹D, y ls klghsbhk` fulrtl duhck`
lstè pur`, p`r ls` sl rld`gblckh ushro` ho =9%.
Ñslo` pur` (sbc kboubr ho =9%), sb ls phrh hpobdhdbôc
hpobdhdbôc lxtlrch,
lxtlrch, ` kboubk`
kboubk` lc
uc vhs` kl hmuh, sb ls phrh elelro`.
Lstè d`ctrhbckbdhk`
d`ctrhbckbdhk` lc o`s dhs`s rhr`s kl lxdls`
lxdls` klo hgbc`èdbk`
Gl`cbch lc oh shcmrl.
Lxbstl gès bcf`rghdbôc s`erl lo [email protected] ho cho klo ober`, lc o`s kht`s
dblcd`s (Dhpçtuo`s 6 y =).
>2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Hmuh kl ghr
Lo bcvlsmhk`r Ulcâ Xubct`c, nba` kl uc gâkbd`, chdbô lo 8< kl kbdblgerl
kl 8>66, lc Dnhugls Erbl, Frhcdbh, y ful lo prbglr` lc bcvlsmhr o`s lfldt`s
tlrhpâud`s y durhv`s klo hmuh kl ghr.
Hucqul c` tlcçh cbcmuch dhrrlrh dblcdh rld`c`dbkh, ful uc hut`kbkhdth
sughglctl duot` d`c mhchs y tholct` kl bcvlsmhdbôc y sblgprl ho thct` kl o`s
prbcdbphols hvhcdls y klsduerbgblct`s dblcd`s kl su âp`dh.
Klspuâs kl uch lxplrblcdbh mrhvl l bgphdthctl, duhck` lcflrgô kl tutu elrduo`sbs, kl oh duho sl puk` rlduplrhr vbvblck` auct` ho ghr, sl kb` dulcth kl
qul oh d`gp`sbdbôc quçgbdh klo hmuh kl ghr ls guy sbgbohr ho sulr` shobc` kl oh
shcmrl kl o`s vlrtlerhk
vlrtlerhk`s.
`s.
Gès thrkl drlô uc sulr` shobc` ehshk` lc hmuh kl ghr ho qul oohgô ‟Yohsgh
kl Xubct`c‗, y su klsduerbgblct` ful dhphz kl shovhr gbols kl vbkhs lc kbvlrshs
dbukhkls frhcdlshs y thgebâc lc `tr`s phçsls.
Xubct`c pueobdô lc 829;, lo ober` ‟Lo hmuh kl ghr, glkb` `rmècbd`‗, y p`d`
klspuâs puk` herbr kbsplcshrb`s ghrbc`s lc Yhrçs, Oîvls, Oy`c, O`ckrls y Lmbpt`
d`c uc âxbt` fuogbchctl, yh qul ohs bcylddb`cls kl hmuh kl ghr bs`tôcbdh h o`s
ohdthctls d`c kldblcdbhs kl shouk, kblr`c uc`s rlsuothk`s lxdlolctls,
lxdlolctls, qul p`r
sulrtl fulr`c k`duglcthk`s f`t`mrèdhglctl,
f`t`mrèdhglctl, shovèck`sl klo `ovbk`
Fbm. 821 D`ctrhstl lctrl lo hctls y lo klspuâs klo trhthgblct
t rhthgblct`
` d`c hmuh kl ghr.
ghr.
Oh d`gucbkhk gâkbdh qul ol hp`yô kurhctl
kurhctl oh mulrrh, dhgebô p`stlrb`rglct
p`stlrb`rglctll
kl phrldlr, l bculcdbhkh p`r oh pr`phmhckh kl oh bckustrbh fhrghdâudh,
29
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
lgplzô h d`csbklrhr h o`s hcebôd`sy ohs vhduchs uc trhthgblct` gès
hvhczhk` y oudrhv`, bmc`rhck` p`r d`gpolt` o`s lfldt`s slduckhrb`s kl lst`s
glkbdhglct`s, p`r rlsbstlcdbhs, h ohrm` pohz`.
[lcblck` lc dulcth qul n`y lc kçh lxbstlc dhkh vlz gès lcflrglkhkls
drôcbdhs y sçckr`gls sbc s`oudbôc, homuc`s gâkbd`s y dblcd`s sl lstèc
klkbdhck`
rlklsduerbr hcmu`s rlglkb`s qul nhc qulkhk` lc lo `ovbk` d`c
lo phs` klo hlgp`.
\c` kl lst`s bcvlsmhk`rls ls lo Kr. Ècmlo Mrhdbh, qublc nh lstukbhk` o`s
lfldt`s p`sbv`s kl oh bcmlsôc klo hmuh kl ghr lc nughc`s y hcbghols, d`c
rlsuothk`s gès qul hs`ger`s`s.
Lc sus bcvlsmhdb`cls, nh p`kbk` d`gpr`ehr qul elelr hmuh kl ghr rlsuoth
guy elcldb`s` phrh oh shouk.
Lo hmuh kl ghr c` ls sbgpolglctl hmuh d`c sho1 ls uc oçqubk` qul d`clcl
t`k`s o`s gbclrhols y `obm`lolglct`s cldlshrb`s phrh lo dulrp` nughc` y qul
lstèc hklgès lc plrfldt` lquboberb`.
Lo hmuh kl ghr ls, h cbvlo eb`oômbd`, lxtrlghkhglctl lstheol sb lstè
muhrkhkh kl ghclrh hklduhkh, yh qul lc o`s Ohe`rht`rb`s Xubct`c sl lcl
hmuh muhrkhkh klskl oh âp`dh kl Xubct`c, qul t`khvçh ghclcl ohs gbsghs
pr`pblkhkls.
D`c`dç ho Kr. Ècmlo Mrhdbh lc uch d`cflrlcdbh y klskl lct`cdls c`s nbdbg`s
hgbm`s, yh qul gl musth su f`rgh kl plcshr y, durb`shglctl, âo phsô su bcfhcdbh
lc lo gbsg` oumhr k`ckl y` rlsbk` lc Lsphøh klskl nhdl gudn`s hø`s.
Hquç ols dbt` k`s ober`s lsdrbt`s p`r Ècmlo Mrhdbh1 ‟Ghcuho klo cèufrhm`,
s`erlvbvlcdbh lc o`s `dâhc`s uobzhck` lo hmuh klo ghr d`g` nbkrhthctl y
cutrblctl‗ y ‟Hmuh kl ghr, cutrbdbôc `rmècbdh‗.
K. È M1 ‟°Dôg` oh prbglrh dâouoh shobô klo hmuh, dôg` lsh
dâouoh
dhpturô
t`k` o`
qul
yh,ghrbch,
bcdoubkhkl
ohk`ckl
bcf`rghdbôc
d`cohsu
HKC0
Gl pusl
h hvlrbmuhr
quâ
lrhnheçh
oh s`ph
pr`dlkçh
prbglrh
dâouoh y oh vbkh, y lct`cdls Xubct`c gl kba`1 ‟Oh dâouoh ls oh lxprlsbôc
d`cdrlth kl oh bklh hestrhdth kl oh vbkh‗, y Gurrhy y âo kbalr`c1 ‟c` nhy vbkh
sbc trhcsflrlcdbh loâdtrbdh, y p`r ls` oh dâouoh ls uch ehtlrçh‗. Lct`cdls °kl
kôckl vblcl oh lclrmçh kl lsh ehtlrçh0‗
Tb lstè bctlrlshk` lc bcmlrbr y shelr gès hdlrdh klo hmuh kl ghr, lst`s
ghcuhols ol mubhrèc kl f`rgh slcdbooh y lctrltlcbkh phrh lctlcklr gla`r t`k`
s`erl lstl rlmho` kl oh chturholzh, lo hmuh kl ghr.
Hucqul ls` sç, nhy qul rlehahr oh d`cdlctrhdbôc, yh qul nhdl ;99 gboo`cls
kl hø`s, o`s ghrls c` lrhc thc shobc`s.
O`s prbglr`s slrls vbv`s kl oh lrrh sl drlhr`c lc uc lct`rc` d`c
d`ckudvbkhk loâdtrbdh1 lo ghr
ghr.. Lst`s slrls ucbdlouohrls pukblr`c d`gucbdhrsl,
28
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
drlhck` lstrudturhs pourbdlouohrls gès mrhckls y d`gpolahs p`stlrb`rglctl,
mrhdbhs ho lfldt` kl oh d`ckudvbkhk loâdtrbdh klo ghr, p`r su shobcbkhk.
Lo hmuh kl ghr pr`p`rdb`ch trhcsflrlcdbh kl lclrmçh lc uc lct`rc` kl
plrfldt` lquboberb`.
Tl nh `eslrvhk` qul o`s moôeuo`s eohcd`s s`erlvbvlc lc uc sulr`
bs`tôcbd` kl hmuh kl ghr, d`sh qul c` `durrl lc lo sulr` shobc` lstârbo kl
o`s n`spbthols, qul lstè d`gpulst` kl hmuh y do`rur` kl s`kb` rlchk` (sho).
Lst` c`s lxpobdh p`r quâ ohs dâouohs cldlsbthc uc lct`rc` lquboberhk`,
d`c t`k`s o`s lolglct`s lc su austh glkbkh, phrh p`klr fucdb`chr kl ghclrh
plrfldth. y slmñc kbdl lo Kr. Ècmlo Mrhdbh1 ‟C`s`tr`s, kl homñc g`k`, c` s`g`s
gès qul uc d`ctlclk`r kl hmuh kl ghr, yh qul oh shcmrl, ohs lxdrldb`cls y
sldrldb`cls nughchs y kl o`s hcbghols, t`k`s culstr`s ubk`s, s`c shobc`s‗
Xublrl kldbr qul ustlk lstè d`gpulst` hpr`xbghkhglctl kl uc =9% kl
hmuh kl ghr bs`tôcbdh.
Lst` c`s bckbdh qul lc târgbc`s kl shouk, c` klelg`s eusdhr thct` oh
purlzh kl uch u `trh susthcdbh, sbc` lo lquboberb` plrfldt` lctrl t`khs.
Lo nldn` kl hbsohr y hphrthr, phrh trhthr p`r slphrhk` kbscths phrtls klo
dulrp` ` kbscths susthcdbhs, c` pulkl slr uch s`oudbôc h ohrm` pohz`, yh qul
lo lquboberb` y oh hrg`cçh lctrl t`k`s lst`s lolglct`s, ls o` qul pr`p`rdb`ch oh
shouk.
Tb sl prlslcth uch dhrlcdbh ` uc klslquboberb` lc o`s fhdt`rls glcdb`chk`s,
sl kbduoth ` bcdous` sl bgpbkl lo fucdb`chgblct` c`rgho klo `rmhcbsg` lc su
d`cauct`, y lctrhg`s lc lo lsthk` ho qul oohghg`s lcflrglkhk.
Lo nldn` kl hbsohr quçgbdhglctl uch susthcdbh phrh lstukbhroh c` `durrl
lc oh chturholzh, y p`r o` thct` c` pulkl dugpobr lo phtrôc kl d`gphebobkhk
eb`oômbdh.
Hucqul lo hmuh kl ghr pulkh tlclr susthcdbhs d`csbklrhkhs c`dbvhs, ohs
lcl lc dhckhkls lxtrlghkhglctl
lxtrlghkhglctl plquløhs p`r chturhol
chturholzh,
zh, y sbcdlrhglct
sbcdlrhglctll
c` shelg`s h dblcdbh
d blcdbh dblrth, nhsth quâ puct` s`c ñols ` c`, yh qul lc dulsôc
kl t`xbdbkhk oh rlmoh ls1 ‟oh dhckhk nhdl lo vlclc`‗.
@tr` fhdt`r kltlrgbchctl h tlclr lc dulcth, ls lo kl oh d`ckudvbkhk
loâdtrbdh. Duhct` gla`r slh oh d`ckudvbkhk, gla`r slrè oh d`gucbdhdbôc y oh
trhcsgbsbôc kl lclrmçh lctrl dâouohs.
Yhrh tlclr d`ckudvbkhk, lo hmuh cldlsbth sho lc lo pr`dls` kl trhcsp`rtl
kl b`cls, yh qul, d`g` shelg`s, lo hmuh klsohkh c` d`ckudl oh loldtrbdbkhk.
O`s b`cls s`c dhphdls kl muhrkhr oh lclrmçh loâdtrbdh lc f`rgh kl loldtr`cls,
y s`c oh f`rgh quçgbdh kl hoghdlchr oh lclrmçh loâdtrbdh ño phrh lo dulrp`, y c`
klelg`s `ovbkhr qul oh lcflrglkhk ls fhoth kl lclrmçh.
25
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
D`cthgbchdbôc lc lo ghr
Oh d`cthgbchdbôc ls oh bctr`kuddbôc lc uc glkb` duhoqublrh, kl uc
d`cthgbchctl, yh slh quçgbd`, sbd`, eb`oômbd` ` bcdous` psçqubd`, yh qul lo
târgbc` sl pulkl uobzhr lxprlshck` hotlrhdbôc, plrvlrsbôc, d`rrupdbôc `
qulerhct`
qulerhct
` kl duhoqublr
d uhoqublr glkb` p`r phrtl kl uc hmlctl.
Fbm. 591 C` sl lcl qul kldbr o` qul ls (y o` qul c` ls) oh d`cthgbchdbôc hgeblctho.
Lc lo ègebt` kl oh ld`o`mçh, o` qul sl d`c`dl d`g` d`cthgbchdbôc hgeblctho,
ls oh prlslcdbh lc lo glkb` hgeblctl, kl duhoqublr hmlctl sbd`, quçgbd` `
eb`oômbd`, lc oumhrls, f`rghs y d`cdlctrhdb`cls qul pulklc slr c`dbv`s phrh oh
shouk, oh slmurbkhk ` lo eblclsthr kl oh p`eohdbôc y oh d`cslrvhdbôc klo pohclth.
Lc prbglr oumhr, nhy qul hrghr qul lo hmuh kl ghr lcl uch lxtrlgh
dhphdbkhk kl hut` rlmlclrhdbôc. Nhy qul plcshr qul kurhctl gboo`cls kl
hø`s o`s pldls nhc klfldhk` sus lxdrlglct`s y ohs ehdtlrbhs kl o`s rç`s nhc
klslge`dhk` lc lo hmuh klo ghr. Ohs pohcths lc lo ghr sbmulc drldblck`, o`s
pldls sl sbmulc rlpr`kudblck` (sb c` o`s d`glg`s hctls), bcdous` lo dnhphp`tl
qul d`cthgbcô nhdl uc`s hø`s ohs d`sths mhoolmhs, sl nh qulkhk` pltrbdhk`
d`c lo lgp`.
°Dô  e q      v    0
Lctrl `trhs rhz`cls, lst` sl klel ho hot` d`ctlcbk` kl do`r` lc f`rgh kl
do`rur` sôkbd`, qul ls sho d`gñc, qul oolvh dhrmh bôcbdh loâdtrbdh, dhphz kl nhdlr
rlhddb`cls eb`quçgbdhs kl `xbkhdbôc-rl
`xbkhdbôc-rlk`x.
k`x.
Tl pulkl rlsugbr qul lo hmuh kl ghr sl obgpbh h sç gbsgh p`r `xbkhdbôc, kl
t`k`s o`s hmlctls khøbc`s y d`cthgbchc
d`cthgbchctls
tls qul pukblrhc plraukbdhrc`s h ohrm`
pohz`. (C` ls kl lxtrhøhr qul culstr` dulrp` uobdl lo gbsg` d`cdlpt` kl hut`
obgpblzh p`r `xbkhdbôc, ` d`geusôc kl klsldn`s…).
24
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[hgebâc nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth lo pr`dls` kl `sg`sbs klo hmuh kl ghr, yh
qul looh gbsgh sl rlmlclrh.
Ñoghglctl sl pulkl `eslrvhr qul dhkh vlz gès pbsdbchs lc ohs dhshs,
lc vlz kl fucdb`chr h trhvâs kl phsoohs kl do`r`, fucdb`chc d`c uc sbstlgh
shobc`. Lo pr`pblthrb` sbgpolglctl ldnh uch dhckhk kltlrgbchkh kl sho ho
hmuh
kl oh
pbsdbchohsqul
hphrtl ykl
slr gès
hmrhkheol
y c`fucdb`ch
dhushr brrbthdbôc
lc
o`s `a`s,
lobgbch
ehdtlrbhs
`tr`s
phtômlc`s.
°Dôg`
lst`0 \c`s
loldtr`k`s obelrhc uch plquløh dhrmh kl uc`s p`d`s v`o`s ho hmuh y drlhc uc
lfldt` qul sl oohghc loldtrôobsbs. Lc lstl lfldt` sl slphrh lo hmuh lc nbkrômlc` y
`xçmlc`,, y ho slr shobc` thgebâc obelrh lo do`r`. Lstl do`r` yh o` d`c`dlg`s d`g`
`xçmlc`
uc lxdlolctl klsbcfldthctl y ls lo rlsp`csheol kl c` tlclr qul uobzhr `trhs
susthcdbhs quçgbdhs c`dbvhs lc oh pbsdbch, mhrhczhck` hsç h oh fhgbobh y h o`s
cbø`s uc vlrhc` pohdlctlr`, sbc bcflddb`cls kl `çk`s, `a`s, ` pblo.
Lo ghr uobzh lo gbsg` lfldt` p`r su hot` d`ctlcbk` kl sho, qul ls do`rur`
sôkbd`, y lc vlz kl loldtrbdbkhk, uobzh lo g`vbgblct` kl ohs `ohs, d`g` fulctl
kl lclrmçh. Ohs `ohs pr`kudlc, klebk` ho r`dl, uchs plquløhs dhrmhs loâdtrbdhs
qul obelrhc uchs plquløhs dhckhkls kl do`r`, sbgbohrls ho trhthgblct` kl ohs
pbsdbchs, drlhck` uch rlhddbôc klstrudvh d`ctrh t`k`s hquloo`s d`gp`clctls
c`dbv`s, kl pN èdbk`.
Tl pulkl kldbr qul lo hmuh kl ghr sl obgpbh h sç gbsgh lobgbchck` oh
d`cthgbchdbôc kl ghclrh d`csthctl, klebk` h su hoth dhphdbkhk d`rr`sbvh, d`sh
qul duhoqublr pr`pblthrb` kl uc ehrd` p`krçh hrghr.
Lst` c` sbmcbdh qul lo hmuh klo ghr lstâ lc eulc lsthk` lc t`k`s o`s sb`s,
yh qul c`s`tr`s o`s nughc`s c`s nlg`s lcdhrmhk` kl d`cthgbchr culstr`s
hduçflr`s, sbc plcshr lc ohs d`csldulcdbhs.
Hsç qul c` sl klelrçh rld`mlr hmuh kl ghr lc shobkhs klo rç`, k`ckl dhudl
hrrbeh slmurhglctl lxbstl uch bckustrbh qul vulodh d`cthgbchctls lc hoths
dhckhkls, cb thgp`d` k`ckl nhyhc fèerbdhs, pulrt`s ` bckustrbhs kbrldthglctl.
kbrldthglctl.
Yhrh shelr kôckl y dôg` p`klg`s rld`mlr lo hmuh kl ghr phrh elelr,
nhy qul `eslrvhr sb nhy plqulø`s pldls, ls kldbr oh prlslcdbh heuckhctl kl
holvbcls, bckbdh qul lo ghr c` pulkl lsthr d`cthgbchk`, p`rqul o`s ghthrçh,
klebk` h qul sus erhcqubhs y su sbstlgh kl rlspbrhdbôc ls guy slcsbeol h t`kh
p`oudbôc ` d`cthgbchdbôc. Kl nldn`, lc homuc`s oumhrls kl trhthgblct`s kl
hmuh p`theol sl uobzhc plqulø`s pldls d`g` glkbk`rls kl oh obgpblzh klo
hmuh: sb sl gulrl lo plz, sl kbsphrh oh hohrgh.
Lc o` qul sl rllrl h oh d`cthgbchdbôc kl gbdr`eb`s, ls bgpr`eheol oh
d`cthgbchdbôc p`r phrtl kl gbdr`eb`s kl pr`dlklcdbh tlrrlstrl, p`rqul ho
hglrbzhr, p`r ôsg`sbs ols vh h phshr…‗ d`g` ols `durrl ho ahgôc slrrhc` y ho
ehdhoh` sld`, qul sl d`cslrvhc p`rqul sbgpolglctl, sl nhc muhrkhk` d`c
sho, p`r o` qul o`s mârglcls, ehdtlrbhs, t`k` p` kl gbdr`eb`s, vbrus, n`cm`s
y phrèsbt`s ho hglrbzhr sl klshdvhc.
2;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
Lxbstlc uc`s lstukb`s hglrbdhc`s kl 826=, lc o`s qul d`csth qul lo hmuh klo
ghr ls bgp`sbeol kl slr d`cthgbchkh p`r gbdr`eb`s kl pr`dlklcdbh tlrrlstrl h
ohrm` pohz`, gblctrhs lstâ lc su lct`rc` pr`pb`.
C` ls o` gbsg` p`clr uc p`d` kl hmuh kl ghr lc uch pohdh Yltrb kl
ohe`rht`rb` ho klsdueblrt`, yh qul klebk` h oh fhoth kl g`vbgblct`, lo hmuh kl
ghr
dhrldl klchturho.
oh loldtrbdbkhk cldlshrbh phrh obelrhr lo b`c kl do`r`, qul ls lo
klsbcfldthctl
[lcblck` lc dulcth lst`, phrldl lvbklctl qul o`s ‟dheols‗ kl culstr`
dulrp`, lc rlhobkhk, s`c culstr`s oçqubk`s, qul lc o` eèsbd`, s`c d`g` lo hmuh
kl ghr bs`tôcbdh. Culstr`s oçqubk`s d`rp`rhols plrgbtlc qul sl trhcsgbth oh
bcf`rghdbôc lc culstr` `rmhcbsg`…
K.. È M1
K
M 1‟Ylcshr
‟Ylcshr y slr ls oh gbsgh d`sh, y s`g`s o` qul plcshg`s.
\stlk c` sl kh dulcth kl qul duhck` uch pblkrbth dhl lc lo dlctr` kl uc
lsthcqul, t`k` lo lsthcqul y t`khs ohs g`oâduohs klo hmuh sl lctlrhc kl
qul dhyô. Yuls ustlk, hucqul ol kuloh uch pucdh kl oh uøh klo klk`, ustlk
sl lctlrh
t`khs sus
dâouohs
o` shelc, y kl
ustlk
h tlclr uc nug`r
uc
nug`ryrlmuohr
` gho`
klplckblck`
qulvhsbdhglctl
ustlk sleulc`
sblcth`
d`c lclrmçh. Oh lclrmçh qul ol nh vlcbk` d`c lo s`o, p`rqul nh p`kbk` tlclr
t`k` o` p`sbeol phrh tlclr lo dhodb`, phrhr oh hdbklz y vbvbr lc uch vbkh qul
tlcmh qul vlr d`c oh chturholzh, d`c o` qul c`s lcsløh oh chturholzh t`k`s
t`k`s
o`s kçhs, plr` c` o` qulrlg`s hprlcklr.‗
Hphrtl kl tlclr t`pohcdt`c y z``pohcdt
z``pohcdt`c,
`c, lo hmuh kl ghr d`clcl t`k`s
o`s gbclrhols y `obm`lolglct`s kl oh theoh plrbôkbdh, sblck` dhphz kl fhdbobthr
oh rldhrmh lclrmâdh klebk` h su hot` d`ctlcbk` lc shols y b`cls. Ls, p`r o`
thct`, lo hmuh gès gbclrhobzhkh lxbstlctl, bcgucl y rld`glckhkh lc t`khs ohs
lcflrglkhkls
kl klsgbclrhobzhdbôc.
Lst`s gbclrhols
y `obm`lolglct`s hdtñhc d`g` d`lczbgh, lvbthck` oh
klsnbkrhthdbôc y plrgblck` uch rlmlclrhdbôc dlouohr, ghctlcblck` hsç uc
lquboberb` eb`quçgbd` plrfldt` klo dulrp`.
Lo hmuh kl ghr ls uc oçqubk` chturho heuckhctl, dhphz kl fhdbobthr uch
hodhobcbzhdbôc klo glkb` bctlrc`, klebk` h su pN kl >.; y ho gbsg` lgp`, ls
uc kbs`ovlctl kl susthcdbhs tôxbdhs qul klpurh culstr` dulrp` (Kr. Ml`rmls
Ohfhrmul):: oh huslcdbh kl dbt`t`xbdbkh
Ohfhrmul)
dbt`t`xbdbkhk
k lc dâouohs vbvhs, ful tlgh kl lstukb` p`r
phrtl klo Kr.
Kr. ]boglr T`olr (\cbvlrsbkhk kl Hc`qubh, D`o`gebh) Z5, 4, ;W.
Lc `eslrvhdb`cls kl lstukb`s prldoçcbd`s, c` sl nh p`kbk` d`crghr qul
lo hmuh kl ghr slh plraukbdbho phrh o`s rbø`cls cb qul dhusl nbplrtlcsbôc,
d`g` ls lo dhs` klo do`rur` sôkbd` (sho d`gñc).
2<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Lxbstlc gès kl >< kbsplcshrb`s ghrbc`s lc Cbdhrhmuh, k`ckl lo hmuh, d`c
hp`y` muelrchglctho klo Gbcbstlrb` kl [rhcsp`rtl y oh hodhokçh kl Ghchmuh, ls
kbstrbeubkh mrhtubthglctl
mrhtubthglctl h o`s phdblctls y h `tr`s kbsplcshrb`s klo phçs.
Lo hmuh kl ghr kl o`s kbsplcshrb`s sl lstè hchobzhck` kl ghclrh d`csthctl,
d`csthctl,
phrh
d`gpr`ehr qul ls hpth phrh lo d`csug` nughc` y oberl kl gbdr`eb`s
phtômlc`s.
Nhsth oh fldnh sl nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr su ldhdbh lc lo trhthgblct` kl ohs
sbmublctls pht`o`mçhs1
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Holrmbhs y rbcbs hoârmbdh.
Hrtrbs rlught`bkl.
Hsgh y lcflrglkhkls rlspbrht
rlspbrht`rbhs.
`rbhs.
Dbrr`sbs y lcflrglkhkls nlpèdhs.
D`caucvbs y mohud`gh.
Dèoduo`s rlchols.
Dècdlr (hyukhck` lc pr`dls` kl rlduplrhdbô
rlduplrhdbôc).
c).
Kbheltls.
Lsdolr`sbs gñopol.
Lstrløbgblct`
Lstrløbgblc
t` y nlg`rr`bkls.
Mhstrbs y Lcflrglkhkls uodlr`-pâpdhs
uodlr`-pâpdhs..
Nlrbkhs y qulghkurhs.
Nbplrtlcsbôc hrtlrbho.
Bcs`gcb`.
Yht`o`mçhs kl oh
oh pblo (ps`rbhsbs, klrghs, ñodlrhs vhrbd`shs…).
[rhthgblct`
[r
hthgblct` prlchtho.
Lo hmuh kl ghr nh sbk` guy ño y ls t`thoglctl d`gpheol, uobzèck`oh
uobzèck`oh
lc d`cauct` d`c lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, yh qul c` bctlrhdtñhc lctrl sç y sl
pulklc t`ghr h oh vlz.
vlz.
Oh gla`r f`rgh, ls t`ghr lo hmuh kl ghr bs`tôcbdh, ls kldbr rlehahkh d`c
hmuh gbclrho h uch duhrth phrtl, k`ckl oulm` sl høhkl lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc
duhoqublrh kl sus f`rghs.
Ohs vçhs kl hkgbcbstrhdbôc s`c1
s`c1
•
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Vçh `rho (kl 5<9 go ho kçh) lc lo 2< % kl o`s dhs`s.
\s` lxtlrc` (hpobdhdbôc tôpbdh lc oh pblo y gud`sh chsho, plkbouvb`s).
26
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
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Cleuobzhkh (lc phdblctls hsgèd`s y er`cquçd`s
e r`cquçd`s drôcbd`s).
D`obrb` (lc dhs`s kl d`caucvbs y mohud`gh).
M`ths ôdhs (lc `s lxtlrchs y holrmbhs
holrm bhs ôdhs).
Mèrmhrhs (lc hgbmkhobs y fhrbcmbs).
Lcauhmuls eudhols (nbmblcl `rho, mbcmbvbs, lcflrglkhkls klcthols).
Lclghs (vçh rldtho).
Ohvhk`s vhmbchols (bcflddb`cls y hpbhs dlouohrls lc lo duloo` utlrbc`).
Gls`tlrhpbh (bcylddbôc bctrhkârgbdh lc puct`s kl Hdupucturh y f`d`s
bctlrflrlctls).
Bcylddbôc bctrhvlc`sh ` sulr` clurho bctrhvlc`s` otrhk` (kl Ohe`rht` rb`s Xubct`c).
D`g` t`ghr hmuh kl ghr
Tl pulkl elelr sbc kboubr
kboubr,, ls kldbr nbplrtôcbdh (46 mrhg`s kl shols p`r obtr`)
lc dhckhkls plquløhs ` bs`tôcbdh Zkboubkh, h rhzôc kl 8 phrtl kl hmuh kl ghr
p`r 4 kl hmuh kuodl (814)W.
Yls`
Hmuh kl ghr
Hmuh gbclrho
9-8; jm (49 oberhs)
89 g o
49 go
8;-54 jm (49-<9 oberhs)
59 go
69 go
5;-4< jm (<<-=< oberhs)
49 g o
29 go
3 4< jm (3 =< oberhs)
<9 h 8<9 go
8<9 h ;<9 go
[hgebâc sl pulkl rlehahr d`c rlfrlsd`s ` zug`s chturhols, y sl pulkl
ushr
phrh d`dbchr
ohs d`gbkhs,
vlz
uobzhr
rlchkh,
d`c lxdlolctls
rlsuothk`s
duobchrb`s.
Kl nldn`,lc
n`y
lckl
kçh,
lstè hohohsho
vlcth
lc kbflrlctls
lckhs
kl m`urglts, phrh us` duobchrb`.
Gès hmuh kl ghr glzdohkh d`c hmuh sl pulkl khr (4 vldls ho kçh ` gès)
duhck` sl cldlsbtlc gès gbclrhols.
Hsç qul oh chturholzh c`s `frldl gudnh hmuh, y lstè h kbsp`sbdbôc kl t`k`s.
Ls uch mrhc c`dbh. Htrâvhsl h rld`mlroh sb pulkl, h uc gltr` kl pr`fuckbkhk
d`g` gçcbg` y c` sl `ovbkl…
¡[`khvçh ls mrhs! 1)
2=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh))
Hklgès klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` phrh lo trhthgblct` kl oh ghohrbh, thgebâc
lxbstlc `trhs hotlrchvhs. Lsth pohcth ful rlklsdueblrth h chols kl o`s slslcth
lc Dnbch y bcdoubkh lc lo ‟Ghcuho Dnbc` kl Yrlsdrbpdb`cls phrh [rhthgblct
[rhthgblct`s
`s kl
Lglrmlcdbh‗, kl 82=9, k`ckl, kl nldn`, ls d`c`dbkh lc oh fhrghd`plh d`g`
‟Xbcm Nh`‗ (4;9 h.D.).
Tlmñc oh glkbdbch dnbch, oh Hrtlgbsbh hccuh ls ‟ybc‗ lc su chturholzh, qul
sbmcbdh frçh,
fr çh, y sbrvl phrh trhthr d`ckbdb`cls
d`ckbd b`cls bctlrchs
bctlrch s kl ‟yhcm‗, kl dho`r, ls kldbr,
lcflrglkhkls
lcflrglkh
kls kl lerl.
O`s prbglr`s k`duglct`s s`erl lsth pohcth sl lcd`ctrhr`c lc lo ober` kl
glkbdbch dnbch ‟Elcdh` Mhcmgu‗, kl 8<26 k.D., phrh lo trhthgblct` kl lerls
bctlrgbtlctls
bctlrgbtlc
tls (d`g` oh ghohrbh).
Tlmñc ohs vblahs fhrghd`plhs, sl rld`oldth lc prbghvlrh ` vlrhc`, sl høhkl
hmuh y sl lxprbgl lc frç` lc lo g`rtlr`, `etlcblck` su aum`. Ls bgp`rthctl
qul ustlk o` nhmh lc frç`, yh qul duhck` dblcd`s dnbc`s gès thrkl nbdblr`c
lxtrhdt`s lc hmuh dhoblctl kl Hrtlgbsbh hccuh, sl kblr`c dulcth kl qul
prèddhglctl c` lcl hdvbkhk lc o`s rht`cls kl ohe`rht`rb`, sbc lgehrm`,
duhck` nbdblr`c lxtrhdt`s frç`s, sç qul fucdb`cheh: gès hklohctl fulr`c dhphdls
kl shdhr y hbsohr uc d`gpulst` fhrghdâud` ño, oh hrtlgbsbcbch.
Oh hrtlgbsbcbch, lxtrhçkh kl lsth pohcth, hdtñh kl 89 h 899 vldls gès rèpbk`
qul t`k`s o`s glkbdhglct`s d`cvlcdb`chols d`c`dbk`s d`ctrh oh ghohrbh. O`
bctlrlshctl ls qul bcdous` lrh ldhz lc oh ghohrbh kl Y. fhodbphrug, qul yh
prlslcthehh rlsbstlcdbhs h oh do`r`qubch, y ls d`csbklrhkh d`g` uch kl ohs pl`rls
prlslcthe
ghohrbhs, klebk` h sus lfldt`s dlrlerhols y su g`rthobkhk.
O`s dblcd`s dnbc`s klg`strhr`c su ldhdbh, bcdous` 89 hø`s hctls kl qul
lstl nldn` sl d`c`dblrh h cbvlo guckbho.
Lc hqulo lct`cdls, lo m`eblrc` dnbc` c` sl heh kl oh @rmhcbz
@rmhcbzhdbôc
hdbôc Guckbho
kl oh Thouk (@GT) y ol klclmô lc su g`glct` lo hddls` h oh kr`mh y h oh pohcth.
@tr` us` kl oh hrtlgbsbh ls lc p`ov` sld`, phrh us` bctlrc`, ` thgebâc lc
f`rgh kl lxtrhdt` hdu`s` lc lclghs, s`erl t`k` d`c ohs plrs`chs qul lstèc
bcd`csdblctls: ls bgp`rthctl shelr qul lo trhthgblct` pulkl slr d`gebchk`
d`c `tr`s trhthgblct`s doèsbd`s phrh oh ghohrbh, qul yh lstèc oberls kl phtlctls.
O`s lclghs fucdb`chc guy eblc, s`erl t`k` lc o`s cbø`s ` lc phdblctls d`c
sbkh.
Lc trls lstukb`s dblcd`s, o`s dnbc`s
d nbc`s gulstrhc uch ldhdbh klo 899% duhck`
ohs n`ahs kl hrtlgbsbh puovlrbzhkhs sl hkgbcbstrhc kbrldthglctl lc f`rgh kl
p`ov`, glzdohkhs
glzdohkhs d`c hdlbtl, ` lxtrhçkhs d`c hod`n`o. Lst`s s`c pr`dlkbgblct`s
eèsbd`s qul t`k` fhrghdâud` pulkl rlhobzhr lc duhoqublr phrtl klo guck`.
Klebk` h oh prlsbôc kl oh @GT,
@ GT, 8> lgprlshs fhrghdâudhs fulr`c `eobmhkhs
h rlrhr phuohchglctl o`s glkbdhglct`s phrh lo trhthgblct` `rho kl oh ghohrbh
ehshk`s lc hrtlgbsbh, hrmuglcthck` qul ‟lo phrèsbt` kl oh ghohrbh p`krçh drlhr
2>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
rlsbstlcdbhs‗, sbc hp`rthr h dhgeb` cbcmuch pruleh dblcdh, sblck` oh ldhdbh
rlsbstlcdbhs‗,
kl oh hrtlgbsbh lc oh durhdbôc kl oh ghohrbh (phoukbsg`) kl hpr`xbghkhglctl
hpr`xbghkhglctl uc
2< h 899%. [rldl kl lsths lgprlshs nhc dlkbk` h oh prlsbôc kl oh @GT.
T`rprlcklctlglctl, n`y t`khvçh c` sl nh k`duglcthk` cb uc s`o` dhs`
doçcbd` kl rlsbstlcdbh h oh hrtlgbsbcbch ` h duhoqublrh kl sus klrbvhk`s.
\chqul
kl dugpobrè
ohs d`gphøçhs
kl oh obsth, d`c
Thc`/Hvlcs,
yh sl kl
nh oh
hprlsurhk`
bckbdhr
pr`mrlsbvhglctl
lo rlqulrbgblct`
@GT. Lc loh
rlst` kl o`s dhs`s sl trhth kl plquløhs lgprlshs lur`plhs (lc Eâombdh, Frhcdbh
y Tubzh) y lc Vbltchg, Bckbh, Dnbch,
D nbch, Mnhch y Jlcbh.
Oh @GT hkvbrô h ohs lgprlshs qul sbmulc fherbdhck` oh hrtlgbsbh lc lsthk`
pur`, qul ohs vbmbohrè lstrldnhglctl sb qublrlc `etlclr oh dlrdhdbôc kl sus
pr`kudt`s, phrh qul dugpohc d`c oh c`rghvh bctlrchdb`cho, s`erl ldhdbh,
slmurbkhk y dhobkhk.
Ls guy `evb` qul hquç sl kh uc dnhcthal p`r phrtl kl oh @GT h ohs plquløhs
lgprlshs fhrghdâudhs, klebk` h qul lxbstlc bctlrlsls
bctlrlsls ld`côgbd`s lc aulm`.
C` lcl cbcmñc slck` qul uch pohcth ushkh nhdl dblct`s kl hø`s slh
rlrhkh
klo glrdhk`
‟p`r sbhhdhs`‗…
p`rqublrlc
oh @GT,shovhmuhrkhr
uch `rmhcbzhdbôc
d`ctr`ohkh
p`r o`s U`djlfloolr
qublcls
su vlz s`o`
sus g`c`p`ob`s
fhrghdâud`s.
Tlmñc uc plrbôkbd` jlcbhc`, lo ‟Khboy Ch`c‗, oh @GT rldbel 8 gbooôc kl
kôohrls d`g` bctlrglkbhrbh phrh lo hehstldbgblct` h Jlcbh kl ‟D`-Hrtlg‗, kl
C`vhrs, uch kr`mh hcphoñkbdh duy`s prbcdbpb`s hdv`s s`c lo hrtlgâtlr y oh
ouglfhctrbch.
Lc Mbclerh, oh slkl kl oh `rmhcbzhdbôc shcbthrbh bcsbsô h o`s `rmhcbsg`s
chdb`chols kl rlmohglcthdbôc fhrghdâudh kl o`s phçsls k`ckl oh ghohrbh
ls lckâgbdh, qul pr`nbeblrhc oh d`glrdbhobzhdbôc kl g`c`tlrhpbhs `rhols kl
hrtlgbsbh.
Klskl lclr` klo 5996, 84 phçsls nhc hcucdbhk` qul bcbdbhrçhc oh
d`glrdbhobzhdbôc kl o`s glkbdhglct`s hcghoèrbd`s pr`pulst`s p`r oh @GT, y
`tr`s trls c`dhr`c qul lgplzhrçh
lgplzhrçhc
c h trhehahr lc loo`.
Mbclerh ls thgebâc oh slkl bctlrchdb`cho kl oh Flklrhdbôc kl oh Druz U`ah
y kl `trhs `rmhcbzhdb`cls, y c` klelg`s `ovbkhr qul lo phohdb` kl oh fhgbobh
U`tnsdnbok sl lcdulctrh sbtuhk` lc lo gbsg` oumhr, lc kbrldt` vldbckhrb` d`c oh
@C\ y oh @GT.
Lo pr`eolgh ls qul ho c` slr uch pohcth houdbcômlch ls kbdbo kl pr`nbebr,
hsç qul sl oh bctlcth e`bd`tlhr h t`kh d`sth, yh qul o`s phçsls lc klshrr`oo` sl
oh p`krçhc fherbdhr loo`s gbsg`s, y p`r o` thct`, klahrçhc kl lsthr hthk`s h oh
kr`m`klplcklcdbh
kr`m`klplck
lcdbh mlclrhkh p`r ohs guochdb`chols.
Lxbstlc bckbdb`s kl qul dhsb t`k`s o`s gbcbstr`s kl shouk hfrbdhc`s, rldbelc
duhc`shs sughs kl kbclr` pr`dlklctls klo clm`db` kl o`s fèrghd`s.
22
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
H loo`s gbsg`s c` phrldl bgp`rthrols oh shouk kl su pr`pbh mlctl. Lstèc
suglrmbk`s lc oh d`rrupdbôc, y hsç ohs guochdb`chols fhrghdâudhs k`gbchc
o`s glrdhk`s klo tlrdlr guck`, drlhck` uch klplcklcdbh kl bgp`rthdbôc kl
glkbdhglct`s.
Lc [hczhcbh p`r lalgpo`, ohs bckustrbhs fhrghdâudhs phmhc h o`s
duovhk`rls
hfrbdhc`s klohohpohcth
hrtlgbsbh
sôo`qul
9,<₯,
y ñcbdhglctl
uobz
uobzhc
pukbâck`sl hpr`vldnhr
lctlrh,
p`krçh
slr vlckbkh
h hc
89₯ohs
lon`ahs,
jbo` h
o`s n`spbthols.
Hctls kl qul hquç gl oklc kl d`cspbrhc`bd`, `pbc` qul oh d`cspbrhdbôc
guckbho sl rlsugl lc trls sbgpols phoherhs1 ‟Nhz gès kbclr`‗. Lsth fôrguoh,
d`cspbrh d`ctrh oh shouk kl gboo`cls kl plrs`chs. D`c lstl d`cdlpt` sl d`csbmul
t`k`.
Oh hrtlgbsbh thgebâc nh sbk` ldhz lc gudn`s dhs`s kl dècdlr y ls uc
lxdlolctl rlglkb` hkbdb`cho.
hkbdb` cho. Kl nldn`, sl nh bcvlsmhk` su us` lc lo trhthgblct`
kl dècdlr, kurhctl 49 hø`s, lc Dnbch y Vbltchg. Lxbstl uc trheha` bctlrlshctl
klo k`dt`r holgèc Hof`cs ]lelr, kl 82=<, lc lo qul puk` `eslrvhr glr`z`bt`s
(ls
uchkl
lthph
klo dbdo`klklo`svbkh
kl uc phrèsbt`
pr`t`z`hrb`,
lc ohklghohrbh)
lc oh
shcmrl
oh ghy`rçh
phdblctls
d`c dècdlr,
sblck` dhphz
k`duglcthr
f`t`mrèdhglctl lstl nldn`.
Fbm. 581 Dbdo` kl vbkh klo trbphc`s`gh rlsp`csheol p`r oh
o h lcflrglkhk kl oh ghohrbh.
899
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
Lvbklctlglctl, c` ful hdlpthk` p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho doèsbdh.
Lvbklctlglctl,
Tlmñc lo Kr. Tbcmn, oh hrtlgbsbh ls lo hmlctl gès p`klr`s`, ehrht` y slmur`
lc târgbc`s kl qubgb`tlrhpbh lcd`ctrhk` y, hklgès, sl pulkl uobzhr p`r vçh
`rho y lc dhsh. Lxbstlc cuglr`s`s tlsg`cb`s
tlsg`cb`s l bcf`rgls kl rlgbsb`cls kl dècdècdlr uobzhck` hrtlgbsbh, s`erl t`k` lc dhs`s kl oludlgbh.
Oh Hrtlgbsbh hccuh  1
Dhckhk, k`sbs kbhrbh uobzhkh1 < m.
G`k` kl lgpol`1 8 dudnhrh kl p`strl p`r thzh, t`ghr 5 ô 4 lxtrhdt`s
prlphrhk`s lc frç` ho kçh. Yhrh lst` sl pulkl prlphrhr 8 obtr` d`c uch dudnhrhkh
s`plrh y rlphrr lc vhrbhs t`ghs.
D 
  ‟H‗1
‟H‗1
Oh k`sbs c`rgho d`ctrh lo dècdlr y oh ghohrbh ls kl 699 gm k`s vldls ho
kçh, fulrh kl ohs d`gbkhs ` d`g` lclgh rldtho, slmñc dhs`.
Oh hrtlgbsbcbch ls rlohvhglctl slmurh d`c p`d`s lfldt`s slduckhrb`s,
bcdous` lc k`sbs hoths (gèxbg` =9 gm/jm p`r kçh) lc lo trhthgblct` kl oh
ghohrbh y h d`rt` pohz`.
Lstlvbh (Ttlvbh rlehukbhch)
Oh ghy`rçh kl o`s pr`eolghs gès d`gucls kl shouk lc oh s`dblkhk `ddbklctho
kl n`y lc kçh, d`g` p`r lalgpo` oh `elsbkhk lxdlsbvh, lstèc rlohdb`chk`s
kbrldthglctl d`c lo lxdlsbv` d`csug` kl hzñdhrls, ghy`rbthrbhglctl kl hzñdhr
eohcd`, yh slh kl g`k` kbrldt`, ` bcdoubk` lc pr`kudt`s kl hobglcthdbôc lctrl
sus bcmrlkblct
bcmrlkblctls.
ls.
\ch lxdlolctl hotlrchvh ho hzñdhr rlchkh, ls uch pohcth oohghkh lstlvbh
(Ttlvbh rlehukbhch), qul ls uch pohcth glkbdbcho kuodl,
kuod l, pr`dlklctl klo Yhrhmuhy
y Erhsbo, k`ckl sl khc uchs d`ckbdb`cls guy eulchs phrh su drldbgblct`. Lc
Tukhgârbdh sl oh uobzh klskl nhdl dblct`s
d blct`s kl hø`s p`r su fulrtl kuoz`r chturho.
chturho.
Kl nldn`, ls uchs 89-49 vldls gès kuodl qul lo hzñdhr,
hzñdhr, hklgès sbc dho`rçhs.
Hucqul c` sl rlpr`kudl d`c fhdbobkhk slgerhck` ohs slgboohs, kl ohs qul c`
sulolc mlrgbchr gès kl uc 8<%, sl guopobdh eblc p`r lsqulals.
O`s bckb`s muhrhcçls oh ushr`c y sbmulc lgpolhck` d`g` lkuod`rhctl y
hklgès, d`g` pohcth glkbdbcho. Loo`s oh uobzhc phrh f`rtholdlr lo d`rhzôc y
oh v`oucthk y thgebâc d`g` uc rlglkb` ldhz d`ctrh oh nbplrtlcsbôc hrtlrbho,
898
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
oh `elsbkhk y oh hdbklz lst`ghdho. Oh oohghc ‟Jh‒h nl‒l‗ ‛nblreh kuodl‛ y,
durb`shglctl, plrtlcldl h oh gbsgh fhgbobh kl o`s mbrhs`ols.
Lc Ahpôc sl oh uobzh klskl nhdl gès kl 49 hø`s d`g` lkuod`rhctl chturho.
O`s prbcdbphols lxp`rthk`rls kl pr`kudt` hdhehk` n`y lc kçh s`c Dnbch l Bckbh.
Lo lstlvbôsbk` pur` ls uchs 499 vldls gès kuodl qul lo hzñdhr, plr`
dhrldl kl t`khs ohs susthcdbhs chturhols y glkbdbchols kl oh pohcth.
Nhsth nhdl uc`s hø`s, oh lstlvbh lstheh pr`nbebkh lc oh bckustrbh
hmr`hobglcthrbh. Ylr` h chols klo 599> lc Lsthk`s \cbk`s, oh FKH hut`rbzô su
us` d`g` lkuod`rhctl, y lc 5992 sl olmhobzô lc Frhcdbh.
Lc Lsthk`s \cbk`s, oh FKH oh pr`nbebô lc 8228, sbc hrmuglcthr su
bolmhobzhdbôc.
bolmhobz
hdbôc. T`rprlcklctlglctl, homuc`s kl o`s rlsp`csheols kl lsth kldbsbôc,
klahr`c p`d` klspuâs sus dhrm`s lc oh FKH y phshr`c h slr lgpolhk`s kl oh
d`gphøçh Cutrhswllt, qul surmbô kl G`cshct`.
Y`d` klspuâs, lo fhoo` sl rlvbrô, y duhck` ohs lgprlshs D`dh-D`oh y Dhrmboo
`etuvblr`c 5; phtlctls kl rlebhch ‛oh susthcdbh kuodl kl oh lstlvbh‛ phrh
lckuozhr elebkhs y `tr`s hobglct`s, oh FKH hut`rbzô sbc pr`eolghs, lc lo hø`
599>, lo pr`kudt` [ruvbh℥ d`g` lkuod`rhctl chturho, hucqul d`ctlcmh uch
guy ehah pr`p`rdbôc kl lstlvbh y `tr`s d`gp`clctls hmrlmhk`s, mrhdbhs h o`s
qul nh p`kbk` slr phtlct
phtlcthk`,
hk`, sôo` d`clcl uc rlehukbôsbk` y c` ohs susthcdbhs
hdvhs kl oh lstlvbh, qul rlsuothc thc ñols phrh oh shouk.
Tl nh vbst` dôg` dhgphøhs kl klsbcf`rghdbôc lc oh \cbôc Lur`plh,
bcbdbhkhs p`r o`s rlprlslcthctls kl oh bckustrbh klo hzñdhr, bcsmhehc h o`s
d`csugbk`rls d`ctrh lo us` kl oh lstlvbh. Klspuâs kl bcf`rghr s`erl oh prlsucth
dhrdbc`mlcbdbkhk kl oh Ttlvbh rlehukbhch, lc oh qul holmhehc qul dhushrçh
lstlrbobkhk
` ho glc`s
klebobthrçh
oh p`tlcdbh
ghsduobch
supulst`
lfldt` slduckhrb`‛
sbc d`cthr
d`c cbcmñc
lstukb`
dblcd`‛d`g`
ho rlspldt`,
âsths
prlsucdb`cls fulr`c rlfuthkhs d`c bcvlsmhdb`cls lxnhusvhs qul sl oolvhr`c
h dhe` lc oh \cbvlrsbkhk kl Yhkuh.
Tb fulrh hsç, o`s chv`s klo Yhrhmuhy slrçhc lstârbols h lsths hoturhs. Ls uc
hrmuglct` t`thoglctl hesurk`, yh qul oh nhc uobzhk` kurhctl sbmo`s, lc su
lsthk` gès pur`.
O`s lstukb`s dblcd`s kl oh pohcth nhc p`kbk` rlvlohr qul sus n`ahs d`clclc
gès kl 899 bcmrlkblctls hdv`s kbflrlctls. O`s d`gp`clctls prbcdbphols gès
bgp`rthctls s`c vhrbhs susthcdbhs d`g` o`s tlrplc`s, eb`hv`c`bkls y o`s
rlsp`csheols kl o`s moudôsbk`s kl ohs pohcths, lspldbhoglctl lo lstlvbôsbk` y
lo kuodôsbk`. O`s moudôsbk`s (lstlvbôsbk`,
(lstlvbôsbk`, rlehusbôsbk`) s`c g`oâduohs lstheols,
qul phshc h trhvâs klo trhdt` kbmlsv` prèddhglctl sbc slr hotlrhkhs. Yulst`
qul c` sl glthe`obzhc, lo cbvlo kl hzñdhr lc oh shcmrl c` sl vl hfldthk`.
895
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
Lxbstlc vhrb`s lstukb`s, bcdous` kl k`eol dblm`, qul klgulstrhc oh ldhdbh
kl oh lstlvbh d`ctrh oh nbplrtlcsbôc, ho bmuho qul lo drldbgblct` ehdtlrbhc` y oh
bcnbebdbôc klo drldbgblct` klo dècdlr Z<, 6, =, >, 2W.
Vhrb`s tlsg`cb`s, bckbdhc qul oh d`gebchdbôc klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` d`c oh
lstlvbh ful ldhz d`ctrh oh kbheltls. Hucqul nhy dhs`s k`ckl c` sl nh p`kbk`
`eslrvhr
cbcm ñc lfldt`,
cbcmñc
lxbstlc `tr`s
lxbstlc
k`ckllc
nue`
uch rlgbsbôc
oh lcflrglkhk
y c`rghobzhdbôc
kl o`s cbvlols
klo hzñdhr
shcmrl.
Oh k`sbs kl
t`ghkh
slrçh1 oh
pohcth lc p`ov` lc oh dhckhk kl uch dudnhrhkbth ho kçh. Nhy k`duglcthkh gès
bcf`rghdbôc lc o`s pr`t`d`o`s lspldçdhk`s gès hklohctl.
Jhohcdn`l (Ery`pnyooug khbmrlg`ctbhcug)
H trhvâs kl A`slp Yégbls kl oh Hs`dbhdbôc ‟Kuodl Ulv`oudbôc kl ohs Yohcths
Glkbdbchols‗, oolmuâ h d`c`dlr uch pohcth d`c lo c`gerl kl ‟Jhohcdn`l‗. Âo gl
d`ctô hdlrdh kl sus pr`pblkhkls tlrhpâudhs,
tlrhpâudhs, ohs duhols s`c guy bctlrlshctls,
s`erl t`k` lc lo tlgh klo dècdlr.
C`s kb` uch n`abth kl oh duho er`thehc homuc`s pohctlols y oolvèck`oh h
dhsh c`s kbg`s dulcth kl qul lsth pohcth tlcçh uch rlsbstlcdbh bgprlsb`chctl.
Kurhctl glsls, lsth n`ah sl ghctlcçh lstheol y oulm` lgplzheh h guopobdhrsl
h trhvâs kl sus pohctlols, kl tho ghclrh qul n`y oh tlrrhzh kl dhsh oh tlcm` oolch
kl Jhohcdn`ls, drldblck` h kblstr` y sbcblstr`.
Lc lstl dhs` sl trhtheh kl oh Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch (Ery`pnyooug
khbmrlg`chcug)) y oh Jhohcdn`l pbcchth
khbmrlg`chcug
pbcchth (Ery`pnyooug pbcchtug, Ery`pnyooug
dhoydbcug), eusdhck` lc oh obtlrhturh dblcdh kl glkbdbch, prbcdbphoglctl sl
lcdulctrhc lstukb`s s`erl ‟Jhohcdn`l pbcchth‗, pr`dlklctl kl Hgârbdh klo
Tur, k`ckl sl oh uobzh d`ctrh pbdhkurhs kl bcsldt`s, nlrbkhs, ñodlrhs, y `trhs
lcflrglkhkls
lcflrglkhk
ls kl oh pblo.
Z89W phrh trhthr lcflrglkhkls nlpèdhs, khk` su
Lc elcldb`s`
uc lstukb` kl
sl usô
lfldt`
lcohloBckbh
nçmhk`
. Tl nh p`kbk` klg`strhr su lfldt` hcnbsthhcnbsth Z88W
gçcbd` rlhobzhk` bc vbtr` d`c dâouohs hbsohkhs . Lo oçqubk` prlcshk` kl sus n`ahs
klg`strô tlclr lfldt` hcehdtlrbhc` Z85, 84W. Lstukb`s lc r`lk`rls kl ohe`rht`rb`
rlvlohr`c qul lo lxtrhdt` lcl pr`pblkhkls hcbchght`rbhs, hckbheâdhs y hchcèombdhs (d`ctrh lo k`o`r) Z8;W.
Lc lo 599< `tr`s lstukb`s d`c rht`cls klg`strhr`c qul lo lxtrhdt` kl ohs
n`ahs Jhohcdn`l pbcchth, lclc uc lfldt` d`ctrh uodlrhdb`cls klo lstôghm`,
bcdous` sb lstèc bckudbk`s p`r glkbdhglct`s. [hgebâc sl nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr
qul lo lxtrhdt` kl ohs n`ahs d`clcl g`oâduohs hc dhcdlrçmlchs d`ctrh
t`xbchs guthmâcbdhs d`g` lo 5-hgbc`hctrhdlc` Z86W, k`ckl klg`strô su
hdvbkhk hcdhcdlr`sh lc dâouohs hbsohkhs, kl nldn` sl nh hbsohk` kl oh pohcth
oh erb`obch-H y oh erb`obch-E, lxnbeblck` su p`tlcdbho hcdhcdlr`s` Z8=, 8>W.
Ho gbsg` lgp` lcl dhphdbkhk hcvbrho, k`ckl lc uc`s lstukb`s sl puk`
894
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
d`gpr`ehr su ldhdbh phrh d`gehr lo vbrus kl Lpstlbc-Ehrr Z82W, d`c âxbt`, ho
bmuho qul sl nh p`kbk` g`strhr qul lo lxtrhdt` kl ohs n`ahs bcnbel lo vbrus klo
nlrpls Z59W l bcdous` oh rlpobdhdbôc klo vbrus klo sbkh (VBN) lc o`s obcf`dbt`s Z58W qul
s`c ohs dâouohs
d âouohs shcmuçclhs kl klflcsh.
Lc lo n`spbtho ucbvlrsbthrb` kl Qurbdn (Tubzh), sl oh nh uobzhk` phrh rlkudbr
Z55, 54, 5;W
ohs
d`ctrhddb`cls
utlrbchs
prlghturhs
Lstl nldn`
lstè
lc
oh `eslrvhdbôc
kl qul
oh pohcth
lc rht`cls lcl. lfldt`
slkhctl
y lsehshk`
rlohahctl
gusduohr Z5<W.
[x1
Oh pohcth d`clcl eufhkblcôobk`s, uc vlclc` qul hdtñh d`g` gldhcbsg`
quçgbd` kl klflcsh. Lc o` qul sl rllrl h oh t`xbdbkhk, nhy qul rld`rkhr
sblgprl1 oh dhckhk nhdl lo vlclc`. \c hkuot` p`r o` thct` klelrçh d`glr ;99
m kl Jhohcdn`l phrh bct`xbdhrsl, d`sh p`d` pr`eheol, hucqul sç lxbstlc dhs`s kl
t`xbdbkhk oltho,
oltho, d`g` p`r lalgpo`, duhck` lo mhchk` `vbc` sl d`gbô ohs `rls kl
Z56W
oh gbsgh pohcth, qul p`r o` vbst`, lclc uc lfldt` gudn` gès d`ctucklctl .
\ch k`sbs kl 8< nhsth 49 m sl d`csbklrh slmurh lc lo hkuot` kl <9 h 899
jbo`s, p`r o` thct` sl klel rlkudbr kl ghclrh lqubvholctl
lqubvholctl sb sl trhth kl cbø`s.
Oh Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch ful bcvlsmhkh p`r ]hmclr, Fbsdnlr y
O`lr, uc mrup` kl bcvlsmhk`rls holghcls qul pukblr`c hbsohr, lc 82>;,
oh khbmrlg`chcbch Z5=W. O`s kht`s klo lspldtr`, k`s prbcdbpb`s tôxbd`s kl
Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch, sl hbsohr`c y fulr`c lstrudturhoglctl dohsbdhk`s
d`g` eufhkblcôobk`s d`c uc bcusuho phtrôc kl sustudbôc.
Oh khbmrlg`chcbch, uc culv` d`gpulst`, y lo `rt`hdltht` kl 8,4,<elrshoklmlcbch,
elrshoklmlcbc
h, qul thgebâc sl lcd`ctrô lc oh Jhohcdn`l tueb`rh,
tueb`rh, gulstrhc
uc lfldt` slkhctl, bc`trôpbd` p`sbv` y thgebâc hdvbkhk lc lo sbstlgh
clrvb`s`
dlctrho.`O`s
klprls`rls klo sbstlgh
clrvb`s`qul
dlctrho
h vldls
d`c`dbk`s
d`g` slkhctls
trhcqubobzhctls,
s`c susthcdbhs
pulklc
kbsgbcubr
oh
hdvbkhk dlrlerho.
Lx1
Gbs lxplrblcdbhs y o`s tlsg`cb`s hp`rthk`s nhc sbk` lxdlolctls lc t`k`s
o`s dhs`s. Tl nh uobzhk` d`gblck` oh n`ah, rlhobzhck` lgpohstls
lgpohstls kl plqulø` y
mrhc thghø`, ghctlcblck` oh pblo thphkh d`c lcv`oturh kl poèsd` kurhctl 5;
n`rhs. D`g` m`ths lc o`s `a`s kbrldthglctl, klg`strô uc lfldt` hcfucmbdbkh,
hcehdtlrbhc` y hcphrhsbthrb` (hucqul lsduldl kurhctl uc`s 8< slmuck`s
hpr`xbghkhglctl).
Lsth pohcth ls guy lfldvh phrh o`s khø`s dlouohrls y tug`rhols (d`c
rlsuothk`s hs`ger`s`s lc dhs`s tlrgbchols kl dècdlr), rlughsg`,
89;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
bchghdb`cls, nbplrtlcsbôc, dôobd`s rlchols, kbhrrlhs, nlrbkhs pr`fuckhs y
mhcmrlchkhs,
mhcmrlch
khs, bcflddb`cls, qulghkurhs, hesdls`s… y durb`shglctl
d urb`shglctl sl nh p`kbk`
`eslrvhr su ldhdbh lc gudn`s dhs`s kl lsqubz`frlcbh, drbsbs kl pècbd`, gblk`s,
qubzès klebk` h su lfldt` hcphrhsbthrb`.
Tl nh p`kbk`
`eslrvhr
ho ghsdhrbcdous`
oh n`ah k`ckl
qul uchloolcmuh
dhckbkbhsbs
sl hdohrô
d`gpolthglctl,
kbôxbk`hfldthkh
kl do`r`p`r
c`
tuv` uc lfldt` shsfhdt`rb`.
Yltrôol`1 shchk`r ucbvlrsho
[rlglcch y pltrôol`, klsohk`s sbgbohrls ho qulr`slc`, nhc sbk`
uobzhk`s d`c cls glkbdbchols klskl oh hcmÿlkhk y t`khvçh sbmulc sblck`
uobzhk`s d`g` rlglkb`s p`puohrls. Lc oh hcmuh Ehebo`cbh sl uobzô phrh
trhthr pr`eolghs lst`ghdhols, bchghdb`cls y ñodlrhs. Lo pr`dls` kl klsohdbôc
klo pltrôol` druk` / pltrôol` lc frhddb`cls kl nbkr`dhreur`, khth p`r prbglrh
vlz klo sbmo` B^ lc Ylrsbh. Lo us` kl lst`s pr`kudt`s klrbvhk`s klo pltrôol` lstè
gès lxtlckbk` lc o`s phçsls y rlmb`cls gès p`erls1 lctrl loo`s Uusbh, Lur`ph
klo Lstl y Èfrbdh.
Lo pltrôol` ls uc klsohk` kl hdlbtl gbclrho, uobzhk` d`g` d`geuseol `
kbs`ovlctl. Ls uc oçqubk` c` y dohr`, d`csbstlctl lc uch glzdoh kl nbkr`dhreur`s
shturhk`s, qul nblrvlc lctrl 8;<-8=9 ¹D y 5=<-499 ¹D. Hucqul lo pltrôol` sl
pulkl lxtrhlr h phrr klo dhreôc, sl klrbvh prbcdbphoglctl kl oh rlchdbôc kl
pltrôol` druk`. Lo gès rld`glckhk` phrh cls tlrhpâud`s ls lo kl 8=9 ¹D.
Oh phoherh ‟Jlr`slcl‗ sl uobzh lc Hustrhobh, Dhchkè, Culvh Qlohckh y
Lsthk`s \cbk`s. Lo qulr`slc` sl oohgh ‟phrhch‗ lc lo Ulbc` \cbk`, suklstl
kl Hsbh y Èfrbdh klo Tur, gblctrhs qul lc Holghcbh y `trhs phrtls kl Lur`ph
Dlctrho sl oohgh ‟âtlr kl pltrôol`‗ y, d`c cls glkbdbchols, lxbstl oh ‟vhslobch‗.
Oh phoherh ‟Jlr`sbc‗ ls ushkh lc holgèc phrh ‟d`geuseol kl hvbhdbôc‗. Lc
Lsphøh sl d`c`dl d`g` pltrôol`.
Lc Cbmlrbh, horlklk`r klo =9% kl oh p`eohdbôc, ush pr`kudt`s klrbvhk`s klo
pltrôol` d`c cls glkbdbchols Z5>W. Ohs hpobdhdb`cls gès d`gucls s`c phrh
ohs lcflrglkhkls bcflddb`shs, lcflrglkhkls hut`bcgucls, dècdlr, hrtrbs y
lcflrglkhkls rlugèdhs lc mlclrho.
\c hrduo` s`erl
s `erl gbdr`eb`s gulstrh qul, lc ohs lcflrglkh
lcflrglkhkls
kls glcdb`chkhs
hctlrb`rglctl, lxbstl uc drldbgblct` lxdlsbv` kl n`cm`s, gbdr`eb`s y `tr`s
phtômlc`s lc oh shcmrl Z52W.
Yhrldl qul lo lfldt` durhv` klo pltrôol` sl klel h su hddbôc s`erl
n`cm`s y gbdr`eb`s, plrgblck` qul lo sbstlgh bcgucl lobgbcl o`s rlsthct
rlsthctls
ls
phtômlc`s y dâouohs
dâouohs hc`rghols lc o`s tug`rls y ôrmhc`s
ôrmhc`s hfldthk`s.
hfldthk`s. Z49W
89<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhs uch d`gphrhdbôc d`c vhrb`s klsbcfldthctls, sl lcd`ctrô qul lo
pltrôol` lcl su lfldt` gès fulrtl lc oh suprlsbôc kl oh dèckbkh. Lstl pulkl
slr lo sldrlt` klo âxbt` durhv` klo pltrôol`, suprbgl oh dèckbkh, plr` thgebâc
fucdb`ch d`ctrh vbrus y gbdr`eb`s
gbd r`eb`s c`dbv`s, sbc hphrlctl khø` kl oh `rh bctlscho
c`rgho.
U`djlfloolr
lc sus
d`gblcz`s,
slnba`
klkbdô
h ohlcd`ctrhrh
vlcth kl pltrôol`
d`g`
uch
durhEboo
d`ctrh
lo dècdlr,
hctls
kl qul su
Khvbk
gès thrkl
qul
oh
qubgb`tlrhpbh lrh gès oudrhvh.
H phrr kl oh obtlrhturh kbsp`cbeol y p`r lxplrblcdbh pr`pbh, oolm` h oh
d`cdousbôc kl qul oh tlrhpbh kl pltrôol` pulkl slr uch eulch ghclrh kl
d`ctr`ohr o`s gbdr`eb`s, phtômlc`s y phrèsbt`s kl oh shcmrl y kl o`s bctlsc`
bctlsc`s.
s.
Lc uc f`r` holgèc qul olç hdlrdh kl uc dhs` kl dèckbkh slvlrh qul ful
lcd`ctrhkh lc uc hcèobsbs kl nldls gbdr`ebhchs, sl puk` d`gpr`ehr oh rlsbstlcdbh
kl oh dèckbkh h o`s glkbdhglct`s d`cvlcdb`chols
d`cvlcdb`chols y klspuâs kl uobzhr pltrôol`,
pltrôol`,
t`k`s o`s pr`eolghs rlohdb`chk`s d`c oh dèckbkh klshphrldblr`c, ho bmuho qul
ohs rlhddb`cls hoârmbdhs h vhrb`s hobglct`s Z48W.
\c hcèobsbsd`ckbdb`cls.
kl ohs nldls kl slmubgblct`
slmubgblct`,, g`strô qul oh `rh bctlscho lstheh
lstheh
lc lxdlolctls
Lc 828;, Dnhrols @sdhr Fryl, ful hut`r kl uc f`oolt` d`c lo tuo`1 ‟Lo kltlrb`r`
kl o`s puog`cls y lcflrglkhkls hcls, trhthkh y durhkh d`c pltrôol`‗ y d`c
lo suetuo`1 ‟Tu vho`r d`g` rlglkb`, duèck` ushro`, dôg` ushro`, uch durh
phrh lo lcflrg`, uch pr`tlddbôc h ohs plrs`chs lc ghtlrbh kl shouk‗, k`ckl
vlcbh lspldbdho` d`g` uobzhr oh bcnhohdbôc lc hlr`s`o phrh trhthr d`c âxbt`
oh tuelrduo`sbs puog`chr, 8 ` 5 puovlrbzhdb`cls k`s vldls ho kçh kurhctl 8 h ;
glsls. Yhrh pr`eolghs bctlrc`s, sl rld`glckô oh gbthk kl uch dudnhrbooh k`s
vldls ho kçh Z45W.
O D  Dè  Y M1
Lo huml kl uobzhr pltrôol` d`g` durh klo dècdlr, d`glczô lc oh kâdhkh
kl 82<9. Yhuoh Mhcclr, uch gualr hustrbhdh kl 48 hø`s, kbhmc`sdhkh d`c
gltèsthsbs
gltèsth
sbs kl dècdlr y phrèobsbs kl d`o`c, klspuâs kl oh dbrumçh ful klshnudbhkh
p`r phrtl kl sus gâkbd`s. Lc Lur`ph klo Lstl, lo pltrôol` ful uobzhk` d`g` uch
durh phrh gudnhs lcflrglkhkls, y looh d`glczô h t`ghr uch dudnhrhkh dhkh
kçh. Klspuâs kl trls kçhs, puk` olvhcthrsl kl oh dhgh y, 88 glsls klspuâs, kb`
h ouz h uc cbø` shc`…(!) H o`s trls hø`s, su cbø` d`ctrha` oh p`ob` y sl durô d`c
uch dudnhrhkbth kl pltrôol` ho kçh, kurhct
kurhctll `dn` kçhs.
Mhcclr d`glczô oh kbfusbôc kl oh bcf`rghdbôc s`erl o`s s`rprlcklctls
rlsuothk`s
us` kl
pltrôol`
phrh t`k` p`, kl
klâxbt`.
shouk y d`c o`s
hø`s rldbebôklo
59.999
dhrths
kl hmrhkldbgblct`,
hmrhkldbgblct`
d`cpr`eolghs
nbst`rbhs kl
896
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
Oh ghy`r phrtl kl bcf`rghdbôc s`erl lo us` kl pltrôol`, d`g` uch durh
phrh lo dècdlr, surmbô lc Holghcbh.
H d`ccuhdbôc, sl dbthc homuc`s lxtrhdt`s kl o`s tlsg`cb`s
prlslcthk`s lc lo boustrhk`
boust rhk` slghchrb`
slghc hrb` holgèc ‟= [hml‗
[hml‗,, lctrl slplgerl
slp lgerl
Z44W
kl 8262 y flerlr` 82=9 1
• \c plrr` klshrr`ooô lc lo duloo` uc tug`r klo thghø` klo puø`kl uc
cbø` y sl ol kb` lo pltrôol` lc o`s tlrr`cls kl hzñdhr. Klspuâs kl k`s
slghchs, lo dhrdbc`gh klshphrldbô.
• Klspuâs kl phshr p`r oh dbrumçh
dbrumçh klo dècdlr
dècdlr kl ghgh, uch
uch gualr (;>)
klshrr`ooô tug`rls lc lo ñtlr`. Klspuâs kl t`ghr uch dudnhrhkbth kbhrbh
kl pltrôol`, puk` klahr kl ushr oh g`rch, y klspuâs kl slbs slghchs,
looh suplrô trls tug`rls.
• @trh gualr t`gô uch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl
kl pltrôol` trls
trls vldls ho kçh kurhctl
kurhctl
k`s slghchs, y rlpbô lstl trhthgblct` klspuâs kl k`s slghchs
kl klsdhcs`: lst` hklgès kl durhr su ñodlrh kl lstôghm`, phrh su
s`rprlsh, durô su kbheltls.
• \c n`gerl durô uc pr`eolgh kl prôsthth mrhvl (c` sl glcdb`ch sb sl
trhtheh kl dècdlr) glkbhctl oh t`gh kl uch dudnhrhkbth kl pltrôol`
dhkh ghøhch y thrkl, kurhctl duhtr` slghchs. Gès thrkl, sl s`erlpus`
h uch ñodlrh kl lstôghm` kl oh gbsgh ghclrh. Tu nba` uobzô d`c âxbt`
lo pltrôol` phrh durhrsl kl uc pr`eolgh drôcbd` kl oh vlabmh y durô h su
plrr` kl oludlgbh, trhs sbltl slghchs ushck` lo pltrôol`.
• \ch gualr (69) klspuâs kl qul ol lxrphrhc
lxrphrhc su pldn` klrldn`,
klrldn`,
klshrr`ooô dècdlr p`stlrb`rglctl lc su pldn` bzqublrk`. [`gô
plrbôkbdhglctl uch dudnhrhkbth kl pltrôol` trls vldls ho kçh kurhctl
k`s slghchs y oulm` sl kltuv` kurhctl 89 kçhs. C` tuv` gès pr`eolghs
kl dècdlr, cb gès gblk` h oh lcflrglkhk.
• \ch gualr a`vlc
a`vlc (4<) ful
ful lcvbhkh h dhsh h g`rbr d`c uc
uc mrhc tug`r
tug`r
bc`plrheol lc lo pècdrlhs, qul sl lxtlckbô h ohs moèckuohs suprhrrlchols.
Ho duhrt` kçh lc su dhsh, sl klsplrtô erlvlglctl kl uc d`gh y sl ol
kb` uch dudnhrhkh kl pltrôol`. N`rhs gès thrkl, g`strô o`s prbglr`s
sbmc`s kl gla`rh, y klspuâs kl duhtr` kçhs, d`csbmubô olvhcthrsl kl
oh dhgh. D`ccuô d`c oh durh kl pltrôol` kurhctl `tr`s 89 kçhs, y
klspuâs kl nhdlr uchs prulehs p`stlrb`rglctl lc lo n`spbtho kl Mrhz,
ful khkh kl hoth.
• Klspuâs kl slbs kçhs kl oh uobzhdbôc
uobzhdbôc kl pltrôol`,
pltrôol`, uch gualr d`c dâouohs
tug`rhols gulrths (lo p` kl dècdlr c` sl glcdb`ch), t`gô pltrôol`
kurhctl 45, 5< y 8; kçhs, d`c culvl kçhs kl klsdhcs` lctrl dhkh t`gh.
H o`s 8; kçhs, lo `o`r pbd` klo dècdlr tlrgbcho klshphrldbô. D`g` uc
hmrhkheol lfldt` slduckhrb`, thgebâc ful durhkh kl sus pr`eolghs
rlugèd`s.
• \ch gualr (6>) d`c
d`c prlsbôc hrtlrbho
hrtlrbho hoth, pr`eolghs
pr`eolghs kl d`rhzôc,
d`rhzôc, kl
dbrduohdbôc y rlughsg`, hplchs p`kçh dhgbchr. Klspuâs kl duhtr`
89=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
slghchs t`ghck` lo pltrôol`, uc hgbm` ol prlmuctô quâ lstheh
nhdblck`, puls phrldçh kl rlplctl gudn` gès a`vlc. Tu ghrbk`, qul
tlcçh o`rk`sbs, rlhobzh klp`rtl d`c c`rghobkhk. Duhck` h vldls sblctl
uc p`d` kl k`o`r lc uc dobgh frç`, looh fr`th su dulrp` d`c uch lsp`cah
g`ahkh lc pltrôol` y klah qul sl hes`reh, lst` lobgbch rèpbkhglctl su
k`o`r.
• \ch gualr d`c dècdlr
dècdlr kl d`o`c lstheh
lstheh vbsth phrh
phrh d`o`st`gçh
d`o`st`gçh (phrh
lobgbchr su d`o`c y tlclr uch e`osh lqubphkh). Lc dhgeb`, looh d`glczô
h t`ghr dudnhrhkhs kl pltrôol`. C` nhdbh gudn` qul ol lstheh
sudlkblck`, hsç qul t`gô dlrdh kl <9 go kl uch s`oh vlz, auct` d`c uch
mrhc dhckhk kl gblo lc oh oldnl. Y`stlrb`
Y`stlrb`rglctl
rglctl tuv` duhtr` n`rhs kl
kbhrrlh d`c shcmrl y pus y looh he`rtô su tug`r.
@tr`s tlsg`cb`s glcdb`chc nhelr suplrhk` lo dècdlr kl nuls`, lo
gblo`gh, oh `stl`p`r`sbs kl oh d`ougch vlrtlerho, pr`eolghs kbmlsv`s
kbmlsv`s slvlr`s,
pr`eolghs mhstr`bctlschols, vôgbt`s d`csthctls, rlughsg` y pr`eolghs
dbèd`s.
Yhuoh Mhcclr hphrlctlglctl nh ushk` y rld`glckhk` hklgès, ` lc oumhr
kl pltrôol` purbdhk`, ‟Chpntnhelczbc‗ ` ‟Tblklmrlczelczbc Glrdj C.± 8==9‗,
d`c uc rhcm` kl leuoobdbôc kl 899-8;9 ¹D - TEY 899/8;9), tho d`g` sl uobzh phrh
oh obgpblzh kl ohs nlrbkhs y d`g` uc kbs`ovlctl lc o`s ohe`rht`rb`s. (Lo bctlrvho`
kl leuoobdbôc ls lo rhcm` kl tlgplrhturh kl oh klsohdbôc lc ohe`rht`rb` kl
uc hdlbtl, klskl lo bcbdb` nhsth oh lvhp`rhdbôc kl t`khs ohs frhddb`cls sl nhyh
d`gpolthk`).
[rlglctbch1 ‟`trh tlrhpbh phchdlh‗
Hklgès klo pltrôol`, oh trlglcch sl uobzheh hctlrb`rglctl d`g`
trhthgblct` ldhz. Oh [rlglcch chturho d`gucglctl sl vlckl d`g` ‟oh
trlglcch‗ y sl uobzh nhebtuhoglctl lc k`sbs guy ehahs y d`c glc`r frldulcdbh
qul lo pltrôol`. Ful lspldbhoglctl vho`rhkh
vho`rhkh p`r sus pr`pblkhkls hcsâpdhs
hcsâpdhs y
kburâdhs y d`g` uc trhthgblct` guy ldhz d`ctrh o`s phrèsbt`s bctlschols. Oh
trlglcch ls klsohkh h phrr kl kbflrlctls
kbflrlctls vhrblkhkls kl pbc`s.
Tlmñc ]bjbplkbh1 ‟oh trlglcch lrh uch glkbdbch d`gñc lctrl o`s ghrbclr`s
kurhctll oh lrh kl o`s klsduerbgblct`s, y uc` kl o`s vhrb`s pr`kudt`s trhcsp`rthk`s
kurhct
h e`rk` kl oh `th kl Flrchck` kl Ghmhoohcls, lc su prbglrh dbrducchvlmhdbôc
klo mo`e`.‗
Yhrh lxpuoshr oh tlcbh, hcmuhglctl sl sugbcbstrheh uch fulrtl k`sbs kl
uch
h k`s
dudnhrhkhs
kl lslcdbh
mlclrh
oglctl
oh
gbsgh
dhckhk
kl hdlbtl
kl rbdbc`kllctrlglcch,
oldnl. Lst` mlclrhoglctl
sl rlplh
dhkhglzdohkh
k`s ` trlsd`c
kçhs,
nhsth qul o`s frhmglct`s klo mushc` klahehc kl hphrldlr lc ohs nldls. Yhrh o`s
89>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
cbø`s, oh rldlth lrh gès suhvl1 uch dudnhrhkbth kl hzñdhr, trls ` duhtr` m`ths kl
lslcdbh kl trlglcch y uch dudnhrhkbth kl hdlbtl kl rbdbc`.
Oh k`dt`rh Alccbflr Khcblos, klsduerbô qul o`s lsdohv`s hglrbdhc`s tlcçhc
uc rlglkb` sldrlt` qul o`s ghctuv` oberls kl lcflrglkhkls1 uch dudnhrhkbth
kl lslcdbh kl trlglcch glzdohkh d`c uch dudnhrhkbth kl hzñdhr eohcd`,
t`ghkh p`r plrç`k`s d`rt`s, vhrbhs vldls ho hø`.
Looh hk`ptô lstl rlglkb` d`g` uch tlrhpbh lxbt`sh d`ctrh oh dèckbkh1
olcthglctl
olcthglc
tl vblrth uch dudnhrhkbth kl lslcdbh kl trlglcch s`erl tlrr`cls kl
hzñdhr ` uch dudnhrhkbth rlk`cklhkh kl hzñdhr eohcd` phrh qul o` hes`reh
t`k`. Oulm` sl bcmblrlc o`s tlrr`cls ` lo hzñdhr lgphphkh y p`stlrb`rglctl sl
elel hmuh. Ho slr oh dèckbkh htrhçkh p`r lo hzñdhr, dhl fèdboglctl prlsh kl lsth
susthcdbh y ls lobgbchkh Z4;W.
Oh Krh. Khcblos mlclrhoglctl rld`gblckh nhdlr lst` k`s vldls h oh slghch
kurhctl vhrbhs
vhrbhs slghchs, plr` lc uc prbcdbpb` t`k`s o`s kçhs. D`c dèckbkh h ohrm`
pohz`, d`ccñl nhsth qul sl s`oudb`cl lo pr`eolgh (o` qul pulkl `durrbr d`c
s`rprlcklctl rhpbklz). Lc lo f`r` kl bctlrclt www.tlrhpbhschturhols.go, gl
lcd`ctrâ
d`c homuc`s
tlsg`cb`s qul klgulstrhc qul lsth tlrhpbh kl nldn`
fucdb`cô phrh
lsths plrs`chs.
Oh Krh. Khcblos hrgh qul hctls kl d`glczhr oh tlrhpbh kl trlglcch, ls
lslcdbho prlphrhrsl eleblck` gudnh hmuh, oh hk`pdbôc kl uch kblth hklduhkh
hcdèckbkh y oh obgpblzh klo bctlsc`. Lc lsth lthph, ls cldlshrb` d`cthr d`c
trls lvhduhdb`cls kbhrbhs, kl o` d`ctrhrb` o`s phtômlc`s pulklc lctrhr lc oh
shcmrl.
Oh trlglcch kl m`gh lcl uc lfldt` gudn` gès fulrtl qul lo pltrôol` y
homuc`s bckbvbku`s lxplrbglcthr`c pr`eolghs kl lquboberb` tlgp`rho. Yhrh uc
hkuot`, 8 dudnhrhkbth p`r kçh sl d`csbklrh oh k`sbs gèxbgh.
Lc su bcf`rgl, oh Krh. Khcblos thgebâc lsdrbebô qul oh prbglrh lkbdbôc klo
‟Ghcuho Glrdj‗ kl trhthgbl
trhthgblct`s
ct`s hklduhk`s y hdlpthk`s phrh ohs lcflrglkhkls
rld`c`dbkhs, pueobdhk` lc lo hø` 8>22, hrgheh qul oh tlrhpbh kl oh trlglcch,
lrh ldhz phrh uch hgpobh mhgh kl d`ckbdb`cls, bcdouylck` oh m`c`rrlh,
glcbcmbs, hrtrbs, pr`eolghs hek`gbchols y oh lcflrglkhk puog`chr.
Durb`shglctl, lo ‟Ghcuho Glrdj‗ klo hø` 8222 s`o` glcdb`ch o`s ‟tlrrbeols
lfldt`s kl oh bct`xbdhdbôc
bct`xbdhdbôc p`r oh trlglcch, d`c oh klstruddbôc kl o`s rbø`cls y
o`s puog`cls‗ Z4<W.
D`gprlcklr lo lfldt` phchdlh1
Lo sldrlt` klo hphrlctl ‟lfldt` kl rlgbsbôc‗ pr`kudbk`s p`r lo pltrôol` y lo
hmuhrrès,
pulklc slr kl
lctlckbk`s
d`g`
uch rlvlrsbôc
kl o`s kl
lfldt`s
p`r ohs lcflrglkhkls
oh glkbdbch
g`klrch.
Nhy lvbklcdbh
qul ohdhushk`s
ghy`rçh
kl culstrhs lcflrglkhkls g`klrchs lrhc rhrhs lc sbmo`s hctlrb`rls.
892
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Ulohvhglctl p`dhs plrs`chs tlcçhc dècdlr, qul sôo` `dhsb`choglctl
sudlkçh lc oh vlalz: lo hsgh, ohs holrmbhs y ohs lcflrglkhkls hut`bcgucls,
thgebâc lrhc rhrhs.
[`k` lst` dhgebô klspuâs kl oh Tlmuckh Mulrrh Guckbho, d`c lo us`
mlclrhobzhk`
mlclrhobz
hk` kl hcebôd`s. Ho lobgbchr ohs ehdtlrbhs, sl holctô lo surmbgblct` y
oh pr`phmhdbôc kl n`cm`s y gbd`pohsghs, qul lstèc lc oh rhçz kl oh ghy`rçh kl
culstrhs lcflrglkhkls g`klrchs.
Tb `eslrvh h o`s ère`ols klo e`squl ` h o`s ght`rrhols, vlrè qul homuc`s
kl sus ghy`rls lclgbm`s s`c o`s n`cm`s y phrèsbt`s. D`g` klflcsh, ohs
pohcths klshrr`oohr`c kbvlrshs lstrhtlmbhs quçgbdhs phrh ghthr ` rlplolr h sus
hthdhctls,
hthdhct
ls, plrgblck` qul h phrr kl lsths rlhddb`cls quçgbdhs, gès thrkl sl
lstheoldblrhc ohs ehsls y prbcdbpb`s kl oh glkbdbch t`tlrhpâudh. D`c`dlg`s
y uobzhg`s lst`s pr`kudt`s eb`quçgbd`s1 d`g` lo hdlbtl kl ludhobpt`, hdlbtl
kl cllg, hdlbtl klo ère`o klo tâ, lxtrhdt` kl n`ah kl `obv`, trlglcch y `tr`s
hdlbtls lslcdbhols.
Oh ghy`rçh kl lst`s hdlbtls sl d`gp`clc kl nbkr`dhreur`s, d`g` lo pltrôol`.
Lo
prbcdbpho
quçgbd`
kly oh
trlglcch,
hofh-Ybclc`,
thgebâc
lstè
prlslctl
lcd`gpulst`
o`s hdlbtls kl
r`glr`
ludhobpt`.
Lst`slohdlbtls
lslcdbhols
v`oèols,
phrldlc tlclr uc lfldt` hcfñcmbd` gès fulrtl qul lo pltrôol`, plr` lo d`csug`
frldulctl lc mrhckls dhckhkls, thgebâc pulkl dhushr khø` rlcho.
Tbc lgehrm`, klel lctlcklrsl qul uc pr`mrhgh hcgbdr`ebhc`
hcgbdr`ebhc` sôo` pulkl
kltlclr uc hthqul hut`bcgucl d`g` uc prbglr phs` lslcdbho lc uc pr`dls` kl
durhdbôc. C` rlphrh hut`gèdhglctl lo khø` qul yh sl nh nldn`.
]boobhg M. Dr``j, K`dt`r lc Glkbdbch, lc ‟Oh d`clxbôc kl oh olvhkurh‗ Z46W y
`tr`s ober`s, klg`strô qul oh dèckbkh ls oh dhush sueyhdlct
sueyhdlctll kl oh nbplrhdvbkhk.
Hsç, HKK ` HKNK y lo husg` s`c sôo` kbflrlctls mrhk`s kl uch gbsgh kbsfucdbôc
dlrlerho pr`v`dhkh p`r oh dèckbkh.
Lxbstlc lvbklcdbhs kl qul uc prbcdbpho fhdt`r hmrhvhctl qul d`ckudl ho
husg`, ls oh d`gebchdbôc kl oh dèckbkh y o`s d`gpulst`s kl vhrbhs vhduchs,
p`sbeolglctl klebk` ho glrdurb` y h `tr`s hkbv`s tôxbd`s.
°Xuâ pr`kudt`s ushr0
Lo pltrôol` klel slr eha` lc d`gpulst`s hr`gèd`s, hklgès kl d`cthr
d`c uc bctlrvho` kl leuoobdbôc hklduhk`. Lst` ls eèsbdhglctl o` qul sbmcbdh
‟eha` `o`r‗ Z4=W. Yhrh vlr sb o`s pr`kudt`s kl `trhs d`gphøçhs ` lc `tr`s phçsls
s`c hklduhk`s, nhy qul br ho sb` wle klo fherbdhctl y eusdhr oh N`ah kl Kht`s
kl Tlmurbkhk klo Ghtlrbho. Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth, qul lo pltrôol` pulkl
slr
vlckbk` eha`
`tr`s c`gerls,
thols d`g` ‟chh pltrôol`‗, ‟kbs`ovlctl kl
nbkr`dhreur`‗
y ‟hmuhrrès
gbclrho‗.
889
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
C` ls rld`glckheol uobzhr pr`kudt`s sbc d`c`dlr su puct` kl
leuoobdbôc y d`gp`sbdbôc quçgbdh.
O`s pr`kudt`s
klelc yd`ctlclr
nbkr`dhreur`s,`h glzdohs
ehsl kl kl
pltr`quçgbd`s
hobfèd`s
l bs`phrhchs,
c` glkb`-sbctâd`s
kbs`ovlctls
lspldbhols qul lstèc kbsp`cbeols, d`g` hr`gèd`s oberls kl hmuhrrès gbclrho.
Lc Holghcbh sl pulkl `etlclr Tnloo-T`o K;9, YHT (Tblklmrlczelczbc) 899/8;9
y trlglcch (Ehoshg-[lrplccöo). Lc mlclrho, lst`s pr`kudt`s pulklc lsthr
kbsp`cbeols lc ghtlrbhols kl d`cstruddbôc y lckhs kl sugbcbstr`s kl pbcturh
y mrhckls flrrltlrçhs. Tbc lgehrm`, sb uc eha` d`ctlcbk` kl d`gpulst`s
hr`gèd`s ` pr`kudt` hr`ghzhk` c` lstè kbsp`cbeol, lct`cdls bcdous` lo
pltrôol` c`rgho, d`c uc ghy`r d`ctlcbk` kl d`gpulst`s hr`gèd`s pulkl slr
uobzhk`. C` ls gès tôxbd`, sôo` lcl uc `o`r fulrtl.
Lo pr`kudt` rlhoglctl tôxbd` lc pltrôol` druk` y lc oh ghy`rçh kl o`s
d`geuseols kl g`t`r, ls lo elcdlc`, plr` âstl lcl uc puct` kl leuoobdbôc
gès eblc eha`, glc`r kl >9 ¹D, y p`r o` thct` c` ls uc pr`eolgh lc ohs frhddb`cls
d`c uc puct` kl gès kl 899 ¹D kl leuoobdbôc.
Lc d`ctrhstl d`c lo hmuhrrès gbclrho, qul ls sbgbohr ho pltrôol`, oh trlglcch
chturho sl vlckl d`gñcglctl d`g` ‟trlglcch m`gh purh‗ ` ‟899% m`gh kl
trlglcch‗ y sl ush d`g` kbs`ovlctl ` kbouylctl phrh oh pbcturh kl o`s hrsths
y d`g` s`ovlctl mlclrho.
Dô z ô  è1
°Dôg` sl t`gh lo pltrôol` y p`r duèct` lgp` ls t`olrheol0
Homuc`s
o` t`ghc
duhck`
cldlsbthc, gblctrhs
quld`gñc
`tr`s nhdlc
uc dbdo`
d`gpolt`
dhkh
hø`, sôo`
d`g`o`prlvlcdbôc.
\ch f`rgh
kl nhdlro`,
ls
d`glczhr d`c uchs m`ths ` glkbh dudnhrhkbth, y oulm` d`ccuhr d`c uch
dudnhrhkbth kurhctl uch ` k`s slghchs: sb c` phrldl klghsbhk`, sl pulkl
huglcthr mrhkuhoglctl nhsth uch dudnhrhkh kurhctl uc lgp`, choglctl
tlrgbchr d`c uch dudnhrhkbth, kurhctl uc t`tho kl slbs slghchs ` nhsth qul su
pr`eolgh nhyh gla`rhk`
gla`rhk` o` sudblctl. Yulkl slr hd`cslaheol nhdlr uc plrb`k`
kl slmubgblct` gès d`rt`, ` gès ohrm`, k`s glsls gès thrkl.
D`gñcglctl, lo pltrôol` sl t`gh uch vlz ho kçh, yh slh hctls klo klshyuc`
` hctls kl hd`sthrsl.
\ch gualr lc su tlsg`cb`, supulsthglctl durô su dècdlr tlrgbcho yh
tlcblck` gltèsthsbs lc t`k` lo dulrp` eleblck` uc vhs` kl pltrôol` slmubk`
kl aum` kl fruths. Looh lsdrbebô qul ol dhusô kbhrrlh lxtrlgh y vôgbt`s kurhctl
trls kçhs.
888
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
R` d`csbklr` qul lsth ls uch f`rgh plobmr`sh kl nhdlr lo trhthgblct`, yh
qul lo pltrôol` pulkl dhushr vôgbt`s fèdboglctl
fèdboglctl y lctrhr lc o`s puog`cls: lsth
ls oh rhzôc p`r oh qul oh mlctl p`krçh g`rbr ho elelr pltrôol`.
Ohs hoths k`sbs pulklc dhushr lfldt`s slduckhrb`s ho lobgbchr klghsbhk`s
n`cm`s h oh vlz, pr`kudblck` d`g` ‟rlhddbôc‗ cèuslhs y fhmh. Ls gla`r
huglcthr oh k`sbs mrhkuhoglctl phrh lvbthr ` gbcbgbzhr ohs rlhddb`cls fulrtls
y klshmrhkheols, hucqul oh kbhrrlh ls guy d`gñc lc homñc g`glct`. Lc dhs`
qul `durrh uch rlhddbôc, sl rlkudbrçh, ` sl bctlrrugpl lo trhthgblct`, nhsth
nhsth qul
sl rlduplrl kl f`rgh tlgp`rho.
Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul lo pltrôol` `th, y ls gla`r t`ghro` d`c lo
lstôghm` vhdç` ` dhsb vhdç`. Oh ghclrh trhkbdb`cho d`csbstl lc p`clr vhrbhs
m`ths s`erl lo hzñdhr hctls kl oh bcmlsôc.
D e x1
Oh k`sbs nhebtuho d`csbstl lc t`ghr uch dudnhrhkh p`r uc plrç`k` obgbthk`,
o` duho c` pr`v`dh t`xbdbkhk. Y`r o` thct`, lo plobmr` rlho klo pltrôol` c` vblcl
p`r su t`xbdbkhk lc sç gbsgh, sbc` gès eblc, p`r lo nldn` kl qul oolmul lo vôgbt`
h o`s puog`cls, pr`kudblck` hn`mhgblct`, trhs bcmlrbr uch mrhc dhckhk kl
ghclrh hddbklctho ` lc uc bctlct` kl subdbkb`, y lst` kl nldn`, p`krçh dhushr oh
gulrtl. Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth, qul bcdous` tlclr sôo` hmuh lc o`s puog`cls
pulkl slr g`rtho Z4>W.
Oh t`xbdbkhk `rho hmukh kl pltrôol` phrh rhths sl kh d`g` KO₌₉3 <999 gm/
jm. KO₌₉ ls oh k`sbs h oh qul lo <9% kl ohs rhths g`rbrçhc: lc lstl dhs`,
dhs`, sl rlqublrl
gès kl < m/jm.
m /jm. Lc d`gphrhdbôc, oh KO₌₉ kl trlglcch kl m`gh phrh ohs rhths
rhths sl
kh d`g` <=69 gm/jm.
Lst` lqubvhol lc uch plrs`ch kl 69 jm h 499 m (¡d`g` uch ohth kl elebkh!).
Lo prbcdbpho
plobmr`
d`c s`erl
oh mhs`obch
ls `olr
bcnhohr clrvb`s`
o`s vhp`rls,
yh qul
pulkl
tlclr fulrtls
lfldt`s
lo dlrler`
y lo` sbstlgh
dlctrho.
Tbc
lgehrm`, oh bcmlsôc kl lstl pr`kudt` c` ls cldlshrbhglctl ghoh.
Fbm. 551 \c d`csugbk`r kbhrb` kl mhs`obch.
885
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
\c n`gerl lc Dnbch elebô (y t`khvçh elel) uc vhs` kl mhs`obch t`k`s o`s
kçhs, lst` ls horlklk`r kl duhtr` obtr`s ho gls kurhctl ;5 hø`s, y d`c gès kl =9
hø`s kl lkhk sl vl gès a`vlc qul oh ghy`rçh kl o`s c` elelk`rls kl mhs`obch
kl <9-69 hø`s. Lgplzô h elelr pltrôol` phrh lo hobvb` klo k`o`r, plr` gès thrkl
dhgebô h oh mhs`obch. Tl nh lsghk` qul, lc t`tho, elebô horlklk`r kl 8,<
Z42W
t`clohkhs kl oh gbsgh
.
Lo sbstlgh d`ctrhhthdh1
Durb`shglctl, klspuâs kl qul oh rlvbsth holghch ‟= [hml‗ pueobdhrh
homuc`s kl o`s 59.999 tlsg`cb`s qul Yhuoh Mhcclr nheçh rldbebk`, lo lkbt`r kl
oh rlvbsth plrkbô su trheha`, y sl pr`nbebô oh lctrhkh kl pr`kudt`s klrbvhk`s klo
pltrôol` d`g` rlglkb` phrh oh obgpblzh kl nlrbkhs, kl oh fhrghd`plh holghch.
Lo pltrôol` ful kldohrhk` uc vlclc` plobmr`s`, hucqul c` sl pr`p`rdb`chr`c
kht`s ` bcsthcdbhs lspldçdhs.
Lc 82=2, uch gualr qul nheçh kbstrbeubk` bcf`rghdbôc tlrhpâudh s`erl lo
pltrôol`, ful oolvhkh ho trbeucho lc Nlrserudj, Holghcbh, p`r htlcthr d`ctrh oh
shouk pñeobdh.
Y`r gudn` qul o` bctlcthr`c, lo lxplrt` plrbt` fhrghdâud` c` puk`
hpucthr khø`, cb lo sdho puk` klg`strhr qul homublc nheçh sbk` plraukbdhk` lc
su shouk ushck` pltrôol` lc ohs f`rghs rld`glckhkhs, cb qul oh oly nheçh sbk`
vb`ohkh.
Looh klflckbô su p`sbdbôc kl qul phrh d`gehr lo dècdlr1 ‟sl klelrçh ushr
t`k` o` qul pulkh slr ño y rlhobzhr lcshy`s doçcbd`s‗. D`g` d`csldulcdbh, oh
sdhoçh tuv` qul hehck`chr lo dhs` Z;9W.
Klcbdbôc kl ]bjbplkbh s`erl o`s lfldt`s klo pltrôol`1 ‟Oh bcmlsôc kl
pltrôol` ls khøbch ` fhtho.‗ Rh c` sl pr`p`rdb`chc kht`s s`erl oh t`xbdbkhk, kl
g`k`
qulohohhkvlrtlcdbh
mlctl c` pulkl
vlr dôg`,
tôxbd`. Lc
su oumhr,
sl rllrl
h qulrlohvhglctl,
pulkl slr fhtholosbpltrôol`
lctrh lcc`
o`slspuog`cls.
Kl lsth ghclrh sl nh drlhk` uc d`cbdt` s`erl su us` kurhctl dblct`s kl hø`s,
d`g` rlglkb` kl d`chczh. Lc Frhcdbh, lo pltrôol` sbmul hphrldblck` lc oh
fhrghd`plh `dbho, d`g` ‟Nubol kl Mhebhc‗ y sl prlsdrbel d`g` rlglkb` phrh
oh er`cqubs, lo hsgh y oh dbss.
d bss. Bcdous` oh obtlrhtu
obtlrhturh
rh gâkbdh d`clcl lstukb`s
doçcbd`s kl bcvlsmhk`rls kl rlc`gerl, qul gulstrhc qul lo pltrôol` ls ldhz
d`ctrh lo dècdlr Z;8W.
Yhrh rlkudbr gbs p`sbebobkhkls kl tlclr qul hdukbr `trh vlz h o`s trbeuchols,
qublr` klahr dohr` qul lstl hrduo` ls sôo` h cbvlo bcf`rghv`, y qul c`
rld`gblck` lo us` kl pltrôol` ` hmuhrrès phrh trhthr lo dècdlr ` duhoqublr `trh
d`ckbdbôc.
Dhkh uc`
vho`rhr
p`r ysçnhdlr
gbsg`,
hctls kl
kldbkbr o`s p`sbeols
lfldt`s elcâd`s
klo klel
us` klo
pltrôol`,
su pr`pbh
bcvlsmhdbôc.
884
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Eôrhx
Kl hdulrk` d`c oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, c` sl d`csbklrh lo e`r` lslcdbho
phrh o`s slrls nughc`s, sbc lgehrm` lxbstlc gudn`s tlsg`cb`s kl su
uobzhdbôc h cbvlo tlrhpâud`: ho phrldlr, cldlsbthg`s thct` lo e`r` d`g` lo
èdbk`
eôrbd`.
Nhyy qul
tlclr
lc dulcth
qul lo e`r` sl lcdulctrh prlslctl lc
t`khs ohs
pohcths
lc o`s
hobglct`s
c` lohe`rhk`s.
Ohs kblths d`c uch eulch dhckhk kl fruths y vlrkurhs pr`p`rdb`chc dlrdh
kl 5 h < gm kl e`r` p`r kçh, plr` lst` thgebâc klplckl kl oh rlmbôc k`ckl sl
duovh oh d`gbkh y dôg` sl duovh. Lctrl oh kbvlrsbkhk kl gbclrhols qul lstèc
prlslctls lc lo hmuh klo ghr, lo e`rhx sl lcdulctrh lc oh c`vlch p`sbdbôc. Kl
nldn`, lo eôrhx ls uc gbclrho chturho d`gñcglctl lxtrhçk` kl ohs shobchs y sl
o` uobzh phrh gudn`s pr`dls`s bckustrbhols.
Yulkl qul phrh gudn`s oldt`rls slh kbdbo kl bghmbchr qul lo eôrhx slh uc
bcslddbkh, y sl uobdl lc ohvhcklrçhs d`g` kltlrmlctl, bcdous` sl d`csbklrh
tôxbd` lc homuc`s sb`s, klebk` h qul lc o`s hø`s ;9 sl d`cfuckbô lc uc n`spbtho
d`c phpbooh phrh eleâs, pr`kudblck` oh gulrtl kl o`s cl`cht`s. Yhrh
Yhrh slr rlhobsth,
nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul oh dhckhk nhdl lo tôxbd`, y dblcdhglctl, su
mrhk` kl t`xbdbkhk ls kl oh gbthk, sb o` d`gphrhg`s d`c uch sbgpol Hspbrbch®.
O`s prbcdbphols yhdbgblct`s sl lcdulctrhc lc [urquçh y Dhobf`rcbh. O`s
c`gerls quçgbd`s
quçgbd `s s`c kldhnbkrht` kl tltrhe`rht` kl s`kb`, tltrhe`rht` kbsôkbd`
kldhnbkrhthk`, ` sbgpolglctl e`rht` kl s`kb`. Lst` sbmcbdh qul d`clcl
duhtr` èt`g`s kl e`r` d`g` su dhrhdtlrçsdh prbcdbpho, qul d`gebchc d`c k`s
èt`g`s kl s`kb` y kblz g`oâduohs (` h vldls glc`s) kl hmuh kl drbsthobzhdbôc
kldhnbkrht` sbmcbdh 89 g`oâduohs kl hmuh, plcthnbkrhthk` < y hcnbkrht`, `
eôrhx hcnbkr`, sbmcbdh qul c` nhy hmuh kl drbsthobzhdbôc. Xuçgbdhglctl, ls
t`k` o` gbsg`.
Lo eôrhx sl vlckl d`gñcglctl d`g` mrhk` tâdcbd` ` hmrçd`oh d`c lo 22
h 22,<% kl purlzh gçcbgh. Lstl ls lo mrhk` klo eôrhx d`gñcglctl uobzhk`
d`g` obgpbhk`r k`gâsd`. Tus bgpurlzhs p`tlcdbhols d`csbstlc lc s`kb`,
p`thsb`, dhodb`, do`rur`, ebdhre`cht`, dhre`cht`, suofht` y f`sfht`, plr` c` sulol
d`ctlclr glthols tôxbd`s
tôxbd`s ` plshk`s. Lo mrhk` kl ohe`rht
ohe`rht`rb`
`rb` fhrghdâud` c` ls
c`theolglctl gès pur` ` gla`r.
Lo eôrhx ls oh sho kl s`kb` klo èdbk` eôrbd` kâebo. Y`rqul lo s`kb` ls gès
hodhobc`, p`r o` thct` uch s`oudbôc kl eôrhx ls hodhobch d`c uc pN lctrl 2 y 89
(pN = ls clutr`). Duhck` sl bcmblrl, rlhddb`ch d`c lo èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` lc lo
lstôghm`,, phrh f`rghr èdbk` eôrbd` y do`rur` kl s`kb`.
lstôghm`
Lo d`ctlcbk` klo lolglct` e`r` lc lo eôrhx ls kl 88,4%, gblctrhs qul phrh
lo èdbk` eôrbd`, ls uc 8=,<%, qul ls dhsb lo k`eol. Yhrh us`s tlrhpâud`s, sl
‛
pulklc uobzhr hge`s, tlcblck` lc dulcth oh k`sbs. O`s d`gpulst`s kl e`r`
s`c hsbgbohk`s p`r lo `rmhcbsg` rèpbkhglctl y dhsb d`gpolthglctl lobgbchk`s
p`r oh `rbch.
88;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
Lo èdbk` eôrbd` hctlrb`rglctl ful hgpobhglctl uobzhk` d`g` d`cslrvhctl
phrh o`s hobglct`s, hucqul hn`rh lstè pr`nbebk` phrh lstl c lc oh ghy`rçh
kl o`s phçsls. Oh ghy`rçh kl o`s flrobzhctls quçgbd`s bcnbelc oh hes`rdbôc kl
e`r` lc lo sulo`. Lsth ls oh rhzôc p`r oh qul uch ghczhch `rmècbdh duovhkh
lc eulch lrrh pulkl tlclr nhsth 59 gm kl e`r`, sbc lgehrm` oh hmrbduoturh
d`cvlcdb`cho qul uobzh flroobzhctls c` o`mrh pr`p`rdb`chrol gès kl 8 gm kl
e`r`. O`s flrobzhctls d`gebchk`s d`c oh lolddbôc kl hobglct`s p`erls, nhc
rlkudbk` lc mrhc glkbkh culstrh bcmlsth kl e`r`, lc d`gphrhdbôc d`c nhdl <9
ô 899 hø`s.
Lfldt`s klo e`r` s`erl oh shouk1
Lo e`r` sl kbstrbeuyl p`r t`k` lo dulrp` y lcl su d`cdlctrhdbôc gès hoth
lc ohs moèckuohs phrhr`bklhs, slmubk` kl o`s nuls`s y lo lsghotl klctho. Ls
lslcdbho phrh lo nuls` shc` y oh fucdbôc hrduohr, oh rlmuohdbôc kl oh hes`rdbôc
y oh glthe`obzhdbôc kl dhodb`, ghmclsb` y fôsf`r` h trhvâs kl su bculcdbh s`erl
ohs moèckuohs phrhr`bkls.
Lo e`r` ls phrh oh moèckuoh phrhr`bkls y lo y`k` ls phrh oh r`bkls.
N`y lc kçh lxbstl uch mrhc dhckhk kl plrs`chs d`c slcsbebobkhk ho moutlc y
s`erldrldbgblct` kl oh Dèckbkh, qul h su vlz bcnbel oh hes`rdbôc kl gbclrhols,
dhushck` lcflrglkhkls drôcbdhs mhstr`bctlschols. Ho phrldlr, lst` nhdl qul
o`s pr`eolghs kl shouk pr`kudbk`s p`r oh kldblcdbh kl e`r`, hn`rh slhc guy
d`gucls.
Klebk` h su d`ctlcbk` lc e`r`, lo eôrhx ` èdbk` eôrbd` lcl eèsbdhglctl
o`s
gbsg`s lfldt`s
s`erlplr`
oh shouk,
d`g`
eulc hcsâpd`
y hcfñcmbd`
d`c
pr`pblkhkls
hcvbrhols,
su hddbôc
hcehdtlrbhch
ls olvl.
Lc ohs pohcths,
hsç d`g` lc hcbghols, lo e`r` ls lslcdbho phrh oh bctlmrbkhk y oh fucdbôc kl
ohs phrlkls dlouohrls, y oh f`rgh lc qul ohs sløhols sl trhcsgbtlc h trhvâs kl
glgerhchs.
Oh kldblcdbh kl e`r` bcuyl lc ohs phrhr`bkls, obelrhck` klghsbhkh
n`rg`ch phrhr`bklh, o` qul pr`v`dh bcdrlglct` kl hdbklz huglcthck` oh
cldlsbkhk kl dhodb`, qul sl `elcl kl o`s nuls`s y o`s kblctls. Lstl pr`dls`
oolvh h oh `stl`hrtrbs, oh `stl`p`r`sb
`stl`p`r`sbss y h pr`eolghs klcthols. D`c lo hvhcdl kl
oh lkhk, o`s hot`s cbvlols shcmuçcl`s kl `xhoht` kl dhodb` klmlclrhc o`s tlabk`s
eohck`s, dhushck` d`ctrhddb`cls gusduohrls y rbmbklz. Tl pulkl `eslrvhr lc
gudn`s dhs`s,
dhodbdhdbôc
kl ohs moèckuohs
lck`drbchs,
oh
moèckuoh
pbclho oh
y o`s
`vhrb`s. Hrtlrb`sdolr`sbs,
dèoduo`s
rlcholslspldbhoglctl
y oh dhodbdhdbôc
kl o`s rbø`cls lc ñogh bcsthcdbh, d`ckudlc h oh bcsudblcdbh rlcho. Oh kldblcdbh
88<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
kl e`r` lc d`gebchdbôc d`c oh kldblcdbh kl ghmclsb`, ls lspldbhoglctl
plraukbdbho phrh o`s nuls`s y kblctls.
Lo e`r` thgebâc hfldth ho glthe`obsg` kl ohs n`rg`chs lstlr`bkls y lc
lspldbho kl ohs n`rg`chs slxuhols. Huglcth o`s cbvlols eha`s kl tlst`stlr`ch
lc o`s n`gerls y o`s cbvlols kl lstrômlc` lc ohs gualrls glc`pèusbdhs.
[hgebâc sl nhc rlp`rthk` `tr`s lfldt`s elcldb`s`s, thols d`g` oh gla`rh kl
o`s pr`eolghs klo d`rhzôc, oh vbsbôc, oh ps`rbhsbs, lo ehohcdl, oh glg`rbh y oh
d`mcbdbôc.
O`s d`gpulst`s kl e`r` lclc pr`pblkhkls hc-tug`rhols y
s`c1 ‟hc`stl`p`rôd`s p`tlctls, hcbchght`rb`s, nbp`obplgbhctls,
hcd`hmuohctls y hmlctls hccl`poèsbd`s‗ Z;5W. Lst` ful bcvlsmhk` p`r lo
holgèc Kr. Yhuo Mlrnhrkt Tllmlr, qul klg`strô qul lo dècdlr d`gblczh
d`gñcglctl d`c lo kltlrb`r` kl ohs glgerhchs dlouohrls. D`g` lo e`r` ls
lslcdbho phrh ohs glgerhchs dlouohrls, pulkl lxbsr uch rlohdbôc kbrldth lctrl
oh kldblcdbh kl e`r` y lo drldbgblct` klo tug`r.
O      K. Ux Cw1
Lo Kr.
Kr. Ulx Clwcnhg lc 8269, uc dblcd` lc Ylrtn, Hustrhobh, qul klshrr`ooô
kls hrr`ooô
oh lcflrglkhk kl hrtrbs, sl kb` dulcth kl qul o`s glkbdhglct`
glkbdhglct`ss d`cvlcdb`chols
c` ol fulr`c kl hyukh, p`r o` qul eusdô oh durhdbôc lc oh quçgbdh kl ohs pohcths.
@eslrvô qul ohs pohcths kl lsh z`ch lrhc ehsthctl kldblctls lc gbclrhols y
sheblck` qul lo e`r` hyukh ho glthe`obsg` klo dhodb` lc ohs pohcths, kldbkbô
pr`ehro`. D`glczô h t`ghr 49 gm kl eôrhx uc kçh y lc trls slghchs t`k` k`o`r,
k`o`r,
nbcdnhzôc y rbmbklz nheçhc klshphrldbk`.
Âo bctlctô d`cvlcdlr h oh lsduloh gâkbdh y h ohs hut`rbkhkls kl oh shouk
pñeobdh hdlrdh kl su klsduerbgblct`, plr` c` lstuvblr`c bctlrlshk`s. Homuchs
plrs`chs
d`c hrtrbs
d`cd`c
su trhthgblct`,
gla`rhr`c,
hucqul `trhs
tlcçhclsthehc
gblk` lcdhcthkhs
h t`ghr hom`
uch lqulthyhklqul
vlclc`
lc lo
rldbpblctl y oh fucdbôc kl ghthr h ohs dudhrhdnhs y n`rgbmhs.
Lvlctuhoglctl nheçh nldn` phsoohs d`c uch dhckhk slmurh y ldhz kl
eôrhx. Lc dbcd` hø`s y sôo` p`r lo e`dh h e`dh, vlckbô 89.999 frhsd`s ho gls. Rh
c` p`kçh nhdlr frlctl h su fherbdhdbôc y eusdô uch d`gphøçh fhrghdâudh phrh
su d`glrdbhobzhdbôc. Lsl ful su mrhc lrr`r. O`s rlprlslcthctls lc o`s d`gbtâs
kl shouk klo m`eblrc` kl Hustrhobh lstheoldblr`c, lc 82>8, uc rlmohglct` qul
kldohrô ho e`r` y h sus d`gpulst`s d`g` vlclc`s, lc duhoqublr d`cdlctrhdbôc.
Ful guothk` p`r oh vlcth kl uc vlclc`, y lst` kltuv` lo nldn` kl qul su lxbt`s`
lxbt`s `
trhthgblct`
trhthgbl
ct` phrh oh durh kl oh hrtrbs sl pr`phmhsl Z;4W.
Y`stlrb`rglctl,
pueobdô
hrduo`s
dblcd`s
lo eôrhx
y oh
hrtrbs.
\c` lrh uc lcshy`
kl vhrb`s
k`eol dblm`,
h glkbhk`s
kl s`erl
82>9, lc
lo N`spbtho
886
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
Ulho kl Gloe`urcl, qul klg`strô qul lo =9% kl plrs`chs trhthkhs d`c e`rhx,
gla`rhr`c lc mrhc glkbkh. Tôo` lo 85% gla`rô duhck` usô lo pohdle`.
O` gès bgp`rthctl ful qul c` nue` lfldt`
lfldt`ss slduckhrb`s clmhv`s, bcdous`
homuc`s phdblctls bcf`rghr`c qul su k`olcdbh klo d`rhzôc thgebâc nheçh
gla`rhk`, y nheçh uch gla`r shouk mlclrho y glc`s dhcshcdb`. Gès thrkl sl
klkbdô h bcvlsmhr
bcvlsmhr oh rlohdbôc lctrl o`s cbvlols kl e`r` klo sulo`, y oh hrtrbs.
Tl lcdulctrh, p`r lalgpo`, qul ohs bsohs kl dhøh kl hzñdhr trhkbdb`chols,
lclc cbvlols guy eha`s kl e`r` lc lo sulo`.
s ulo`. Ahghbdh (=9%), klebk` ho mrhc us`
h ohrm` pohz` kl o`s flrobzhctls, lcl lo cbvlo y ohs thshs gès hoths kl hrtrbs,
slmubkh p`r Ghurbdb`, d`c cbvlols guy eha`s kl e`r` y <9% hrtrbs. O`s LL\\,
Bcmohtlrrh, Hustrhobh y Culvh Qlohckh lc mlclrho, lclc o`s cbvlols pr`glkb` kl
sulo`-e`r` d`c uc d`csug` lsghk` kl 8 h 5 gm kl thshs kl e`r`, y hrtrbs
kl horlklk`r klo 59%. Ylr` lc Dhrchrv`c, Hustrhobh, k`ckl nhy hot`s cbvlols kl
e`r` lc lo sulo` y lo hmuh, oh thsh kl oh hrtrbs ls sôo` klo 8%. Lc Bsrhlo, d`c uch
bcmlsth kl e`r` kbhrbh lsghkh kl < h > gm, sôo` nhy 9,<-8% kl dhs`s kl hrtrbs.
Bcvlsmhdb`cls
Bcvlsm
hdb`cls klg`strhr`c qul lo nuls` kl ohs hrduohdb`cls hrtrçdhs d`ctlcçh
s`o`
oh gbthk
e`r` prlslctl
lc ohs
Bmuhoglctl
sudlkbô
d`c lo
oçqubk`klo
sbc`vbho
qul ouerbdh
ohs hrduohdb`cls
hrduohdb`clsshchs.
y pr`p`rdb`ch
cutrblctls
ho dhrohm`, lcd`ctrèck`sl kldblcdbh kl e`r` lc ohs hrduohdb`cls hrtrçdhs.
Klspuâs kl oh hkgbcbstrh
hkgbcbstrhdbôc
dbôc kl supolglct`s kl e`r`, o`s nuls`s rlduplrhr`c su
kurlzh y f`rtholzh. Ohs frhdturhs ôslhs, lc dhs`s kl plrs`chs qul t`ghr`c e`r`,
shchr`c lc oh gbthk klo lgp` c`rgho.
Lo eôrhx ls thgebâc ldhz lc `trhs f`rghs kl hrtrbs, d`g` oh hrtrbs
rlught`bkl,, hrtrbs auvlcbo y oupus (oupus lrbtlght`s` sbstâgbd`).
rlught`bkl
Lc uc dhs` k`duglcthk` klo Kr. Clwcnhg, uch cbøh kl 2 glsls d`c
hrtrbs bcfhco ful trhthkh d`c e`r`, y s`rprlcklctlglctl sl rlduplrô lc
sôo` 5 slghchs. Lo `eslrvô qul sus phdblctls p`kçhc klsnhdlrsl kl su k`o`r,
nbcdnhzôc y rbmbklz lctrl 8 y 4 glsls.
[hgebâc hrgô qul o`s phdblctls d`c hrtrbs rlught`bkl lxplrbglcthc
uch drbsbs durhvh klebk` d`gñcglctl h ohs t`xbchs obelrhkhs p`r oh gulrtl kl
oh dèckbkh y hht`xbch, plr` trhs `trhs 5 ` 4 slghchs lo k`o`r, oh nbcdnhzôc y oh
rbmbklz, klshphrldblr`
klshphrldblr`c
c Z;<, ;6W.
@    x1
H ohs rhths d`c `stl`p`r`sbs, sl ols kb` uc supolglct` kl e`r` kurhctl 49
kçhs, d`c lo rlsuothk` kl qul su dhobkhk ôslh hn`rh lrh d`gphrheol d`c oh klo
mrup` kl d`ctr`o shc`, y oh kl uc mrup` supolglcthk` d`c lstrhkb`o Z;=W.
Lo lfldt` elcldb`s` klo eôrhx lc o`s nuls`s phrldl slr
s lr klebk` h k`s lfldt`s
rlohdb`chk`s1
88=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
8. uch ghy`r dhckhk
dhckhk kl e`r` lc o`s nuls`s
nuls`s qul o`s nhdl ghs kur`s.
5. uch c`rghobzhdbôc kl
kl ohs n`rg`chs slxuhols,
slxuhols, qul h sus vlz lsguoh
lsguoh lo
drldbgblct` klo nuls` culv`.
Tl drll qul oh rhzôc prbcdbpho p`r oh qul gudnhs gualrls ghy`rls
klshrr`oohc `stl`p`r`sbs slh klebk` h o`s eha`s cbvlols kl lstrômlc` klspuâs
kl oh glc`phusbh. Lc o`s n`gerls, o`s cbvlols kl tlst`stlr`ch kbsgbcuylc
kl ghclrh gès mrhkuho, o` qul phrldl rllahrsl lc lo bcbdb` gès thrkç` kl oh
`stl`p`r`sbs d`g` mrup`. D`g` lo e`rhx bcdrlglcth lo cbvlo kl n`rg`chs klo
drldbgblct`,, sl pr`kudl uch ghy`r hes`rdbôc kl dhodb` lc o`s nuls`s. \c lstukb`
drldbgblct`
lc o`s n`gerls g`strô qul lo cbvlo kl tlst`stlr`ch oberl nheçh huglcthk` lc
uc tlrdb`, klspuâs kl uch supolglcthdbôc kbhrbh kl horlklk`r kl 899 gm kl
eôrhx p`r uch slghch Z;>W.
Lo e`r` pulkl lquboberhr o`s cbvlols kl ohs n`rg`chs slxuhols, sbgbohr h oh
hddbôc klo p`ov` kl rhçz kl ghdh. Oh ghdh hdtñh s`erl oh moèckuoh pbtubthrbh y
thgebâc phrh lquboberhr culstrhs n`rg`chs slxuhols, phrldl lsguohr culstrh
pr`pbh
pr`kuddbôc kl hpr`mlst
pr`mlstlr`ch.
lr`ch.gâkbdh hdlrdh klo dècdlr kl prôsthth, oh
D`ctrhrbhglctl
oh `pbcbôc
bcvlsmhdbôc d`c e`r` nh klg`strhk` qul o`s cbvlols kl tlst`stlr`ch lolvhk`s,
s`c elcldb`s`s phrh oh rlkuddbôc kl o`s tug`rls kl prôsthth y o`s cbvlols kl
YTH, qul ls uc ghrdhk`r kl tug`rls y kl bchghdbôc lc oh prôsthth. [hgebâc
gla`rô sbmcbdhvhglctl oh glg`rbh y oh d`mcbdbôc lc ohs plrs`chs kl lkhk
hvhczhkh Z;2W.
N  F1
\c lstukb` dblcd` rldblctl Z<9W d`crgh lsths `eslrvhdb`cls p`sbvhs
d`c oh dhckbkbhsbs vhmbcho. \ch k`sbs, qul ls uch dèpsuoh oolch kl èdbk` eôrbd`,
fucdb`cô bcdous` lc dhs`s kl dèckbkh rlsbstlctls
rlsbstlctls h o`s glkbdhglct`s y thgebâc
d`ctrh t`khs ohs ehdtlrbhs phtômlchs pr`ehkhs. Oh dèckbkh thgebâc pulkl
f`rghr dhphs kurhs kl eb`og. Lstl gbsg` lstukb` gulstrh qul lo èdbk` eôrbd`/
eôrhx, bcnbel oh f`rghdbôc kl eb`ploçduohs. \ch rlvbsbôc dblcdh lc 5988 oolmô
h oh d`cdousbôc1
‟… lo èdbk` eôrbd` ls uch hotlrchvh, `pdbôc slmurh, ld`côgbdh phrh
ohs gualrls d`c sçct`ghs rldurrlctls y drôcbd`s kl vhmbcbs, duhck` lo
trhthgblct` d`cvlcdb`cho fhooh…‗ Z<8W.
@tr` lstukb` kl [urquçh Z<5W klgulstrh lo lfldt` pr`tldt`r klo èdbk` eôrbd`
lc hobglct`s d`cthgbchk`s d`c gbd`t`xbchs, lc lspldbho hht`xbchs fñcmbdhs.
88>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
Lctrl lsths, oh hht`xbch E8 (HFE 8) pr`v`dh mrhckls khø`s ho HKC y ls lo
dhrdbcômlc` gès p`tlctl ahgès pr`nbebk`, hfldthck` lspldbhoglctl lo nçmhk`
y o`s puog`cls, dhushck` thgebâc klfldt`s kl chdbgblct`, bcguc`t`xbdbkhk l
bcdous` oh gulrtl lc hcbghols kl mrhcah y lc slrls nughc`s.
Lo trhthgblct` d`c èdbk` eôrbd`, rlsuotô pr`tldt`r y d`ckua` h uc huglct`
kl oh rlsbstlcdbh klo khø` bckudbk` p`r oh HFE 8. Oh fulrtl hddbôc hcfñcmbdh
klo èdbk` eôrbd` ls, p`r supulst`, oh rhzôc p`r oh qul sl o` nh uobzhk`
trhkbdb`choglctl
trhkbdb`choglc
tl d`g` d`cslrvhctl kl hobglct`s.
[hct` lo eôrhx d`g` oh s`oudbôc kl y`k` kl Oum`o ‛bmuhoglctl lc plobmr`
kl lxcdbôc‛ sl pulklc uobzhr phrh lobgbchr lo u`rur` Z<4W.
Lo `gcbprlslctl ñ`r, klsnldn` guy tôxbd` kl oh bckustrbh kl flrobzhctls,
c` sôo` nhdl qul o`s nuls`s sl kltlrb`rlc, sbc` thgebâc qul oh moèckuoh pbclho
sl dhodbqul, y `dhsb`ch ho gbsg` lgp` pr`eolghs kl nbp`r`bkbsg`. Lo eôrhx
rlhddb`ch d`c o`s b`cls kl ñ`r phrh f`rghr u`rur`s kl e`r`, qul oulm` s`c
lxpuoshk`s h trhvâs kl oh `rbch. Lc uc lstukb` dnbc`, lo eôrhx sl uobzô phrh
trhthr h 48 phdblctls d`c u`r`sbs lsquloâdh. Oh dhckhk sl bcdrlglctô
mrhkuhoglctl
499-8899
uc
kld`c
trlsuch
glsls,
d`c
slghch kl klsdhcs`
dhkhgm/kçh
gls. Lokurhctl
trhthgblct`
trhthgbl
ct`plrç`k`
ful ldhz
gla`rh
klouch
<9
ho >9%.
Lc Lur`ph, lo eôrhx y lo èdbk` eôrbd` nhc sbk` dohsbdhk`s d`g` „tôxbd`s
rlpr`kudv`s‒, y klskl kbdblgerl kl 5989 yh c` lstèc kbsp`cbeols ho pñeobd`
lc oh \L. Hdtuhoglctl, lo eôrhx lstè kbsp`cbeol lc Tubzh Z<;W, plr` c` sl plrgbtl
lo lcvç` h Holghcbh. Lc Holghcbh, uch plquløh dhckhk (59-<9 mrhg`s)
pulkl s`obdbthrsl h trhvâs kl uch fhrghdbh d`g` vlclc` phrh n`rgbmhs, qul sl
rlmbstrhrè. Lc homuc`s phçsls lur`pl`s, d`g` N`ohckh, pulklc tlclr t`khvçh
eôrhx, plr` c` lc `tr`s d`g` Holghcbh, k`ckl c` sl plrgbtl lo e`r` lc f`rgh
bôcbdh, cb eôrhx ` èdbk` eôrbd`.
Lo eôrhx hdtuhoglctl lstè kbsp`cbeol lc lEhy y pulkl slr lcvbhk` h `tr`s
phçsls kl oh \L. Ohs theolths kl e`r` sl pulklc d`gprhr lc lckhs kl shouk `
lc Bctlrclt, d`gñcglctl d`c 4 gm kl e`r`.
Gblctrhs lo e`r` ls hklduhk` d`g` supolglct` lc mlclrho, c` lstè dohr` sb
fucdb`ch d`ctrh oh Dèckbkh y gyd`poh
gyd`pohsghs.
sghs. Oh ghy`rçh kl lstukb`s dblcd`s y
lxplrblcdbhs bckbvbkuhols
bckbvbkuhols lc o` qul sl rllrl h oh hrtrbs, oh `stl`p`r`sbs ` h ohs
n`rg`chs slxuhols y oh glc`phusbh, sl nbdblr`c d`c eôrhx ` èdbk` eôrbd`.
[`khvçh c` sl d`c`dl sb lo e`r` c` bôcbd` ls thc ldhz d`g` lo eôrhx Z<<W.
O`s p`sbeols lfldt`s slduckhrb`s1
Hucqul plobmr`s`s,
o`s lfldt`s lc
slduckhrb`s
klchturho
o`s fèrghd`s
h slr
clmhv`s
y h glcuk`
oh glkbdbch
(d`g` lcklc
oh tlrhpbh
kl eôrhx)
o`s
lfldt`s s`c h glcuk`, ohs drbsbs durhvhs d`c rlsuothk`s elcldb`s`s.
882
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
O`s hot`s cbvlols kl dhodb` dlouohrls dhushc oh d`ctrhddbôc gusduohr, d`c
dhohgerls ` lsphsg`s d`g` uch dhush d`gñc kl k`o`r
k`o`r.. Lo e`r`, lspldbhoglctl
lspldbhoglctl
auct` d`c lo ghmclsb`, pulklc rlohahr o`s gñsduo`s rèpbkhglc
rèpbkhglctl
tl y qubthr lo
k`o`r. Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul uch mrhc dhckhk kl dhodbdhdb`cls slvlrhs
c` pulkl slr lobgbchkh y rlkbstrbeubkh lc p`d` lgp`. Nhebtuhoglctl sl pulkl
`eslrvhr uc huglct` kl o`s cbvlols kl dhodb` lc oh z`ch hfldthkh, lspldbhoglctl
lc ohs dhklrhs y o`s n`ger`s, y pulkl dhushr pr`eolghs kurhctl uc lgp`,
d`c uch tlcklcdbh h o`s dhohgerls y k`o`r,
k`o`r, ` pr`eolghs d`c oh dbrduohdbôc kl oh
shcmrl, y oh trhcsgbsbôc clrvb`sh, qul s`c lfldt`s rlohdb`chk`s d`c o`s clrvb`s
kl ohs ghc`s y o`s pbls, d`g` lo lctugldbgblct` ` oh slcsbebobkhk rlkudbkh, `
slcsbebobkhk lc oh pblo.
Kurhctl lo trhthgblct`, huglcthc ohs dhckhkls kl dhodb` y u`rur`
qul phshc h trhvâs kl o`s rbø`cls, pukblck` dhushr gholsthr rlcho tlgp`rho,
`dhsb`chk` p`r o`s dèoduo`s rlchols qul s`c obelrhk`s. Klspuâs kl uc`s kçhs, ohs
pblkrhs (`xhoht`s kl dhodb`) sulolc klshphrldlr, y sl kllcl lo k`o`r.
Yhrh
lobgbchrkl
ohsohdhodbdhdb`cls
thgebâc
oohghkhs ohf`obug).
`xhoht`s, ).
sl[hgebâc
pulklc
t`ghr
bcfusb`cls
pohcth r`gplpblkrhs
r`gplpblkr
hs (Olpbkbug
( Olpbkbug
ohf`obug
nhy lc m`ths (sbmh ohs bcstruddb`cls klo phqultl)1 hkuot`s kl 59 h 5< m`ths:
cbø`s ghy`rls 8< m`ths y = m`ths phrh cbø`s plqulø`s.
D  x1
Ehah t`xbdbkhk `rho hmukh1 KO₌₉ lc rhths ;.<99-6.999 gm/jm kl pls`.
[`xbdbkhk phrh lo klshrr`oo`/rlpr`kuddbôc1 lstukb`s kl hobglcthdbôc hcbgho
lc rhths, rht`cls y plrr`s, h k`sbs hoths, nhc klg`strhk` lfldt`s s`erl oh
flrobkhk y o`s tlsduo`s. Lstukb`s d`c èdbk` eôrbd` lc oh rhth, rhtôc y d`cla`,
lc k`sbs hoths, klgulstrhc lfldt`s s`erl lo klshrr`oo` lc lo flt`, bcdouylck` oh
pârkbkh kl pls` fltho y vhrbhdb`cls lsquloâdhs glc`rls.
Ohs k`sbs hkgbcbstrhkhs fulr`c vhrbhs vldls suplrb`rls h ohs qul uc nughc`
pulkl lsthr lxpulst` c`rghoglctl. C` lxbstl lvbklcdbh kl dhrdbc`mlcbdbkhk lc
rht`cls.
Lc uch ehtlrçh kl lcshy`s kl guthmlcbdbkhk h d`rt` pohz`, sl d`csthtô
oh huslcdbh kl hdvbkhk guthmâcbdh. Lstukb`s lpbklgb`oômbd`s lc nughc`s
c` gulstrhc uc huglct` lc oh lcflrglkhk puog`chr, lc ohs p`eohdb`cls
qul klshrr`oohc su trheha` d`c lxp`sbdb`cls drôcbdhs h e`rht` lc p`ov`, cb
thgp`d` cbcmñc lfldt` s`erl oh flrobkhk Z<6W.
Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul oh sho kl glsh d`gñc rlsuoth slr kl <9 h 899%
gès tôxbdh qul lo eôrhx. O`s eleâs lclc ghy`r rblsm` lc dhs` kl bcmlsôc
p`r hoths k`sbs kl eôrhx. Tl nh lsghk` qul kl < h 89 mrhg`s pulklc dhushr
vôgbt`s slvlr`s, kbhrrlh, sn`dj l bcdous` oh gulrtl, hucqul ohs k`sbs olthols c`
lstèc eblc k`duglcthkhs lc oh obtlrhturh dblcdh.
859
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
O`s sbmublctls kht`s kl t`xbdbkhk f`rghc phrtl kl o`s k`duglct`s kl oh
Hmlcdbh kl Yr`tlddbôc Hgeblctho kl Lsthk`s \cbk`s (LYH) y o`s Dlctr`s phrh lo
D`ctr`o kl Lcflrglkhkls (DKD) Z<=, <>W.
[rhs lstukbhr =>; dhs`s kl lcvlclchgblct`s nughc`s hddbklcthols p`r oh
bcmlsôc kl 89->> mrhg`s kl èdbk` eôrbd`, c` nue` vçdghs g`rthols, y uc >>%
kl o`s dhs`s fulr`c hsbct`gèd`s p`r d`gpolt`. Tbc lgehrm`, sbct`ght`o`mçhs
mhstr`bctlschols, dhrkb`vhsduohrls, nlpèdhs, rlchols y klo sbstlgh clrvb`s`
dlctrho, klrghs, lrbtlgh, y oh gulrtl, sl nhc `eslrvhk` `dhsb`choglctl lc
homuc`s eleâs, cbø`s y hkuot`s lxpulst`s h gès kl >; gm kl e`r`/jm, o` qul
d`rrlsp`ckl h gès kl ;9 mrhg`s kl eôrhx p`r 69 jm kl pls` d`rp`rho.
O`s lstukb`s lc hcbghols nhc bklcdhk` t`xbdbkhk rlpr`kudvh d`g` lo
lfldt` gès slcsbeol kl oh bcmlsôc kl e`r`. Oh lxp`sbdbôc kl rhths, rht`cls
y plrr`s kurhctl vhrbhs slghchs g`strô homuc`s khø`s lc o`s tlsduo`s y lo
lsplrgh h k`sbs kl gès kl 56 gm kl e`r`/jm, o` qul d`rrlsp`ckl h 8< mrhg`s
kl eôrhx/kçh p`r 69 jm kl pls` d`rp`rho.
\ch sbtuhdbôc gès klobdhkh ls oh klo flt` lc klshrr`oo`: lc o`s hcbghols
lstukbhk`s,
ohs rhthslc
fulr`c
ohs gès
hfldthkhs.
Lc uc
lstukb` sl lcd`ctrhr`c
obmlrhs rlkuddb`cls
lo pls`
d`rp`rho
fltho p`r
oh hkgbcbstrhdbôc
kl 84,=
gm kl e`r`/jm/kçh kurhctl lo lgehrhz`. Y`r o` qul oh k`sbs sbc lfldt`
kurhctl lo lgehrhz` sl aô lc glc`s kl 84,= gm/jm/kçh, qul d`rrlsp`ckl
hpr`xbghkhglctl
hpr`xbgh
khglctl h = mrhg`s kl eôrhx p`r kçh phrh 69 jm kl pls` d`rp`rho. D`c
uc fhdt`r kl slmurbkhk høhkbk`, sl dhoduoô uc vho`r (sbc lfldt` sbd` hprldbheol)
kl 2,6 gm kl e`r`/jm/kçh d`rrlsp`ckblctl h < mrhg`s kl eôrhx phrh 69 jm.
Lc uc lstukb` kl trls mlclrhdb`cls, c` sl lcd`ctrô cbcmñc pr`eolgh lc
8=,< gm kl e`r`/jm/kçh, qul d`rrlsp`ckl h 2 mrhg`s kl eôrhx phrh 69 jm:
gblctrhs qul oh sbmublctl k`sbs kl eôrhx gès hoth pr`ehkh ls kl <>,< gm/jm
ho kçh, d`rrlsp`ckblctl h 49 mrhg`s kl eôrhx/69 jm, kb` d`g` rlsuothk` oh
bcflrobkhk. Y`r o` thct` p`klg`s sup`clr qul oh k`sbs rlpr`kudvh slmurh ls
kl uc`s 59 mrhg`s/69 jm/kçh. Lo eôrhx d`clcl uc 88,4% kl e`r` y lo èdbk`
eôrbd` d`clcl uc 8=,<% kl e`r` (o`s dèoduo`s s`c hpr`xbghk`s).
Lo pr`kudt` quçgbd` prbcdbpho lc lo culv` sustut` eôrhx, plrdhre`cht` kl
s`kb`, lstè dlrdh kl slr trls vldls gès tôxbd` qul lo eôrhx. O`s kht`s kl KO₌₉
h oh bcmlsôc hmukh phrh o`s hcbghols s`c 894;-5599 gm/jm/kçh Z<2W. Bcdous` lo
ebdhre`cht` kl s`kb` d`gñcglctl ushk`, d`c uch KO₌₉ kl hcbghols kl 4469
gm/ jm, ls dhsb lo k`eol kl tôxbd` qul lo eôrhx Z69W.
O`s lstukb`s lc nughc`s, hdlrdh kl oh p`sbeol hs`dbhdbôc lctrl ohs
hotlrhdb`cls lc oh flrobkhk y o`s hot`s cbvlols kl e`r` lc lo hmuh, lo sulo` y lo
p`ov` lc uchs p`eohdb`cls turdhs, y oh gbclrçh kl e`r` y o`s trhehahk`rls kl
pr`dlshgblct`, c` lcd`ctrhr`c cbcmñc lfldt`. \c lstukb` bcdous` bcf`rgô kl
thshs kl flduckbkhk gès lolvhkhs lc o`s trhehahk`rls kl pr`kuddbôc kl eôrhx,
lc d`gphrhdbôc d`c lo pr`glkb` chdb`cho kl Lsthk`s \cbk`s.
858
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Oh ghy`rçh kl o`s lstukb`s kl eôrhx d`c rlsuothk`s p`sbv`s, p`r hn`rh,
vblclc kl Dnbch, Ahpôc y [urquçh.
YueGlk ls uc slrvbdb` kl eñsqulkh kl chcdbhdbôc pñeobdh phrh ohs
pueobdhdb`cls kl bcvlsmhdbôc eb`gâkbdh. Tb eblc t`khvçh sl lcdulctrhc `tr`s
hrduo`s kl Clwcnhg y Qn`u (ohs k`s pueobdhdb`cls gès bgp`rthctls s`erl
eôrhx, glcdb`chkhs hctlrb`rglctl), o`s lcshy`s kl hrtrbs lc lo N`spbtho
Ulho kl Gloe`urcl y lo trhthgblct` kl oh u`r`sbs lsquloâdh lc Dnbch, yh
c` lstèc obsthk`s. @evbhglctl, lstuvblr`c hooç, `rbmbchoglctl. Tu lobgbchdbôc
lvbth qul slhc dbthk`s
d bthk`s lc `trhs bcvlsmhdb`cls.
Bcklplckblctlglctl
Bcklplckblc
tlglctl kl oh fhoth kl drlkbebobkhk dblcdh, lo eôrhx y lo èdbk`
eôrbd`, p`krçhc slr rlrhk`s kl oh vlcth pñeobdh lc t`k` lo guck`, h d`rt` pohz`
` sbc hvbs` homuc`.
Lo Qhpplr (Eb`tr`nc®) [lrhpbh kl frldulcdbhs loldtr`ghmcâtbdhs
Lxbstlc gudn`s p`s kl loldtr` tlrhpbhs qul uobzhc gbdr` d`rrblctls
loâdtrbdhs kl ehah tlcsbôc, qul nhebtuhoglctl s`c trhsgbkhs h trhvâs kl
uc`s loldtr`k`s nhdbh oh shcmrl y o`s tlabk`s klo dulrp` phrh klshdvhr t`k`
p` kl gbdr`eb`s, vbrus, n`cm`s, y phrèsbt`s. Tlmñc oh tl`rçh kl oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho, oh tlrhpbh kl frldulcdbhs c` pulkl fucdb`chr, yh qul ohs `ckhs
loldtr`ghmcâdhs plcltrhc
plcltrhc d`c ohs frldulcdbhs sôo` p`d`s gboçgltr`s lc oh pblo
y c` lclc oh gçcbgh p`sbebobkhk kl oolmhr h uc phrèsbt` phrh oulm` klstrubro`.
Hklgès lstè oh dulsôc kl dôg` ls p`sbeol qul p`khg`s durhr uc n`cm` lc
o`s pbls, duhck` lo phdblctl s`slcl o`s loldtr`k`s lc oh ghc`. Tbc lgehrm`
gudn`s kl lst`s hphrht`s nhc klg`strhk` slr guy ldhdls d`ctrh t`k` p` kl
lcflrglkhkls y d`ckbdb`cls kl gholsthr.
Klctr` kl oh glkbdbch kl frldulcdbhs, nhy k`s p`s mlclrhols kl hphrht`s1
8. o`s qul uobzhc
uobzhc oh rltr`hobglcthdbôc
rltr`hobglcthdbôc p`sbvh, y
5. o`s qul uobzhc oh rltr`hobglcthdbôc
rltr`hobglcthdbôc clmhv
clmhvh,
h, qul sl d`c`dl d`g` ‟eb`
fllkehdj‗.
Oh rltr`hobglcthdbôc p`sbvh trhehah d`c oh hgpobdhdbôc kl oh sløho
prlslctl, d`g` p`r lalgpo` bcdrlglcthr lo hurh, qul ls oh hdvbkhk kl o`s
eb`f`t`cls lc târgbc`s dblcd`s ` thgebâc bcdrlglcthck` oh rlsbstlcdbh y
fulrzh klo sbstlgh bcgucl.
O`s Qhpplrs trhehahc kl f`rgh kbflrlctl, lobgbchck` o`s phtômlc`s h
trhvâs kl vberhdb`cls qul lstâc lc oh gbsgh frldulcdbh. Nhy qul bghmbcèrslo`
hsç1 gudn`s d`c`dlg`s lo lfldt` kl qul homñc dhcthctl
dhcthctl slh dhphz kl r`gplr
uc vhs` kl drbstho d`c su v`z. R`
R` gbsg` nl tlcbk` oh sulrtl kl nhelr trhehahk`
d`c G`ctslrrht Dhehooâ nhdl gudn`s hø`s d`g` tâdcbd` kl sus mrhehdb`cls,
y looh ls dhphz kl nhdlro`.
y looh ls dhphz kl nhdlro`.
855
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
Fbm. 541 Hckrlhs
Hc krlhs Jhodjlr
Jhodjlr lc uc lstukb` kl mrhehdb`cls d`c G`ctslrrht Dhehooâ.
°Dôg` fucdb`ch0 Lc prbglr oumhr oh dhcthctl dhcth
dhcth lo gbsg` t`c` klo vhs`
qul qublrl r`gplr, h trhvâs kl oh frldulcdbh kl su v`z. Tb d`csbmul lsthr lc
rls`chcdbh d`c lo vhs` kl drbstho c`, âstl lgpblzh h vberhr lc lo gbsg` t`c`
kl v`z qul lgbtl oh dhcthctl. Oh dhcthctl lct`cdls dhcth dhkh vlz gès fulrtl y
ho cho lolvh oh frldulcdbh uc p`qubt` gès, nhdblck` uc vberht`, qul lo vhs` kl
drbstho
qublrl
slmubr
plr` qul
c`o`pulkl,
yhtrhth
qul ls
susthcdbh rçmbkh,
y ho cho
sl r`gpl
lc 8999
plkhz`s.
Y`r
thct` sl
kluch
uc flcôglc`
kl rls`chcdbh.
O`s hphrht`s d`c`dbk`s d`g` Qhpplr uobzhc lstl sbstlgh.
R` gbsg` sulo` oolvhr lc gbs vbhals sblgprl uc` kl lst`s hphrht`s, y gl nh
hyukhk` lc gudnçsbghs `dhsb`cls ghctlcbâck`gl shc` ` rlduplrèck`gl lc
lgp` râd`rk, s`erl t`k` kl bcflddb`cls vçrbdhs, d`g` o`s rlsfrbhk`s ` oh mrbpl.
[hgebâc tlcm` qul hkgbr qul o`s hphrht`s ld`côgbd`s c` fucdb`chc bmuho kl
eblc qul o`s kl mhgh hoth y gès dhr`s.
Oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho c` d`ctlgpoh lo lfldt` kl ohs `ckhs lsdhohrls
` trhcsvlrshols y p`r o` thct` c` d`gprlckl dôg` pulkl fucdb`chr lstl
mlclrhk`r kl frldulcdbhs lc oh pr`fuckbkhk klo dulrp`. Ohs `ckhs nlrtzbhchs
qul d`c`dlg`s s`c `ckhs o`cmbtukbchols y lstl p` kl `ckh dblrthglctl c`
pulkl plcltrhr lc lo dulrp`, gès qul uc`s p`d`s gboçgltr`s. Tbc lgehrm`,
ho mlclrhr `ckhs rldthcmuohrls, thgebâc sl drlhc ho gbsg` lgp` `ckhs
854
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
lsdhohrls y lsths `ckhs lsdhohrls sl dlctrhc lc lo rldlpt`r. Hucqul nhy p`dh
fulrzh, klebk` h oh d`cdlctrhdbôc kl ohs `ckhs lsdhohrls, lo phtômlc` gulrl ho
lctrhr lc rls`chcdbh d`c oh frldulcdbh.
D`g` sl ush1
O` gla`r ls r`klhr o`s loldtr`k`s d`c uch t`hoobth nñglkh, kl lsth
ghclrh sl rlkudl pr`eheolglctl oh dhckhk kl `ckhs o`cmbtukbchols,
bcdrlglcthck` oh dhckhk kl `ckhs trhcsvlrshols lsdhohrls. [hgebâc
sl pulkl suglrmbr uc loldtr`k` lc uc rldbpblctl d`c hmuh (d`c ` sbc sho
høhkbkh phrh gla`rhr oh d`ckudvbkhk) phrh tlclr ghy`r ldhdbh sb lo
hphrht` c` lcl phrtls loldtrôcbdhs lc o`s ghcm`s. Ho cho sl rld`gblckh
ohvhr ohs ghc`s ` o`s pbls, slmñc lo dhs`, d`c hmuh.
Yhrh gudnhs lcflrglkhkls ls rld`glckheol p`clr uc loldtr`k` lc oh
z`ch pr`eolgèdh, yh slh uch bcflddbôc o`dho ` uc tug`r, y lo `tr` loldtr`k`
lc oh z`ch `pulsth, phrh mhrhczhr oh gèxbgh plcltrhdbôc y ldhdbh.
ldhdbh.
Hucqul lc uc prbcdbpb` c` bgp`rth oh p`ohrbkhk, nhy mlctl qul `pbch
qul lo ohk` clmhv` (lo dheol clmr`) pbdh hom` gès lc oh pblo qul lo ohk`
p`sbv` (lo dheol r`a`).
r`a`).
Lc tl`rçh slrçh gla`r tlclr lo loldtr`k` clmhv` k`ckl lstè oh z`ch klo
pr`eolgh, hucqul y` plrs`choglct
plrs`choglctll c` nl p`kbk` d`crghro` kl g`glct`
g`glct`,,
yh qul lc hge`s dhs`s gl nh fucdb`chk` guy eblc.
Lo us` kl sbstlghs kl loldtr`frldulcdbh lvbklctlglctl thgebâc lcl sus
kltrhdt`rls, qul `pbchc qul p`krçhc slr khøbc`s phrh lo `rmhcbsg`. D`g` oh
sløho klo Qhpplr c` lcl g`kuohdbôc c` oolvh bcf`rghdbôc, y p`r o` thct` sôo`
pulkl hfldthr h n`cm`s, ehdtlrbhs, vbrus y phrèsbt`s ucbdlouohrls ` plqulø`s.
Ohs dâouohs nughchs s`c gudn` gès d`gpolahs y trhehahc d`c g`kuohdb`cls
kbflrlctls,
kbflrlc
tls, ho gbsg` lgp` qul lstèc lc rls`chcdbh d`c ohs dâouohs vldbchs lc
t`k` g`glct`, y p`r o` thct` c` s`c hfldthkhs
hfldthkhs d`g` o`s phtômlc`s ucbdlouohrls
ucb dlouohrls,,
qul c` pulklc kbsbphr oh lclrmçh kl cbcmuch ghclrh.
Lo Qhpplr c` lstè plcshk` phrh lo trhthgblct` kl clgèt`k`s ` mushc`s
mrhckls lc lo bctlsc`, gès eblc phrh ohs ohrvhs qul lstèc lc oh shcmrl y s`c
gès plquløhs y p`r o` thct` gès slcsbeols h ohs loldtr`tlrhpbhs. Y`r o` thct`,
thgebâc sl oohgh purbdhk`r kl shcmrl.
Nhy vhrbhs vlrsb`cls lc lo glrdhk`1 lstè lo kl oh Krh. Nuokh Dohrj qul trhehah
d`c 2 V y nhsth uc`s 49.999 Nz, y thgebâc oh klo Kr. Eldj qul uobzh kl 5= h 46
V h frldulcdbhs ehahs nhsth ; Nz.
O`s Qhpplr kl mhgh hoth d`g` lo Eb`tr`nc® s`c dhphdls kl duerbr hge`s l
bcdous` frldulcdbhs gudn` gès hoths, hklgès d`c gudnh prldbsbôc kl 8/8999
Nz, thct` qul sl phrldlc gès h ohs gèqubchs Ubfl.
85;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 5
Oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho sl ehsh lc gât`k`s kl trhthgblct`,
trhthgblct`, d`c g`klo`s
qul s`c dhphdls kl glkbr y hchobzhr,
hchobzhr, rlkudblck` lo dulrp` nughc` h uc puøhk`
kl fôrguohs quçgbdhs y d`gphrgblct`s kl glkbdbch, d`g` sb lo dulrp` c`
bctlrhdtuhrh kl ghclrh ucbf`rgl.
Fbm. 5;1 Eb`tr`nc® d`c sus rlspldv`s loldtr`k`s.
[lcmh lc dulcth, lst`s rlsuothk`s s`c sôo` lvhouhdb`cls kl oh bcvlsmhdbôc
lxplrbglctho. C` d`cstuylc cbcmñc p` kl d`csla`, prlsdrbpdbôc gâkbdh
` rld`glckhdbôc, h cbcmuch plrs`ch d`c duhoqublr d`ckbdbôc lspldçdh `
lcflrglkhk.
* * *
85<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
856
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
D 4
Ollr prbglr`
Lc lstl dhpçtuo` vhg`s h nheohr kl o`s pr`t`d`o`s qul sl uobzhc lc lo us`
klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`. Y`klg`s lcd`ctrhr p`r Bctlrclt gudnhs vlrsb`cls kl o`s
pr`t`d`o`s. Gb bctlct` hquç ls p`clr uc p`qubt` kl `rklc, drlhck` uc culv`
sbstlgh ldhz y sbgpol, klsdhrthck` oh bcf`rghdbôc qul nhyh qulkhk` hcmuh
y klsfhshkh y lvbthck` ohs d`cfusb`cls qul dhushc pr`eolghs y klsbcf`rghdbôc.
[email protected] OLMHO1
OLMHO1 Lstl k`duglct` c` rlprlslcth uch rld`glckhdbôc
kl trhthgblct`s gâkbd`s, ls uch rld`pbohdbôc kl kht`s kl v`oucthrb`s kl
hut`sugbcbstr`, y klel slrvbr d`g` ehsl phrh uch futurh bcvlsmhdbôc doçcbdh
ucbvlrsbthrbh pr`flsb`cho.
Xublr` rlghrdhr qul yh c` uobzhg`s lo èdbk` dçtrbd` ho <9% d`g`
hdvhk`r, yh qul ls klghsbhk` fulrtl puls oh s`oudbôc rlsuothctl lcl
uc pN klghsbhk` èdbk`, fhdbobthck` lo drldbgblct` kl dblrths ehdtlrbhs
`p`rtucbsths d`g` Dbtr`ehdtlr, qul sl cutrlc klo dbtrht` s`erhctl kl oh
rlhddbôc. Lo èdbk` dçtrbd` thgebâc ls lo dhushctl kl uch s`erl hdbkbdhdbôc
klo bctlsc`, nheblck` dhushk` kbhrrlhs lc lo phshk`. Ho slr uc èdbk`
olct`, c` ls thc ldhz d`g` lo èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` ho ;%, y hklgès lo èdbk`
do`rnçkrbd` ls lo èdbk` qul tlclg`s lc lo lstôghm` p`r chturholzh.
Uldulrkl qul oh glzdoh kl o`s k`s d`gp`clctls, do`rbt` sôkbd` d`c lo èdbk`
do`rnçkrbd`, cucdh sl bcmblrl cb sôo`, cb kbrldthglctl.
kbrldthglctl . Hge`s d`gp`clctls sl
klelc hdvhr lc uc vhs` sld`, lsplrhck` qul oh rlhddbôc o`s trhcsf`rgl lc
85=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
d`o`r hghrboo` ègehr. Lst` pulkl kurhr slmñc oh tlgplrhturh lxtlrb`r kl 49
slmuck`s h uc gbcut`. Lo d`o`r hghrboo` ègehr c`s bckbdh qul oh glzdoh lsth
obsth phrh qul sl høhkh lo hmuh. Cucdh sl uobzh kl ghclrh d`cdlctrhkh.
d`cdlctrhkh. Klelc
glzdohrsl h phrtls bmuhols uc` y `tr`, puls sl muhrkhc dhkh uc` lc su e`tlooh.
Oh rlohdbôc kl oh glzdoh d`c lo hdvhk`r ls kl 818, ls kldbr uch m`th kl èdbk`
do`rnçkrbd` ho ;% d`c uch m`th kl do`rbt` sôkbd` ho 5<%.
C`rghoglctl, lo trhthgblct`
trhthgblct` ls gès lfldv
lfldv`
` sb sl uobzh lc k`sbs plquløhs,
qul sb o` nhdlg`s lc k`sbs mrhckls p`r oh ghøhch y p`r oh c`dnl.
Lc dhs` qul hphrlzdhc ghrl`s, cèuslhs ` kbhrrlh, sbgpolglctl sl klel
rlkudbr oh k`sbs. N      
  D   ,
        .
 . Tbmcbdh qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`
rlhddb`chrçh d`c oh vbthgbch D, lc vlz kl rlhddb`chr d`c o`s phtômlc`s èdbk`s
klo dulrp`.
O`s pr`t`d`o`s qul sl ushc lc dhkh dhs` klelc slr kbcègbd`s y hkhptheols
phrh dhkh plrs`ch, yh qul c` ls o` gbsg` uch plrs`ch lctrlchkh, dhphz kl
s`p`rthr lstrâs `xbkhv`, qul uch plrs`ch guy lcflrgh, d`c qublc nhy qul
lgplzhr
guy
p`d` suebâck`oh
h p`d`. Y`rphuohchglctl.
rlmoh mlclrhol.p`klg`s
kldbr qul
d`c oh k`sbs
gçcbgh
phuohchglct
R` nl rldbebk`
gbolsslkllgpblzh
l-ghbos
prlmuctèck`gl quâ k`sbs nhy qul uobzhr phrh lsth ` hqulooh lcflrglkhk.
Oh rlspulsth ls1 oh k`sbs gès hoth qul tl nhmh slcr eblc.
Yhrh lvbthr lqubv`dhdb`cls1
lqubv`dhdb`cls1 DHKH plrs`ch qul vhyh h uobzhr DK klel shelr
d`c lxhdtuk dôg` prlphrhr ohs k`sbs. Tb ustlk sl o` lcsløh h homublc, klel
hslmurhrsl kl qul lsh plrs`ch o` prlphrl ho glc`s uch vlz hctl sus `a`s, phrh
d`gpr`ehr qul c` nhy lqubv`dhdb`cls lc lo pr`dls`.
G  ô1
¡¡¡C\CDH \[BOBQHU ULDBYBLC[LT KL GL[HO!!!
GL[HO!!!
8.
5.
4.
;.
Do`rbt` kl T`kb` ho 5<%.
Èdbk` Do`rnçkrbd` ho ;%.
Hmuh gbclrho
gbclrho ` klsohkh.
klsohkh.
E`tloohs YY/NKYL/YL d`c m`tlr` `hog`oômbd`.
[`k`s lst`s ghtlrbhols s`c rlsbstlctls y s`p`rthc
hoth hodhobcbkhk y hdbklz (pN 84 / pN 8).
<. \obzhrlg`s rldbpblctls kl drbstho phrh oh glzdoh.
C`
sl uobzh
uoohbzh
m`tlr`s
kl m`gh. Lo pN ls guy hot` y
klmrhkh
m`gh
(f`t`).
Fbm. 5<1 M`tlr` y e`tl kl drbstho.
85>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
Dohsls kl Yhtômlc`s
Dhkh phtômlc` klel trhthrsl slmñc su chturholzh, sl pulkl mlclrhobzhr kl
oh sbmublctl ghclrh1
8.
5.
4.
;.
<.
6.
Vbrus1 gñopols k`sbs
k`sbs plquløhs, p`r su dhphdbkhk
dhphdbkhk rlpr`kudvh
rlpr`kudvh rèpbkh.
Ehdtlrbhs11 k`sbs ghy`r,
Ehdtlrbhs
ghy`r, gès lsphdbhk
lsphdbhkh.
h.
N`cm`s1 pr`t`d`o`s
pr`t`d`o`s d`c plrsbstlcdbh,
plrsbstlcdbh, d`gprulel sb nhy phrèsbt`s.
phrèsbt`s.
Lobgbchr glthols1 rlqublrlc
rlqublrlc k`sbs hoths
hoths kurhctl lgp`.
lgp`.
Bct`xbdhdbôc1
Bct`xb
dhdbôc1 s`re`s plqulø`s dhkh p`d`s
p`d`s gbcut`s.
Yhrèsbt`s1
Yhrèsbt
`s1 k`sbs hoths. \ch slghch
slghch kl ghctlcbgblct`
ghctlcbgblct` d`g` gçcbg`.
gçcbg`.
Ulmohs mlclrhols1 (Hkvlrtlcdbhs y D`ctrhbckbdhdb`cls)
Duhct` gès lcflrgh sl lcdulctrl oh plrs`ch h slr trhthkh, gès olct`
klel slr lo huglct` kl oh k`sbs.
8. Nhy qul rld`rkhr qul oh bcnhohdbôc ghsbvh ls tôxbdh, hsç qul sl klel
lvbthr su rlspbrhdbôc pr`o`cmhkh
pr`o`cmhkh kbrldth.
5. D`g` p`sbeol bctlrhddbôc (glkbkh
(glkbkh prlvlcvh),
prlvlcvh), nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth
dulcth
lo us` kl o`s hcd`hmuohctls (Tbctr`g-whrfhrbch, nlphrbch, ltd…). Lo
kbôxbk` kl do`r` c` huglcth oh kboudbôc kl oh shcmrl kbrldthglctl,
sbc` qul huglcth oh dhrmh loâdtrbdh lc ohs glgerhchs kl o`s nlghls,
nhdblck` qul sl rlplohc lctrl sç, d`sh qul sl rllah lc lo çckbdl kl oh
glkbdbôc.
4. Lc lo dhs` kl lsthr t`ghck` uc glkbdhglct` phrh uch lcflrglkhk
‟drôcbdh‗, gudn`s v`oucthrb`s nhc lxplrbglcthk` tho gla`rh qul nhc
p`kbk` rlkudbr oh k`sbs klo glkbdhglct` phuohchglctl, d`gpr`ehck`
d`gpr`ehck`
h glcuk` o`s cbvlols kl glkbdbôc (glkbdhdbôc phrh oh nbplrtlcsbôc,
kbheltls…).
;. Homuchs plrs`chs bcf`rghc hdlrdh kl sçct`ghs phrldbk`s h o`s kl uc
rlsfrbhk` duhck` sl uobzh DK. Lst` pulkl pr`kudbrsl p`r phtômlc`s
lcdhpsuohk`s lc oh gud`sbkhk kl oh chrbz ` o`s puog`cls kl uc rlsfrbhk`
hctlrb`r, oohghk` ‟eb`og‗. O`s mârglcls h vldls sl lcdhpsuohc lc
lo g`d` lckurldbk` plr` sbmulc vbv`s. Lo mhs [email protected] 5 ls d`c`dbk` lc oh
bckustrbh kl shclhgblct` kl hmuhs, yh qul ls dhphz kl lobgbchr lstl
eb`og, klebobthck` lo g`d` y o`s hcmu`s mârglcls klo rlsfrbhk`.
852
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
<. Nhy qul rld`rkhr qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` fucdb`ch d`g` `xçmlc` ho
fulm`, guy p`d` c` sbrvl y klghsbhk` pulkl pr`v`dhr uch rlhddbôc
guy fulrtl, hsç qul lxplrbglctl y kldbkh p`r ustlk gbsg`, lsdudnhck`
h su dulrp`. C` sl klel f`rzhr chkh. Tb nh bcbdbhk` uc pr`t`d`o` y
lcl homñc bckbdhv` kl hom` qul c` ol nhdl slcr eblc ‛c` nhy qul
d`cfuckbr thgp`d` d`c ohs drbsbs durhvhs, qul gudnhs vldls phrldlc
lfldt`s hkvlrs`s duhck` lc rlhobkhk lo dulrp` nh bcbdbhk` lo dhgbc`
nhdbh oh rlduplrhdbôc‛ klel kbsgbcubr oh k`sbs nhsth qul o`s lfldt`s
clmhv`s klshphrlzdhc y oulm` d`ccuhr d`c oh phuth. Haustl oh k`sbs
phrh t`ghroh d`c d`g`kbkhk. Oh chobkhk ls qul c` sl he`rrlzdh. C` sl
hdlolrh lo pr`dls` kl durhdbôc t`ghck` gès kl o` qul sl klelrçh.
6. Gudnh mlctl thgebâc prlmucth duèct` lgp` sl pulkl uobzhr lo
kbôxbk` kl do`r`. Lst` klplckl kl oh lcflrglkhk y kl oh k`sbs. Lc k`sbs
plquløhs c` klel nhelr pr`eolghs cb sbqublrh h guy ohrm` pohz`, d`g`
bckbdhc ohs prulehs doçcbdhs `etlcbkhs d`c rht`cls y helahs kurhctl k`s
hø`s. Kl nldn`, lo rlsbku` qul klah lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ls `xçmlc` y uc`s
p`d`s
gbobmrhg`s
kl sho,ohqul
lo dulrp`
o`s hes`rel, ls bc`du` bcdous`
phrh plrs`chs
h qublcls
sho lstè
klshd`cslahkh.
=. Tl pulkl uobzhr
uobzhr lo lgp` qul dhkh uc`
uc` o` vlh cldlshrb`. Lc tl`rçh
tl`rçh t`kh
oh vbkh, plr` thgp`d` vl` rhzôc phrh lst`. Nhy qul lsdudnhr lo dulrp` y
duhck` lstè gho p`klg`s rldurrbr ho kbôxbk` kl do`r`, phrh hyukhrol lc
su rlduplrhdbôc, hp`rthck` `xçmlc` h t`khs ohs z`chs èdbkhs y lcflrghs.
>. \ch k`sbs hoth kl DK lc hyuchs
hyuchs pulkl dhushr vôgbt`.
vôgbt`. Lo do`rbt` sôkbd`
([email protected]) hdbkbdhk` (7 hdvhk`) pr`v`dh uch slmuckh rlhddbôc lc lo
lstôghm`,, h kbflrlcdbh klo DKT. Nhy qul lstukbhr eblc lo dhs`, phrh shelr
lstôghm`
quâ pr`t`d`o` ls lo qul sl hpobdh slmñc oh urmlcdbh klo dhs`. Lc dhs`s
slcsbeols sblgprl sl klel lgplzhr d`c DKT.
2.
89.
88.
Hdvhk`
èdbk` dçtrbd`
èdbk`
pulkl pr`v`dhr
plrs`chs
slcsbe
ols hdbk`sbs
bctlscho d`c
y gholsthr,
y homuc`slc
n`cm`s.
(vlrslcsbeols
Dhpçtuo`
<).
Dbtr`ehdtlr
[lclr lc dulcth lo lsthk`, pls` y lkhk kl oh plrs`ch.
Oh lqubvholcdbh kl bcmlsôc
bcmlsôc lctrl
lctrl lo DK (GGT) y lo DKT hpr`xbghkh, sl
nh lstheoldbk` lc 8 go kl DKT 7 8 m`th kl DK (GGT) hdvhkh. Hucqul
dblcdhglctl c` ls klo t`k` d`rrldt`, sl lstheoldl hsç tlcblck` lc
dulcth oh rlhddbôc slduckhrbh lc lo lstôghm`.
85. Hctls kl bcbdbhr duhoqublr pr`t`d`o`, d`gpr`ehg`s prbglr` oh
d`gphebobkhk phrh lvbthr lfldt`s hkvlrs`s. Yhrh lst`, sl glzdoh uch
m`th kl do`rbt` sôkbd` (ho 5<%) d`c uch m`th kl èdbk` do`rnçkrbd`
d o`rnçkrbd` (ho ;%),
sl lsplrh uc gbcut` nhsth qul lstâ hghrboo` ègehr y sl høhklc 899 go
kl hmuh y p`stlrb`rglctl sl bcmblrl. Tb kurhctl ohs prôxbghs k`s n`rhs
c` nhy lfldt`s hkvlrs`s, sl pulkl bcbdbhr lo pr`t`d`o`.
849
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
L   e-ô1
• Tl pulkl t`ghr
t`ghr uc`s vhs`s
vhs`s kl hmuh
hmuh d`c ebdhre`cht` ` zug` obduhk` kl
uchs ghczhchs frlsdhs.
• Tlmubr pr`t`d`o` lstheoldbk`.
Lc dhs` kl gholsthr1
• Yulkl `durrbr qul DK klstruyh phtômlc`s gès klprbsh kl o` qul lo
`rmhcbsg` pulkl lobgbchr.
• V`ov
V`ovlr
lr h oh k`sbs klo kçh
kçh hctlrb`r
hctlrb`r ` rlkudbr gès.
gès.
Lo gholsthr pulkl lsthr `dhsb`chk` p`r1
8. Oh mrhc dhckhk kl phtômlc`s
phtômlc`s qul sl lobgbchc ho gbsg` lgp`.
5. Oh t`xbdbkhk pr`pbh
pr`pbh qul o`s phtômlc`s
phtômlc`s lc sç vulodhc s`erl lo sbstlgh.
sbstlgh.
Homuc`s lfldt`s slduckhrb`s ghcbflsthk`s1
• Gholsthr mlclrho,
mlclrho, dhcshcdb` (ghy`r qul lo qul pr`v`dh
pr`v`dh oh pr`pbh
lcflrglkhk),
lcflrglkhk
), cèuslhs, kbhrrlh, vôgbt` lc homñc dhs`.
\ch d`sh guy kbflrlctl ls duhck` oh lcflrglkhk rlqublrl dhckhkls guy
hoths kl DK, o` qul sudlkl duhck` sl trhth kl uch lcflrglkhk tlrgbcho, mrhvl, `
kl kbdbo rlduplrhdbôc. Nhsth oh fldnh c` lxbstl
lxbstlc
c bckbdb`s rlp`rthk`s kl lfldt`s
clmhv`s
clmhv
`s lczbgèd`s ` kl `xbkhdbôc kl gbclrhols lslcdbhols.
Lc t`k` dhs` nhy homuchs plrs`chs qul nhc nldn` d`g` ruch, dhkh uch
` k`s slghchs uc kçh kl phush, t`ghck` fruth kurhctl lsl kçh kl hestlcdbôc.
@trhs plrs`chs uobzhc pr`t`d`o`s kl trls slghchs d`c uch slghch
s lghch kl klsdhcs`,
phrh oulm` nhdlr `trhs trls slghchs d`cslduvhs.
Lc gb `pbcbôc, lst` ls vèobk`, yh qul nhy qul lsdudnhr quâ ls o` qul c`s
pbkl lo dulrp`, oh bklh ls gla`rhr y c` f`rzhr p`rqul sç.
X\Â [email protected] [email protected] CB ELELU1
8. Lsphdbhr t`khs ohs k`sbs · n`rh kl ohs d`gbkhs y 8 ô 5 n`rhs kl o`s
glkbdhglct`s.
5. Qug` hc`xbkhctls lsplrhr gçcbg` ; n`rhs, gla`r lvbthr.
lvbthr.
4. Yrlflrlctlglctl, c` glzdohr DK d`c1 dhfâ, hod`n`o, ebdhre`cht`, vbthgbch
D, èdbk` hsdôrebd`, zug` kl chrhcah, d`cslrvhctls ` supolglct`s
(hc`xbkhctls),
(hc`xbk
hctls), hucqul c` sulolc nhdlr bctlrhddbôc, pulklc clutrhobzhr
oh ldhdbh klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
848
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
D  e1
Yhrh kbsbguohr su she`r, s`erl t`k` su `o`r1
• Lo DKT hplchs shel y ls fèdbo
fèdbo kl t`ghr.
t`ghr. Lo èdbk` klo hdvhk`r klel slr
•
•
•
•
•
•
èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` (NDo) ho ;%.
[`ghro` klskl uch e`tlooh phrh lvbthr lvhp`rhdbôc klo mhs lc oh chrbz.
[`ghro` frç`. Y`r kleha` kl 88 ¹D, lo mhs kl kbôxbk` kl do`r` c` lvhp`rh.
Y`clrol uc dn`rrbt` kl d`oh.
Glzdohro` d`c oldnl
oldnl kl hrr`z (ebelrôc, vhs`).
Y`clr 8/; kl hmuh kl ghr y lo rlst`
rlst` hmuh gbclrho.
Qug`s kl fruths
fruths c` o`s
o`s rld`gblck`,
rld`gblck`, yh
yh qul glrghc oh ldhdbh p`r sus
hc`xbkhctls chturhols.
Xublr` prlslcthr hquç, uc sbstlgh culv` kl pr`t`d`o`s p`r oltrhs, oh rhzôc
ls sbgpol yh qul gudnhs vldls sl klelc d`gebchr vhrb`s pr`t`d`o`s slmñc phrh
quâ lcflrglkhk, hsç qul sl pulklc d`gebchr fèdboglctl o`s pr`t`d`o`s phrh su
ghy`r ldhdbh. Tâ qul h homuc`s ols vh h s`chr rhr`, plr` klebk` h oh sbtuhdbôc,
ls uc bctlct` kl drlhr `rklc kl ghclrh fèdbo.
Hsç qul p`klg`s lcuglrhr o`s sbmublctls pr`t`d`o`s1
Obsth rèpbkh
8.
Yr`t`d`o` H1
d`g`
Hghtlur ` prbcdbpbhctl
5.
Yr`t`d`o` E1
d`g`
Eèsbd` (lqubvholctl ho hcmu` pr`t`d`o` 8999)
4.
;.
Yr`t`d`o` D1
Yr`t`d`o` K1
d`g`
d`g`
DKT (hcmu` pr`t`d`o` 898)
Klrght`oômbd` (phrh oh pblo)
<.
Yr`t`d`o` L1
d`g`
Lclghs
6.
Yr`t`d`o` F1
d`g`
Frldulctl (hcmu` pr`t`d`o` vçrbd` 88<)
=.
Yr`t`d`o` M1
d`g`
Mhs (duhck` ls uobzhk` sôo` lo mhs)
>.
Yr`t`d`o` N1
d`g`
Nhebthdbôc (phrh lvbthr d`cthmb`s)
2.
Yr`t`d`o` B1
d`g`
Bcsldt`s y pbdhkurhs
89.
Yr`t`d`o` A1
d`g`
lcAAuhmhr (pr`t`d`o` e`dh)
lc
88.
Yr`t`d`o` J1
d`g`
Jbt, d`gebchk` d`c [email protected] ho =9%
85.
84.
Yr`t`d`o` O1
Yr`t`d`o` G1
d`g`
d`g`
Ohvhk` (pr`t`d`o` kl ehø`)
Ghohrbh (k`sbs hoths)
845
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
8;.
Yr`t`d`o` C1
d`g`
Cbø`s y hk`olsdlctls
8<.
Yr`t`d`o` @1
d`g`
@hog`oômbd` / @t`rrbc` (chsho)
86.
Yr`t`d`o` Y1
d`g`
Yhrèsbt`s (pr`t`d`o` bctlcs`)
8=.
Yr`t`d`o` X1
d`g`
Xulghkurhs
8>.
82.
Yr`t`d`o` U1
Yr`t`d`o` T1
d`g`
d`g`
Uldtho d`c plrbooh
Tlcsbeol (d`c k`sbs guy p`d` h p`d`)
59.
Yr`t`d`o` [1
d`g`
[lrgbcho (lcflrglkhkls guy mrhvls)
58.
Yr`t`d`o` \1
d`g`
\rmlcdbh (hcmu` pr`t`d`o` 6+6 kl Dohrh)
55.
Yr`t`d`o` V1
d`g`
Vhmbcho (uobzhck` brrbmhdbôc)
54.
Yr`t`d`o` ]1
d`g`
]hu! (hklgès sl pulkl ushr phrh...)
5;.
Yr`t`d`o` ^1
dd`
`g`
klt`^ (klt`xbdhr glthols plshk`s)
5<.
Yr`t`d`o` R1
d`g`
bcR
bc
Rlddbôc kl DKB
56.
Yr`t`d`o` Q1
d`g`
Qhpplr (Eb`tr`nc®, mlclrhk`r kl frldulcdbhs)
F`rghs kl hpobdhdbôc klo Kbôxbk` kl Do`r` (DK)
8. E1 oh f`rgh kl t`ghro` gès d`gñc ls `rhoglctl. Tl glzdoh lo do`rbt`
sôkbd` ([email protected]) d`c lo hdvhk`r kl èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` (NDo), lc uc vhs`
d`gpolthglctl sld`, sl lsplrh hpr`xbghkhglctl kl 49 slmuck`s h 8
gbcut` nhsth qul lo d`o`r slh hghrboo` ègehr, y sl høhkl kl 899 h 599 go,
slmñc must`, kl hmuh phrh kboubr, hctls kl bcmlrbro`.
5. L1 oh slmuckh f`rgh gès ldhz kl hpobdhdbôc ls h trhv
trhvâs
âs kl lclgh. Ohs
phrlkls klo bctlsc` mruls` hes`relc rèpbkhglctl lo mhs klo oçqubk`, y lo
kbôxbk`
kl do`r`
h trhvâs qul
kl ohhfldthc
vlch p`rth
ho nçmhk`.
Lsth f`rgh
kl
ushr ls guy
ño ls
lcoolvhk`
lcflrglkhkls
ho sbstlgh
nlpèd`,
y hyukh
h lobgbchr t`xbchs èdbkhs, yh qul oh `xbkhdbôc hodhobcbzh.
4. T1 Tl pulkl ushr uch s`oudbôc hdvhkh d`c hmuh, lc f`rgh kl
sprhy, phrh t`k` p` kl hflddb`cls dutèclhs, k`ckl nh khk` rlsuothk`s
lxdlolctls klebk` h su hot` p`klr klsbcfldthctl, y hyukh lc oh rlduplrhdbôc
kl nlrbkhs gès rèpbkhglct
rèpbkhglctl.
l.
;. E1 Tl pulkl ushr lc f`rgh kl ehø`, høhkblck` oh glzdoh hdvhkh ho hmuh
kl oh ehølrh, k`ckl ls guy ldhz phrh lo trhthgblct` kl oh pblo l bcdous` ls
hes`rebk` phrdbhoglctl nhsth dblrt` mrhk`, klebk` h su hoth s`ouebobkhk lc
hmuh.
<. H
[email protected]
bctr`kuddbôc
ls ushck`
(Kbglosuofôxbk`),
[email protected]
ls ucf`rgh
hmlctlkl
kl trhcsp`rtl
lc d`cauct`
d`c [email protected]
lo DK,
yh qul fhdbobth oh hes`rdbôc h trhvâs kl oh pblo gès pr`fuckhglctl y d`c
844
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
ghy`r rhpbklz. Lxbstlc kht`s dblcd`s qul d`crghc qul ls uc eulc
hcbchght`rb` y hchomâsbd`. Tl nh rlp`rthk` homñc dhs` rhr` kl holrmbh y
p`r lsh rhzôc, prulel prbglr` d`c uch m`th kl [email protected] lc lo erhz` phrh vlr
sb ol kh rlhddbôc hoârmbdh.
6. M (K  )1 Yhrh klsbcfldthr lo hbrl kl uch nhebthdbôc y
lvbthr d`cthmb`s sl pulkl hdvhr kl 6 h 89 m`ths lc uc vhs` sbc cldlsbkhk
kl høhkbr hmuh, yh qul c` sl bcmblrl.
=. M (E  )1 Oh pblo ls lo ôrmhc` gès mrhckl qul tlclg`s y h trhvâ
trhvâss
kl looh thgebâc sl hes`rel kbôxbk` kl do`r` glkbhctl mhs sbc hmrlmhr
hmuh. Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` sl hdvh lc uc vhs` y oh e`dh klo vhs` sl ‟plmh‗
auct` h oh z`ch h trhthr sbc qul ol t`qul lo oçqubk`. Yhrh trhthr z`chs gès
hgpobhs klo dulrp` ` bcdous` t`k` lo dulrp` (glc`s oh dhelzh) sl gltl
lc uch e`osh mrhckl d`c oh s`oudbôc hdvhkh lc uc vhs`. Lst` plrgbtl h
oh pblo lsthr lc d`cthdt` kbrldt` d`c lo mhs (c` d`c lo oçqubk`) tlcblck` uc
elcldb` kbrldt`. Nhy qul tlclr dubkhk` lc c` klrrhghr phrh qul cbcmuch
phrtl klo dulrp` lstâ lc d`cthdt` kbrldt` d`c lo oçqubk` hdvhk`.
>. U  DK (  )1 Lc homuc`s sb`s kl bctlrclt sl
rld`gblckh uch erlvl rlspbrhdbôc klo kbôxbk` kl do`r`. Klebk` h duls`cls
kl slmurbkhk (rblsm` kl bct`xbdhdbôc p`r bcnhohdbôc), lstl pr`t`d`o` c` gl
phrldl hklduhk` y, oulm`, c` ls rld`glckhk`.
2. B1 Nhy dblrths hpobdhdb`cls k`ckl ohs bcylddb`cls bctrhvlc`shs `
bctrhgusduohrlss kl uch s`oudbôc hpr`pbhkh kl DKB pulklc slr
bctrhgusduohrl
s lr d`cvlcblctls.
d`cvlcblctls.
C` rlhobdl bcylddb`cls bctrhvlc`shs lxplrbglcthols
lxplrbglcthols lc dhsh, sb c` ls h trhvâs
kl uc gâkbd` hut`rbzhk` phrh lcshy`s doçcbd`s. O`s lcshy`s kl bcylddb`cls
sl nhc rlhobzhk` lc hcbghols k`ckl sl høhkbô kl < h 89 go kl DKT h uch
e`osh kl sulr` shobc` kl <99, y fulr`c shsfhdt`rb`s.
89. N1
N1 [lcmh dubkhk` d`c oh k`sbs lc dhs` kl qul qublrh uobzhro`
lc uc nugbkbdhk`r. Y`r rhz`cls kl slmurbkhk, c` sl rld`gblckh.
Yr`t`d`o` H. Hghtlur ` Yrbcdbpbhctl
Lo pr`t`d`o` H, ` pr`t`d`o` Hghtlur ` prbcdbpbhctl, ls uc pr`t`d`o` phrh
plrs`chs qul sl bcbdbhc lc lst`s trhthgblct`s, bcslmurhs ` kuk`shs, phrh
pr`eolghs glc`rls ` thgebâc phrh ghctlcbgblct` mlclrho.
Ohs m`ths sl hdvhc sblgprl lc rlohdbôc 818, høhkblck` 899-599 go kl hmuh
phrh kboubr p`stlrb`rglctl
p`stlrb`rglctl..
Hctls kl bcbdbhr duhoqublr pr`t`d`o`, d`gpr`ehg`s prbglr` oh d`gphebobkhk
(rlmoh mlclrho 85) phrh lvbthr lfldt`s hkvlrs`s.
8.± 1
1 Hctls kl k`rgbr.
k`rgbr. 4 m`ths hdvhkhs (lc rlohdbôc 818) høhkblck` 899
h 599 go kl hmuh, lo prbglr kçh kl trhthgblct`.
trhthgblct`.
84;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
5.± 1
1 \ch n`rh klspuâs klo klshyuc` 4 m`ths hdvhkhs høhkblck` 599
go kl hmuh, y `trhs 4 m`ths hdvhkhs høhkblck` 899-599 go kl hmuh,
hctls kl k`rgbr.
4.± 1
1 Tl t`ghc ohs k`s k`sbs hctlrb`rls, klspuâs klo klshyuc` y hctls
kl k`rgbr, høhkblck` `trh k`sbs uch n`rh klspuâs kl d`glr.
Tl sbmul d`c ohs gbsghs 4 k`sbs, uch n`rh klspuâs klo klshyuc`, d`gbkh
d`gbkh y
hctls kl k`rgbr, lo lgp` cldlshrb` klo trhthgblct`.
Lstl pr`t`d`o` ls hpt` phrh slr hpobdhk` h ohrm` pohz` y thgebâc sbrvl kl
ghctlcbgblct`.
Ulsuglg klo pr`t`d`o` H1
8.± kçh
Klshyuc` (8 n. klspuâs)
D`gbkh (8 n. klspuâs)
Hctls kl hd`sthrsl
4 m`ths
5.± kçh
4.± kçh
4 m`ths
4 m`ths
4 m`ths
4 m`ths
4 m`ths
Yr`t`d`o` E. (lqubvholctl ho hctbmu` pr`t`d`o` 8999)
Lo pr`t`d`o` E, ` pr`t`d`o` Eèsbd`, ls lo qul gès sl uobzh y ls lqubvholctl
ho pr`t`d`o` 8999 kl Abg Nugeol.
Ohs m`ths sl hdvhc sblgprl lc rlohdbôc 818, høhkblck` kl 899 h 599 go kl
hmuh phrh kboubr p`stlrb`rglct
p`stlrb`rglctl.
l.
Hctls kl bcbdbhr duhoqublr pr`t`d`o`, d`gpr`ehg`s prbglr` oh d`gphebobkhk
(rlmoh mlclrho 85) phrh lvbthr lfldt`s hkvlrs`s.
Lo pr`pôsbt` klo pr`t`d`o` E ls oolmhr h t`ghr kl f`rgh dôg`kh k`sbs
kl 4 m`ths hdvhkhs dhkh n`rh, kurhctl > n`rhs kbhrbhs (` gès), kurhctl 4
slghchs slmubkhs. ¡Lst` nhdl uc t`tho kl 5; m`ths ho kçh!
Nhebtuhoglctl sl d`gblczh d`c uch k`sbs ehah kl 6 m`ths kbhrbhs hdvhkhs,
høhkbâck`ohs h uch e`tlooh kl 8 h 8,< obtr`s kl hmuh, kurhctl o`s 4 prbglr`s
kçhs: klspuâs sl huglcth oh k`sbs h uchs 85 m`ths hdvhkhs, høhkbâck`ohs h
uchm`ths
e`tlooh
kl 8 hhøhkbâck`ohs
8,< obtr`s kl hmuh,
o`s8prôxbg`s
; kçhs:
klspuâs
nhsth=
8>
kbhrbhs,
h uch kurhctl
e`tlooh kl
h 8,< obtr`s
kl hmuh,
kurhctl
kçhs, y choglctl nhsth 5; m`ths, høhkbâck`ohs h uch e`tlooh kl 8 h 8,< obtr`s kl
kçhs, y choglctl nhsth 5; m`ths, høhkbâck`ohs h uch e`tlooh kl 8 h 8,< obtr`s kl
84<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
hmuh, kurhctl uc plrç`k` kl = kçhs gès. Oh k`sbs kbhrbh sblgprl klel t`ghrsl h
o` ohrm` klo kçh, kbvbkbkh kl > h 85 phrtls (pulklc nhdlrsl ghrdhs lc oh e`tlooh).
Fbm. 561 E`tlooh kl poèsd`
po èsd` d`c kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
Ls rld`glckheol hdvhr oh k`sbs kbhrbh d`rrlsp`ckblctl dhkh ghøhch, y
høhkbroh lc uch e`tlooh kl 8 h 8,< obtr`s kl hmuh l br eleblck` dhkh n`rh uc p`d`,
kurhctl lo rlst` klo trhthgblct`, duyh kurhdbôc lstèckhr ls kl trls slghchs, `
lo lgp` cldlshrb` kl trhthgblct`,
trhthgblct`, nhsth qul sl sblcth rlduplrhk`.
rlduplrhk`.
Tb sl lxplrbglcthc cèuslhs, sl rlkudbrè oh k`sbs ho cbvlo hctlrb`r.
U  E1
6 m`
m`ths1
4 kç
kçhs lc
lc uc
uch e`
e`tlooh kl
kl 8 h 8,
8,< obobtr`s kl
kl hm
hmuh.
85 m`t
`ths
hs11
8> m`t
`ths
hs11
; kçh
kçhss lc
lc uc
uch e`t
e`tlo
looh
oh kl 8 h 8,
8,<
< obt
obtrr`s kl hmu
hmuh.
h.
= kçh
kçhss lc
lc uc
uch e`t
e`tlo
looh
oh kl 8 h 8,
8,<
< obt
obtrr`s kl hmu
hmuh.
h.
5; m`t
`ths
hs11
= kçh
kçhss lc
lc uc
uch e`t
e`tlo
looh
oh kl 8 h 8,
8,<
< obt
obtrr`s kl hmu
hmuh.
h.
Duhct` gès lcflrgh lstâ uch plrs`ch, gès olct` lcl qul slr lo huglct`
kl oh k`sbs. Yhrh uch plrs`ch guy lcflrgh sl klel lgplzhr p`r uch k`sbs c`
ghy`r kl 6 m`ths lc uc kçh, l br huglcthck` oh k`sbs pr`mrlsbvhglctl.
pr`mrlsbvhglctl.
Oh vlcthah kl prlphrhro` lc uch e`tlooh ls qul rlsuoth gès fèdbo kl
trhcsp`rthr y t`ghr.
Y`klg`s sløhohr oh k`sbs d`c lxhdtuk d`c uc ghrdhk`r nhdblck` rhyhs lc
oh e`tlooh, phrh rlphrrohs eblc h o` ohrm` klo kçh.
846
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
B  1
8. Lo do`rbt` sblgprl sl glzdoh d`c lo hdvhk`r
hdvhk` r, qul lstè lc `trh e`tlooh.
5. Ohs k`sbs plquløhs kl f`rgh
f`rgh rlplvh s`c
s`c gès lfldvhs,
lfldvhs, qul ohs k`sbs
mrhckls p`r oh ghøhch y p`r oh c`dnl.
4. [`gl thct` DK d`g` ustlk pulkh, sbc qul ol dhusl cèuslhs, kbhrrlh
kbhr rlh
` uc gholsthr mrhvl. Lc dhs` kl gholsthr kbsgbcuyh oh k`sbs, plr` sbmh
d`c lo trhthgblct`.
;. Lvbtl supolglct`s kl vbthgbch D y `tr`s hc`xbkhctls, d`g` gçcbg`
kurhctl 5 n`rhs hctls y klspuâs kl t`ghr DK, yh qul rlkudlc su
lfldvbkhk.
<. Ghctlcmh uc pr`mrhgh kl cutrbdbôc hklduhk`, phrh pr`tlmlr su
sbstlgh bcguc`oômbd`.
6. Yulkl
Yul kl d`gebchr lo DK d`c hmuh kl ghr kboubkh, phrh rlduplrhr oh
gbclrhobzhdbôc
gbclrhobz
hdbôc hklduhkh lc su dulrp`.
=. Tb klspuâs kl uc lgp` vulovl h rlplr lo pr`t`d`o`, lgpbldl klskl lo
prbcdbpb` d`c 6 m`ths kbhrbhs hdvhkhs, bcdrlglcthck` ohs k`sbs slmñc
eblclsthr.
Yr`t`d`o` D. DKT (hctbmu` pr`t`d`o` 898)
Lo pr`t`d`o` D, ` pr`t`d`o` DKT, ls uc pr`t`d`o` ucbvlrsho, hpt` phrh oh
ghy`rçh kl o`s trhthgblct`s, fèdbo kl rlhobzhr y prèddhglctl dhrldl kl lfldt`s
slduckhrb`s c` klslhk`s, d`c o` duho slrçh lo rld`glckhk` phrh oh ghy`rçh kl
o`s trhthgblct`s.
Lo pr`t`d`o` D d`csbstl lc t`ghr 8 go kl DKT 9,4% (7 4999 ppg) kboubk`
lc hmuh dhkh n`rh, kurhctl 89 vldls ho kçh (p`r lsth rhzôc lc homuc`s oumhrls
thgebâc ls oohghk` pr`t`d`o` 889).
• Tl høhklc 89 go kl DKT 4999 ppg (` 899 go kl DKT 499 ppg) h 8 obtr` kl
hmuh, p`r kçh y sl t`gh dhkh n`rh uch phrtl, nhsth tlrgbchr lo d`ctlcbk`
kl oh e`tlooh (kl > h 85 t`ghs).
• Lc dhs` kl lcflrglkhk
lcflrglkhk mrhvl
mrhvl ` plobmr`
plobmr` phrh oh vbkh klel lolvhrsl
lolvhrsl oh
k`sbs, olcth y pr`mrlsbvhglctl, lc k`sbs slphrhkhs, t`ghkhs h o` ohrm` klo
kçh y slmñc d`g` sl sblcth, oolmhck` nhsth
nhsth 49 go p`r obtr` kl hmuh.
• Tb fulrh cldlshrb` t`ghr
t`ghr gès, nhy qul
qul prlphrhr
prlphrhr `trh e`tlooh kl hmuh. Klel
rlkudbrsl oh k`sbs sb sl sblctl gholsthr ` cèuslhs. C` sl klelc suplrhr
>9 go lc 85 t`ghs kbhrbhs (6 go/n phrh 899 jm).
Oh kurhdbôc klo trhthgblct` slrçh lo lgp` cldlshrb`, nhsth qul sl sblcth
rlduplrhk`.
84=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Lo pr`t`d`o` D ls lo qul sl uobzh phrh p`klr trhthr oh ghy`rçh kl ohs
lcflrglkhkls y thgebâc phrh nhdlr uch obgpblzh mlclrho kl t`xbchs ` ‟kât`x‗.
Ls thgebâc uc pr`dlkbgblct` kl klsbct`xbdhdbôc, pr`eheolglctl lo gès
ldhz qul sl d`c`dl. Nhsth oh fldnh c` kh pr`eolghs kl lfldt`s slduckhrb`s `
bctlrhddb`clss bcklslhkhs, y c` sulol dhushr kbhrrlh.
bctlrhddb`cl
Tb sl lstèc t`ghck` `tr`s glkbdhglct`s, klel ghctlclr uch kbsthcdbh
pruklcdbho kl lgp`, kl uch h k`s n`rhs, phrh qul c` sl pblrkh oh ldhdbh klo
DKT.
Tl pulkl høhkbr ¿ phrtl kl hmuh kl ghr, lc dhs` kl klsgbclrhobzhdbôc.
Ulsuglc pr`t`d`o` D1
DKT/
[`ghs kbhrbhs
(8 O  )
K`sbs p`r
n`rh
Obgpblzh mlclrho
89 g o
89 t`ghs
8 go
Lcflrglkhk mrhvl
Dhs`s lxtrlg`s
49 g o
>9 g o
89 t`ghs
85 t`ghs
4 go
6,= go
Yr`t`d`o` K. Klrght`oômbd`
Klrght`oômbd` (phrh oh pblo)
Lo pr`t`d`o` K, ` pr`t`d`o` Klrght`oômbd`, uobzh sblgprl lo DKT, yh qul
c` klah rlsbku` èdbk` kl cbcmñc p`, bcdous` sl pulkl hpobdhr kbrldthglc
kbrldthglctl
tl sbc
kboubr, yh qul su pN ls clutr` y kl lsth ghclrh pulkl slr hpobdhk` kurhctl gès
lgp` sbc dhushr brrbthdb`cls.
Tb c` sl kbsp`cl kl DKT, sl pulkl uobzhr lo DK d`g` hotlrchvh, hdvhck`
5< m`ths y høhkblck` 69 go kl hmuh (k`s `czhs kl hmuh) lc uc puovlrbzhk`r kl
sprhy kl hlr`s`o. Dlrrhck` eblc lo frhsd`, oh glzdoh tlckrè uch kurhdbôc kl uch
slghch ` bcdous` hom` gès, lo d`o`r bckbdhrè lo mrhk` kl d`cdlctrhdbôc rlsthctl,
ghctlclro` muhrkhk` lc uc oumhr frlsd` y `sdur`. Ohs m`ths sl hdvhc sblgprl
lc rlohdbôc 818.
Tl oolch uc puovlrbzhk`r kl sprhy d`c DKT 9,4% (4999 ppg) y sl hpobdh
s`erl oh z`ch hfldthkh. Tl hpobdh kbrldthglctl
kbrldthglctl s`erl oh pblo lc dhs` kl1
• nlrbkhs,
• qulghkurhs,
• `tr`s pr`eolghs dutècl`s.
84>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
Oh s`oudbôc c` klel dhushr hrk`r ` qulghzôc, gès eblc dhogh lo k`o`r
y lo shcmrhk`. Tl pulkl rlplr oh `plrhdbôc vhrbhs vldls ho kçh (bcdous` 8 vlz
p`r n`rh). Lc homuc`s dhs`s slcsbeols, d`g` ohs gud`shs, pulkl slr cldlshrb`
rlehahr oh d`cdlctrhdbôc d`c uc p`d` kl hmuh.
Hkvlrtlcdbhs1
8. Lc lo rhr` dhs` kl slcr qulghzôc ` hrk`r sl rld`gblckh ohvhr
ohvhr
d`c hmuh.
5. Tl klshd`cslah ushr oh hcmuh
hcmuh fôrguoh klo GGT, yh
yh qul d`clcl
èdbk` dçtrbd` d`g` hdvhk`r
hdvhk`r,, y sl
s l nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr qul duhck`
nhy prlslcdbh kl Dbtr`ehdtlr, oh bcflddbôc lgpl`rh, yh qul lsth
ehdtlrbh sl cutrl klo dbtrht` sôkbd` s`erhctl kl oh rlhddbôc.
4. Tb sl klslh ghy`r plcltrhdbôc h trhvâs kl oh pblo sl pulkl
d`gebchr d`c [email protected] ho =9%.
;. Yhrh lst` prlphrhg`s k`s e`tloohs kl sprhy bcklplckblctls,
uch d`c [email protected] ho =9% y `trh d`c DKT ` 5< m`ths hdvhkhs kl
DK, phrh høhkbr h uch e`tlooh kl 69 go kl hmuh (d`g` lcucdbâ
hctlrb`rglctl). Nhrlg`s hpobdhdb`cls d`c hgehs bctlrdhohck`
uch y `trh.
<. O` gès hklduhk` ls lo DKT 4999 ppg sbc kboubr y r`dbhck` lc
sprhy, p`r su pN clutr`.
6. Tl pulkl rlplr oh `plrhdbôc vhrbhs vldls ho kçh (nhsth
(nhsth 8 vlz p`r
n`rh).
Yr`t`d`o` L. Lclghs
Lo pr`t`d`o` L, ` pr`t`d`o` Lclghs, ls uc` kl o`s pr`t`d`o`s gès ldhdls
hphrtl kl oh bcmlsôc, yh qul plrgbtl hes`relr lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` h trhvâs kl
ohs phrlkls klo d`o`c, qul h su vlz o` oolvhc p`r oh vlch p`rth kbrldthglctl ho
nçmhk`, y p`r o` thct` lstè guy bckbdhk` phrh t`k`s o`s pr`eolghs nlpèd`s,
lcflrglkhkls
lcflrglkhk
ls drôcbdhs, bct`x
bct`xbdhdb`cls,
bdhdb`cls, kbvlrduobs, lobgbchdbôc kl phrèsbt`s y
gud`sbkhkls khøbchs bctlschol
bctlschols.
s.
Ohs m`ths sl hdvhc sblgprl lc rlohdbôc 818.
Yr`dlkbgblct`1
8. \obzhr uc jbt kl brrbmhdbôc. Tulolc slr kl 5 obtr`s hpr`xbghkhglctl
hpr`xbghkhglctl y sl
d`o`dh ≎ 8 gltr` gès hrrbeh kl oh plrs`ch.
5. Tl oolch lo brrbmhk`r kl hmuh y sl prlphrhc
prlphrhc ohs m`ths lc uc vhs` hphrtl.
\ch vlz hdvhk`s sl glzdohc d`c lo hmuh klo brrbmhk`r.
842
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
4. \obzhr 89 m`ths kl DK hdvhk` (` 89 go kl DKT phrh dhs`s
slcsbeols) p`r dhkh obtr` kl hmuh tlgpohkh, h tlgplrhturh klo dulrp`
hpr`xbghkhglctl.
;. Tl hpobdh uc p`d` kl vhslobch ` drlgh h oh pucth klo gbsg`,
gbsg`, gblctrhs
lc lo rldt`.
<. sl
Oh bctr`kudl
gla`r p`sbdbôc
ls lsthr
lsthr tugehk` lc lo ohk` klrldn`
klrldn` phrh fhdbobthr
fhdbobthr oh
plcltrhdbôc fèdbo klo hmuh.
6. Tl herl oh vèovuoh
vèovuoh y lgpblzh h oolchrsl
oolchrsl lo d`o`c. Tl pulkl nhdlr lc vhrbhs
vhrbhs
thckhs plquløhs ` thgebâc kl uch s`oh vlz, slmñc ohs d`ckbdb`cls y lo
eblclsthr kl oh plrs`ch.
=. Tl bctlcth rltlclr lo oçqubk` kurhctl uc`s 4 gbcut`s hctls kl lvhduhr,
phrh bcdrlglcthr oh ldhdbh. Gès kl < gbcut`s c` ls cldlshrb`.
89 m`ths hdvhkhs kl DK p`r dhkh obtr` kl hmuh tlgpohkh
` d`g` hotlrchvh
89 go kl DKT p`r dhkh obtr` kl hmuh tlgpohkh.
Lstl pr`t`d`o` ls lslcdbho lc dhs`s kl lcflrglkhkls drôcbdhs nlpèdhs,
phrhsbt`sbs, husg` y klgès lcflrglkhkls mhstr`bctlschols.
F  1
Tlmñc lo mrhk` kl oh lcflrglkhk y d`ckbdbôc klo phdblctl, sl sulol hpobdhr
nhsth uch vlz ho kçh, prlflrbeolglctl p`r oh c`dnl, hctls kl k`rgbr.
D`g` rlmoh mlclrho sl uobzh dhkh k`s ` trls kçhs kurhctl uch ` k`s
slghchs. Nhy rlp`rtls kl plrs`chs qul nhc uobzhk` lstl pr`t`d`o` nhsth k`s
vldls ho kçh, kurhctl uc lgp` pr`o`cmhk`, phrh lcflrglkhkls mrhvls, sbc
nhelr tlcbk` lfldt`s clmhv`s
clmhv`s slduckhrb`s lc oh ghy`rçh kl o`s dhs`s. O` gla`r
slrçh hkhpthro` h dhkh plrs`ch.
Tl ol pulkl høhkbr hmuh kl ghr1 8 phrtl hmuh kl ghr + 4 kl hmuh kuodl.
H gudnhs plrs`chs ols nh rlsuothk` guy ño lo sbstlgh [email protected]\B1
‛ 4 c`dnls slmubkhs.
‛ 4 c`dnls1 uch sç y uch c`.
‛ 4 c`dnls1 dhkh 4 kçhs.
c`dnls,
uchnlg`rr`bkls
p`r slghch.y surhs rldthols ls gès
Hucqul lstl pr`t`d`o`‛ls4ldhz,
phrh
fèdbo hpobdhr lo pr`t`d`o` U kl Uldtho d`c plrbooh.
8;9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
C1
• Oh ghy`rçh
ghy`rçh kl ohs lcflrglk
lcflrglkhkls
hkls lclc su `rbmlc lc lo sbstlgh
sbstlgh mèstrbd`
mèstrbd`
bctlscho.
• DK lobgbch oh t`xbdbkhk
t`xbdbkhk y klsnhdl ohs hknlrlcdbhs. Tb sl lobgbch oh
t`xbdbkhk,
sl rlkudl
oh fhmh.
• Lo
DK lobgbch
eb`og,
ehdtlrbhs, dèckbkhs, n`cm`s, ghtlrbh fldho
lcdhpsuohkh y phrèsbt`s.
• H trhvâs
trhvâs klo d`o`c
d`o`c tlclg`s hddls` rèpbk` ho nçmhk`
nçmhk` p`r oh vlch p`rth.
p`rth.
• Lo dbrdubt`
dbrdubt` shcmuçcl`
shcmuçcl` phsh
phsh p`r lo nçmhk`
nçmhk` dhkh
dhkh 4 gbcut`s.
• Ls uch ghclrh fèdbo y rèpbkh
rèpbkh kl klsbct`xbdhr lo nçmhk` y oh shcmrl.
• Ldhz lc lcflrglkhkls drôcbdhs y hut`bcgucls
hut`bcgucls..
• Lc oh hcmÿlkhk
hcmÿlkhk yh
yh o` sheçhc,
sheçhc, nhsth o`s hø`s 69 lrh d`gñc lsth prèddh.
prèddh.
• Lc oh hdtuhobkhk
hdtuhobkhk sl nh
nh plrkbk`,
plrkbk`, yh qul sl vl
vl d`g` hom`
hom` sudb`.
• Ls uc gât`k` eèsbd` kl durhdbôc nbckñ.
• Ls bgprlsdbckbeol lc tlrhpbhs kl klt`xb
klt`xbdhdbôc.
dhdbôc.
•• \ch
kbhrbh, sbmcbdh
shouk bctlsch
bctlscho.
Lstl klp`sbdbôc
pr`t`d`o` sustuyl
uc trhthgblct`
`rho lco. oh ghy`rçh kl o`s dhs`s.
Yr`t`d`o` F. Frldulctl (hctbmu` pr`t`d`o` vçrbd` 88<)
Lo pr`t`d`o` F, ` pr`t`d`o` Frldulctl, d`csbstl lc t`ghr 8 go kl DKT
9,4% (s`oudbôc kl kbôxbk` kl do`r` h 4999 ppg) dhkh 8< gbcut`s lc 8<9 go
hmuh, kurhctl 8 n`rh y ;< gbcut`s, ls kldbr, lc > t`ghs. Lstl pr`t`d`o` lstè
bckbdhk` prbcdbphoglctl phrh trhthgblct`s kl lcflrglkhk
lcflrglkhkls
ls vçrbdhs bcflddb`shs
rlplcchs.
Tl rlkudl lo trhthgb
t rhthgblct`
lct` h sôo` k`s n`rhs kbhrbhs y p`stlrb`rglctl sl pulkl
lcohzhr
d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D lo lgp` cldlshrb` klo trhthgblct`, nhsth qul sl
sblcth rlduplrhk`.
Tl pulkl hmrlmhr kl > h 89 go kl DKT 9,4%, lc uch e`tlooh kl uc
obtr` kl hmuh (klsohkh ` gbclrho), y kbvbkbr oh e`tlooh lc > phrtls bmuhols,
ghrdèck`ohs d`c uchs oçclhs, l br eleblck` uch ghrdh dhkh qubcdl gbcut`s.
8 go kl DKT dhkh 8< gbcut`s
kurhctl 8 n`rh y ;< gbcut`s lc > t`ghs
7
> go kl DKT lc 8 obtr` kl hmuh
8;8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
C1
8. 8< gbcut`s klspuâs kl oh ñogh k`sbs (5 n`rhs
n`rhs klspuâs klo d`gblcz`
d`gblcz`
klo pr`t`d`o` F,
F, sl pulkl d`ccuhr d`c pr`t`d`o` D sb sl drll cldlshrb`
nhsth rlduplrhdbôc.
5. Tb
shobg`s kl h dhsh,
oolvhrlg`s
lo uctrhthgblc
trhthgblct`
d`c c`s`tr`s,
prlflrbeolglctl
tlgplrhturh
frlsdh lc
tlrg` ` t`
lcv`ot`rb`
hbsohctl.
4. Ls bgprlsdbckbeol y guy bgp`rthctl, c` t`ghr glkbdhglct`s, cb
d`gbkhs, lc oh n`rh prlvbh y oh n`rh p`stlrb`r h lsths k`s n`rhs kl t`ghs
klo DKT.
;. [hgp`d` sl rld`gblckh nhdlro` lc hyuchs. Tb ls cldlshrb` sl pulkl
rlplr lo pr`t`d`o` uchs n`rhs gès thrkl.
Yr`t`d`o` M. Mhs (duhck` ls utbobzhk` sôo` lo mhs)
Lo pr`t`d`o` M phrtl kl oh ehsl kl qul lo elcldb` durhv` vblcl khk`
p`r oh hpobdhdbôc kbrldth klo pr`pb` mhs kbôxbk` kl do`r`, qul sl pulkl mlclrhr
thct` lc lo glkb` bctlrc`, d`g` lc lo glkb` lxtlrc`. Oh pblo fucdb`ch d`g` uch
glgerhch `sgôdh, dhphz kl bctlrdhgebhr
bctlrdhgebhr klskl lo bctlrb`r nhdbh lo lxtlrb`r y
vbdlvlrsh, tlcblck` su pr`pbh trhcspbrhdbôc.
Oh lxp`sbdbôc ho mhs kbôxbk` kl do`r`, ls uch ghclrh kl duerbr mrhckls
suplrdbls d`rp`rhols kl ghclrh ldhz ` kl trhthr puctuhoglctl uch z`ch. Ls
ldhz, plr` tlclg`s qul tlclr lc dulcth lo lgp` kl lxp`sbdbôc, sb ls guy
ohrm` p`r lcdbgh kl < gbcut`s, p`krçh dhushr brrbthdbôc.
Lstl ls uc pr`t`d`o` phrh us` lxtlrc`.
Cucdh sl klel rlspbrhr lo mhs kl ghclrh pr`o`cmhkh.
Yulkl slr uobzhk` kl vhrbhs f`rghs, phrh suplrdbls mrhckls y phrh
suplrdbls plquløhs.
[    M1
8. Yr`t`d`o` vhs` kl suplrdbl plquløh. Tl pulkl hdvhr lc uc vhs` phrh
duerbr suplrdbls plquløhs, ` klsbcfldthr phrtls klo dulrp`.
5. Yr`t`d`o` e`osh kl suplrdbl mrhckl. Tl pulkl hdvhr lc uc rldbpblctl
klctr` kl uch e`osh kl mrhc thghø` phrh duerbr mrhckls suplrdbls kl
oh pblo ` bcdous` lo dulrp` lctlr`.
8;5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
Fbm. 5=1 h - Hpobdhdbôc
Hpo bdhdbôc klo mhs lc oh èrlh olsb`chkh klo erhz` pr`v`dhkh p`r Tthpnyo`d`ddus.
e - Hpobdhdbôc klo mhs kbôxbk` kl do`r`
do` r` lc lo `çk`.
8. Y 1 Tl hdvhc kl 6 h > m`ths kl DK, lc uc vhs`, sbc høhkbr
hmuh. Tl p`cl kl ghclrh bcglkbhth oh z`ch hfldthkh s`erl oh phrtl
heblrth klo vhs` (oh e`dh), kl ghclrh qul c` shomh lo mhs, y sbc qul lo
oçqubk` lc cbcmñc g`glct` t`qul oh pblo.
Oh kurhdbôc kl oh lxp`sbdbôc, nhebtuhoglctl, ls kl 4 gbcut`s, y c` klel
phshr kl o`s < gbcut`s phrh c` dhushr brrbthdbôc. Tl pulkl rlplr ohs
vldls cldlshrbhs, d`c uc bctlrvho` kl 8 n`rh dhkh vlz.
Fbm. 5>1 Hpobdhdbôc klo mhs kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc oh `rlah kl uc mht`.
Ulsuoth guy ño thgebâc lc hcbghols qul nhebtuhoglctl c` s`p`rthc oçqubk`s lc
lo `çk`. Lo mhs kbôxbk` kl do`r` ls lxtrlghkhglctl ldblctl phrh klsbcfldthr lo
dhcho hukbv`. Lc lstl dhs` sl rlkudl oh dhckhk kl m`ths slmñc lo rldbpblctl qul
sl vhyh h uobzhr.
8;4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Lo gbsg` mhs qul lvhp`rh, klsbcfldth sbc cldlsbkhk kl g`ahr. Lst`
pulkl slr guy ño thgebâc lc trhthgblct`s
trhthgblct`s phrh pr`eolghs
pr`eolghs kl `çk`, k`ckl
sl thph oh hplrturh klo vhs` hp`yhck` lcdbgh oh `rlah kl g`k` qul lo mhs
pulkh oolmhr gès pr`fuck` h oh z`ch bcfldthkh
bcfldthkh,, k`ckl lo hmuh h vldls c`
oolmh p`r pr`eolghs kl bchghdbôc, oh duho lstrldnh lo d`ckudt` klo `çk`.
5. Yr`t`d`o` e`osh1 Lstl pr`t`d`o` sl uobzh duhck` nhy qul trhthr
mrhckls phrtls kl oh pblo, ` eblc c` ls p`sbeol oh bcmlsôc.
8. Lc prbglr oumhr c`s fherbdhrlg`s uch e`osh ‟mbmhctl‗ d`c 5 e`oshs
kl ehsurh mrhckls. Tl uclc ‟ohs helrturhs‗ kl ohs e`oshs lctrl sç
d`c uch dbcth kl plmhr, herblck` uc` kl o`s lxtrlg`s, kl ghclrh
qul c`s plrgbth bctr`kudbrc`s lc lo bctlrb`r klo shd` dôg`khglctl,
qulkhck` t`k` thphk`, lxdlpt` oh dhelzh, qul sblgprl klelrè
plrghcldlr fulrh klo shd`, lvbthck` kl lsth ghclrh rlspbrhr o`s
5. vhp`rls.
Yhrh qul lo mhs oolmul h t`khs ohs phrtls, ls rld`glckheol
klscukhrsl hctls kl gltlrsl lc oh e`osh.
4. Tlmubkh
Tlmubkhglctl
glctl sl hdvhc 49 m`ths kl DK lc uc rldbpblctl kl drbstho
` p`rdlohch, sbc høhkbr hmuh, bctr`kudbâck`o` lc lo bctlrb`r kl oh
e`osh hctls kl gltlrsl klctr` klscuk`.
Lo prbcdbpho `ealv` ls qul o`s mhsls qul sl obelrhc qulklc klctr` klo shd`
klsbcfldthck` oh pblo, l bcdous` plcltrhck` lc oh dhph suplrb`r kl looh lobgbchck`
ehdtlrbhs, vbrus y n`cm`s.
Fbm. 521 Hpobdhdbôc d`rp`rho klo mhs kbôxbk` kl do`r` ushck` e`oshs kl poèsd`.
8;;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
H tlclr lc dulcth1
•
•
•
•
•
Lstl pr`t`d`o` sustuyl uc trhthgblct` `rho.
Ulhobzhr gèxbg` 4 vldls ho kçh.
Tl klel nhdlr
nhdlr sbc r`ph phrh qul
qul lo mhs
mhs plcltrl lc oh pblo.
pblo.
Hehrdh mrhc suplrdbl h trhthr
trhthr ho gbsg` lgp`.
lgp`.
Lvbthr rlspbrhr lo mhs.
Yr`t`d`o` N. Nhebthdbôc (phrh lvbthr d`cthmb`s)
Lo pr`t`d`o` N, ` pr`t`d`o` Nhebthdbôc, sl ehsh lc lo rlsuothk` kl oh
bcvlsmhdbôc kl o`s Krs. C`rb` @mhth y [hjhsnb Tnbehth, k`ckl sl klg`strô qul
dhckhkls plquløhs lc lo hbrl, lvbthc d`cthmb` ` bcflddbôc.
Yr`t`d`o` kl nhebthdbôc ls bklho phrh lvbthr lo d`cthmb` ` hflddb`cls
puog`chrls.
Yr`dlkbgblct`1
8. Hdvhr 6 h 85 m`ths slmñc
slmñc lo thghø` kl oh nhebthdbôc
nhebthdbôc lc uc vhs` sld`,
sld`,
sbc hmrlmhr hmuh, d`o`dèck`o` lc lo k`rgbt`rb`, k`ckl sl lvhp`rl
olcthglctl.
5. Tu fucdb`chgblct` ls guy ldhz d`ctrh lo d`cthmb` kl su d`gphølr`,
sb âo lstè kurgblck` h su ohk`, ` sb nhy gès kl 8 cbø` lc oh gbsgh
nhebthdbôc.
4. Klal lo DK h uc`s 5 gltr`s kl kbsthcdbh kl oh plrs`ch lcflrgh.
;. Duhct` gès dho`r nhmh p`r oh nhebthdbôc, gès rèpbk` sl pr`kudl
oh
lvhp`rhdbôc.
sl qublrl kl
rholczhr
lo glzdoh.
pr`dls` kl lvhp`rhdbôc, sl
pulkl
høhkbr uchTbdudnhrhkh
hmuh h oh
•
•
•
•
Ls uc pr`t`d`o` kl obelrhdbôc olcth lc lo hgeblctl.
Tl pulkl uobzhr
uobzhr lc oh nhebthdbôc
nhebthdbôc kl uc lcflrg`1 dhsh, n`spbtho,
n`spbtho, ltd.
Lobgbch phtômlc`s klo hbrl lvbthck` d`cthmb`s.
Lc uc rldbpblctl
rldbpblctl kl drbstho hdvhr
hdvhr 6 m`ths p`r dhkh 89 g5. Lo kbôxbk`
kl do`r` sl brè obelrhck` kurhctl uchs n`rhs. Tl rholczh lo pr`dls` kl
lvhp`rhdbôc
lvhp`rh
dbôc høhkblck` uch dudnhrhkh kl hmuh.
• Klahr oh pulrth lctrlheblrt
lctrlheblrthh lc
lc plquløhs
plquløhs nhebthdb`cls.
• Ho kçh sbmublctl s`ohglctl klelg`s lcd`ctrhr lc lo f`ck` klo vhs`, uc
p`s` kl drbstho shobc`.
8;<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Yr`t`d`o` B. Bcsldt`s l pbdhkurhs
Lc lo pr`t`d`o` B, ` pr`t`d`o` Bcsldt`s, sl pulkl uobzhr lo DK phrh pbdhkurhs,
hucqul o` gès rèpbk` y ldhz ls lo DKT sb lstè h ghc`. D`g` nhebtuhoglctl lo DKT
sl muhrkh lc frbm`rçd` lcl oh vlcthah kl rlkudbr lo nbcdnhzôc kl ghclrh bcglkbhth.
Lst` pulkl slr uobzhk` phrh t`k` p` kl pbdhkurhs kl bcsldt`s, g`rklkurhs
kl hrhøhs ` glkushs.
Lc dhs` kl g`rkbsd` kl slrpblctl, lsd`rpbôc ` pbdhkurh kl oh rhyh vlclc`sh
vlclc`sh
pulkl slr cldlshrb` lo pr`t`d`o` R (bcylddbôc) kl ghclrh d`gpolglcthrbh.
[hgebâc vhol phrh qulghkurhs.
Yr`dlkbgblct`1
8. Tl lgphph uch mhsh
mhsh ` phøulo` kl
kl phplo d`c DKT.
5. Hpobdhr kbrldthglctl s`erl oh pbdhkurh ` g`rkbsd` y klahr sldhr
sldhr..
4.
Tl d`gpruleh
sb nhy
nhloy hmubaôc
pbcdn`
phrh
slrslh
slr
lxtrhçk`.
;. Tl
pulkl rlplr
pr`dls``ohs
vldls
qul
cldlshrb` y c` nhy
cldlsbkhk kl ohvhr d`c hmuh p`stlrb`rglctl.
Yr`t`d`o` A. lcAuhmhr (pr`t`d`o` e`dh)
Lo pr`t`d`o` A, ` pr`t`d`o` lcAuhmuhr,
lcAuhmuhr, ls guy ño phrh s`oudb`chr pr`eolghs
klcthols, nhobt`sbs (gho hoblct` — klshphrldl rèpbkhglctl), hhs eudhols y
n`cm`s, bchghdb`cls, kld`o`rhdb`cls kl o`s kblctls. Yulkl slr uobzhk` d`g`
lcauhmul eudho ` kurhctl lo dlpboohk` klctho.
Yr`dlkbgblct`1
8. Hmrlmhr 89 go kl DKT lc uc vhs` d`c 599 go kl hmuh y lcauhmhr
oh e`dh, nhdblck` mèrmhrhs 4 h ; vldls ho kçh kurhctl 4 gbcut`s (c`
trhmhr).
5. Gès thrkl, uch s`oh vlz
vlz ho kçh.
4. D`g` `pdbôc, dlpboohr
dlpboohr o`s kblctls y ghshalhr
ghshalhr ohs lcdçhs.
;. Yhrh ohs bchghdb`cls lc pr`fuckbkhk
pr`fuckbkhk høhkbr 8 go kl [email protected] h oh glzdoh
glzdoh
(vlr c`ths).
8;6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
C1
• Hucqul sl pulkl
pu lkl uobzhr DK thgebâc d`c 89 m`ths hdvhkhs lc 599 go
kl hmuh phrh lo lcauhmul, lo DKT ls gès hklduhk`, klebk` h qul su N
  f   .
• Nh khk` lxdlolctls rlsuothk`s hctls y klspuâs kl t`kh bctlrvlcdbôc
`k`ct`oômbdh, lspldbhoglctl lc bgpohctls kl ghclrh prlvlcvh,
nhdblck` bccldlshrb` lo us` kl hcebôd`s, p`r oh bcnbebdbôc kl t`kh
bcflddbôc, klebk` h su fulrtl p`klr klsbcfldthctl.
klsbcfldthctl.
• Lc dhs` kl slcr slcsbebobkhk h oh prlsbôc klctho ho g`rklr, pulkl slr
dhushk` p`r uch e`osh kl bcflddbôc p`r heha` klo kblctl lc oh z`ch kl ohs
rhçdls klcthols, lc lstl dhs` lo dlpboohk` c` ls sudblctl y sl høhkl [email protected]
ho =9% h oh glzdoh.
• Lc dhs` kl k`o`r hmuk` klctho sl pulkl bcdrlglcthr oh k`sbs nhsth 59 go
kl DKT lc uc vhs` kl 599 go kl hmuh. Tl t`gh uc trhm` hmuhctèck`o`
lc oh dhvbkhk eudho kurhctl uc`s k`s gbcut`s. Oh rhzôc klo k`o`r hmuk`
nhebtuhoglctl
ls qul
nhy ehdtlrbhs
kl uch dhvbkhk
hfldthck` ho clrvb`.
Nhebtuhoglctl
lo klctr`
k`o`r klshphrldl
duhck`klctho,
yh c`
lxbstlc gès cutrblctls qul pulkhc hobglcthr h ohs ehdtlrbhs. Kl lsth
ghclrh, thgebâc ls p`sbeol h vldls lobgbchr hesdls`s klcthols. C` ls
cldlshrb` hdohrhr d`c hmuh.
Yr`t`d`o` J. Jbt d`gebchk` d`c [email protected] ho =9%
Lo pr`t`d`o` J ` pr`t`d`o` Jbt d`gebchk` d`c [email protected] ho =9% rlprlslcth lo
hcmu` pr`t`d`o` ‟GGT 4999‗ (DK ô DKT
D KT + [email protected] hpobdhdbôc lxtlrch).
Nhy vldls qul ohs k`sbs `rhols c` s`c sudblctls ` c` sl t`olrhc. Lc
lst`s dhs`s, lo pr`t`d`o`
pr`t`d`o` J c`s `frldl `trh vçh phrh `etlclr DK lc lo dulrp`
d`c oh hyukh kl [email protected] Lc lstl dhs`, ohs m`ths d`c [email protected] sl hdvhc sblgprl
lc rlohdbôc 818.
Lc dhsb t`khs ohs lcflrglkhkls kl oh pblo, d`g` hdcâ, ps`rbhsbs, ldzlgh,
pbl kl htolth, nlrbkhs, ltd. sl sulol hpobdhr DK hdvhk` lc oh pblo rlehahk` d`c
hmuh ` DKT kbrldthglctl, slmubk` p`r [email protected] d`g` gèxbg` nhsth 89 vldls ho
kçh, dhkh n`rh.
Lo [email protected] pulkl hkgbcbstrhrsl thct` vçh tôpbdh, `rho ` bctrhvlc`sh (vlr gès
bcf`rghdbôc lc dhpçtuo`s 5, 6 y =).
Hctls kl bcbdbhr duhoqublr pr`t`d`o`, d`gpr`ehg`s prbglr` oh d`gphebobkhk
phrh lvbthr lfldt`s hkvlrs`s.
8;=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Yr`ehr prbglr` sb nhy rlhddbôc hoârmbdh ho [email protected] (lc rhrhs `dhsb`cls).
Ulhobzhrr uch hpobdhdbôc y lsplrhr uch n`rh h oh rlhddbôc.
Ulhobzh
8. Yrlphrhdbôc kl o ô x1
8.. Glzdohr 59 m`ths kl DK hdvhk` d`c uc`s <9 go kl hmuh lc uch e`tlooh
kl sprhy. Ghctlcbâck`o` frlsd` y `sdur` lsths s`oudb`cls lstheols
hmuhcthc kurhctl vhrb`s kçhs nhsth uch slghch ` gès, lc rldbpblctls
kl drbstho bcdous` glsls.
5. Tb sl uobzh DKT h 4.999 ppg, hpobdhro
hpobdhro`
` kbrldthglctl d`c lo [email protected]
4. Hmrlmhr 4 dudnhrhkbths kl [email protected] ho =9% (sb lstè ho 22.>%, høhkbr uc 49%
kl hmuh) lc uc vhs` plqulø`. C` sl klelc ushr e`tloohs kl poèsd` HET
` YL[ ` muhctls kl m`gh, yh qul p`krçhc slr kbsulot`s p`r lo [email protected] y
trhcsp`rthk`s h trhvâs
trhvâs kl oh pblo. Ohs e`tloohs kl YL ` NKYL s`c d`rrldths.
Hpobdhdbôc1
8. Hpobdhr sblgprl s`erl
s`erl oh pblo obgpbh
obgpbh sbc plrfugls cb
cb `trhs susthcdbhs.
susthcdbhs.
5. Hpobdhr DK nhsth 89 vldls ho kçh
kçh d`g` gèxbg`, r`dbèck`o`
r`dbèck`o` s`erl oh pblo,
fr`thck` lo [email protected] ho =9% p`stlrb`rglct
p`stlrb`rglctll d`c oh ghc`.
4. Lc dhs` kl trhthgblct`
trhthgblct` h mrhc lsdhoh, sl hotlrchc dhkh n`rh ohs èrlhs
kl oh pblo trhthkh. Y`r lalgpo`, uch n`rh sl trhth lo erhz` klrldn` y oh
sbmublctl n`rh lo erhz` bzqublrk`, oulm` oh pblrch klrldnh
klrld nh y slmubkhglctl
oh bzqublrkh, lstôghm`, lsphokh y oulm` v`ovlr ho erhz` klrldn`.
;. Tl nhdl lstl pr`dlkbgblct`
pr`dlkbgblct` 89 vldls ho kçh kurhctl
kurhctl 4 kçhs h oh slghch y
oulm` sl plrgbtl h oh pblo rlmlclrhrsl
rlmlclrhrsl kurhctl o`s `tr`s ; kçhs.
5. Yrlphrhdbôc `rho1
8. Tb sl uobzh DK,
DK, p`clr bmuho cñglr` kl m`ths kl [email protected] qul kl DK.
5. Tb sl uobzh DKT, p`clr bmuho cñglr` kl m`ths kl [email protected] qul gbobobtr`s
kl DKT.
C`th1 Tlmñc cldlsbkhk, sl pulkl bcdrlglcthr nhsth uch dudnhrbooh kl
C`th1
[email protected] p`r dhkh 5<9 go kl hmuh.
4. Vç v1 Lxdousbvhglct
Lxdousbvhglctl
l phrh pr`flsb`chols kl oh
o h shouk.
8;>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
Hkvlrtlcdbhs1
• Lc dhs` qul hphrlzdh slqulkhk lxdlsbvh lc oh pblo, nhy qul kboubr gès
ohs s`oudb`cls ` fr`thr ho`l vlrh ` hdlbtl kl `obvh vbrmlc lc oh pblo phrh
dhoghroh.
• Lc lo dhs` kl hphrldlr klghsbhkh slqulkhk
slqulkhk d`c brrbthdbôc,
brrbthdbôc, rlkuzdh
rlkuzdh oh
k`sbs ` klsdhcsl klo trhthgblct`.
• Yulkl hphrldlr obmlr` pbd`r, dho`r ` r`alz g`glctèclh qul ls c`rgho y
klshphrldl d`gpolthglc
d`gpolthglctl.
tl.
• Lc cbcmñc dhs` sl klel muhrkhr lo [email protected] lc e`tloohs
e`tloohs d`c m`tlr`
m`tlr` kl
m`gh, yh qul o` kbouyl d`cthgbchck`
d`cthgbchck` oh s`oudbôc.
• Tôo` klel slr muhrkhk`
muhrkhk` lc e`tloohs kl p`oblolc`
p`oblolc` (YL, NKYL) ` drbstho.
• C` sl ush
ush lc lclghs
lclghs yh qul sl rlhes`relrçhc ohs t`xbchs
t`xbchs prlslctls
prlslctls lc lo
d`o`c.
• Lo [email protected] dhush `o`r h ha` lc ohs
ohs gud`shs.
gud`shs.
• Hvbs` phrh tlrhpluths
tlrhpluths11 uobzhr muhctls rlsbstlctls h o`s quçgbd`s. C\CDH
KL [email protected], p`rqul sl kbsulovlc y dhushc t`xbdbkhk.
Yr`t`d`o` O. Ohvhk` (pr`t`d`o` kl ehø`)
Lo pr`t`d`o` O ` pr`t`d`o` Ohvhk`
Ohvhk` d`csbstl lc uc ehø` kl klt`xb
klt`xbdhdbôc
dhdbôc y ls
uc rlglkb` guy sbgpol. Tl trhth kl uch nbkr`tlrhpbh qul `frldl uch hotlrchvh
phrh lobgbchr o`s lfldt`s kl o`s tôxbd`s hduguohk`s qul dhushc kbsfucdbôc lc
culstr` `rmhcbsg`
`rmhcbsg` y h oh vlz rlduplrhr uc dulrp` gès shc` y lct`chk`.
Culstrh pblo plrglheol ls uc ôrmhc` qul p`sll oh dhphdbkhk kl hdtuhr
d`g` uch glgerhch `sgôdh, plrgblck` qul sl pr`kuzdh uc bctlrdhgeb`
lctrl lo bctlrb`r y lo lxtlrb`r kl culstr` dulrp`. Hklgès kl ohs k`sbs lc t`ghs
`rhols,
p`r oh pblo
kbrldthglctl
lo DK.bctlrsdbho
\ch dhckhk
ghy`r
kl [email protected]`sbeol
pulsthhes`relr
lc o`s ubk`s
d`rp`rhols
y kl tlabk`
y slmñc
oh
lxplrblcdbh kl qublcls o` nhc uobzhk`, o`s rlsuothk`s s`erl t`k` d`gebchk`s
d`c `tr`s pr`t`d`o`s, s`c ehsthctl rèpbk`s.
Kl lsth ghclrh, t`kh oh suplrdbl kl oh pblo lsthrè lc d`cthdt` d`c lo mhs
[email protected] kurhctl 59 h 49 gbcut`s. Yhrh homuchs plrs`chs lstl gât`k` nh supulst`
uc mrhc hvhcdl klcbv`.
Yr`dlkbgblct`1
8. Tl obgpbh eblc oh ehølrh. C` nhy qul p`clr cbcmñc aheôc
ahe ôc cb `tr`s
lc lo kl
hmuh.
5. pr`kudt`s
Tl hdvhcquçgbd`s
49-69 m`ths
DK d`c hdvhk`r NDo ;% lc uc vhs`,
klplckblck` kl oh dhckhk kl hmuh qul uobdl. H ghy`r dhckhk kl
hmuh, gès dhckhk kl kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
8;2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
4. Tl oolch oh ehølrh d`c hmuh h tlgplrhturh
tlgplrhturh d`rp`rho. C` høhkbr aheôc,
plrfugl, dnhgpñ, cb aumultls kl cbø`s pr`durhck` eulch vlcohdbôc
klo ehø`.
;. Høhkbr lo DK hdvhk` lc oh ehølrh y g`vlr phrh rlphrr
rlphrro`
o` eblc. Oh
dhckhk
[email protected] 5 qul lstè sblck`
obelrhk`. kl hmuh c` rlkudl oh dhckhk kl mhs [email protected]
<. Tl t`gh lo ehø` g`ahck` eblc t`k` lo dulrp`, bcdous` dhelzh y dulr`
dheloouk`. C` nhy qul prl`duphrsl lc lo dhs` qul lctrl hmuh lc o`s
`a`s yh qul lc lsth k`sbs thc kboubkh lo DK c` khøh.
khøh.
6. Tl pulkl høhkbr klspuâs gès hmuh dhoblctl, p`rqul lo dho`r kbohth o`s
p`r`s y hsç plcltrh gès ho bctlrb`r klo `rmhcbsg`.
C1
• \ch slsbôc kl ehø` klel kurhr uc`s 59 gbcut`s y rlhobzhrsl
prlflrbeolglctl p`r oh c`dnl hctls kl hd`sthrsl.
• Lo ehø` kl klt`xbdhdbô
klt`xbdhdbôc
c d`g` d`gpolglct` kl t`k` trhthgblct`, ls
uch f`rgh guy ldhz kl lobgbchr o`s klsldn`s hduguohk`s lc culstr`
`rmhcbsg` lc mlclrho.
• Ohs oohmhs
oohmhs heblrths p`r o` mlclrho
mlclrho sl durhc gès rèpbkhglc
rèpbkhglctl
tl klebk` h oh
hddbôc klsbcfldthctl klo DK.
Bf ñ1
• Tl uobzh
uobzh uch ehølrh d`gpolthglc
d`gpolthglctl
tl obgpbh y sbc ahe`cls u `tr`s hkbv`s
hkbv`s
kl ehø`. Tl pulkl uobzhr lo hmuh klo mrbf`, yh qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`
lobgbch o`s glthols plshk`s p`r `xbkhdbôc. Yhrh plrs`chs guy slcsbeols
sl pulkl ushr hmuh guy dhoblctl, klaèck`oh rlp`shr uc`s gbcut`s lc oh
ehølrh phrh qul sl lvhp`rl lo do`r`
d o`r` d`gñc qul d`clcl.
• O`s ehø`s kl klt`x
klt`xbdhdbôc
bdhdbôc kl hmuh ebh ` dhoblctl
dhoblctl d`c 5-; jbo`s kl sho
ghrbch sbgpol, hes`relc o`s èdbk`s kl culstr` dulrp` h trhvâs kl oh pblo.
Ls uc pr`dls` d`c`dbk` d`g` ôsg`sbs, k`ckl sl bctlcth ghctlclr oh
klcsbkhk lquboberhkh lctrl k`s ` gès ubk`s.
• Hsç, lo ubk`
ubk` kl ghy`r
ghy`r klcsbkhk,
klcsbkhk, phshrè h trhvâs
trhvâs kl oh pblo nhdbh lo ubk`
kl glc`r klcsbkhk drlhck` lquboberb`. Kl lsth ghclrh, o`s èdbk`s y
t`xbchs uylc nhdbh fulrh kl culstr` dulrp`. Kl oh gbsgh ghclrh lo
dulrp` hes`relrè, p`r glkb` kl o`s p`r`s kl oh pblo, o`s gbclrhols kl oh
sho ghrbch. Y`r âsth y p`r `trhs rhz`cls
rhz`cls c` sl rld`gblckh sho y`khkh, cb
d`c cbcmñc hkbv` quçgbd`.
quçgbd`.
8<9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
Yr`t`d`o` G. Ghohrbh (k`sbs hoths)
Lo pr`t`d`o` G, ` pr`t`d`o` Ghohrbh, ful klshrr`oohk` p`r Abg Nugeol,
k`ckl ohs plrs`chs rlqublrlc kl uch htlcdbôc lfldvh
lfldvh sbgpol l bcglkbhth, y c`
kbsp`clc kl lgp` phrh uc ohrm` trhthgblct`.
8. Lc lo pr`dlkbgblct`
pr`dlkbgblct` phrh oh ghohrbh hmukh lc hkuot`s
hkuot`s sl t`gh 8 k`sbs
kl 8< m`ths kl DK hdvhk`, gès 8 slmuckh k`sbs kl 8< m`ths kl DK
hdvhk` 8 h 5 n`rhs klspuâs.
5. Oh ghy`rçh kl o`s sçct`ghs
sçct`ghs klelrçhc nhelr klshphrldbk` uchs
uchs 4 n`rhs
klspuâs kl oh slmuckh k`sbs.
4. Tb o`s sçct`ghs plrsbstlc
plrsbstlc sl hpobdhc 4 m`ths p`r dhkh n`rh
p`stlrb`rglctl.
;. Tl sbmul lo trhthgblct`
trhthgblct` plr` c` d`c gès kl 4 m`ths
m`ths p`r n`rh. Lc dhs`
kl cø`s, sl hpobdh nhsth uch m`th p`r dhkh ; jbo`s kl pls` d`rp`rho.
<. Lc dhs` kl cèuslhs
cèuslhs sl rlkudl
rlkudl oh k`sbs.
k`sbs.
Yhrh plrs`chs qul tlcmhc pr`eolghs lc t`ghr lsth dhckhk h oh vlz, sl
pulklc rloolchr 4 dèpsuohs kl mlo d`c < m`ths hdvhkhs dhkh uch y t`ghrohs
d`c heuckhctl hmuh. Nhebtuhoglctl rlsuoth gès fèdbo y c` dhush pr`eolghs
kl brrbthdbôc lc oh mhrmhcth. Tb trhs lstl pr`dlkbgblct` lo phdblctl d`ccñh
lcflrg`,, lct`cdls c` slrè p`r oh ghohrbh, slrè p`r `trh lcflrglkhk.
lcflrg`
Tl d`cfuckl gudnhs vldls lo klcmul d`c oh ghohrbh, hge`s s`c trhcsgbk`s
p`r uc g`squbt`, plr` gblctrhs oh ghohrbh ls uc phrèsbt`, lo klcmul ls uc vbrus y
lo pr`t`d`o` hklduhk` ls lo pr`t`d`o` F (hcmu` pr`t`d`o` vçrbd` 88<).
[hgebâc sl pulkl uobzhr uc pr`t`d`o` hotlrchv` gès hvhczhk` (vlr lc oh
pèmbch sbmublctl) sb lo phdblctl hkuot` lstè guy klebobthk`.
G  vz1
• > m`ths kl DK lc oh 8ª 
• < m`ths kl DK lc oh 5ª 
• < m`ths kl DK lc oh ;ª 
• 6 m`ths kl DK lc oh 6ª 
• > m`ths kl DK lc oh >ª 
• > m`ths kl DK ho k`rgbr
• [ 1 ;9 
• Oh ghohrbh klel klshphrldlr uobzhck`
uobzhck` lstl
lstl pr`t`d`o` lc uc s`o` kçh.
Lc dhs` kl qul c` rlgbth oh lerl ho cho klo kçh, huglcthr uch ñogh
t`gh kl 89 m`ths.
Yhrh eleâs1 ; t`ghs kbhrbhs, kl 8 m`th dhkh 4 n`rhs. Huglcthr k`s m`ths
gès, sb ls cldlshrb`.
8<8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
• Yhrh cbø`s1 < t`ghs kbhrbhs kl 8 m`th
m`th dhkh 5 n`rhs, p`r dhkh 85 jm kl
pls`. Hkgbcbstrhr p`r 5 kçhs.
Yr`t`d`o` C. Cbø`s y hk`olsdlctls
Lo pr`t`d`o` C, ` pr`t`d`o` Cbø`s y hk`olsdlctls, lstè ehshk` lc lxplrblcdbhs
y tlsg`cb`s kl gudnhs ghkrls..
Y`r rlmoh mlclrho sl uobzh uc gèxbg` kl 8 m`th kl DK hdvhk` p`r dhkh 85
jm kl pls` d`g` k`sbs bcbdbho p`r n`rh, lc 899 go ` gès kl hmuh. DKT sulol slr
gès t`olrhk` y sl uobzh 8 go kl DKT 9,4% (4999 ppg) lc 899 go ` gès kl hmuh,
p`r dhkh 85 jbo`s kl pls`.
• Hctls kl bcbdbhr duhoqublr pr`t`d`o`, d`gpr`ehg`s prbglr` oh
d`gphebobkhk, phrh lvbthr lfldt`s hkvlrs`s.
• Ohs m`ths sl hdvhc sblgprl lc rlohdbôc 818,
818, høhkblck`
høhkblck` kl 899 h 599 go
kl hmuh.
• Nhy qul
qul `eslrvhr lo d`gp`rthgblct`
d`gp`rthgblct` klo
klo glc`r sb hphrldl1 dhcshcdb`,
cèuslhs, k`o`r kl ehrrbmh, vôgbt`… phrh hausthr oh k`sbs slmñc cldlsbkhk.
Mlclrhoglctl sl pulkl kldbr qul o` gla`r ls c` khr cbcmñc p` kl
glkbdhglct` ` trhthgblct` nhsth lo hø` kl vbkh sb c` ls bgplrhv`.
• < jbo`s
jbo`s11
• 8< jbo`
jbo`s1
s1
4 m`th
m`thss ho
ho kçh,
kçh, rlph
rlphrk
rk`
` lc
lc 89 t`g
t`ghs.
hs. Tl pul
pulkl
kl glz
glzdoh
dohrr d`c
d`c oh
oh oldnl
oldnl
kl hrr`z.
6 m`th
m`thss ho
ho kçh,
kçh, rlp
rlphr
hrk
k`
` lc 89 t`g
t`ghs
hs..
• 49 jbo`
jbo`s1
s1
> m`th
m`thss ho
ho kçh,
kçh, rlp
rlphr
hrk
k`
` lc 89 t`g
t`ghs
hs..
• ;9 jbo`
jbo`s1
s1
• 69 jb
jbo`
o`ss1
85 m`t
m`ths
hs ho
ho kçh,
kçh, rlp
rlphr
hrk
k`
` lc 89 t`g
t`ghs
hs..
k`s
`sbs
bs hkuo
uotth.
• Lvbthr hc`xbkhctls y vbthgbch D.
• O`s pr`kudt`s
pr`kudt`s klelc ghctlclr
ghctlclrsl
sl fulrh
fulrh klo hodhcdl kl o`s cbø`s.
• Lcvhsls d`c dblrrls
dblrrls h pruleh kl cbø`s
cbø`s s`c prlfl
prlflrbeols.
rbeols.
Yr`t`d`o` @. @fthog`oômbd` / @t`rrbc` (chsho)
Lo pr`t`d`o` @, ` pr`t`d`o` @hog`oômbd`/@t`rrbc` (chsho), d`csbstl lc oh
fherbdhdbôc kl m`ths phrh us` `hog`oômbd` ` chsho.
Lo pr`dlkbgblct` ls lo sbmublctl1 glzdohr lc uc frhsd` kl drbstho plqulø` d`c
m`tlr` kl p`oblolc` (lo p`oblolc` (YL) ls gès kur` qul oh m`gh) oh sbmublctl
s`oudbôc1
8<5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
<9 go kl sulr` sb`oômbd` shobc`
• < go kl DKT
• 4 go kl [email protected] ho =9%
•
Ohs m`ths `hog`oômbdhs ` chshols sl muhrkhrèc lc uc sb` `sdur` y frlsd` y
lclc uch kurhdbôc kl 899% ldhdbh kurhctl uc`s 4 kçhs. Klspuâs kbsgbcuylc
rèpbkhglctl, hsç qul sl rld`gblckh v`ovlr h prlphrhr culvhglctl. C` nhy
plobmr` kl bcflddbôc, klebk` h qul ls uc oçqubk` klsbcfldthctl,
klsbcfldthctl, sbgpolglctl qul
oh ldhdbh sl glrgh d`c o`s kçhs.
@a1
Hpobdhr < m`ths kl oh s`oudbôc dhkh 5 n`rhs lc lo `a` hfldth
hfldthk`.
k`.
@ç1
DKT - Høhkbr kl 5 h ; go kl DKT ho 9.4% (4999 ppg) h 49 go (uch `czh) kl
hmuh ebh. Oolchr lo m`tlr` l bctr`kudbro` lc lo `çk` hd`sthk` kl ohk`, klaèck`o`
kurhctl 8 ô 5 gbcut`s y obgpbhr lo oçqubk` s`erhctl d`c uc phøulo` ho olvhcthrsl.
DK - Hdvhr kl 5 h ; m`ths kl DK (818) y klspuâs høhkbr 49 go (uch `czh) kl
hmuh ebh. Oolchr lo m`tlr` l bctr`kudbro` lc lo `çk` hd`sthk` kl ohk`, klaèck`o`
kurhctl 8 ô 5 gbcut`s y obgpbhr lo oçqubk` s`erhctl d`c uc phøulo` ho olvhcthrsl.
pr`t`d`o`
` M (Mhs) ls lo gès bckbdhk` lc
[lcmh lc dulcth qul lo pr`t`d`o
trhthgblct`s
phrh pr`eolghs
kl `çk`
, k`ckl
slpulkh
thph ohoolmhr
hplrturh
klo vhs` hp`yhck`
lcdbgh oh `rlah
kl lxtlrc`
g`k` qul
lo mhs
gès
pr`fuck` h oh z`ch bcfldthkh, k`ckl lo hmuh h vldls c` oolmh p`r pr`eolghs
kl bchghdbôc, oh duho lstrldnh lo d`ckudt` klo `çk`.
Cz1
Yhrh obgpbhr ohs f`shs chshols, ushr 89 go kl oh s`oudbôc lc dhkh `rbdb` 8 ô
5 vldls ho kçh.
Y   z 1
• Bcdoçcl
Bcdoçclsl
sl s`erl lo ohvhe` y mbrl oh dhelzh kl g`k` qul oh f`sh chsho
bzqublrkhh qulkl nhdbh heha`.
bzqublrk
8<4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
• Bctr`kuzdh
Bctr`kuzdh oh s`oudbôc lc oh f`sh
f`sh chsho klrldnh
klrldnh ushck` uch alrbcmh. Lo
hmuh lsdurrbrè p`r oh f`sh chsho bzqublrkh.
• [hpl oh chrbz phrh hslmurhr qul oh s`oudbôc uyh klctr` kl ohs f`shs
f`shs
chshols.
• Y`cmh oh dhelzh
dhelzh nhdbh heha`
heha` nhdblck` g`vbgblct`s d`c oh dhelzh
dhelzh y oulm`
nhdbh hrrbeh.
• Vulovh h p`clr oh dhelzh kl ohk`, sulotl oh chrbz y klal qul lo oçqubk`
shomh.
• Ulpbth lo gbsg` pr`dls` kl rblm` p`r oh f`sh
f`sh chsho bzqublr
bzqublrkh.
kh.
Lc dhs` kl kukh hdlrdh kl dôg` lfldtuhr oh obgpblzh kl ohs f`shs
chshols, vlh lo sbmublctl vçkl`1 nps1//y`utu
nps1//y`utu.el/`rpf64wsO
.el/`rpf64wsOy`
y`
Yr`t`d`o` Y. Yhrèsbt`s (pr`t`d`o` bctlcs`)
Lo pr`t`d`o` Y, ` pr`t`d`o` Yhrèsbt`s, ls uc pr`t`d`o` kl vbtho bgp`rthcdbh.
Lc oh s`dblkhk lc oh qul vbvbg`s nlg`s plrkbk` lo d`cthdt` d`c oh shebkurçh
p`puohr hcdlstrho. Oh glkbdbch yh c` d`ctlgpoh phrèsbt`s lc oh s`dblkhk
g`klrch: sl sup`cl qul yh c` nhy…
Fbm. 491 Yhrèsbt` lc oh shcmrl.
Lstl lalgpohr lcr`oohk` lc oh gulstrh kl shcmrl klgulstrh o` d`ctrhrb`…
¡sb nhy! T`erl t`k` lc lcflrglkhkls drôcbdhs.
Yr`t`d`o` kl klsphrhsbthdbôc phrh trls glsls1
\ch kl ohs d`shs qul nlg`s `ovbkhk` ls lo slmubr lo dbdo`
dbd o` chturho kl oh Ouch
phrh gudnhs kl culstrhs ruchs, p`r ls` ls bgp`rthctl lgplzhr lo trhthgblct`
trhthgblct`
8<;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
kurhctl o`s trls kçhs kl oh ouch oolch y d`ccuhr o`s kçhs kl ouch glcmuhctl.
Oh lfldvbkhk lc lstl plrç`k` ls ghy`r p`rqul lc lstl dbdo` mrhc phrtl kl
o`s clgèt`k`s sl hphrlhc lc lo bctlsc`. Lstl pr`t`d`o` vh gudn` gès hooè
kl uch sbgpol klsphrhsbthdbôc, y lstè plcshk` phrh uobzhrsl duhck` `trhs
klsphrhsbthdb`cls
klsphrhsbth
db`cls d`cvlcdb`c
d`cvlcdb`chols
hols fhoohc.
Kurhctl lo trhthgblct`, s`erl t`k` ho prbcdbpb`, sl nhdl t`thoglctl
cldlshrb` lo us` kl lclghs kbhrb`s kl DK ehsthctl d`ccu`s, ho bmuho qul oh
purmh d`c hdlbtl kl rbdbc`, uc purmhctl gbclrho d`g` ohs shols kl Lps`c ` uc
prlphrhk` vlmltho d`g` ohs n`ahs kl Tlc. Lstl ls uc trhthgblct` lspldbhoglctl
`rblcthk` h oh klsphrhsbthdbôc bctlscho kl phrèsbt`s kl mrhc thghø`, s`erl
t`k` clgèt`k`s rlk`ck`s d`g` o`s hsdhrbs. Ls lfldv` phrh oh ghy`rçh kl
o`s clgèt`k`s plr` pulkl rlsuothr glc`s ldhz d`ctrh o`s dâst`k`s d`g` ls
lo dhs` kl oh fhgbobh kl ohs tlcbhs. Lc lo dhs` kl uch hfldthdbôc p`r [lcbhs ls
lfldv` lo trhthgblct` d`c Cbdo`shgbkh, sblck` uc glkbdhglct` hd`cslaheol
p`r su ehah t`xbdbkhk.
Fbm. 481 Yhrèsbt`s klctr` kl eb`og, thgebâc oohghk` kl ghmgh phrhsbthrb`.
Lc oh prèddh lc t`k`s o`s cbø`s hfldthk`s kl husg` y lc oh ghy`rçh kl
ohs lcflrglkhkls drôcbdhs, sl nh p`kbk` vlr uch dhckhk mrhckl kl gud`shs, h
vldls kbdbo kl bklcdhr yh qul sl hslglah h uc Èsdhrbs gulrt` ` slmñc kbdlc
homuc`s, h uch gud`sbkhk bctlscho. Tl lcd`ctrhr`c gud`sbkhkls bctlschols
p`r lcdbgh kl 8 gltr` y p`r o` thct` ls p`d` pr`eheol qul slhc gud`sbkhkls
klo pr`pb` phdblctl. Oh \cbvlrsbkhk kl E`o`cbh, lc Bthobh, hrgh qul ls uch
gud`sbkhk pr`pbh klo dulrp`. Tbc lgehrm` lo Kr. V`obcsjy kl oh \cbvlrsbkhk kl
Fo`rbkh nh p`kbk` nhdlr uc hcèobsbs klo HKC kl oh gud`sbkhk, y `pbch qul ls
8<<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
halc` ho dulrp` nughc`. Y`r o` thct` kl g`glct`, `pbc` qul ls uch f`rgh kl
„ghmgh phrhsbthrb`‒ c` dohsbdhk` y p`r loo`, thgp`d` hphrldl lc o`s hcèobsbs kl
o`s ohe`rht`rb`s. Ohs lvbklcdbhs lstèc khkhs p`r o`s rlsuothk`s.
Tl nhc p`kbk` rlduplrhr h gès kl 4<9 cbø`s kl husg`, ehsèck`sl lc lstl
pr`t`d`o`, y t`k`s lxpuoshr`c mrhckls dhckhkls kl lstl pohsgh phrhsbthrb`
(eb`og) y thgebâc `tr`s phrèsbt`s. Klspuâs kl dhkh lxpuosbôc, gla`rhr`c
d`csbklrheolglctl. O` gbsg` `durrl lc gudnhs lcflrglkhkls drôcbdhs,
hphrlctlglctl sbc s`oudbôc. Hucqul sl shel qul ls ldhz, sl klel bcvlsmhr
gès lc uc futur` phrh `etlclr dlrtlzh dblcdh.
C`th1
Lstl trhthgblct` c` uobzh glkbdhglct`s hcphrhsbthrb`s sbstâgbd`s
qul s`c hes`rebk`s p`r lo dulrp`. Yhrh lst` ls gla`r uc Qhpplr kl hoth
mhgh, d`g` lo Eb`tr`nc®, yh qul lobgbch phrèsbt`s lc shcmrl sbc bct`xbdhr.
Lstl pr`t`d`o` lstè kbsløhk` thgebâc phrh p`klr slr ushk` lc cbø`s,
sbc dhushr uch dhrmh tôxbdh lxdlsbvh lc oh shcmrl y lo dulrp`, klebk` h su
kurhdbôc y k`sbs.
C` nhy qul d`cfuckbr Glelckhz`o d`c Hoelckhz`o (hoelczh) qul sç
ls sbstâgbd` y rlqublrl rldlth gâkbdh. Tb hprldbh uch dohrh bcflsthdbôc kl
phrèsbt`s lc shcmrl, sl klel d`csuothr d`c uc gâkbd` phrh d`crghro`,
y sôo` lct`cdls sl hpobdhrçhc hcphrhsbthrb`s sbstâgbd`s, qul sç slrèc
hes`rebk`s p`r oh shcmrl, slmñc lo drbtlrb` klo gâkbd`.
Ohs ghrdhs kl lst`s hcphrhsbthrb`s vhrçhc lc dhkh phçs, p`r o` thct`
sl uobzh lc lstl pr`t`d`o` oh susthcdbh hdvh quçgbdh prbcdbpho. Klel
d`csuothr oh ghrdh d`c su fhrghdâud`.
Fbm. 451 F`t`mrhh kl eb`og obelrhk` klo bctlsc` nughc`.
8<6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
[rhthgblct`1
Kç 8
• Yhg`ht
Yhg`ht`
` kl Ybrhctlo
Ybrhctlo (k`sbs
(k`sbs ñcbdh ghøhch) 89 gm/jm, hkgbcbstrhk`s lc
uch
ñcbdh
t`gh
auct`
d`c homñc
Lc lo dhs`
kl (phrh
prlslcthrsl
lc
f`rgh
oçqubkh,
uch
dudnhrhkbth
kloçqubk`.
< go d`clcl
5<9 gm
69 jm trls
dudnhrhkbths kl < go). Lc f`rgh kl d`gprbgbk`s t`ghr 4 phsoohs phrh
69 jm.
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs (5 k`sbs). \ch
\ch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl
p`strl k`s vldls ho kçh
d`c ohs d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglctl
prlflrlctlglctl oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
Kç 5
• Glelckhz`o
Glelckhz`o (k`s k`sbs) 899 gm dhkh
dhkh k`dl n`rhs.
n`rhs. \ch phsooh
phsooh p`r oh
ghøhch y uch p`r oh c`dnl.
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs (k`s k`sbs). \ch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s
k`s vldls ho
ho
kçh d`c ohs d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglctl
prlflrlctlglctl oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
• Lclgh. Lqubp` hkbdb`cho cldlshrb`1 lclgh kl 5 obtr`s.
obtr`s.
Kç 4
• Hdlbtl kl Ubdbc`, k`s
k`s dudnhrhkhs
dudnhrhkhs s`plrhs
s`plrhs (klshe`rbzhk`
(klshe`rbzhk` kl fhrghdbh) lc
hyuchs.
• Glelckhz`
Glelckhz`oo (k`s k`sbs) 899 gm dhkh
dhkh k`dl n`rhs.
n`rhs. \ch phsooh
phsooh p`r oh
ghøhch y uch p`r oh c`dnl.
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs (k`s k`sbs). \ch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s
k`s vldls ho
ho
kçh d`c ohs d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglctl
prlflrlctlglctl oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
• Lclgh.
Kç ;
• Glelckhz`o
Glelckhz`o (k`s k`sbs) 899 gm dhkh
dhkh k`dl n`rhs.
n`rhs. \ch phsooh
phsooh p`r oh
ghøhch y uch p`r oh c`dnl.
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs (k`s k`sbs). \ch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s
k`s vldls ho
ho
kçh d`c ohs d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglctl
prlflrlctlglctl oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
• Lclgh.
Kç <
• Yhg`ht`
Yhg`ht` kl pbrhctlo (k`sbs ñcbdh)
ñcbdh) 89 gm/jm, hkgbcbstrhk`s lc uch ñcbdh
t`gh auct` d`c homñc oçqubk`. Lc lo dhs` kl prlslcthrsl lc f`rgh oçqubkh,
uch dudnhrhkbth kl < go d`clcl 5<9 gm (phrh 69 jm, trls dudnhrhkbths
kl < go). Lc f`rgh kl d`gprbgbk`s t`ghr 4 phsoohs phrh 69 jm.
8<=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs (k`s k`sbs). \ch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s
k`s vldls ho
ho
kçh d`c ohs d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglct
prlflrlctlglctll oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
• Lclgh.
Kç 6
• Hdlbtl kl Ubdbc`, k`s dudnhrhkhs s`plrhs
s`plrhs (klshe`rbzhk`
(klshe`rbzhk` kl fhrghdbh)
lc hyuchs.
• Glelckhz`
Glelckhz`o1o1 899 gm dhkh k`dl n`rhs.
n`rhs. \ch phsooh p`r
p`r oh ghøhch y uch
p`r oh c`dnl.
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs. \ch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s
k`s vldls ho kçh d`c ohs
d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglctl oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
• Lclgh.
Kç =
• Glelckhz`
Glelckhz`o1o1 899 gm dhkh k`dl n`rhs.
n`rhs. \ch phsooh p`r
p`r oh ghøhch y uch
p`r oh c`dnl.
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs. \ch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s
k`s vldls ho kçh d`c ohs
d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglctl oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
• Lclgh.
Kç >
• Glelckhz`o1
Glelckhz`o1 899 gm dhkh k`dl n`rhs.
n`rhs. \ch phsooh p`r
p`r oh ghøhch y uch
p`r oh c`dnl.
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs. \ch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s
k`s vldls ho kçh d`c ohs
d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglctl oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
• Lclgh.
Kç 2  8> ( )
• Hdlbtl kl Ubdbc`, k`s dudnhrhkhs
dudnhrhkhs s`plrhs
s`plrhs (klshe`rbzhk`
(klshe`rbzhk` kl fhrghdbh) lc
hyuchs. Tl klelrè rlplr lc fucdbôc kl oh cldlsbkhk kl dhkh plrs`ch.
Tuprbgbr lc dhs` kl kbhrrlh d`ccuh.
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs. \ch dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s vldls ho kçh, d`c ohs
d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglctl oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
• Bcfusbôc kl Cllg (Hzhkbrhdnth bckbdh) (2 kçhs). [rls dudnhrhkbths rhshs
kl tâ lc uc obtr` kl hmuh. Nlrvbr kurhctl < gbcut`s l br t`ghck` kurhctl
kurhctl
t`k` lo kçh. Yulklc ushr thgebâc ohs dèpsuohs kl Cllg yh qul oh bcfusbôc
guy hghrmh.
• ls
Lclghs
kl oh ghclrh gès d`ccuhkh p`sbeol.
8<>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
Kç 2  8> ( )
• Hdlbtl kl Ubdbc`, k`s
k`s dudnhrhkhs
dudnhrhkhs s`plrhs
s`plrhs (klshe`rbzhk`
(klshe`rbzhk` kl fhrghdbh) lc
hyuchs. Tl klelrè rlplr lc fucdbôc kl oh cldlsbkhk kl dhkh plrs`ch.
Tuprbgbr lc dhs` kl kbhrrlh d`ccuh.
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs. \ch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s
k`s vldls ho kçh d`c ohs
d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglctl oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
• Bcfusbôc kl Lphz`tl (Dnlc`p`kbug hger`sb`bkls) (4 kçhs). Nlrvbr 8 ô
5 dudnhrhkhs kl n`ahs phrh 8 obtr` kl hmuh kurhctl 89 gbcut`s, klahr
rlp`shr y d`ohr. Elelr 8 thzh lc hyuc` kurhctl 4 kçhs slmubk`s.
• Lo rlst`
rlst` kl o`s kçhs, t`ghr lo mlo kl Ho`l vlrh d`c zug` ` hmuh lc hyuchs.
• Lclghs kl oh ghclrh gès d`ccuhkh p`sbeol.
Kç 2  8> ( )
• Hdlbtl kl Ubdbc`, k`s
k`s dudnhrhkhs
dudnhrhkhs s`plrhs
s`plrhs (klshe`rbzhk`
(klshe`rbzhk` kl fhrghdbh) lc
hyuchs. Tl klelrè rlplr lc fucdbôc kl oh cldlsbkhk kl dhkh plrs`ch.
Tuprbgbr lc dhs` kl kbhrrlh d`ccuh.
• [blrrh kl kbht`glhs. \ch dudnhrhkbth
dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s
k`s vldls ho kçh d`c ohs
d`gbkhs, prlflrlctlglctl oçqubk`s. Ghøhch y thrkl.
• Bcfusbôc kl Cllg (Hzhkbrhdnth bckbdh) kurhctl 2 kçhs ` bcfusbôc
hcphrhsbthrbh hotlrchvh.
• Lclghs kl oh ghclrh gès d`ccuhkh p`sbeol.
• Tb klspuâs klo tlrdlr gls t`khvçh
t`khvçh lstèc shoblck`
shoblck` phrèsbt`s,
phrèsbt`s, ` mrhckls
mrhckls
dhckhkls kl gud`sbkhkls, sl klel bcbdbhr klskl lo prbglr gls `trh
vlz.
Kç 82  49    ()
Tlmñc oh Ulho Hdhklgbh kl Glkbdbch Erbtècbdh lo 29% kl ohs lcflrglkhkls
y klo gholsthr lstè rlohdb`chk` kbrldth ` bckbrldthglctl d`c lo d`o`c sudb`.
Y`klg`s d`csbklrhr lo d`o`c d`g` oh do`hdh klo dulrp` y ohs t`xbchs qul hooç sl
lcdulctrhc sl otrhc lc oh shcmrl y kltlrb`rhc mrhvlglctl oh shouk. Lc lo d`o`c
kl o`s hkuot`s ghy`rls kl ;9 hø`s sl pulklc lcd`ctrhr mlclrhoglctl lctrl 5
y 85 jbo`s kl slkbglct`s. Lc lstl mruls` kl ehsurh c` purmhkh sl gulvlc o`s
phrèsbt`s gès ` glc`s mrhckls bct`xbdhck`
bct`xbdhck` lo `rmhcbsg` kl su n`splkhk`r kl
uch f`rgh olcth, plr` slmurh. Kl o`s hobglct`s qul oolmhc ho sbstlgh kbmlsv` o`s
phrèsbt`s d`csuglc oh ghy`r phrtl kl sus eulc`s cutrblctls klahck` gudnhs
vldls sôo` ‟ehsurh‗ ho n`splkhk`r.
Ls p`r ls` qul, hucqul sl trhtl kl d`glr shchglctl t`ghck` vbthgbchs
supolglcthrbhs y `tr`s pr`kudt`s, c` sl d`csbmul cbcmuch gla`rçh, ls gès,
lc `dhsb`cls sl d`csbmul t`k` o` d`ctrhrb`1 cutrbr h o`s phrèsbt`s. \c` kl o`s
8<2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
gla`rls gât`k`s phrh lobgbchr t`k` lsl mruls` ls oh oohghkh ‟nbkr`tlrhpbh kl
d`o`c‗, qul uc tâdcbd` pulkl rlhobzhr.
Kl ghclrh chturho y hucqul sôo` slh d`c hmuh, lo trhthgblct` d`c lclghs
kl 5 obtr`s pulkl hyukhr h durhr gudnhs lcflrglkhkls. \obzhk` p`r gudnhs
duoturhs klskl oh hcmÿlkhk, ls uc gât`k` fèdbo y uch kl ohs f`rghs chturhols
kl obgpbhr pr`mrlsbvh
pr`mrlsbvhglctl
glctl lo d`o`c.
Lo oçqubk` bctr`kudbk` hyukh h lobgbchr oh t`xbdbkhk hduguohkh lc lo bctlsc`
bctlsc`,,
p`r oh gulrtl kl o`s phrèsbt`s. Lc lo dhs` kl pr`kudbrsl uch gulrtl ghsbvh kl
mushc`s pulklc huglcthr oh lerl, lo dhcshcdb` y uc` pulkl oolmhr h slcrsl
ehsthctl lcflrg`. Yhrh lvbthr qul ohs t`xbchs oolmulc ho t`rrlctl shcmuçcl`
klelg`s lvhduhr lo sbstlgh kbmlsv` o` hctls p`sbeol h trhvâs kl lclghs.
Lo lclgh ls uch kl ohs phrtls bgprlsdbckbeols lc lstl trhthgblct`.
O`s phrèsbt`s mlclrhc uch gud`sh ` eb`og lc lo bctlsc` lc lo qul pulklc
lsd`cklrsl phrh c` slr hthdhk`s p`r cbcmñc glkbdhglct`,
glkbdhglct`, kl hnç oh bgp`rthcdbh
kl o`s lclghs d`c DK. Lo DK ls dhphz kl plcltrhr lsh dhph klstruylck` thgebâc
o`s nulv`s y ohrvhs qul hooç sl ho`ahc. Klel rlhobzhrsl kbhrbhglctl h phrr klo
slmuck` kçh y pr`mrlsbvhglctl pulkl br lsphdbèck`sl dhkh 4 ` ; kçhs. O` gès
bgp`rthctl ls lsdudnhr ho pr`pb` dulrp` y âo gbsg` c`s ghrdhrè ohs phuths kl
sus cldlsbkhkls.
Oh dhckhk hklduhkh h uobzhr ls kl lctrl 89 y 59 m`ths kl DK d`c su
d`rrlsp`ckblctl hdvhk`r ` eblc 89-59 go kl DKT phrh 5 obtr`s. Tl pulkl br
huglcthck` oh k`sbs slmñc oh hdlpthdbôc. O` gès bgp`rthctl ls rltlclr lo
oçqubk` klctr` lo ghy`r lgp` p`sbeol (<-89 gbcut`s, sb ls p`sbeol, c` gès).
Kltlddbôc
kl phrèsbt`s oh
lcghtlrbh
nldls. Tlfldho.
nhdl Yhrh
cldlshrb`
kltldthr ohs
o`gerbdls
`eslrvhck`
kbrldthglctl
ls` p`klg`s
kbsp`clr
kl
uch phohcmhch kl poèsd` kl kbègltr` c` guy mrhckl y kl uc phobt` phrh lo
lxhglc dhkh vlz
vlz qul nhmhg`s uch klp`sbdbôc. Tl nhrè guy ño sb kbsp`clg`s
kl uc gbdr`sd`pb` phrh oh kbhmc`sbs, p`rqul d`c âo p`klg`s `eslrvhr thct`
o`s plqulø`s phrèsbt`s qul pulkh nhelr lc oh shcmrl, d`g` oh prlslcdbh kl
nulv`s ` ohrvhs lc ohs nldls. Kl lsth ghclrh p`klg`s d`ctr`ohr sb oh dhckhk
phrhsbthrbh kbsgbcuyl.
Lstl trhthgblct` ls trlglckhglctl ldhz phrh cbø`s qul c` pulklc
k`rgbr yh qul gudnhs vldls s`c o`s gbsg`s phrèsbt`s, o`s qul dhushc gholsthr
l bcqubltuk. T`erl t`k` lc cbø`s ls uc phrèsbt` guy d`gñc qul ls rlsp`csheol
kl dhushr hcsblkhk ` trhst`rc`s p` kâdbt kl htlcdbôc.
869
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
Glkbdhglct`s phrh oh klsphrhsbthdbôc1
Glelckhz`o (O, Vx)
Lo glelckhz`o ls uc glkbdhglct` qul sl uobzh klskl o`s hø`s =9 lc lo
trhthgblct` kl lcflrglkhkls pr`kudbkhs p`r nlogbct`s (mushc`s klo trhdt`
mhstr`bctlscho). Lstl glkbdhglct` bgpbkl qul lo phrèsbt` uobdl oh moud`sh,
pr`v`dèck`ol
pr`v`dèc
k`ol uch kbsgbcudbôc kl lclrmçh y oh gulrtl. Lo glelckhz`o sl hes`rel
kl ghclrh guy obgbthkh lc lo trhdt` mhstr`bctlscho (hpr`xbghkhglctl sôo` < h
89%). Oh hes`rdbôc sl vl huglcthkh sb sl hkgbcbstrh d`caucthglctl d`c hobglct`s
mrhs`s. Tl glthe`obzh lc ghy`r glkbkh lc lo nçmhk`. Hpr`xbghkhglctl lo 5%
klo glelckhz`o hkgbcbstrhk` sl lxdrlth p`r `rbch. Lo rlst` sl lxdrlth lc nldls.
Oh k`sbs hklduhkh kl glelckhz`o pulkl slr kbflrlctl phrh dhkh phdblctl. Lsth
klplckl klo p` kl phrèsbt` qul dhusl oh bcflddbôc. Oh k`sbs frldulctlglctl
rld`glckhkh ls kl 899 gm, 5 vldls ho kçh, kurhctl 4 kçhs.
lfldt`s
hkvlrs`sYulkl
klo glelckhz`o
s`c, lcvôgbt`s,
mlclrho, k`o`r
p`d` frldulctls
khkhO`s
su p`dh
hes`rdbôc.
pr`kudbr cèuslhs,
hek`gbcho
y kbhrrlh. C`rghoglctl lst`s lfldt`s s`c mlclrhk`s p`r oh obelrhdbôc kl
t`xbchs klo pr`pb` phrèsbt` ho g`rbr. Yulkl hkgbcbstrhrsl kl ghclrh guy
lfldvh d`c uch plquløh plrbooh p`r vçh hcho 8< go kboubk`s lc uc p`d` kl
hmuh ebh, sl bctr`kudl lc lo rldt` d`c uc`s 49 go hpr`xbghk`s kl hmuh,
klskl k`ckl oolmh ho bctlsc` mruls`, y sl klah hdtuhr kurhctl t`kh oh
c`dnl. Lstè lspldbhoglctl bckbdhk` lc lo dhs` kl `xburhsbs, klshphrldblck`
klshphrldblck`
lo pbd`r.
Gez (O,
(O, Vx)
Vx)  ñ  ôx    ç 1
• Hg`xbdbobch
• Hzbtr`gbdbch
• Dhrehghzlpbch
• D
• Lt`t`çch
• Glflcbt`çch
• Gltr`cbkhz`o
• Ylcbdbobch
¡G !
B    Gez (O
(O ,, Vx)1
8. Oh bctlrhddbôc gès bgp`rthctl ls Fohmyo (gltr`cbkhz`o). ¡Lst` ls guy
! [email protected]       .
Duhck` sl ushc auct`s, p`krçhc dhushr lo sçckr`gl kl Ttlvlcs- A`ncs`c,
qul pulkl slr guy mrhvl.
868
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
5. Oh 5ª bctlrhddbôc sbmcbdhvh d`c Vlrg`x
Vlrg`x ls [hmhglt
[hmhglt (dbglkbch). Lst` c`
rlsuoth lc uch mrhvl bctlrhddbôc, plr` p`krçh rlsuothr lc uch rlkuddbôc klo
glthe`obsg` nlpèd` klo glelckhz`o, dhushck` lolvhkh d`cdlctrhdbôc kl
sulr` / shcmrl.
Yhg`ht` kl Ybrhctlo ([e)
Ls uc hcnlogçcd` kl hgpob` lspldtr` qul hdtñh glkbhctl eo`qul`
clur`gusduohr, dhushck` oh phrèobsbs klo phrèsbt` y su p`stlrb`r lxpuosbôc p`r
hddbôc klo g`vbgblct` bctlscho, sbc pr`kudbr lxdbthdbôc kl o`s phrèsbt`s, cb
lsguohr su gbmrhdbôc. Lo phg`ht` kl pbrhctlo lcl uch hddbôc kl d`rth kurhdbôc
y lckl h uch d`gpolth lobgbchdbôc klo dulrp` p`r ohs nldls y oh `rbch, lc uc
pohz` kl 4 h ; kçhs. Lo phg`ht` kl pbrhctlo ls lsdhshglctl hes`rebk` lc lo trhdt`
mhstr`bctlscho y hpr`xbghkhglctl klo 6 h >% klo t`tho, ls lcd`ctrhk` lc oh `rbch
y lo rlst` lc ohs nldls.
Oh k`sbs rld`glckhkh lc hkuot`s ls kl uch k`sbs ñcbdh ho kçh.
Kl 85 hø`s lc hklohctl, kl ;9 h =< jm1 4 theolths.
Hkuot`s kl gès kl =< jm1 ; theolths.
Hkvlrtlcdbh11 ls bcd`gpheol d`c lo us` kl oh pbplrhdbch, susthcdbh qul sl
Hkvlrtlcdbh
lcdulctrh kl ghclrh chturho lc ohs pbphs kl dhohehzh ` lc o`s hcphrhsbthrb`s
qul lclc lc su fôrguoh lsth susthcdbh yh qul sl clutrhobz
clutrhobzhc
hc lctrl sç.
Yohcths y gbclrhols phrh oh klsphrhsbthdbôc1
Lo pr`eolgh phrhsbthrb` nh sbk` y ls uch prl`duphdbôc d`csthctl
d`csthctl lc gudnhs
kl ohs duoturhs klo pohclth. Klskl lgp`s bcglg`rbhols lxbstlc pohcths
hutôdt`chs d`c ohs qul ohs plrs`chs nhc rlhobzhk
rlhobzhk`
` lstl p` kl trhthgblct`s
trhthgblct`s kl
obgpblzh. Lc `ddbklctl y lc `tr`s phçsls klshrr`oohk`s c` sl lstè d`csbklrhck`
su lxbstlcdbh, nhdbâck`c`s gès vuoclrheols.
Lxbstlc gbclrhols
gbclrhols y susthcdbhs
s usthcdbhs guy ñols h oh n`rh kl d`gehr ohs bcflddb`cls
phrhsbthrbhs y p`klg`s nhdlr trhthgblct`s vhrbhk`s1
8. Oh elct`cbth qul hrrhstrh klpôsbt`s
klpôsbt`s..
5. Lo dhreôc vlmltho qul hes`rel t`xbchs.
4. Oh hrdbooh d`gñc ` oh lrrh kl kbht`glhs, s`c homuc`s kl o`s gès
bgp`rthctls lalgpo`s.
865
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
Lc lstl dhs` uobzhrlg`s oh lrrh kl kbht`glhs d`g` uc bgp`rthctl hmlctl
klstrudv` phrhsbthrb` bctlscho. Lc dhs` kl gholsthr, høhkbrlg`s phsoohs kl
dhreôc hdv` phrh klsbct`xbdhr.
[  K
Lo trhthgblct` d`c lrrh kl kbht`glhs klel d`ccuhrsl kurhctl o`s 8>
kçhs. Ohs kbht`glhs s`c uchs pohcths ucbdlouohrls qul vbvçhc lc o`s `dâhc`s
nhdl gboo`cls kl hø`s. F`rghehc uc plqulø` dhphrhzôc d`gpulst` p`r o`s
gbsg`s sbobdht`s qul lxtrhçhc klo hmuh. Duhck` ohs kbht`glhs g`rçhc, lstl
gbdr`sdôpbd` rlduerbgblct` qulkheh klp`sbthk` lc lo f`ck` kl o`s `dâhc`s.
H trhvâs kl ohs lrhs sl fulr`c hduguohck` lc klpôsbt`s, f`rghck` lspls`rls
kl gbols kl gltr`s. D`c lo trhcsdurs` klo lgp`, o`s `dâhc`s rltr`dlkblr`c y
lst`s klpôsbt`s fulr`c lvlctuhoglctl dueblrt`s, f`sbobzèck`sl o`s dhphrhz`cls
y d`gprbgbâck`sl, khck` oumhr h uc p`ov` kl zh kl r`dh, oohghk` lrrh kl
kbht`glhs.
Oh lrrh kl kbht`glhs ls uc ghtlrbho bclrtl, c` tôxbd`, qul d`clcl uch
slrbl kl gbclrhols thols d`g` ghcmhcls`, ghmclsb`, nblrr`, thcb`, dhodb` y
sbobdht`s lctrl `tr`s. Klebkhglctl g`obk`s, o`s lsqulolt`s kl ohs kbht`glhs sl
d`cvblrtlc lc gbdr`sdôpbdhs hmuahs kl sbobdb` o`shs y khøbchs phrh phrèsbt`s,
n`cm`s, dèckbkh, mushc`s y hglehs. Lsths hmuahs s`c bc`flcsbvhs phrh o`s
nughc`s y `tr`s hcbghols kl shcmrl dhoblctl. Tl pulkl t`ghr kl ghclrh
d`ccuhkh p`r slr bc`duh, plr` o` gla`r (d`g` lc t`k`) ls nhdlr thgebâc
lgp`s kl klsdhcs`.
[`ghr uch dudnhrhkbth kl p`strl k`s vldls ho kçh kurhctl o`s 8> kçhs
kl trhthgblct`.
Hdlbtl kl Ubdbc`
Lo hdlbtl kl rbdbc` sl lxtrhl kl oh slgbooh kl uch pohcth guy phrldbkh h
oh nbmulrh, oohghkh ‟Nbmulrh klo kbheo`‗ (Ubdbcus d`ggucbs). Tus slgboohs
d`clclc lctrl uc <9->9% kl hdlbtl, qul h su vlz lclc uc hot` d`ctlcbk`
lc èdbk` rbdbc`oâbd`, d`c uchs lxdlolctls pr`pblkhkls ohxhctls y purmhctls.
\ch vlz bcbdbhk` lo trhthgblct` d`c glkbdhglct`s y pohcths pulkl pr`kudbrsl
phrèobsbs lspèsdh lc homuc`s phrèsbt`s, y sb nhy gudn`s auct`s pulkl f`rghrsl
uc ‟cuk`‗ kl o`gerbdls y pr`kudbr `estruddbôc bctlscho.
bctlscho. Kl hnç oh bgp`rthcdbh
klo us` klo hdlbtl kl rbdbc`. Ls cldlshrb` t`ghro` lc hyuchs p`r oh ghøhch auct`
d`c zug`, tâ ` oldnl.
864
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Hkuot`s1 kl 8< h 49 go (k`s dudnhrhkhs s`plrhs) lc hyuchs. Tl lsplrh
uch n`rh phrh lo klshyuc` y oh glkbdhdbôc. Tb c` nhy uch eulch t`olrhcdbh
sl pulklc uobzhr thgebâc purmhctls gbclrhols d`g` ohs shols kl Lps`g `
vlmlthols d`g` ohs n`ahs kl Tlc.
Cbø`s1 8 dudnhrhkbth phrh o`s cbø`s gès plqulø`s y 5 dudnhrhkbths
phrh o`s
o`s cbø`s gès mrhckls.
@trh `pdbôc ls t`ghr hdlbtl kl rbdbc` lc dèpsuohs.
Cllg (Hz )
)
Lo ère`o kl cllg ls uc` kl o`s mrhckls phtrbg`cb`s chturhols kl oh
nughcbkhk y sl ush d`g` rlglkb` phrh durhdb`cls glkbdbchols klskl lgp`s
gbolchrb`s. Lxbstlc rlflrlcdbhs lc lsdrbturhs sècsdrbths y lo hyurvlkh o` lgpolh
klskl âp`dhs rlg`ths. Ohs pr`pblkhkls durhvhs y glkbdbchols klo cllg nhc
sbk` hpr`vldnhkhs klskl lgp`s rlg`t`s lc oh glkbdbch nbckñ. [`khvçh lc
oh hdtuhobkhk o`s nbckñls qul nhebthc lc z`chs rurhols sl rllrlc ho ère`o klo
cllg d`g` ‟Oh Fhrghdbh klo Yuleo`‗, p`r su dhphdbkhk phrh hobvbhr gudnhs
lcflrglkhkls,
lcflrglkhk
ls, y hdtuhoglctl lstè hvhohk` p`r ohs hut`rbkhkls kl oh Bckbh phrh
su lgpol` lc prlphrhk`s glkbdbchols. Lo cllg ls uc` kl o`s purbdhk`rls y
klsbct`xbdhk`rls d`c ghy`r p`tlcdbho qul lxbstlc. Lo cllg nh sbk` ushk` phrh
d`gehr t`kh f`rgh kl phrèsbt`s klo dulrp`, thct` phrèsbt`s lxtlrc`s, d`g`
bctlrc`s.
8. Nlrvbr uc tâ kl ohs n`ahs, 8 e`osh kl tâ (; n`ahs) lc 8 obtr` kl hmuh
gbcut`sh(sb
cldlshrb`
5. kurhctl
[`ghr oh<bcfusbôc
o` ls
ohrm`
klo kçh. hmrlmhr stlvbh p`r slr hghrm`).
4. O` uobzhrlg`s kurhctl 2 ô 89 kçhs lo prbglr gls.
D`g` hotlrchvh h oh bcfusbôc, gudnh mlctl prllrl uobzhr dèpsuohs, yh
qul lo she`r kl oh pohcth ls guy hghrm`.
Lphz`tl (Dnlc`p`kbug hger`sb`bkls)
Lo lphz`tl, ` thgebâc d`gñcglctl phbd`, duy` c`gerl dblcd` ls
Dnlc`p`kbug hger`sb`bkls, ls uch pohcth qul drldl kl ghclrh sbovlstrl lc
phçsls kl Hgârbdh klo sur y dlctr`. Lsth pohcth p`sll pr`pblkhkls durhvhs, qul
sbrvlc phrh lo hobvb` kl g`olshs kbmlsvhs, dôobd`s kl mhsls y phrh oh lxpuosbôc
kl phrèsbt`s y mushc`s bctlschols. Lc Gâxbd` sl uobzh phrh gudnhs s`phs
86;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
dhslrhs. Lo hsdhrbk`o ls oh susthcdbh prlslctl
prlslctl lc lo phbd` qul hdtñh pr`kudblck`
uc lfldt` phrhobzhctl y chrdôd` s`erl o`s phrèsbt`s bctlschols, nhdblck` qul
sl klsprlckhc klo bctlsc` ho qul lsthehc fulrtlglctl
fulrtlglctl hknlrbk`s.
K`sbs1
Lc f`rgh kl kld`ddbôc, nbrvblck` 8 ` 5 dudnhrhkhs kl n`ahs phrh 8 obtr`
kl hmuh kurhctl 89 gbcut`s. Klahr rlp`shr y elelr 8 thzh lc hyuchs kurhctl
4 kçhs slmubk`s.
@[UHT YOHC[HT GLKBDBCHOLT
Lxbstlc `trhs pohcths lfldvhs qul p`klg`s uobzhr phrh ohs klsphrhsbthdbôc.
Tb klspuâs kl trls glsls kl trhthgblct` sbmul plrsbslck` lo pr`eolgh,
p`klg`s dhgebhr lo p` kl pohcth ` v`ovlr h rlplr sb homuch c`s rlsuotô
lfldvhh lc o`s glsls hctlrb`rls. Y`klg`s ushrohs lc f`rgh kl prlphrhk`s d`c
lfldv
vhrbhs pohcths h oh vlz, ` kl f`rgh bckbvbkuho.
Tl d`csbklrhc hklgès ohs sbmublctls
s bmublctls pohcths,
pohcths, lc f`rgh kl lxtrhdt` hod`nôobd`,
hdlbtl ` bcfusbôc, lctrl `trhs1 dèsdhrh kl c`mho, hrtlgbsh hccuh, rhçz kl dèohg`,
rukh, Hrtlgbsbh hesbctnbug (halca`), herôthc` ghdn` mlcdbhch, nblreheulch,
kçdthg` eohcd`, thchdlt`, gbolcrhgh, kblctl kl olôc, dohv`, d`rtlzh kl rhçz kl
mrhchk`,, nloldn` ghdn`, nblreheulch, dhoâckuoh, nbpârbd`, do`r`oh.
mrhchk`
HOBGLC[@T YULVLC[[email protected]
YULVLC[[email protected]  KBL[H
KBL[H
Lxbstlc mrup`s kl hobglct`s qul klelg`s lvbthr d`glr sb c`s lcd`ctrhg`s
hctl uc pr`eolgh phrhsbthrb` d`g` s`c1 o`s pr`kudt`s oèdtl`s lc mlclrho, o`s
hzñdhrls rlchk`s (shdhr`sh, ahrhel kl ghçz kl frudt`sh), ohs nhrbchs (s`erl
t`k` ohs rlchkhs) y o`s hobglct`s lxdlsbvhglctl
lxdlsbvhglctl kuodls lc mlclrho.
Y`r lo d`ctrhrb` thgebâc tlclg`s uch eulch obsth kl hobglct`s y pohcths
qul fhv`rldlc lo eulc lquboberb` bctlrc` klo `rmhcbsg` d`cvbrâck`sl lc
culstr`s hobhk`s.
D`c uch eulch pr`kuddbôc kl èdbk` lst`ghdho, uc eulc cbvlo kl ehdtlrbhs
shoukheols y uch d`rrldth pr`kuddbôc kl ebobs, c` ls p`sbeol qul s`erlvbvh
cbcmñc phrèsbt` p`r lgp` pr`o`cmhk`. O`s mushc`s cldlsbthc uc lct`rc` èdbk`
pr`v`dhk` p`r oh klsd`gp`sbdbôc kl o`s hzñdhrls y oh putrlfhddbôc mlclrhkh
p`r oh bcmlsôc kl d`gbkhs pr`dlshkhs ` p`d` shoukheols.
Ls guy bgp`rthctl d`glr vlmlthols druk`s y aum`s kl fruth qul c`s
pr`p`rdb`clc lczbghs y lolglct`s cldlshrb`s phrh culstrh pr`pbh klflcsh.
86<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
L  / j ( f  )
Gudnhs plrs`chs lclc eha`s cbvlols kl èdbk` lst`ghdho, o` duho ls oh
dhush kl gudn`s kl sus pr`eolghs bctlschols,
bctlschols, yh qul lo `rmhcbsg` c` ls dhphz
kl klflcklrsl hctl o`s bctrus`s. Lo dnudrut ` aum` kl d`o/shulrjrhut ls uc` kl
o`s lsguohctls gès p`klr`s`s phrh qul su dulrp` pr`kuzdh èdbk`. Lo us` kl
flrglcthk`s c` phstlurbzhk`s (jâr kl hmuh, shosh kl s`ah, gbs`, ltd) ls guy
rld`glckheol p`r su lsguohdbôc kl oh elcâdh `rh ehdtlrbhch, lcdhrmhkh kl
mlclrhr lo d`ctr`o s`erl o`s nuâsplkls phrhsbthrb`s.
[`ghr uchs duhcths dudnhrhkbths kl aum` kl d`o hctls kl d`glr, `
gla`r hñc, aum` kl d`o flrglcthkh kl dnudrut, nhrè ghrhvboohs
ghrhvboohs phrh gla`rhr
oh kbmlsôc.
Ha
Lo ha` d`gbk`
d`c o`s
rlmuohrbkhk
lo pr`tlddbôc
lstôghm` yd`csthctl.
lo bctlsc`
lc
uc hgeblctl
oltho phrh
phrèsbt`s,d`cvblrtl
`frldblck`
Lo ha`
ls lo rlglkb` dhslr` p`r lxdlolcdbh phrh lobgbchr chturhoglctl o`s phrèsbt`s
bctlschols. Nh sbk` uobzhk` p`r ohs duoturhs dnbch, mrblmh, r`ghch, bckbh
y eheboôcbdh. C` nh plrkbk` vbmlcdbh yh qul sbmul sblck` lgpolhk` p`r
pr`flsb`chols
pr`flsb`
chols kl oh glkbdbch g`klrch. Tl ush thct` lo ha` frlsd` d`g` su hdlbtl.
8. Lo trhthgblct` gès sbgpol ls d`glr trls kblctls kl ha` t`khs ohs
ghøhchs ` t`ghr uch dudnhrhkbth kl hdlbtl kl ha`.
5. [hgebâc pulkl ushrsl glzdohck` ha` trbturhk` lc uc p`d` kl hmuh frçh
y eleblck` oh glzdoh bcglkbhthglctl.
4. @trh
rldlth
d`csbstl
lcohd`rthr
y ghdlrhr
duhtr` kblctls
kl ha`
lc oldnl
kurhctl
t`kh
c`dnllcy tr`z`s
t`ghr lo
oçqubk` rlsuothctl
lc hyuchs,
ho kçh sbmublctl. Tl trhth kl uc trhthgblct` fulrtl y pulkl pr`v`dhr
vôgbt`s.
T  ez
Ohs slgboohs kl dhohehzh d`clclc uch susthcdbh oohghkh ‟pbplrhdbch‗. Tu
hddbôc sl fuckhglcth lc oh phrèobsbs kl o`s phrèsbt`s, o` qul plrgbtl qul lo
`rmhcbsg` n`splkhk`r pulkh lobgbchr ho `rmhcbsg` bcvhs`r. Oh pbplrhdbch oh
p`klg`s lcd`ctrhr kl ghclrh d`glrdbho lc fôrguohs kl glkbdhglct`s kl
fhrghdbhs
` kl
f`rgh chturho,
d`g` nlg`s kbdn`,
ohs plpbths
kl ohklo
dhohehzh.
Lstl gât`k`
trhkbdb`cho
kl klsphrhsbthdbôc
nh sbk`lc
ushk`
horlklk`r
guck`
klskl qul lo n`gerl lcl glg`rbh. Lxbstlc vhrbhs fôrguohs trhkbdb`chols
lfldvhs y âsth ls uch kl loohs.
866
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
8. Tl uobzh uch thzh kl slgboohs kl dhohehzh (horlklk`r kl >9 slgboohs)
plohkhs y trbturhkhs.
5. Tl glzdohc d`c lo hmuh kl uc d`d` y k`s dudnhrhkhs kl gblo.
4. Tl t`ghc lc lo plrb`k` kl trls n`rhs, lc hyuchs.
;. Ho chobzhr,
chobzhr, sl t`gh lo hdlbtl kl rbdbc` d`c lo c kl lvhduhr
lvhduhr rèpbkhglctl
o`s phrèsbt`s.
Hkvlrtlcdbh1 C` d`gh slgboohs kl dhohehzh d`c D`gehctrbc® p`rqul pulkl
dhcdlohr lo lfldt
lfldt`.
`.
Yhphyh y slgboohs kl phphyh
Oh phphçch ls oh lczbgh kbmlsvh qul d`clcl oh phphyh y qul ls dhphz
kl klsd`gp`clr oh dhph lxtlrb`r kl uc phrèsbt` hkuot`. Lo aum` oldn`s` kl oh
phphyhh vlrkl ls uc hmlctl kl mrhc hodhcdl phrh klstrubr ohs hsdèrbkls.
phphy
8. K`sbs phrh hkuot`s1 Tl prlphrh d`c 8 dudnhrhkh kl aum` frlsd` kl uch
phphyh vlrkl,
vlrkl, oh gbsgh dhckhk kl gblo y 4 ô ; dudnhrhkhs s`plrhs kl
hmuh dhoblctl.
5. H ohs k`s n`rhs sl klel hkgbcbstrhr 8 k`sbs kl hdlbtl kl rbdbc`, glzdohkh
glzdohkh
d`c oldnl ebh.
4. Lstl trhthgblct` sl klel rlplr p`r 5 kçhs lc dhs` kl cldlsbkh
cldlsbkhk.
k.
;. Cbø`s kl lctrl = h 89 hø`s1 klel slr hkgbcbstrhkh oh gbthk kl oh k`sbs
y, phrh o`s cbø`s glc`rls kl 4 hø`s, 8 dudnhrhkh rhsh kl oh glzdoh ls
sudblctl.
Ohs slgboohs kl oh phphyh s`c thgebâc ñols phrh lstl pr`pôsbt`. T`c rbdhs
lc phphçch y dhrbdçc.
8. Tl prlphrh uch glzdoh
glzdoh kl slgboohs frlsdhs
frlsdhs trbturhkhs.
5. Y`r dhkh dudnhrhkh
dudnhrhkh kl slgboohs
slgboohs sl høhkl uch kl gblo.
4. Oh k`sbs ls kl uch dudnhrbooh kl p`strl kbhrbh p`r oh ghøhch lc uc
lstôghm` vhdç` ` hctls kl hd`sthrsl kurhctl 89 kçhs, sl klsdhcshc < y
sl vulovl h rlplr lo dbdo`, hsç nhsth trls vldls.
;. Ls rld`glckheol
rld`glckheol lo us` kl homñc purmhctl.
purmhctl.
86=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Ae
Lo alcmberl c` sôo` hyukh h d`gehr o`s phrèsbt`s bctlschols sbc` qul
thgebâc rlkudl ohs cèuslhs y pulkl hyukhr h dhoghr o`s clrvb`s. Lo alcmberl
frlsd` nh klg`strhk` tlclr mrhc âxbt` lc oh klstruddbôc kl o`s mushc`s
bctlschols kurhctl dblct`s kl hø`s.
Oh f`rgh gès d`gñc kl d`csugbr lo alcmberl ls drukh ` p`r bcfusbôc.
[hgebâc sl pulkl lsp`ov`rlhr lxtrhdt` kl alcmberl lc uch vhrblkhk kl
hobglct`s.
Yr`pôol`
Lo Yr`pôol` sl ush ho glc`s klskl nhdl 4.999 hø`s. Rh o` d`c`dçhc o`s
lmbpdb`s y o`s r`ghc`s. Tu us` sl nh lxtlckbk` nhsth oh hdtuhobkhk. H o`s mrblm`s
ols
klelg`s
su c`gerl1
‟pr`‗,
sbmcbdh
‟klflcsh‗
` ‟hklfhv`r
kl‗, y `‟p`obs‗,
qul
qublrl
kldbr ‟dbukhk‗.
Lst`
sl trhkudl
d`g`
‟klflcsh
oh dbukhk‗
‟klflcs`r
kl oh dbukhk‗.
Mrhdbhs h oh hddbôc hcebôdh klo pr`pôol`, qul pr`tlml kl oh hdvbkhk kl
vbrus y ehdtlrbhs, oh d`oglch ls uc` kl o`s oumhrls gès lstârbols d`c`dbk`s lc
oh chturholzh. Lc gñopols lstukb`s dblcd`s sl nh d`gpr`ehk` oh hdvbkhk
hcphrhsbthrbh klo pr`pôol`, p`r o` qul sl rld`gblckh phrh lo trhthgblct` kl1
Mbhrkbh, hglehs y èsdhrbs. [hgebâc phrh bcflddb`cls bctlschols dhushkhs p`r
ehdtlrbhs mrhg-p`sbvh
mrhg-p`sbvhs.
s.
8. [`ghr 4 m`ths kl cturh p`r jbo` kl pls` ` 4 dèpsuohs · n`rh hctls kl
dhkh d`gbkh.
5. Yhrh lo trhthgblct` kl phrèsbt`s, t`ghr pr`pôol` kurhctl = kçhs lc
hyuchs kboubk` lc hmuh ` aum` kl fruths p`r = kçhs kl klsdhcs`.
klsdhcs`.
4. Tl rld`gblckhc dbdo`s
dbdo`s kl = kçhs kl trhthgblct`
trhthgblct` p`r kçhs kl klsdhcs`.
klsdhcs`.
;. Ulplr kl 4 h < vldls phrh hslmurhr uch t`tho lobgbchdbôc kl o`s
phrèsbt`s ` ehdtlrbhs.
Ls guy bgp`rthctl rlplr lo trhthgblct` phrh d`rthr o`s dbdo`s
rlpr`kudv`s. Ho rlplr lo trhthgblct` uc gçcbg` kl 4 vldls, sl hslmurh
oh lfldvh lobgbchdbôc kl o`s phrèsbt`s.
Lc
lo glrdhk`
nhy pr`pôol`
lc cturh
ho 49%
pr`pôol`
lc dèpsuohs.
Ohs
vlcthahs
klo pr`pôol`
s`c su hoth
lfldvbkhk,
oh yeulch
t`olrhcdbh
y c` tlclr
lfldt`s slduckhrb`s.
86>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
M
Oh d`rtlzh kl oh mrhchkh d`clcl uc hodho`bkl d`c`dbk` d`g` pucbdbch,
lo duho ls hothglctl tôxbd` phrh ohs o`gerbdls. Tl uobzh p`r kld`ddbôc kl oh
d`rtlzh kl oh rhçz, klo tr`cd` ` klo frut`. Oh d`rtlzh kl oh rhçz ls prlflrbeol,
p`rqul d`clcl uch ghy`r dhckhk klo hodho`bkl qul oh d`rtlzh klo tr`cd`.
Lstl hodho`bkl ls hothglctl tôxbd` phrh ohs s`obthrbhs.
Nhdlr uch kld`ddbôc frçh kl oh d`rtlzh
d`rtlzh,, prlflrbeolglctl
prlflrbeolglctl frlsdh. Oh kld`ddbôc
sl uobzh prlflrbeolglctl phrh lxplolr s`obthrbhs.
8. Hkuot`s1 kl 29 h 8>9 go — 4 vldls, d`c o`s bctlrvho`s kl uch n`rh lctrl
dhkh thzh. Tl klel t`ghr uc purmhctl klspuâs klo ñog` vhs`.
5. Cbø`s1 kl 59 h 69 go.
Q
[rhthgblct` dhslr` d`c zhchn`rbh phrh lobgbchr o`s phrèsbt`s bctlschols lc
cbø`s. @tr` rlglkb` dhslr` guy ldhz ls oh zhchn`rbh yh qul sus d`gp`clctls
quçgbd`s hthdhc h o`s phrèsbt`s c` plrgblck` su klshrr`oo` y ls uc` kl o`s
trhthgblct`s chturhols gès lfldv`s phrh o`s cbø`s, h o`s qul sl ols klel
sugbcbstrhr uch thzh plquløh kl zhchn`rbh rhoohkh p`r ohs ghøhchs, nhsth qul
sl s`oudb`cl lo pr`eolgh.
D`ckbglct`s
Ohs pohcths d`ckbglcthrbhs s`c thgebâc uc eulc hrgh ldhz h tlclr lc
dulcth lc culstrh d`dbch kbhrbh. Klskl lgp`s bcglg`rbhols oh nughcbkhk ohs
nh uobzhk` phrh d`ctr`ohr ohs phrhsbt`sbs. Ohs gès bctlrlshctls p`r sus lfldt`s
s`c1 oh dñrdugh, oh pbgblcth, lo lstrhmôc, lo t`gboo`, oh dhcloh, lo pbglctôc y oh
dhylch y lo dohv`.
Yr`t`d`o` X. Xulghkurhs
Lo pr`t`d`o` X sbrvl phrh t`k` p` kl qulghkurhs.
Nhy vhrbhs f`rghs kl trhthrohs1
8. Tb sl trhth kl uch qulghkurh mrhvl ls prlflrbeol hpobdhr DKT 9,4%
(4999 ppg) kbrldthglctl lc f`rgh kl sprhy, lcdbgh kl oh qulghkurh.
Nhebtuhoglctl sl sblctl hobvb` chkh gès hpobdhr.
5. Tl pulk
pulkll thge
thgebâc
bâc lgphphr uch slrvboolth lc DKT y klahroh hpobdhkh
s`erl oh z`ch. Oh vlcthah kl nhdlro` hsç, ls qul sl pulkl rlplr vhrbhs
862
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
vldls y c` ls cldlshrb` ohvhro` p`stlrb`rglctl yh qul c` pr`kudl
qulghkurh quçgbdh p`r pN.
4. @trh f`rgh kl hpobdhdbôc gès hcmuh lc qulghkurhs ls   
   r`dbèck`o` y klaèck`o` kurhctl uc` ` k`s gbcut`s.
C` sl klel hpobdhr kurhctl gès lgp` lo do`rbt` sbc hdvhr. Nhdbâck`o`
kl lsth ghclrh, lo do`rbt` sl hdvh d`c lo èdbk` oèdd` pr`kudbk`
kleha` kl oh pblo, ls kldbr ohs pr`pbhs pñstuohs kl oh qulghkurh.
Y`stlrb`rglctl,
Y`st
lrb`rglctl, ls lslcdbho obgpbhr eha` lo hmuh lo do`rbt`
do`rbt` rlsthctl.
Oh lxplrblcdbh gl nh lcsløhk` qul o` gès ldhz ls d`gebchr hge`s,
ls kldbr, uobzhr oh prbglrh vlz do`rbt` sbc hdvhr, klaèck`o` kurhctl 8 nhsth 5
gbcut`s, y ohvhro` klspuâs d`c heuckhctl hmuh sbc cbcmñc p` kl `trh susthcdbh.
Lo k`o`r klshphrldl bcglkbhthglctl.
bcglkbhthglctl. Duhck`, klspuâs kl uc`s gbcut`s vulovl
h hphrldlr lo k`o`r, sl uobzh DKT 9,4% lc sprhy, r`dbhck` oh z`ch hfldthkh. Tl
pulkl rlplr vhrbhs vldls dhkh 49 gbcut`s, slmñc lo mrhk` kl ohs nlrbkhs.
Y`r rlmoh
mlclrho,
8 h 4 trhthgblct`s
sudblctls
phrh
lobgbchr lo k`o`r
kl f`rgh
d`gpolth
hdlolrhck`
oh durhdbôcs`c
sbc klahr
ghrdhs
kl dbdhtrbdls.
Yr`t`d`o` U. Uldtho d`c plrbooh
◀ Lo pr`t`d`o` U, ` pr`t`d`o` Uldtho d`c plrbooh, lstè klschk`
lspldbhoglctl phrh lo us` rldtho, uobzhck` uch plrbooh kl m`gh kl uc`s
899-8<9 gbobobtr`s hpr`xbghkhglctl.
8. Tl hdvhc 6 m`ths kl DK lc uc vhs`
vhs` kl hmuh.
5. Tl høhklc 8<9 go kl hmuh h tlgplrhturh d`rp`rho.
4. Hes`rvlr oh s`oudbôc d`c oh plrbooh.
;. Tl hpobdh vhslobch ` drlgh ouerbdhctl lc oh pucth kl oh plrbooh.
<. Y`stlrb`rglctl, sl bctr`kudl lc lo rldt` vhdbhck` oh plrbooh p`r
d`gpolt` y sl rllcl lo oçqubk` kurhctl 4 gbcut`s hctls kl lvhduhr.
Lstl pr`t`d`o` ls ôpg` phrh surhs hchols, nlg`rr`bkls, y s`erl t`k` lc
dècdlr kl prôsthth k`ckl sl hpobdh klspuâs kl dhkh klfld
klfldhdbôc.
hdbôc.
Ls uc pr`t`d`o` sbgpol y sbc lfldt`s slduckhrb`s, plr` guy ldhz.
C1
• Lobgbch oh t`xbdbkhk y klsnhdl ohs hknlrlcdbhs.
• Tb sl lobgbch t`xbdbkhk sl rlkudl oh fhmh.
8=9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
• H trhvâs klo d`o`c tlclg`s hddls` rèpbk` ho nçmhk`
nçmhk ` h trhvâs kl oh vlch
vlc h
p`rth.
• Lo dbrdubt` shcmuçcl` phsh p`r lo nçmhk` dhkh 4 gbcut`s.
• Oh ghy`rçh kl ohs lcflrglkhkls lclc
l clc su `rbmlc lc lo sbstlgh mèstrbd`
bctlscho.
• Lc oh hcmÿlkhk yh o` sheçhc. Nhsth o`s hø`s
hø`s 69 lrh d`gñc lsth prèddh.
• Lc oh hdtuhobkhk sl nh plrkbk`. Tl vl d`g` hom` sudb`.
• Gât`k` eèsbd` kl durhdbôc nbckñ.
• Lo bctlsc` mruls` ls oh ‟do`hdh‗ kl culstr` `rmhcbsg`. Klp`sbdbôc
kbhrbh, ls shouk bctlsch
bctlscho.o.
• Lxukhdbôc h trhvâs klo d`o`c ho t`rrlctl shcmuçcl`. Oh t`xbdbkhk oolmh h
ôrmhc`s prbcdbphols.
• Lcflrglkhkls drôcbdhs y hut`bcgucls.
• Ls bgprlsdbckbeol lc tlrhpbhs kl klt`xbdhdbôc. [`xbdbkhk ehdtlrbhs
hs`dbhkhs h phrèsbt`s gulrt`s.
Yr`t`d`o` T. Tlcsbeol (d`c k`sbs guy p`d` h p`d`)
Lo pr`t`d`o` T, ` pr`t`d`o` Tlcsbeol, lstè plcshk` phrh ohs plrs`chs qul
c` s`c dhphdls kl bcmlrbr DK kl oh gbsgh ghclrh qul oh ghy`rçh. Nhy dhs`s
rlp`rthk`s s`erl t`k` lc oh f`rgh klo hcmu` GGT (hdvhk` d`c èdbk` dçtrbd`),
k`ckl pulkl nhelr lfldt`s slduckhrb`s kl kbhrrlh ` vôgbt` lc homuc`s dhs`s.
Lxbstlc homuchs plrs`chs qul phrldlc slcsbeols h uch s`oh m`th.
Klebk` h gb trheha` d`c cbø`s qul sufrlc husg`, nl p`kbk` hvlrbmuhr qul
duhck` nhy phrèsbt`s mrhckls lc lo dulrp`, lst`s pulklc c` slr lobgbchk`s p`r
lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`. Ylr` pr`eheolglctl gudn`s phrèsbt`s sç s`c hfldthk`s p`r
lo kbôxbk` y hdhehc v`odhck` t`k`s sus klsldn`s kl m`opl h oh plrs`ch bcfldthkh.
T`c lsths t`xbchs qul dhushc gholsthr, yh qul ohs plrs`chs qul gl lsdrbelc
y qul nhc nldn` uch klsphrhsbthdbôc slmñc gb pr`t`d`o`, p`stlrb`rglctl s`c
dhphdls kl t`ghr k`sbs hoths kl DK sbc cbcmñc lfldt` slduckhrb`.
• Tl uobzh DKT ho slr gès oolvhklr
oolvhklr`
` y p`rqul
p`rqul lcl glc`s lfldt`s
lfldt`s
slduckhrb`s.
8. Yhrh lstl pr`t`d`o`, høhkh 8 go kl DKT phrh <99 go kl hmuh rlphrk`s
kurhctl t`k` lo kçh.
5. Lc lo slmuck` kçh, uobdl 5 go kl DKT lc 8 obtr` kl hmuh. Tb c` nhy
d`ctrhlgp`s (y c`rghoglctl c` o`s nhy) sl pulkl bcdrlglcthr h
phrr kl hquç oh k`sbs dhkh kçh, h 8 go gès p`r obtr`, nhsth oolmhr h o`s
89 go kl DKT p`r obtr` kl hmuh.
8=8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Yhrh lst`, ls bgp`rthctl shelr qul sl suel phuohchglctl oh k`sbs, sbc
f`rzhr lc cbcmñc g`glct` lo dulrp`. Tb nhy gudn` dhcshcdb`, c` sl bcdrlglcth
oh k`sbs nhsth qul klshphrlzdh. Rh qul dhkh dulrp` ls kbflrlctl, nhy qul
hkhpthro` h ohs cldlsbkhkls kl dhkh plrs`ch.
\ch vlz sl oolmh h o`s 89 go p`r kçh, sl ghclcl nhsth oh prôxbgh ouch oolch,
duhck` sl lgpblzh lo pr`t`d`o` kl klsphrhsbthdbôc. Yhrh qul tlcmh âxbt`, nhy
qul slmubro` kl oh ghclrh gès lxhdt
lxhdthh p`sbeol.
Kurhctl oh klsphrhsbthdbôc, sl sbmul d`c oh gbsgh k`sbs kl DKT nhsth oh
d`gpolth klshphrbdbôc kl o`s sçct`ghs, lo lgp` qul slh cldlshrb`. Lo DKT c`
sl hduguoh lc lo dulrp`, p`r slr uc `xbkhc
`xbkhctl.
tl.
Yr`t`d`o` [.
[. [lrgbcho (lcflrglkhkls guy
g uy mrhvls)
Lo pr`t`d`o` [, ` pr`t`d`o` [lrgbcho, lstè nldn` phrh dhs`s tlrgbchols,
hehck`chk`s p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`ch
d`cvlcdb`cho.o.
Lstl pr`t`d`o` lstè ehshk` lc oh lxplrblcdbh kl uch ghkrl qul rlduplrô
h su nbah g`rbeuckh kl 56 hø`s. Duhck` bcbdbô lo trhthgblct` sôo` tlcçh ;; jbo`s
klebk` h o`s lfldt`s kl oh qubgb`tlrhpbh. Lrh uc dhs` klshnudbhk`, plr` huc hsç sl
rlduplrô p`r d`gpolt`.
• Kçh 81 5 go kl DKT dhkh n`rh, 6 h > vldls ho kçh.
• Kçh 51 4 go kl DKT dhkh 5 n`rhs.
• Kçh 41 ; go kl DKT dhkh 5 n`rhs.
• Kçh ;1 < go kl DKT dhkh 5 n`rhs.
• Kçh <1 6 go kl DKT dhkh 5 n`rhs.
• Kçh 61 = go kl DKT dhkh 5 n`rhs.
Kurhctl
slghchs
gès, = go 4dhkh
5 n`rhs
6->n`rh,
vldlsnhsth
ho kçh.rlgbsbôc t`tho.
Klspuâs,<kurhctl
kurhct
l ; slghchs,
go kl
DKT p`r
C1
Lc dhs` kl c` kbsp`clr kl DKT sl pulkl rlhobzhr thgebâc d`c DK, lc
rlohdbôc kl uch m`th kl DK x 8 go kl DKT. Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul, lc k`sbs
hoths, lo DK pulkl `dhsb`chr kbhrrlh.
Yr`t`d`o` \. \rmlcdbh (hctbmu` pr`t`d`o` 6+6 kl Dohrh)
Lo pr`t`d`o` \, ` pr`t`d`o` \rmlcdbh, thgebâc oohghk` kl "Dn`qul" ` "6+6
kl Dohrh" y vhrbhctls, ls uobzhk` phrh trhthgblct`s puctuhols, c` mrhvls plr`
sç kl urmlcdbh, y lc trhthgblct`s bcflddb`s`s d`g` p`r lalgpo` oh bcflddbôc kl
8=5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
`rbch (dbss), bcflddbôc kl rbø`cls, bcflddbôc klo `çk`, mhstr`lctlrbs, pr`dls`s
flerbols, bct`xbdhdbôc p`r hobglct`s, rlplcc`s vôgbt`s ` kbhrrlh, gholsthr
slvlr` sbc dhush hphrlctl. Tl pulkl hpobdhr s`erl t`k` thgebâc lc dhs`s kl
k`o`r slvlr`, k`ckl sl pulkh `eslrvhr lo huglct` rèpbk` y rlplcc` kl oh
bcflddbôc kl uch lcflrglkhk klsd`c`dbkh.
8. Tl t`ghc 6 m`ths kl DK
DK hdvhk` lc 599 go kl hmuh y klspuâs kl k`s
n`rhs sl rlpbtl, d`c `trhs 6 m`ths gès.
5. Y`stl
Y`stlrb`rglctl,
rb`rglctl, sl t`ghc 4 m`ths dhkh
dhkh k`s n`rhs nhsth
nhsth d`gpolthr uchs
> h 89 t`ghs ho kçh. Klel nhelr ho cho klo kçh uch dohrh gla`rçh, lc dhs`
d`ctrhrb` d`csuotl ho gâkbd` kl urmlcdbhs.
• [hgebâc nhy qul hkhpthrsl h ohs t`olrhcdbhs lc dhkh dhs`, y sl pulkl
t`ghr d`g` lqubvholcdbh p`r dhkh m`th kl DK 7 8 go kl DKT,
DKT , kbsulot` lc
oh gbsgh dhckhk kl hmuh.
Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul slmñc oh lcflrglkhk sl pulkl hkhpthr oh
k`sbs rlkudbâck`oh h ; x ;, p`r lalgpo` (lc oumhr kl ohs 6 m`ths sløhohkhs gès
hrrbeh).
Lo DKT mlclrho
mlclrhoglctl
glctl lcl gla`r t`olrhcdbh, s`erl t`k` duhck` sl trhth kl
pr`eolghs lst`ghdhols.
Yr`t`d`o` V.
V. Vhmbcho (utbobzhck` brrbmhdbôc)
Lo pr`t`d`o` V, ` pr`t`d`o` Vhmbcho, lstè bklhk` phrh s`oudb`chr pr`eolghs
mlcbthols flglcbc`s d`g` oh dhckbkbhsbs, gbd`sbs, pôobp`s, dècdlr duloo` ñtlr`
` gb`ghs, plr` thgebâc ls guy ño phrh oh dbss, o`s pr`eolghs rlchols, o`s
pr`eolghs kl trhcsgbsbôc slxuho, yh qul lvbth d`cthmb`s, l bcdous` pulkl oolmhr
h slrvbr d`g` hcd`cdlpv`, kurhctl uch n`rh klspuâs kl oh rlohdbôc slxuho,
klebk` h qul bcg`vbobzh h o`s lsplrght`z`bkls.
Tb oh gualr o` rlhobzh uchs 85-5; n`rhs hctls klo d`bt` sbc lgehrm`, sl
nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr qul bcdrlglcth oh flrobkhk klebk` h oh lobgbchdbôc kl
phtômlc`s vhmbchols, yh slhc n`cm`s, ehdtlrbhs, vbrus ` kl p` pr`t`z`hrb`
phrhsbthrb`.
Tl pulkl uobzhr uc brrbmhk`r vhmbcho kl fhrghdbh ` thgebâc uch sbgpol
e`tlooh kl hmuh kl poèsd` trhcsphrlctl.
8=4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Nhy 5 f`rghs kl nhdlr lo ohvhk` vhmbcho1
8. B 1 hdvhr 89 m`ths kl DK ` 89 go kl DKT phrh 8 obtr` kl
hmuh tlgpohkh.
5. E    (· )1 sl uobzhc uchs 6 m`ths
hdvhkhs kl DK ` nhsth 6 go kl DKT ho 9,4%, p`r <99 go kl hmuh qul
klel lsthr h tlgplrhturh d`rp`rho.
• Lsthck` slcthkh lc oh ehølrh
ehølrh pulkl bctr`kudbro` dôg`khglct
dôg`khglctll lc oh
vhmbch hprlthck` oh e`tlooh, drlhck` uc vhbvâc kl o`s oçqubk`s.
• Tl bctlcth
bctlcth hmuhcthr uc`s 4 h < gbcut`s y lc dhs`
dhs` cldlshrb` sl rlpbtl
uchs n`rhs gès thrkl. Lc homuc`s dhs`s sl klel rlplr kurhctl uc
lgp` gès pr`o`cmhk`.
Ls hd`cslaheol qul lo
lo duloo`
duloo` kl
kl oh e`tlooh slh gès ohrm` phrh qul sl
sl
pulkh bctr`kudbr lc oh vhmbch.
Hklgès kl d`cslmubro` kl ghclrh fèdbo lc duhoqublr phrtl klo guck`, oh
prbcdbpho vlcthah kl oh e`tlooh kl hmuh ls qul p`stlrb`rglctl sl pulkl `eslrvhr
lc lo d`ctlcbk` sb nue` dhckbkbhsbs (ua` eohcquldbc`) ` trbd`g`chs (ua`
hghrboolct` vlrk`s`), qul ls uc phrèsbt`.
◀ [rhthr qul c` lctrl hbrl.
◀ Hmuh `sg`zhkh ` lstlrbobz
lstlrbobzhkh.
hkh.
◀ Hmuh h tlgplrhtu
tlgplrhturh
rh d`rp`rho.
Yrldhudb`cls guy bgp`rthctls1
[email protected] ULHOBQHU [UH[HGBLC[@       
nhyhc khk` h ouz kl f`rgh gès ` glc`s rldblctl. Klelc trhcsdurrbr ho glc`s
;9       .
Yr`t`d`o` ].
]. ]hu!
]hu! (Hklgès
(Hk lgès sl pulkl ushr phrh...)
• D`ctrh lo gho `o`r d`rp`rho1 DKT ls uc kls`k`rhctl ghmcçd`, yh
qul lobgbch oh dhush klo `o`r d`rp`rho fulrtl, hthdhck` y klstruylck`
su rhçz1 ohs ehdtlrbhs y o`s n`cm`s. DKT ls guy ldhz d`ctrh lo `o`r kl
ohs hxbohs, `o`r kl o`s pbls, ltd y sl pulkl hpobdhr, sbc kboubr, kl ghclrh
kbrldth uobzhck` DKT ho 9,4% s`erl oh pblo sbc cldlsbkhk kl lobgbchro`
p`stlrb`rglctl. Yhrh hpobdhro` kl ghclrh fèdbo, sl pulkl uobzhr uch
8=;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
e`tlooh kl sprhy. DKT ls gudn` glc`s d`rr`sbv` h ohs vèovuohs klo
puovlrbzhk`r
puovlrbzhk
`r qul DK hdvhk`.
• Yhrh dlpboohr o`s kblctls1 Tl pulkl uobzhr DKT p`rqul klebk` h su pN
clutr`, c` hfldth lo lsghotl kl ghclrh
gh clrh clmhvh h ohrm` pohz`, d`g` slrçh
lo dhs` d`c lo DK. Ho gbsg` lgp` sl d`csbmulc kblctls gès eohcd`s,
bchdvhdbôc kl ohs dhrbls, y sl prlvblclc cuglr`s`s pr`eolghs eudhols.
• Ehø`s kl pbls1 \obzh 89-49 m`ths hdvhkhs lc uch phohcmhch kl 5 h <
obtr`s kl hmuh (d`ctrh, n`cm`s, ñodlrhs, nlrbkhs, ltd …) lc uc oumhr eblc
vlcohk` kurhctl 8<-59 gbcut`s.
• D   1 Yrlphrhc
Yrlphrhck`
k` uch e`tlooh kl hmuh kl <99 go
d`c <9 m`ths hdvhkhs y klaèck`o` heblrt` lc oh pulrth klo frbm`rçd`.
Klebk` ho frç`, lsdhph guy p`d` mhs, plr` lstl mhs ls sudblctl phrh
d`cslrvhr kurhctl slghchs ` bcdous` glsls t`kh oh vlrkurh y fruth
lc lo frbm`rçd`, sbc lcg`nldlr. Lstl lfldt` lstè sblck` uobzhk` lc oh
bckustrbh d`g` ‟htgôsflrh d`cslrvhk`rh‗
d`cslrvhk`rh‗ y sl lgpolh phrh1
8.
dhrcls.
5. Lgehohal
Tl pulkl kl
uobzhr
thgebâc lo s`erhctl
s`erhctl kl oh pr`kuddbôc dhslrh kl
DKT (oh glzdoh), d`c lstl pr`pôsbt`.
4. Tl rld`gblckh muhrkhr o`s quls`s lc uc rldbpblctl dlrrhk`
hphrtl, yh qul p`r su chturholzh oolvhc n`cm`s y ehdtlrbhs.
;. Ho gbsg` lgp`, c`s sbrvl phrh klsbcfldthr lo trhp` kl d`dbch
ldnhck` uc p`d` kl oçqubk` kl oh e`tlooh kl DK hdvhk` klo
frbm`rçd` (oh glzdoh) ho gbsg`.
• D`ctrh vlrrumhs1 Nhy tlsg`cb`s qul rlp`rthc qul gudnhs vlrrumhs sl
dhlc s`ohs p`r oh bcmlsôc klo DK ` DKT, plr` lc gudn`s dhs`s c` ls hsç.
\ch s`oh hpobdhdbôc ls sudblctl. Tl pulkl klsbcfldthr oh z`ch d`c DKT.
\ch kl ohs rldlths phrh qubthr vlrrumhs ls1
8. Uhsphr oh suplrdbl kurh d`c uch
uch obah ch, sbc nhdlr shcmrl.
5. Tl pulkl p`clr horlklk`r kl oh vlrrumh uc p`d` kl vhslobch d`g`
pr`tldt`r.
4. Tl hpobdh d`c dubkhk` uch m`th kl do`rbt` sôkbd` ([email protected]) sbc
hdvhr, sôo` lc oh pucth kl oh vlrrumh, sbc ohvhro` p`stlrb`rglctl.
Kl lsth ghclrh sl d`csbmul qul klebk` ho pN hodhobc` klo do`rbt`
d o`rbt`
sl qulgl oh vlrrumh obelrhck` èdbk` qul h su vlz hdvh kbôxbk`
kl do`r` dhphz kl oolmhr nhsth ohs rhçdls y lobgbchr oh vlrrumh lc
pr`fuckbkhk.
;. Ho kçh sbmublctl sl lcr`aldl
lcr`aldl oh vlrrumh
vlrrumh y p`d` klspuâs, sl dhl.
<. H o`s 8; kçhs sl klel nhelr dlrrhk`, y ho gls oh pblo nh rlduplrhk`
rlduplrhk`
su c`rghobkhk nhebtuhoglctl sbc klahr dbdhtrbdls.
d bdhtrbdls.
8=<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Yr`t`d`o` ^. klt`^ (klt`xbfbdhr glt
glthols
hols plshk`s)
Lo pr`t`d`o` ^, ` pr`t`d`o` klt`^, sl uobzh lc dhs`s kl bct`xbdhdbôc p`r
glthols yh qul ls uc mrhvl pr`eolgh, klebk` h sl uobzhc glthols lc1 ohs
hghomhghs, plsdbkhs, fucmbdbkhs, pbcturhs, kbs`ovlctls, ctls, ohdhs, tlabk`s,
utlcsbob`s k`gâsd`s, d`sgâd`s y `tr`s gudn`s pr`kudt`s y hklgès lstèc
lc lo hbrl qul rlspbrhg`s, h d`csldulcdbh kl oh bcdbclrhdbôc kl klsldn`s
bckustrbhols, lo nug` kl ohs fèerbdhs y o`s d`dnls, ltd.
Lobgbchck` glthols
◀ O`s glthols plshk`s s`c susthcdbhs
susthcdbhs vlrkhklrhgl
vlrkhklrhglctl
ctl plobmr`shs
plobmr`shs p`rqul
p`rqul
c` sl trhth kl qul culstr` `rmhcbsg` c` ohs pulkh glthe`obzhr, sbc` qul
hklgès lcl kbduothk phrh lobgbchrohs, y kl hnç qul sl hduguolc lc o`s
rbø`cls, o`s clrvb`s, oh mrhsh, o`s nuls`s, oh pblo, o`s puog`cls, oh r`bkls
` lo dlrler`, d`c t`k` o` qul ls` d`coolvh.
Tl bcbdbh d`c lo pr`t`d`o` E kurhctl 4 slghchs y, p`stlrb`rglctl, sl
rlhobzh uch slghch kl klsdhcs`. Tlmñc lo mrhk` kl bct`xbdhdbôc, sl rlpbtl
lo trhthgblct` kurhctl uc`s 4 glsls lc t`tho. O`s vho`rls klelrçhc nhelr
ehahk` lct`cdls.
Yhrh `etlclr vho`rls
vho`rls flnhdblctls ls gla`r nhdlr uch pruleh
pr uleh lc shcmrl hctls
qul oh pruleh klo dheloo`, hucqul nhy qul rld`c`dlr qul lsth ñogh, ls gudn`
gès ld`côgbdh. Klplckblck` klo p` kl gltho, ls cldlshrb` oolmhr h uch k`sbs
gès ` glc`s hoth, kurhctl gès ` glc`s lgp`. Lo glrdurb`, p`r lalgpo`, lcl
uc p`tlcdbho kl `xbkhdbôc kl 9,>5 lc d`ckbdb`cls lstèckhr. Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`,
ho tlclr uc p`tlcdbho gès hot`, sç ls dhphz kl `xbkhro`
`xbkhro`,, phrh p`stlrb`rglctl slr
lxpuoshk` p`r oh vçh urbchrbh.
Yr`t`d`o` R.
R. bcRlddbôc kl DKB
Lo pr`t`d`o` R, ` pr`t`d`o` bcRlddbôc, lcl vhrbhs f`rghs kl uobzhr lo DKB
(kbôxbk` kl do`r` bcyldtheol).
• L        


     .


     .
8=6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
\ch f`rgh bc`duh y fèdbo kl nhdlro`, ls oh bcylddbôc kl pñstuohs
suedutèclhs. Lo pr`t`d`o` d`csbstl lc bcyldthr pñstuohs suedutèclhs kl <
h 89 go kl DKB d`c oh d`cdlctrhdbôc kl <9 ppg (9,99<%) dlrdh kl oh z`ch
hfldthkh. Tl pulkl rlplr,
rlplr, sb ls cldlshrb`
cldlshrb`..
Dôg` nhdlr oh d`cdlctrhdbôc hklduhkh, lstè klsdrbt` lc lo dhpçtuo` <
kl lstl ober`.
Oh `trh f`rgh, ls lc lo trhthgblct` kl lcflrglkhkls mrhvls d`g` p`r
lalgpo` oh Lsdolr`sbs Ohtlrho Hgb`trôdh (LOH), ` lcflrglkhk kl O`u Mlnrbm,
qul ls uch lcflrglkhk klmlclrhvh kl p` clur`gusduohr, qul pr`v`dh uch
phrèobsbs gusduohr pr`mrlsbvh, kl pr`côsd` g`rtho lc oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho.
Y   v ( K.
K. M. Oô)1
8. Ls cldlshrb` d`glczhr d`c oh vçh `rho,
`rho, ho glc`s kurhctl uc gls, phrh
phrh
klsbct`xbdhr.
5. Oh k`sbs kl DKB c` klel lxdlklr
lxdlklr lo <% klo sulr` h hpobdhr.
4. Oh hpobdhdbôc klel
klel slr bcdrlglcthkh
bcdrlglcthkh phuohchglctl,
phuohchglctl, d`glczhck`
d`glczhck` p`r
< go lc 899 go kl sulr`, dhkh < kçhs, 4 slrbls.
;. Bcdrlglct
Bcdrlglcthr
hr h 85,< go lc 5<9 go kl sulr`, p`r 4 slrbls, dhkh = kçhs.
<. Huglcthr h 5< go kl DKB,
DKB, lc <99 go kl sulr`,
sulr`, dhkh = kçhs.
6. Lo lgp` kl bcfusbôc klel
klel slr o` gès ohrm` p`sbeol,
p`sbeol, phrh bcdrlglcthr
bcdrlglcthr
lo plrb`k` kl lxp`sbdbôc.
=. D`cvblcl dhkh
dhkh 6 kçhs t`ghr Hdlodbstlçch
Hdlodbstlçch y Tbobghrbch.
>. Lo dhoberl kl oh vçh h ushr
ushr ls lo 55.
Xublr` hmrhkldlr hquç ho dbruahc` Kr. M. Olôc su bcvlsmhdbôc s`erl
lo us` phrlctlrho klo DKB y o`s kht`s fhdbobthk`s kl o`s rlsuothk`s. Âo gbsg`
sufrl Lsdolr`sbs Ohtlrho Hgb`trôdh (LOH) y, d`g` rlsuothk` klo trhthgblct`,
oh lcflrglkhk sl lsthebobzô y âo yh c` rlqublrl rlspbrhdbôc hrdbho c`dturch.
Hdtuhoglctl, yh ls dhphz kl olvhcthrsl kl oh sbooh kl rulkhs y plrghcldlr kl
pbl s`o`.
Yr`t`d`o` Q. Qhpplr, (Eb`tr`nc®, mlclrhk`r kl frldulcdbhs)
Lo pr`t`d`o` Q, ` pr`t`d`o` Qhpplr, ls uc mlclrhk`r kl frldulcdbhs kl
bgpuos`s rldthcmuohrls phrh us` tlrhpâud`. Lo d`cdlpt` ls qul ls dhphz kl
bgpuos`s rldthcmuohrls phrh us` tlrhpâud`. Lo d`cdlpt` ls qul ls dhphz kl
drlhr uch rls`chcdbh d`c o`s phtômlc`s, qul h su vlz sl s`erllxdbthc y gulrlc
kl ghclrh sloldvh, sbc qul lo dulrp` slh
s lh hfldthk`.
8==
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
O`s prbglr`s Qhpplr lc lo glrdhk` qul sl p`kçhc d`gprhr d`glrdbhoglctl
d`glrdbhoglctl
lrhc1 lo Qhpplr kl Nuokh Dohrj y lo kl U`elrt Eldj. Nhc phshk` o`s hø`s y n`y lc
kçh nhy gudn`s hphrht`s gès hvhczhk`s lc lo glrdhk`, h t`k` p` kl prldb`.
Nl pr`ehk` gudnçsbg`s y tlcm` qul kldbr qul oh kbflrl
kbflrlcdbh
cdbh ls ehsthctl mrhckl
lc o` qul h dulsôc kl dhobkhk y ldhdbh sl rllrl. Hsç qul h vldls, ls gla`r
mhsthrsl uc p`d` gès.
R` uobz` lo ñog` Qhpplr gès hvhczhk` oohghk` Eb`tr`nc®, kl oh
pèmbch www.glkhohe.d`g
www.glkhohe.d`g,, lc t`k`s gbs vbhals, y nh sbk` gb lo d`gphølr`
shovèck`gl lc t`k`s o`s g`glct`s duhck` `tr`s rlglkb`s fhoohr`c. Tu ldhdbh
ls bgprlsb`chctl y kl g`glct`, phrh gç, rlprlslcth qubzès lo gès pr`flsb`cho
klo glrdhk`, h uc prldb` rhz`cheol, qul c` sbmcbdh qul c` nhyh `trhs ghrdhs
qul fucdb`clc kl ghrhvbooh. Gl musth lo Eb`tr`nc® p`r su sbgpobdbkhk kl
us`, yh qul lcl gès kl 84< pr`mrhghs phrh t`k` p` kl lcflrglkhkls, yh
slhc vçrbdhs, ehdtlrbhchs, fucmbdbkhs ` kl phrèsbt`s. [blcl bcdoubk`s thct` o`s
pr`mrhghs kl Nuokh Dohrj y kl U`elrt Eldj, d`g` gudn`s `tr`s pr`mrhghs
phrh lcflrglkhkls tlrgbchols d`ctrh lo dècdlr, y `tr`s.
Lc uc futur`, gl v`y h klkbdhr h oh bcvlsmhdbôc gès pr`fuckh kl lstl p`
kl trhthgblct`s, yh qul ols vl` gudn` futur` p`r su ldhdbh y fhoth kl lfldt`s
slduckhrb`s c`dbv`s.
Yblcs` qul t`k` o` qul s`g`s y slcg`s, ho cho sl rlsugl lc frldulcdbhs
loldtr`ghmcâdhs.
Yr`t`d`o` kl nbp`do`rbt` kl dhodb` (GGT5)
Lstl pr`t`d`o` c` gl d`cvlcdl plrs`choglctl y c` lstè klctr` kl oh obsth
kl oh H nhsth oh Q, klebk` h qul nh dhushk` lfldt`s slduckhrb`s lc gudnh mlctl
y hucqul lc tl`rçh lo d`cdlpt` ls d`rrldt` y nh fucdb`chk` lc gudn`s dhs`s, lc
oh prèddh, lc lo lstôghm` c` tlclg`s hmuh, sbc` uch glzdoh quçgbdh kl èdbk`
do`rnçkrbd`, plpsbch y `trhs suesthcdbhs y lsth ls oh rhzôc p`r oh qul nhy dhs`s
rlp`rthk`s kl bcd`gphebobkhk dhushck` k`o`r kl lstôghm` y gholsthr. Hucqul
oh bklh prbcdbpho ls eulch, fhoth bcvlsmhdbôc dblcdh, phrh lsthr slmur`s kl c`
dhushr khø`. Kl t`khs ghclrhs thgebâc nhy d`csthcdbh kl qul nh hyukhk` h
gudnh mlctl y p`r o` thct` o` lxp`cm` hquç.
Ohs dèpsuohs kl nbp`do`rbt` kl dhodb` rlprlslcthc uch bklh kl Abg Nugeol,
qul o` oohgh GGT5 phrh lcflrglkhkls mrhvls, thols d`g` lo dècdlr ` lo VBN/
TBKH.
Lo nbp`do`rbt` kl dhodb` lstè s`ohglctl plrgbk` phrh oh purbdhdbôc klo
hmuh y duhck` lctrh lc d`cthdt` d`c âsth, sl pr`kudl lo èdbk` nbp`do`r`s`.
[hgebâc ls pr`kudbk` p`r lo gbsg` dulrp`, phrh clutrhobzhr duhoqublr p` kl
phtômlc`s. Y`r o` mlclrho, o`s lcflrg`s mrhvls c` pr`kudlc sudblctl èdbk`
nbp`do`r`s`.
8=>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
Yr`t`d`o` Abg Nugeol
8. Yrbglr`, Abg Nugeol
Nugeol rld`gblckh elelr
elelr k`s vhs`s kl hmuh.
5. H d`ccuhdbôc,
d`ccuhdbôc, bcmlrbr uch dèpsuoh
dèpsuoh kl GGT5.
4. Klspuâs elelr `tr`
`tr` mrhc vhs`
vhs` kl hmuh.
Tlmñc âo, hklgès kl oh bcmlsth `rho c`rgho kl GGT, sl pulklc t`ghr nhsth
5 dèpsuohs kl GGT5 p`r kçh. Ho d`gblcz`, sl pulkl rlkudbr oh k`sbs kl GGT5
herblck` oh dèpsuoh y lobgbchck` uch phrtl kl su d`ctlcbk`. Lc cbcmñc dhs` nhy
qul kbs`ovlr y uobzhr lo p`ov` sulot`, yh qul pulkl dhushr mrhvls qulghkurhs.
Klebk` h qul lo do`r`
d o`r` ls uc klsbcfldthctl
klsbcfldthctl ucbvlrsho y h qul lo èdbk` nbp`do`r`s`
([email protected])
lo d`gp`clctl
hdv` klo do`r`,
[email protected], lc d`cdlctrhdb`cls
trhehahls
guy
eblc d`g` klsbcfldthctl
kl lo
suplrdbls
y d`g` susthcdbhlolvhkhs,
kbrbmbkh
h oh bchdvhdbôc kl klsldn`s n`spbthohrb`s. Ls uc klsbcfldthctl kl hot` cbvlo.
Lo nbp`do`rbt` kl dhodb`, ho kbs`ovlrsl lc lo hmuh y lctrhr lc d`cthdt` d`c o`s
oçqubk`s klo lstôghm`, pr`eheolglctl
pr`eheolglctl sl trhcsf`rgl lc [email protected] qul, ho bmuho qul
lo do`rbt` kl s`kb`, ls uc quçgbd` qul sl uobzh lc oh p`thebobzhdbôc klo hmuh.
Ls uch susthcdbh quçgbdh qul culstr` pr`pb` dulrp` y culstr` sbstlgh bcgucl
uobzhc. Oh ‟gblo`plr`xbkhsh‗
‟gblo`plr`xbkhsh‗ ls oh lcdhrmhkh lc lo `rmhcbsg` kl oh fherbdhdbôc
klo èdbk` nbp`do`r`s`. Oh bklh eèsbdh kl lstl d`cdlpt` ls qul, lc lo dhs` kl slr
kldbthrb`s kl lstl quçgbd`, c` tlckrlg`s lo sudblctl [email protected], bgprlsdbckbeol
phrh lobgbchr phtômlc`s c`dbv`s.
[email protected] rlhddb`ch d`c NDo phrh f`rghr mhs kl do`r`1
ND@ + ND
j
[email protected] + D5
Lo nbp`do`rbt` kl dhodb` rlhddb`ch d`c hg`cçhd`.
Lo èdbk` nbp`do`r`s` rlhddb`ch olcthglctl d`c lo HKC y HUC, hsç d`g`
t`k`s o`s cudolôk`s bc vbtr`. Lo èdbk` nbp`do`r`s` y lo rhkbdho klo nbkrôxbo` s`c
dbt`tôxbd`s,
dbt`tôxbd`
s, p`r o` qul s`c uobzhk`s p`r o`s clutrôo`s phrh ghthr ohs ehdtlrbhs
y `tr`s phtômlc`s.
8=2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Ulsuglc y pr`t`d`o` kl ghctlcbgblct`
8. Nhy qul rld`rkhr qul lo DK sl uobzh sblgprl glzdohk` lc uch
pr`p`rdbôc kl 818 d`c lo hdvhk`r, qul lstè lc uch e`tlooh hphrtl.
5. DKT ls kl d`o`r hghrboo` y ls lo mhs dhpturhk`
dhpturhk` lc hmuh klo DK.
DK. Tu pN ls
clutr`, y c` lcl rlhddbôc slduckhrbh d`c lo èdbk` klo lstôghm`.
4. Oh dhckhk h t`ghr d`rrldth ls oh qul c` pr`kudl bcdrlglct` kl
gholsthr, cèuslhs ` kbhrrlh. Tb lst` `durrl, sl kbsgbcuyl oh k`sbs, plr`
sl sbmul t`ghck`.
;. Ulplkhs k`sbs plquløhs s`c gès lfldvhs qul k`sbs ghy`rls p`r oh
ghøhch y p`r oh c`dnl.
<. Lvbtl t`khs ohs f`rghs kl vbthgbch D, ` hc`xbkhctls hrdbhols
hrdbho ls kurhctl
k`s n`rhs hctls y klspuâs kl oh t`gh kl DK ` DKT p`rqul rlkudl
lfldvbkhk.
6. Ghctlcmh uc
uc pr`mrhgh kl
kl cutrbdbôc hklduhk` phrh pr`tlmlr
pr`tlmlr su sbstlgh
sbstlgh
bcguc`oômbd`.
=. Rh c` ushg`s èdbk` dçtrbd` (GGT doèsbd`).
Gudnh mlctl c` d`gprlckl oh bgp`rthcdbh kl t`ghr k`sbs kl ghctlcbgblct`
kl DK ` DKT t`k`s o`s kçhs, ` ho glc`s 5 kçhs p`r slghch, sbc lgehrm`, lst`
hyukh h ghctlclr culstr` sbstlgh obcfèd` obgpb`, bcdrlglcthck` `xçmlc`
dlouohr, o` qul h su vlz plrgbtl uch hodhobcbzhdbôc klo dulrp`. D`g` d`c t`k`,
c` nhy qul phshrsl kl oh k`sbs, plr` gudn` p`d` nhdl gudn`.
Ls bgp`rthctl khrsl dulcth kl qul nhc hphrldbk` mrhc dhckhk kl
lcflrglkhkls culvhs, lc o`s ñog`s <9 hø`s. Lo âe`oh, lo vbrus dnbjucmucyh,
lo sbkh, oh nlphs D, oh mrbpl hvbhr, oh lerl p`rdbch, oh lcflrglkhk kl Oygl,
oh
lcflrglkhkhdtuhoglctl.
kl G`rmloo`cs
y uc sbckl
cñglr`
kl lcflrglkhkls,
qul c`s
lcfrlcthg`s
Gboo`cls
plrs`chs
lstèc sufrblck`hyohs
gurblck`
p`r dhush kl lcflrglkhkls, gudnhs kl loohs drlhkhs ` pr`v`dhkhs p`r lo
n`gerl y lo sbstlgh bckustrbho kl hobglcthdbôc. Hklgès, nhy qul tlclr lc
dulcth oh d`cthgbchdbôc lc culstr`s dulrp`s h dhush kl susthcdbhs tôxbdhs y
glthols plshk`s. [`k` lst` drlh uc lct`rc` ôpg` phrh bcflsthrc`s kl uch
mrhc dhckhk kl phrèsbt`s qul dbrduckhc
d brduckhc p`r culstrh vbkh d`kbhch, prlslctls
bcdous` lc culstr`s hobglct`s.
Nhy qul tlclr dohr` qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ls guy ldhz, plr` lvbklctlglctl
lvbklctlglctl
c` ls uc ‟durh t`k`‗, hucqul pulkl lobgbchr ehdtlrbhs, d`g` oh Ysluk`g`ch
hlrumbc`sh lc uch pohdh Yltrb. Ylr` c` phsh o` gbsg` lc lo dulrp`, k`ckl ls
kbdbo kl d`ctr`ohroh. [hgebâc nhy `tr`s, d`g` p`r lalgpo` o`s gbdr`hlrôo`s,
d`g` ohs lspbr`qulths, qul dhushc e`rrlob`sbs y qul pulklc lsthr lc tlabk`s
pr`fuck`s, y p`r lo g`glct` ls guy kbdbo kl lobgbchr, bcdous` d`c kbôxbk` kl
do`r`. Ylr` nhy gudn`s dhs`s kl âxbt`, frlctl h `tr`s p`d`s qul c` o` tuvblr`c.
8>9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` 4
Kl bmuho ghclrh lo DK y lo DKT, hucqul lobgbchc mrhc phrtl kl ohs t`xbchs,
c` pulklc ghthr ohs o`gerbdls kl mrhc thghø`,
thghø`, p`r o` qul sl klelc hd`gphøhr
kl uc pr`t`d`o` kl klsphrhsbthdbôc, y gès lc dhs`s kl plrs`chs qul ghcbpuolc
hcbghols y plrs`chs d`c ghsd`ths qul c` sl nhyhc klsphrhsbthk`
klsphrhsbthk` nhdl gès kl
uc hø`. Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul oh gulrtl kl o`s phrèsbt`s pulkl mlclrhr
h su vlz gès t`xbchs phrh lo `rmhcbsg`, d`g` p`r lalgpo` lo hg`cb` obelrhk`
p`r lst`s phrèsbt`s, p`r o` qul oh plrs`ch pulkl tlclr drbsbs durhvhs d`c
rlhddb`cls hkvlrshs d`g`1 ghrl`s, vôgbt`s, kbhrrlh y gholsthr mlclrho, qul
s`c uc bckbdhv` kl su prlslcdbh.
Hsç puls, duhoqublr plrs`ch h qublc lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` nhyh fucdb`chk`
guy eblc kurhctl o`s prbglr`s glsls plr` oulm` nhyh vulot` h rldhlr, klel
prbglr` nhdlr uch klsphrhsbthdbôc, y oulm` nhdlr `tr` trhthgblct`
trhthgblct` d`c kbôxbk`
kl do`r`, qul plrgbth oh klsbct`xbdhdbôc cho kl o`s klsldn`s phrhsbthrb`s lc lo
dulrp`. Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` ghth h o`s phtômlc`s y `xbkh o`s glthols plshk`s,
nhdblck` p`sbeol su lobgbchdbôc kl culstr` dulrp`, y h su vlz, klstruyl oh ghy`r
phrtl kl o`s vlclc`s.
Lo pr`t`d`o` kl ghctlcbgblct` ls lo pr`t`d`o` H. Lstl fèdbo y sbgpol
pr`t`d`o` phrh ghctlclr lo sbstlgh bcgucl trhehah ho gèxbg` kl ldblcdbh,
yh qul rlkudl oh hphrbdbôc kl duhoqublr mrbpl ` rlsfrbhk` y hyukh h prlvlcbr
lo dècdlr y `trhs gudnhs lcflrglkhkls g`rthols dhushkhs p`r klghsbhkh
hdbklz lc lo dulrp` y fhoth kl `xçmlc` dlouohr. \ch plquløh dhckhk kl DK/DKT
t`ghkh frldulctlglctl phrldl prlvlcbr oh f`rghdbôc y lo klshrr`oo` klo dècdlr.
Tb t`ghck` lstl pr`t`d`o` prlvlcv` ` kl ghctlcbgblct`, sl ol ghcblsthc
sçct`ghs kl homuch `trh lcflrglkhk, klel dhgebhr ho pr`t`d`o` hklduhk`,
nhsth qul o`s sçct`ghs nhyhc klshphrldbk`.
Homuchs plrs`chs c` s`c d`csldulctls cb kbsdbpobchkhs lc lo us` klo kbôxbk`
kl do`r`, sblck` gudnhs vldls lsth oh dhush vlrkhklrh kl qul lo trhthgblct` c`
fucdb`cl, ` c` kâ o`s rlsuothk`s lsplrhk`s. Oh lxplrblcdbh nh klg`strhk` qul
ohs plrs`chs kbsdbpobchkhs d`c ohs t`ghs, nhc tlcbk` mrhckls âxbt`s klg`strheols
phrh d`gehr ohs lcflrglkhkls drôcbdhs, mrhvls ` bcdous` tlrgbchols, pukblck`
d`crghr oh frhsl1 ‟Bcdurheol lrh hylr‗.
* * *
8>8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
8>5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
D ;
Lc lstl dhpçtuo` sl klsdrbelc ohs lcflrglkhkls lc su ghy`rçh d`csbklrhkhs
d`csbklrhkhs
bcdurheols ` kl kbdbo durhdbôc, d`c o`s trhthgblct`s y o`s rlsuothk`s `etlcbk`s
hvhohk`s lc dhkh dhs` d`c uc tlsg`cb` rlho. Hucqul dblcdhglctl uc
tlsg`cb` c` lcl vhobklz, phrh t`k`s hquloo`s qul sufrlc oh lcflrglkhk TÇ
VHOL.
Hesdls`
Hdcâ
Hh eudho
Holrmbh
Hoznlbglr
Hgbmkhobs
Hcsblkhk
Hplckbdbs
Hrtlrb`lsdolr`sbs / Htlr`gh
Htlr`ght`sbs
t`sbs
Dècdlr ôsl`
Dècdlr kl `vhrb`
Dècdlr phcdrlèd`
Dècdlr kl prôsthth
Dècdlr kl puogôc
Dècdlr rlcho
Dècdlr r`bkl`
Dècdlr utlrbc`
Dècdlr kl vlabmh
Hrtrbs rlught`bkl
Hrtr`sbs
Hsgh
Husg`
Er`cqubs
Erudlo`sbs
Eursbs
Dèoduo` rlcho
Dhovbdbl
Dècdlr d`o`rrldtho
Dècdlr kl lsôfhm`
Dhckbkbhsbs (vhmbcho)
Dhsph
Dnhmhs
Dnbjucmucyh
Dbèdh
Dbrr`sbs nlpèdh
Dbss ` bcflddbôc urbchrbh
D`olstlr`o
D`obs uodlr`sh
D`caucvbs
Klglcdbh
Dècdlr mèstrbd` (lstôghm`)
Dècdlr kl nçmhk`
Dècdlr kl olcmuh
Dècdlr kl ghgh
Klcmul
Klprlsbôc
Klrghs htôpbdh
Kbheltls
8>4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Kbhrrlh
Kbsfucdbôc lrâdo
Kbvlrduobs
K`o`r kl dhelzh
Âe`oh
Lcflrglkhk hut`bcgucl
Lcflrglkhk kl Dr`nc
Lcflrglkhk kl Oygl
Lcflrglkhk puog`chr `estrudvh drôcbdh
Lrupdb`cls lc oh pblo
Lsdnlrbdnbh d`ob (L. d`ob)
Lsdolr`sbs ohtlrho hgb`trôdh (LOH)
Lsdolr`sbs gñopol
Lsqubz`frlcbh
Lst`ghs vlsbduohr
Fber`gbhombh
Oupus (lrbtlght`s`)
Ghohrbh
Glcbcmbs
Glthols plshk`s
Gbmrhøh (d`csuothr K`o`r kl dhelzh)
G`c`cudol`sbs bcflddb`sh Clfrbs
Clug`cçh
@stl`gblobs (d`csuothr Tthpnyo`d`ddus)
@stl`p`r`sbs
@s
Ylrb`k`cs (d`csuothr Mbcmbvbs)
Ybdhkurhs
Ybl kl htolth
Yr`sths
Ys`rbhsbs
Yuog`cçh (d`csuothr Clug`cçh)
Fber`sbs quçsdh
Fblerl f`bklh
Fçstuoh hcho
Frhdturh
Mhstrbs
Mhstr`lctlrbs
Mbcmbvbs (d`csuothr Ylrb`k`cs)
Mo`glruo`clfrbs p`slstrlpt`dôdbd
p`slstrlpt`dôdbdhh
M`c`rrlh
M`th
Mrbpl (Bculczh)
Xulghkurh
Xubstls
Ulua` mhstr`ls`fèmbd`
Ulsfrbhk` d`gñc
Ubcbs hoârmbdh
Thrd`bk`sbs
THUG (d`csuothr Tthpnyo`d`ddus)
Thrch
Tçckr`gl kl Taömrlc
Tbcusbs
Tthpnyo`d`ddus
Nlphs
Nlrbkh
Nlrcbh
Nlrpls
Nbplrtlcsbôc hrtlrbho
Nbp`r`bkbsg`
N`cm`s - Gbd`sbs
Bcflddb`cls
Bcsudblcdbh dhrkçhdh d`cmlsvh
Bcsudblcdbh rlcho
Bsqulgbh rlplrfusbôc rlcho
[rhcst`rc` Ebp`ohr (y Hcsblkhk Mlclrhobzhkh)
[r`ge`sbs vlc`sh
[uelrduo`sbs
[ug`r
Ñodlrhs pâpdhs (Nlobd`ehdtlr pyo`rb)
Ñodlrhs vhsduohrls
\vlçs
Vhmbc`sbs ehdtlrbhch
Vhrbdlss (bcsudblcdbh vlc`sh drôcbdh)
Vhrbdl
Vlrrumhs vçrbdhs
VBN/TBKH
Olbsnghcbhsbs dutèclh
Oludlgbh
Obqulc lsdolr`s` htrôd`
Obcf`gh
Vbrus kl Lpstlbc Ehrr (dbt`glmho`vbrus)
Vbobm`
Vbrus klo phpbo`gh nughc` (VYN)
8>;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Hesdls`
\c hesdls` sl prlslcth duhck` uch bcflddbôc pr`v`dh oh hduguohdbôc kl
pus lc oh pblo kl duhoqublr phrtl klo dulrp`. Yulkl slr lxtlrc` y vbsbeol s`erl oh
pblo, ` eblc bctlrc`. Duhck` sl lcdulctrh supurhk`
supurhk` sl klc`gbch hp`stlgh. Tl
pulkl prlslcthr klspuâs kl uch bcflddbôc ehdtlrbhch, uch nlrbkh, f`rñcduo`s `
uch f`obduobs.
Tç1
•
•
•
•
Fblerl ` lsdho`frç` (lc homuc`s dhs`s).
Nbcdnhzôc o`dho horlklk`r klo puct` hfldthk`.
Lckurldbgblct`
Lckurldbgblct
` klo tlabk` kl oh pblo.
Olsbôc dutèclh qul pulkl slr uch ñodlrh
ñodlrh heblrth ` dlrrhkh, ` uc côkuo`
côkuo`
heuothk`.
• Lcr`aldbgblct
Lcr`aldbgblct`,
`, slcsbebobkhk y dho`r
dho`r lc oh z`ch.
• Thobkh kl oçqubk`.
[1 Hcôcbg`
Lstl ls uc tlsg`cb` plrs`cho.
Nhdl uc`s glsls, sl gl dhyô uch pohdhdbôc kl uc kblctl.
Lstuvl dhsb uch slghch sbc br ho klcsth, s`ohglctl ohvèck`gl eblc o`s
kblctls vhrbhs vldls ho kçh, plr` gl g`olstheh gudn` dhkh vlz qul d`gçh.
Duhck` p`r c fub ho klcsth, lo k`o`r yh lrh bcs`p`rtheol, y gl oolmheh
nhsth oh ghckçeuoh. Gb klcsth gl rlg`vbô o` qul qulkheh kl pohdhdbôc,
y gl hrrlmoô lo kblctl d`c rlsbch (phsth), qul ful o` qul ol plkç, phrh lobgbchr
t`k` p` kl gltho kl oh e`dh. Lc c, âo gl kba` qul v`ovblrh lc uch slghch phrh
vlr d`g` slmuçh lo pr`mrls`.
H oh sbmublctl slghch rlmrlsl, yh qul gl lstheh qulahck` kl qul t`khvçh
gl k`oçh duhck` d`gçh, lspldbhoglctl dhrcls (erh), qul sl gl qulkheh lctrl
oh lcdçh klo kblctl y gl g`olstheh.
Âo gl kba` qul c` nheçh gès `pdbôc qul nhdlrgl uc »r``t dhcho»
(lck`k`cdbh), ` qubthr lo kblctl.
Ol kb uch gbrhkh y ol kbal1 »Khgl uch slghch, y tl dulct`». Oolmuâ h gb dhsh
y lgpldâ h nhdlr o` sbmublctl1
8. Lc uc vhs` plqulø` kl drbstho,
drbstho, pusl 8go (8dd) kl DKT. Lst` lqubvhol
lqubvhol h
hpr`xbghkhglctl ; m`ths kl GGT hdvhkhs d`c ; m`ths kl èdbk` dçtrbd`.
hpr`xbghkhglctl
Tb c` lcl GGT kbsp`cbeol, pulkl ushr DK kl oh ghclrh bckbdhkh.
8><
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
5. Lsplrhr uc 8 gbcut` gçcbg` sb ush GGT hctls kl hmrlmhr
hmrlmhr 8.< `czhs kl
hmuh klsohkh. Tb ush DKT, c` ls cldlshrb` lsplrhr.
lsplrhr.
4. Høhkbr 59 m`ths kl [email protected] ho =9%. Tb s`ohglctl
s`ohglctl lcl ho 22% pur` (c`
kboubk`), lct`cdls nhy qul kboubro` h =9% [email protected] høhkblck` 49% kl hmuh
klsohkh.
;. Y`cmh lsth s`oudbô
s`oudbôc
c lc oh e`dh, y ghctâcmhoh s`erl lo kblctl hfldthk`
p`r uc 8 gbcut` h gbcut` y glkb`. Oulm` e`tl oh s`oudbôc kl oh e`dh.
C` ls cldlshrb` lcauhmhrsl. Tb qublrl, sl pulkl lcauhmhr d`c uc p`d` kl
hmuh klsohkh.
Ulpbth lst` p`r o` glc`s 4 vldls ho kçh, lspldbhoglctl klspuâs kl dhkh
d`gbkh y oulm` kl ohvhrsl eblc o`s kblctls y lc gès ` glc`s ;> n`rhs klelrçh
c`thr qul lo k`o`r yh nh klshphrldbk`. Ls p`sbeol qul lo gbsg` kçh sblcth oh
gla`rh. Klplckl klo mrhk` kl oh bcflddbôc, klel d`ccuhr lst` p`r o` glc`s <
kçhs hkbdb`chols. Tb lc homñc g`glct` ol vulovl h g`olsthr, d`ccñl p`r 5 ô 4
kçhs gès.
Lc c, tlcm` gb kblctl shc` y shov`, sbc cldlsbkhk kl nhelrgl tlcbk` qul
shdhr lo kblctl ` nhdlrgl uc ‟r``t dhcho‗ (lck`k`cdbh).
Fulctl1 np1//tlrhpbhschturhols.go
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` nhebtuho phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` K
(klrght`oômbd`) 5 ô 4 ‛y d`g` gèxbg` 6 vldls‛ ho kçh sb lo hddls` ls lxtlrc`,
d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E d`g` hotlrchvh kurhctl 4 slghchs. Lc
dhs`
kl trhthrsl
kl uc hesdls` kl kbdbo durhdbôc thgebâc sl pulkl uobzhr lo
pr`t`d`o`
R (bcRlddbôc).
Hdcâ
Lo hdcâ ls uch hotlrhdbôc kl oh pblo qul sl dhrhdtlrbzh p`r oh hphrbdbôc kl
pr`tuelrhcdbhs.
pr`tuelrhc
dbhs. Oh pblo lstè dueblrth kl plqulø`s hmualrbt`s, qul sl d`cldthc h
trhvâss kl uc dhcho oohghk` f`oçduo` d`c ohs moèckuohs sleèdlhs.
trhvâ
Klctr` klo f`oçduo`, lo sle` trhcsp`rth ohs dâouohs kl pblo gulrth h oh
suplrdbl kl oh pblo. Duhck`
D uhck` sl thph lo f`oçduo`, sl drlh uc mrhc` ` lspbcbooh.
8>6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Tç1
Ohs olsb`cls qul ghcblsth lo hdcâ pulklc slr bchght`rbhs ` c`
bchght`rbhs. Klctr` kl ohs c` bchght`rbhs sl bcdouylc o`s d`glk`cls dlrrhk`s
y heblrt`s, o`s ‟puct`s clmr`s‗ y lctrl ohs bchght`rbhs lstèc ohs pèpuohs
r`abzhs, pñstuohs, côkuo`s y qubstls. Lsths k`s ñoghs s`c ohs gès bgp`rthctls,
puls lc su lv`oudbôc pulklc klahr dbdhtrbdls rlsbkuhols, qul s`c oh slduloh gès
bgp`rthctl klo hdcâ.
[1 Me  J. (Gâx) — >/</88
Y`r glkb` kl oh prlslctl qubsblrh hpr`vldnhr
hpr`vldnhr oh `p`rtucbkhk phrh chrrhrol
gbs lxplrblcdbhs d`c GGT.
Ohs prbglrhs bcf`rghdb`cls s`erl GGT ohs rldbeç kl uch d`c`dbkh qul
lctusbhsghkh gl d`ctheh s`erl lo klsduerbgblct`. D`cthmbhkh p`r su
lctusbhsg`, gl bcf`rgâ lc bctlrclt s`erl GGT y p`r ‟dhsuhobkhk‟ lcd`ctrâ
su pèmbch wle. D`gprâ lo ober` y plkç ohs m`ths y, duhck` yh o` tlcçh t`k` obst`,
lgpldâ h br klahck` oh prbglrh t`gh phrh lo kçh sbmublctl. Ho c y ho dhe`
hdheheh kl lgplzhr d`c o`s glkbdhglct`s qul gl nheçh ghckhk` lo gâkbd` y
tlcçh cèuslhs d`csthctlglctl,
d`csthctlglctl, p`r o` qul tlcçh gblk` kl qul fulrh h br h pl`r…
Kl lsth ghclrh, lo ober` plrghcldbô hpr`xbghkhglctl 5 slghchs lc oh
d`dbch. Ho prbcdbpb` c` gl kb dulcth kl qul gb nba` kl 86 hø`s nheçh d`mbk` lo
ober` y sl o` lstheh olylck`. Kl rlplctl vbc` y gl prlmuctô qul kôckl lstheh
lo GGT qul nheçh plkbk`. Âo nheçh olçk` lo ober` y o` qulrçh pr`ehr. Ho prbcdbpb`
ol rløç p`rqul c` tlcçh pr`eolghs kl shouk y hklgès y` qulrçh pr`ehr ohs m`ths
hctls y vlr sb t`k` beh eblc. Ylr` âo sbmubô d`c su bklh y lgplzô d`c oh prbglrh
glzdoh.
C` gl slc guy eblc p`r sb hdhs` ol fulsl h ‟phshr‟ hom`. Yhrh gb kbsduoph
kle` kldbr qul sblgprl nl sbk` uch plrs`ch guy hsusthkbzh, y sblgprl tlcm`
uc ‟sb‗, plr`… qul phsh sb…
Mrhdbhs h Kb`s c` ‟phsô‟ rlhoglctl chkh, qul ls d`c o` qul chkbl nheçh
d`cthk`. Klspuâs kl uc phr kl kçhs d`c 8< m`ths kl GGT kbhrbhs, t`ghkhs
p`r oh c`dnl, hpr`x. 8 n`rh klspuâs kl d`glr, pukbg`s d`ctlgpohr lo âxbt`.
Gb nba` qul klskl nhdl 5 hø`s phkldl kl uc hdcâ guy guy mrhvl lc oh dhrh y
oh lsphokh y nh pr`ehk` gbols kl drlghs y tlrhpbhs glkbdhglct`shs vb` uch
gla`rçh kl o`s mrhc`s bchghk`s. Klspuâs kl 4 slghchs yh c` nheçh mrhc`s
culv`s y o`s ‟vbla`s‟ sl nheçhc vulot` kl uc d`o`r r`sh suhvl tlckblck` h uc
t`c` kl pblo shch. Ho dhe` kl ohs ; slghchs c` qulkheh uc s`o` mrhc`.
Cucdh sl sbcô gho klspuâs kl ohs t`ghs y thgp`d` `eslrvhg`s lfldt`s
slduckhrb`s. C` pulkl bghmbchrsl lo dhgeb` p`sbv` qul nh tlcbk` su vbkh
8>=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
mrhdbhs h lst`. R` hn`rh thgebâc t`g` GGT y klctr` kl homñc lgp` p`krâ
chrrhrol gbs pr`pbhs lxplrblcdbhs.
Lsplr` qul d`c lsths lxplrblcdbhs ol nhyh khk` uc lgpuaôc h homuc` qul
t`khvçh tlcmh uc ‟p`d` kl gblk`‗.
D`c dhrbø`, Mheb kl J.
Fulctl1 np1//ggs8.glxbd`-f`r`.d`g/t85;-hdcl-guy-mrhvl-lc-oh-d
np1//ggs8.glxbd`-f`r`.d`g/t85;-hdcl-guy-mrhvl-lc-oh-dhrh-y-lsphokh
hrh-y-lsphokh
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` nhebtuho phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` K
(klrght`oômbd`) 5 ô 4 vldls ho kçh d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) kurhctl
kurhctl
4 slghchs.
Hfth eudho
Oh hh ls uch ñodlrh qul pulkl surmbr lc duhoqublr puct` kl oh dhvbkhk `rho1
olcmuh, oheb`s, lcdçh, mhrmhcth, ñvuoh… T`c olsb`cls kl f`rgh `vhohkh, eohcduzdhs
eohcduzdhs
(h vldls hghrboolcths), p`d` pr`fuckhs y obgpbhs, ls kldbr, c` prlslcthc pus,
ehdtlrbhs u `trhs sløhols kl bcflddbôc.
Tç1
Oh lst`ghs h`sh sl prlslcth lc f`rgh kl oohmh ` olsbôc lc duhoqublr
puct`
kl yohpulklc
e`dh. C`
sulol
hd`gphøhrsl
d`c lerl
glcuk`
s`c
k`o`r`shs
dhushr
kbduothk
phrh d`glr,
nheohrhucqul
` elshr.hY`r
o` mlclrho
d`gblczh d`c uch slcshdbôc kl hrk`r lc lo sb` kl oh futurh ñodlrh.
[1 Hcôcbg`
Klskl qul t`g` GGT nl `etlcbk` rlsuothk`s lxdlolctls. [lcçh uc pr`eolgh
kl hhs lc oh e`dh rldurrlctl, dhkh p`d` lgp` rlhphrldçhc y thrkhehc h vldls
gès kl uch slghch lc durhrsl, d`c lo GGT klshphrldblr`c kl oh c`dnl h oh
ghøhch, obtlrhoglctl y c` v`ovblr`c h shobr, oolv` 5 glsls sbc rldhçkhs, t`k` uc
rld`rk lc gb dhs`.
[hgebâc gl hyukô gudn` h rlgbclrhobzhr oh klcthkurh y oh slcsbebobkhk
klctho klshphrldbô.
8>>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Gb shouk nh gla`rhk` gudn` klskl qul t`g` GGT, sôo` pulkl kldbr d`shs
eulchs kl âo. Tl o` rld`gblck` h t`k`s gbs d`c`dbk`s, lspldbhoglctl h o`s qul
oh glkbdbch ho`pèdh d`cklch h t`ghr glkbdhglct`s kl p`r vbkh qul c` durhc
sus lcflrglkhkls plr` ols pr`v`dhc `trhs.
Fulctl1 np1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/0s7hh0
C  1
Oh Krh. Tlrrh lc oh rlvbsth ‟Kbsd`vlry Thouk‗ hrgô oh rlduplrhdbôc kl
lst`ghs h`sh lc 5; n`rhs.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` nhebtuho phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` A
(lcauhmul) kurhctl 4 slghchs. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT).
Holrmbh
Oh holrmbh, uch lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch rlspulsth lxhmlrhkh (nbplrslcsbeol) klo sbstlgh klflcsbv`
(bcgucbthrb`) klo phdblctl qul bklcdh d`g` c`dbvhs kltlrgbchkhs susthcdbhs
bc`duhs, d`g` pulklc slr lo p`olc kl homuchs pohcths ` o`s èdhr`s klo p`ov`
k`gâsd`s ` duhoqublr `trh susthcdbh, nhebtuhoglctl t`olrhkh p`r oh ghy`rçh
kl ohs plrs`chs.
Tç1
Duhck` uc hoârmlc` (susthcdbh qul pr`v`dh oh rlhddbôc lxhmlrhkh) plcltrh
lc lo `rmhcbsg` kl uc sualt` qul ls hoârmbd` h âo, su sbstlgh bcgucbthrb`
rlsp`ckl pr`kudblck` uch mrhc dhckhk kl hcdulrp`s oohghk`s BmL. Oh
sudlsbvh lxp`sbdbôc ho gbsg` hoârmlc` pr`kudl oh obelrhdbôc kl glkbhk`rls
quçgbd`s, lc phrduohr oh nbsthgbch, qul pr`kudbrèc o`s sçct`ghs pbd`s kl oh
rlhddbôc hoârmbdh.
Lst`s pulklc slr, slmñc lo ôrmhc` lc lo qul hdtñlc o`s glkbhk`rls
glkb hk`rls obelrhk`s1
obelrhk`s 1
• Lc oh pblo1 lrbtlgh, hcmb`lklgh (nbcdnhzôc) y prurbt` (pbd`r), hsç d`g`
olsb`cls nhe`c`shs (r`cdnhs), (urdhrbh y/` klrghs).
8>2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
• Lc o`s er`cqub`s1 er`cd`lsphsg`s, bchghdbôc y huglct` kl
sldrldb`cls (hsgh).
• Lc oh gud`sh chsho1 bchghdbôc y prurbt`, qul klslcdhklchrè lst`rcuk`s,
hsç d`g` huglct` kl sldrldbôc gud`sh (rbcbs).
• Lc lo trhdt` kbmlsv`1 kbhrrlh, vôgbt`s y k`o`r hek`gbcho (holrmbh
hobglcthrbh).
Hklgès, duhck` lo d`cthdt` d`c lo hoârmlc` sl pr`kudl vçh mlclrho (d`g`
oh bc`duohdbôc kl vlclc` kl nbglcôptlr`s trhs oh pbdhkurh kl helah ` hvbsph, oh
hkgbcbstrhdbôc kl uc glkbdhglct`, ` oh bcmlsth kl uc hobglct`), pulklc hphrldlr
sçct`ghs lc ôrmhc`s kbsthctls ` bcdous` uch hfldthdbôc slvlrh kl vhrb`s ôrmhc`s
(urdhrbh, er`cd`lsphsg`, nbp`tlcsbôc hrtlrbho, thqubdhrkbh), qul sl d`c`dl d`g`
hchohxbh.
[1 Hô — 8</</88
Holrmbh ho p`olc kurhctl hø`s (klspuâs kl oh lobgbchdbôc kl ohs hgçmkhohs),
tlcm` uch holrmbh ho p`olc, qul kurheh gès dhkh hø`.
Nhdl 5 hø`s klsduerç lo ober` kl Abg Nugeol y GGT. Oh nlrbkh dbdhtrbzô,
plr` sôo` kurhctl 6 slghchs.
Hctls kl ls`, gbrâ uc g`ctôc kl nbst`rbhs lxbt`shs, y klsduerç uch lc oh
qul GGT durheh holrmbhs. Lc lsth âp`dh thgebâc tuvl pr`eolghs d`c o`s `çk`s,
y plcsâ ‟hn`rh ` cucdh‗.
D`glcdâ d`c 8< m`ths p`r oh ghøhch y p`r oh thrkl kurhctl 8 slghch.
Lct`cdls rlkual d`g` o` lxbmlc p`r oh d`csuoth Eb`tlcs. Kl 4 8/5 slghchs
trhthgblct`
trhthgblc
t` d`ccu` d`c oh kbsgbcudbôc kl oh k`sbs y sbguotèclhglc
sbguotèclhglctl
tl sho k`s
vldls ohvhck` oh chrbz.
Hn`rh gl sblct` guy eblc y lst`y guy hmrhkldbk`. \c hgbm` qul gl
rld`glckô GGT, hn`rh lcl lo gbsg` âxbt`. Mrhdbhs Abg Nugeol!
Fulctl1 np1//www.abg-nugeol-ggs.kl/
np1//www.abg-nugeol-ggs.kl/lrf`omsfhlool/p`oolcPhoolrmbl.pnp
lrf`omsfhlool/p`oolcPhoolrmbl.pnp
C  1
Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` `xbkh oh nbsthgbch dhushctl kl holrmbhs.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` nhebtuho phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D `
E d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` N (nhebthdbôc) kurhctl 4
slghchs.
829
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Hoznlbglr
Lo Hoznlbglr (LH), kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz
p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch lcflrglkhk thgebâc klc`gbchkh gho
kl Hoznlbglr, ls uch lcflrglkhk clur`klmlclrhvh qul sl ghcblsth d`g`
kltlrb`r` d`mcbv` y trhst`rc`s d`ckudtuhols. Tl dhrhdtlrbzh lc su f`rgh pbdh
p`r uch pârkbkh kl oh glg`rbh bcglkbhth y kl `trhs dhphdbkhkls glcthols,
h glkbkh qul ohs dâouohs clrvb`shs (clur`chs) gulrlc y kbflrlctls z`chs klo
dlrler` sl htr`hc.
Tç1
O`s 89 sçct`ghs y sbmc`s gès nhebtuhols lc lsth lcflrglkhk s`c1
Yârkbkh kl glg`rbh, kbduothk phrh rlhobzhr thrlhs fhgbobhrls, pr`eolghs
d`c lo olcmuhal, kls`rblcthdbôc lc lgp` y oumhr, fhoth ` kbsgbcudbôc klo aubdb`,
pr`eolghs d`c lo plcshgblct` hestrhdt`, pârkbkh kl `ealt`s, dhgeb`s lc lo
lsthk` kl ècbg` ` lo d`gp`rthgblct`, dhgeb`s lc oh plrs`chobkhk y pârkbkh
kl oh bcbdbhvh.
C  1
Lc o` qul sl rllrl ho glrdurb` y hougbcb` lc ohs vhduchs p`klg`s ollr1
‟uc lstukb` kl plrs`chs qul rldbeblr`c vhduchs d`ctrh oh mrbpl sl lcd`ctrô d`c
rlmuohrbkhk qul sb uc bckbvbku` tlcçh dbcd` vhduchs d`ctrh oh mrbpl d`cslduvhs
lctrl 82=9 y 82>9 (o`s hø`s lstukbhk`s) sus pr`ehebobkhkls kl d`ctrhlr oh
lcflrglkhk kl Hoznlbglr ls kblz vldls gès hoth qul sb tlcçh uch ` cbcmuch
vhduch ‟.
[1 M Vz Be (Ev) — 88/85/85
Lst`y uc lgp` yh t`ghck` GGT y gl sblct` gudn` gla`r.
Oh vlrkhk ls qul o` d`gprl gès qul chkh p`r gb ghkrl, qul lcl yh dhsb
25 hø`s y uc Hoznlbglr qul oh tlcçh holahkh kl oh rlhobkhk.
Looh nh pr`mrlshk` lc`rglglctl
lc`rglglctl klskl qul ol k`y GGT, y ls` qul sôo` ol
k`y uch vlz ho kçh s`o` k`s m`ths.
Fulctl1 np1//olb2=8.eo`msp`t.d`g.ls/p/dhs`s-kl-durh.ntgo
828
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D `
E d`g` hotlrchvh kl ghclrh d`ccuh d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo
d`c [email protected] hpobdhk` lc oh cudh y d`ougch vlrtlerho kurhctl 4 slghchs y
uch kl klsdhcs` d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O duhck` sl ehøh lo phdblctl.
Oulm` sl rlpbtl lo pr`t`d`o` dhkh gls.
Tl pulkl d`gebchr 5.999 h 4.999 gbobmrhg`s kl cbhdbchgbkh, thgebâc
oohghkh cbd`chgbkh ` vbthgbch E4. Oh cbhdbch ` èdbk` cbd`cbd` plrtlcldl
h lstl mrup` y hucqul lckl h pr`kudbr kbhrrlh, ls lo gès rld`glckhk`.
Hgbmkhobtbs
Oh hgbmkhobs ` hcmbchs ls oh bchghdbôc kl uch ` kl ohs k`s hgçmkhohs
phohchs (ghshs kl tlabk` `vhols, dhrc`shs, mrhckls qul lstèc lc oh phrlk ohtlrho
kl oh `r`fhrbcml h dhkh ohk` kl oh mhrmhcth). Ls ehsthctl frldulctl y dhushkh p`r
uch bcflddbôc ehdtlrbhch ` vçrbdh. Tb oh lcflrglkhk sl lxlckl gès hooè kl ohs
hgçmkhohs sl nheoh kl fhrbcmbs.
Tç1
K`o`r o`dho (`kbc`fhmbh) qul pulkl slr bctlcs`, lerl y gholsthr mlclrho,
v`z mhcm`sh, hklc`phhs dlrvbdhols k`o`r`shs, kbduothk phrh oh klmoudbôc
(kbsfhmbh).
Duhck` oh hgbmkhobs ls kl dhush vbrho pulkl hd`gphøhr1 t`s, rbcbs
rbc`rrlh, hf`cçh y d`caucvbs.
[1 Hcôcbg`
N`oh h t`k`s. Kurhctl t`kh gb bcfhcdbh, auvlctuk y hkuotlz, phkldç kl
hgbmkhobs frldulctls, ohs duhols bcvhrbheolglctl gl fulr`c trhthkhs p`r o`s
gâkbd`s d`c hcebôd`s (plcpr`dbobch, elczlthdbo, hg`xbdbobch, dbpr``xhdbc`).
dbpr``xhdbc`).
\c kçh fub h phrhr ho n`spbtho p`r mhstrbs glkbdhglct`sh. T`y ghlstrh kl
prllsd`ohrls y p`r loo` gb lcflrglkhk sl hmrhvô nhsth klahrgl ohs hgçmkhohs
nbplrtr`hkhs, ` slh, lc`rgls.
Klskl qul d`c`dç y lgpldâ h t`ghr lo GGT8, nhdl yh duhtr` hø`s, ¡¡c` nl
vulot` h t`ghr cbcmñc hcebôd` hoôphth!!
Gbs hgçmkhohs rlduplrhr`c su d`o`r y thghø`.
Gbs nba`s y gbs cblt`s o` t`ghc thgebâc y CHKBL NH [[email protected] LFLD[@
TLD\[email protected] HOM\[email protected], ho d`ctrhrb`, t`k`s nlg`s gla`rhk` c`theolglctl
825
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
culstrh shouk1 gb lsp`s` sl qubtô oh nbplrtlcsbôc, gb duøhk` dècdlr, gb ghkrl
su kbheltls, dhthrr`s, nlrbkhs, lc c. K`y bccbths mrhdbhs h Abg Nugeol y h
Hckrlhs Jhodjlr p`r kbfuckbr lstl ghrhvboo`s` pr`kudt` h oh mlctl.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</hgbmkhobs-tlsg`cb`-ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
` E d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` A (lcauhmul) kurhctl 4
slghchs.
Hcsblkhk
Oh hcsblkhk,
lcflrglkhk
kl dhush
klsd`c`dbkhlsyuc
sbclsthk`
hphrlctl
s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh
ldhz
p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho,
glctho
qul
sl dhrhdtlrbzh p`r uch mrhc bcqubltuk, uch bctlcsh lxdbthdbôc y uch lxtrlgh
bcslmurbkhk.
Tç1
Tus sçct`ghs pulklc slr guy kbvlrs`s1 k`o`rls kl dhelzh, dho`rls, rhgphs,
phopbthdb`cls clrvb`shs, slcshdbôc kl hn`m` ` fhoth kl hbrl (kbsclh), thqubdhrkbhs,
mrhckls trhcspbrhdb`cls, tlcsb`cls, tlg`r hcdbpht`rb`, slcgblct`s kl
gbcusvhoçh,
gbcusvhoç
h, huglct` klo dhukho kl oh v`z, oohct`s l bcdous` bcs`gcb`s.
O`sysçct`ghs
sulolc pr`kudbrsl kl f`rgh hbsohkh, sbc` qul uc`s hfldthc
h `tr`s
sulolc brc`
drldblck`.
[1 H. A. (LL. \\.)
Lsghk` Tr. Nugeol.
U`shobl gl oolvô h vlr h Ahclt y klctr` kl ohs prbglrhs n`rhs d`glcdâ h
rlohahrgl y slcrgl eblc kl culv`. C` tlcçh cb bklh kl oh t`xbdbkhk qul tlcçh y lc
rlhobkhk plcsheh qul lstheh ehsthctl eblc klspuâs kl `etlclr gb glkbdhglct`
phrh oh r`bkls.
Lc uchs 5 n`rhs pukl slcr oh t`xbdbkhk kl hø`s y hø`s kl glkbdhglct`s y
trhthgblct`s
Gl sblct`lxplrbglcthols.
guy eblc y gb k`o`r sl nh bk` t`thoglctl. [uvl homuc`s pbcdnhz`s
kurhctl lo lcauhmul kl ohs t`xbchs kl gb vlabmh, plr` c` lrh chkh d`gphrhk`
824
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
d`c lo k`o`r qul sufrç kurhct
kurhctll 59 hø`s. Gl vl` guy eblc y gb pblo nh gla`rhk`.
C` phrlzd` oh gbsgh plrs`ch.
Htlcthglctl y d`c hg`r, HA.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/hoo-ggs-tlsg`cbhos/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` nhebtuho phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E
d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` U (rldtho d`c plrbooh) kurhctl
4 slghchs.
Lc dhs`s slvlr`s sl klel bcbdbhr lo pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s) yh qul nhy
d`csthcdbh doçcbdh y dblcdh qul phrèsbt`s obelrhc t`xbchs rlsp`csheols kl
hcsblkhk, klprlsbôc y `tr`s lfldt`s psbd`s`gèd`s.
Hplckbdbtbs
Lo hpâckbdl ls uc tue` dlrrhk` kl tlabk` qul sl lcdulctrh ucbk` ho bctlsc`
lc oh phrtl klrldnh klo hek`glc y oh hplckbdbs ls oh bchghdbôc kl lstl tue`.
Tç1
K`o`r lc oh z`ch hoth klo hek`glc ` lc oh rlmbôc plrbugebobdho (lc lo dlctr`
klo hek`glc lc oh z`ch klo `geobm`). Ls uc k`o`r s`rk` y d`ccu` (k`o`r
p` dôobd`), qul sl brrhkbh nhdbh lo hcd` klrldn` klo hek`glc y tlrgbch p`r
o`dhobzhrsl
lc oh f`sh boçhdh klrldnh (z`ch bcflrb`r klrldnh klo hek`glc) kl
f`rgh d`ccuh.
Yulklc prlslcthrsl cèuslhs, bchpltlcdbh y vôgbt`s.
Tb lo hpâckbdl sl herl (p`r rupturh),
r upturh), pulkl slcr glc`s k`o`r p`r uc d`rt`
lgp`: sbc lgehrm`, lo k`o`r pr`ct` lgpl`rh y lo gholsthr ls ghy`r.
[1 O. M. J (H) — 49/=/88
‛ K`o`r hek`gbcho slvlr`,
slvlr`, hplckbdbs, k`o`r kl dhklrh.
Nhdl 5 glsls qul bcmrlsâ d`c ;8 lerl y k`o`r hek`gbcho slvlr` h oh shoh
kl lglrmlcdbh kl culstr` n`spbtho. Tl s`spldnô kl hplckbdbs.
Fub hkgbk`
h ohs 88bchght`rbhs
kl oh ghøhch
ohs d`cdousb`cls
kl Oh
gbc`dnl
gâkbd`hctls
y lo
rlsuothk`
kl ohs ghrdhs
lcd`c
oh shcmrl
lrh guy hot`.
kl shobr, p`r lo mrhc k`o`r qul tlcçh, d`glcdâ h t`ghr 4 m`ths kl GGT p`r n`rh
nhsth ohs > kl oh ghøhch.
82;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Y`r oh thrkl, gl nbdblr`c uch hchoçdh kl shcmrl y lc d`rt` lgp`
oolmhr`c o`s rlsuothk`s klo ohe`rht`rb` ‛ohs ghrdhs bchght`rbhs v`ovblr`c h
oh c`rghobkhk y oh lerl thgebâc‛, p`r o` thct` c` nherçh cbcmuch rhzôc phrh
prl`duphrsl. Hsç qul gl fub h dhsh h oh ghøhch sbmublctl.
Mrhdbhs ho GGT hn`rh c` tlcm` gès k`o`r lc ohs hrduohdb`cls kl oh dhklrh
qul h vldls lrhc thc fulrtls qul hplchs p`kçh suebr ohs lsdholrhs.
Ylrs`choglctl,
Ylrs`ch
oglctl, sôo` pulk` rld`glckhr GGT.
Fulctl1 np1//www.abg-nugeol-ggs.kl/lrf
np1//www.abg-nugeol-ggs.kl/lrf`omsfhlool/khrgsdnglrzlc.pnp
`omsfhlool/khrgsdnglrzlc.pnp
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
` E d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` U (rldtho d`c plrbooh).
D`g` hotlrchvh thgebâc sl pulkl uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` \ (urmlcdbh) ` lo
pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) sb sl klslh uc hobvb` rèpbk`.
Hrtlrb`sdolr`sbs / Htlr`ght`sbs
Htlr`ght`sbs
Oh hrtlrb`sdolr`sbs, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch hotlrhdbôc vhsduohr qul
sl dhrhdtlrbzh p`r lo lckurldbgblct
lckurldbgblct`,
`, lo huglct` klo mr`s`r ` lo lstrldnhgblc
lstrldnhgblct`
t`
(lstlc`sbs) y oh pârkbkh kl lohsdbkhk kl ohs phrlkls hrtlrbhols. Oh lstlc`sbs
pulkl pr`mrlshr nhsth oh `dousbôc klo vhs`, bgpbkblck` lo ua` kl oh shcmrl
p`r oh hrtlrbh hfldthkh. C` lxbstl trhthgblct` gâkbd` homuc` klg`strhk` phrh
oh hrtlrb`sdolr`sbs plsl h slr lo fèrghd` pr`eheolglctl gès eusdhk` p`r oh
bckustrbh fhrghdâudh.
Tç1
K`o`r d`c lo g`vbgblct`, klebk` ho lstrldnhgblct` kl ohs hrtlrbhs prbcdbphols,
o` qul kbsgbcuyl lo rblm`
r blm` shcmuçcl` lc ohs z`chs klplckblctls kl ls`s vhs`s y
pr`kudl oh ‟dohukbdhdbôc bctlrgbtlctl‗ (k`o`r, p`r lalgpo`, ho dhgbchr y dlsl klo
k`o`r ho kltlclrsl oh hdvbkhk).
hd vbkhk). Duhck` o`s vhs`s shcmuçcl`s qulkhc t`thoglctl
t`thoglctl
`douçk`s, qulkh rlkudbkh oh slcsbebobkhk ho dho`r ` ho frç` ` bcdous` h oh prlsbôc y
o`s
sl vulovlc gès
vuoclrheols
h o`ss`c
trhughsg`s
glc`rls
l bcflddb`cls.
Ohs pbls
d`gpobdhdb`cls
kl lsth
lcflrglkhk
mrhvls y pulklc
hfldthr
ho d`rhzôc
(hcmbchs kl pldn`, bcfhrt`s) ho dlrler` (bdtus, klglcdbh vhsduohr) y h ohs hrtlrbhs
kl ohs pblrchs pr`kudblck` k`o`r plrghclctl ho dhgbchr.
82<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
C  1
Ohs dhodbdhdb`cls hrtlrbhols s`c uch rlhddbôc h uc pN èdbk` duhck` lo
dulrp` bctlcth d`gplcshr oh hdbklz. Lst` o` nhdl d`c lo dhodb` qul h su vlz
oulm` sl hknblrl lc oh z`ch èdbkh lobgbchck` lo pr`eolgh lc uc prbcdbpb` plr`
dhushck` `tr` pr`eolgh futur` qul s`c ohs dhodbdhdb`cls hrtlrbhols (`xhoht`s).
(`xhoht`s).
Nhy k`s f`rghs d`g` vl` lo trhthgblct` kl o` duho uch ls lo r`gpl pblkrhs
(olpbkug ohf`obug) lc bcfusb`cls phrh kbs`ovlr o`s `xhoht`s drlhk`s. Oh `trh
ls lobgbchck` oh hdbklz h trhvâs kl uch kblth hklduhkh hodhobcbzhctl y lo us`
klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` qul rlhddb`ch d`c oh hdbklz lxdlsbvh obelrhck` `xçmlc` ho
gbsg` lgp`.
[1 A U (D)
Gb c`gerl ls A`rml Ulychuk y rlsbk` lc Uhcdhmuh, Dnbol.
Fub kbhmc`sdhk` lo hø` 599> kl htlr`ght`sbs lc hgehs lxtrlgbkhkls
bcflrb`rls. Lst` ls `estruddbôc kl ohs hrtlrbhs prbcdbphols y vlchs p`r uch
hduguohdbôc dhodèrlh qul p`r slr ghsbvh y kbfush c` slrçh `plrheol lc `pbcbôc
kl vhrb`s dbruahc`s vhsduohrls qul d`csuotâ lc lo sbstlgh pñeobd` kl shouk
(hkauct` bcf`rgls). Lc lo sbstlgh prbvhk` cb plcshr p`r su hosbg` d`st`. Y`r
lsth rhzôc,
rhzôc, y lc d`cauct` d`c uch bsqulgbh d`r`chrbh, gès nbplrtlcsbôc drôcbdh,
uch d`gbsbôc gâkbdh gl kldohrô d`c bcvhobklz kl =>% y c` hpt` phrh trhehahr.
H lst` sl hmrlmh qul p`r hø`s nl sbk` hsgèd`.
Nl phshk` gudn` lgp` vblck` hotlrchvhs vbheols phrh gb d`ckbdbôc
ld`côgbdh y lcd`ctrâ oh pèmbch kl Abg Nugeol y hsç oolmuâ h GGT Dnbol
mlcoglctl htlckbkh p`r Hcmâobdh D`sth D`rrlh. Lgpldâ gb trhthgblct` lo 92
kl C`vblgerl kl 5988.
O` prbglr` qul c`tâ ho 5.± kçh kl slmubr lo Yr`t`d`o` 8999 ls qul yh c` tlcçh
kbduothkls phrh rlspbrhr. C` nheçh sçct`ghs kl hsgh cb holrmbhs qul hctls thct`
gl hfldthehc lc prbghvlrh.
H o`s 89 kçhs, hpr`xbghkhglctl, yh c` slch hk`rgldbgblct` lc o`s pbls
cb o`s dhohgerls pr`pb`s kl lsth lcflrglkhk. Kl hnç lc hklohctl nl p`kbk`
dhgbchr nhsth 4 duhkrhs sbc o`s k`o`rls qul hctls slch ho nhelr dhgbchk` 89
gltr`s.
\c gâkbd` vhsduohr gl d`glctô uch vlz qul âo ol kldçh h lsth lcflrglkhk
(Dohukbdhdbôc Bctlrgbtlctl sl oohgh), ‟kl gbrhk`rls kl vbtrbchs‗, p`r ohs vldls qul
nhy qul kltlclrsl h qul phsl lo k`o`r, yh qul 89 ` 8< gltr`s s`c d`g` suebr uc
dlrr` d`rrblck`.
Oolv` 56 kçhs kl trhthgblct`
trhthgblct` y gl sblct` gla`r qul cucdh h plshr qul lctrl
lo kçh 8> y 5; tuvl uch rlhddbôc hkvlrsh y v`ovç d`c o`s dhohgerls y k`o`r ho
dhgbchr.
826
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
C` nl plrkbk` oh Fl cb nl glrghk` gbs lsplrhczhs y klskl hylr nl vulot` h
slcrgl eblc y nl rlt`ghk` o`s lalrdbdb`s qul hctls c` p`kçh rlhobzhr.
Tlmubrâ pueobdhck` gbs hvhcdls ` duhoqublr c`vlkhk qul tlcmh.
Gb lspldbho hmrhkldbgblct` h Hcmâobdh qul nh sbk` guy mlco y gl nh
erbckhk` uch htlcdbôc guy plrs`chobzhkh.
Fbm. 441 Yrulehs kl ohe`rht`rb` klo sr.
sr. A`rml Ulychuk.
Hzô  1
H 4 glsls klo bcbdb` kl gb lxbt`s` trhthgblct` d`c GGT, qublr` d`gphrr
d`c t`k`s lsth hdtuhobzhdbôc.
Khk` qul gb lcflrglkhk lrh bcdurheol kleçh t`ghr kl p`r vbkh lo
glkbdhglct` qul h d`ccuhdbôc klthoo` y duy` vho`r lc pr`glkb` ls kl DYO
$85.999. Oh dhah kurh 89 kçhs.
Cb qul kldbr qul hn`rh yh lst`y d`c uc >9% kl gbs fucdb`cls c`rghols y c`
t`g` cbcmñc glkbdhglct` qul c` slh gb k`sbs kl ghcutlcdbôc kl GGT, qul
p`r dblrt` c` lcl d`ctrhbckb
d`ctrhbckbdhdb`cls
dhdb`cls kl cbcmñc p`.
Gbs hmrhkldbgblct`s h Hcmâobdh D`sth D`rrlh.
Fulctl1 np1//www.ggsohc`hglrbdh.d`g/tlsg`cb`s-p`r-lsdrbt`- kl-durhdb`c-klvhrbhs-lcflrglkhkls-d`c-lo-ggs/
82=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) d`gebchk` d`c 4
bcfusb`cls kbhrbhs kl r`gplpblkrhs (Olpbkbug
(Olpbkbug ohf`obug)
ohf`obug) kl n`ah frlsdh sb
ls p`sbeol. Lstl pr`t`d`o` sl pulkl nhdlr h ohrm` pohz`.
Hrtrbtbs rlught`bkl
Hrtrbs rlught`bkl lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch lcflrglkhk
bchght`rbh, sbstâgbdh (dhushkh p`rqul lo sbstlgh bcgucbthrb` hthdh ohs dâouohs
d âouohs
klo pr`pb` `rmhcbsg`), dhrhdtlrbzhkh p`r pr`v`dhr uch bchghdbôc kl ohs
glgerhchs sbc`vbhols (sbc`vbs) plrsbstlctl kl ohs hrduohdb`cls, pbdhglctl
kl ohs plquløhs, pr`kudblck` su klstruddbôc pr`mrlsbvh, mlclrhck` kbsct`s
mrhk`s kl klf`rgbkhk l bcdhphdbkhk fucdb`cho.
Tç1
K`o`r lc ohs hrduohdb`cls d`g` d`csldulcdbh kl su bchghdbôc, rbmbklz
hrduohr ghtuch: lc oh lcflrglkhk drôcbdh ls dhrhdtlrçsdh oh klf`rgbkhk kl
o`s klk`s. D`g` sçct`ghs lxtrhhrduohrls hs`dbhk`s sl pr`kudlc1 klebobkhk
gusduohr, hklomhzhgblct`, k`o`r kl duloo` bctlcs` y plrsbstlctl, slqulkhk kl
e`dh y `a`s, euot`s lc oh pblo, n`rgbmul`s lc ghc`s y pbls.
[1 Av Lq Dô (De) — 8/4/84
Gb c`gerl ls Ahvblr Lcrbqul Dhoklrôc, tlcm` 4= hø`s y klskl nhdl 89
hø`s phklzd` uch lcflrglkhk rlught`bkl drôcbdh, qul o`s gâkbd`s kurhctl
< hø`s klspuâs kl trhthroh d`g` lsp`ckbobs hcqubo`shctl, gl bcf`rghr`c qul
sl trhtheh kl hrtrbs rlught`bkl. Ulhoglctl phrh gç lstl culv` kbhmc`sd` c`
dhgeb` lc hes`outhglc
hes`outhglctl
tl chkh gb klsfh
klsfhv`rheol
v`rheol d`ckbdbôc sbdh.
Nhdl d`g` slbs glsls gl kbhmc`sdhr`c hklgès kl oh hrtrbs, er`gbhombh
y p`r lfldt`s slduckhrb`s kl o`s d`rd`bkls lc mrhckls k`sbs klshrr`ooâ Tçckr`gl
kl Dudnbcm.
Lc gb trhthgblct` ‟phrh o` qul slh qul tlcmh‗, nl hdukbk` h oh glkbdbch
trhkbdb`cho, chturbsth, n`gl`pèdh, hdupucturh, y h duhcth d`sh qul gl kbmhc
qul nhmh, o` nhm` d`c oh chobkhk kl eusdhr uch gla`r dhobkhk kl vbkh.
Gbs k`olcdbhs d`glczhr`c h gbs 5= hø`s lc ohs pohcths kl o`s pbls, klspuâs
kl uch a`rchkh kl lalrdbdb` bctlcs`, c` ol prlstl htlcdbôc ho prbcdbpb`, y guy
rèpbkhglctl ohs k`olcdbhs sl trhsohkhr`c h gbs pblrchs, dhklrhs, d`ougch,
82>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
ghckçeuohs, ghc`s y lc mlclrho t`k` gb dulrp`. Kurâ hpr`xbghkhglctl slbs
glsls klplckblck` kl gb lsp`sh nhsth phrh v`otlhrgl lc oh dhgh, c` p`kçh
ghsdhr hobglct`s, cb ehahrgl kl oh dhgh, gudn` glc`s plcshr lc rlhobzhr gbs
cldlsbkhkls sb`oômbdhs sbc hyukh kl homublc.
Yhshk` gès ` glc`s uc hø` klo d`gblcz` kl oh lcflrglkhk, d`c`dç h o`s
rlughtôo`m`s y d`c loo`s oolmhr`c mrhckls dhckhkls kl d`rs`ch y `tr`s
glkbdhglct`s
glkbdhglct
`s qul lc lsl g`glct` dugpoblr`c su c kl olvhc
olvhcthrgl
thrgl kl oh dhgh
y v`ovlr h dhgbchr. \ch lsplrhczh surmbô lc gç, v`ovç h rlt`ghr gb vbkh sblck`
d`csdblctl kl ohs obgbthdb`cls qul tlcçh, y rlhobdâ haustls thct` lg`db`chols d`g`
sbd`s phrh p`klr lgplzhr kl culv`.
Nhc sbk` 89 hø`s guy kur`s, nl tlcbk` tlgp`rhkhs d`c k`o`rls bcs`p`rtheols
plr` oh mrhc ghy`rçh klo lgp` nhc sbk` Kb`s y gb fhgbobh o`s qul gl nhc khk`
oh f`rtholzh phrh slmubr.
Gb dulrp` sl nh bk` hkhpthck` h oh glkbdbch y dhkh vlz tlcçh qul lsthr
huglcthck` oh k`sbs. Gb erhz` klrldn` kl thcth bcotrhdbôc sl plrkbô, y qulk`
rçmbk` d`g` lc uc`s =< mrhk`s y d`c uc k`o`r bcs`p`rtheol qul prèddhglctl,
t`gl o` qul t`gl c` sl dhogh.
Klskl glkbhk`s klo hø` phshk` oh lcflrglkhk c` lcl trlmuh, sl v`ovbô
guy hmrlsbvh y v`ovç h dhlr lc dhgh. Gl lclc qul hyukhr culvhglctl phrh
nhdlr gbs d`shs eèsbdhs, y oh glkbdbch yh c` phrldl fucdb`chr.
fucdb`chr.
Lo rlughtôo`m` klcl oh sbtuhdbôc d`g` uc er`tl, y gl d`gucbdh qul slmñc
ohs prulehs kbhmcôsdhs rlhobzhkhs p`r loo`s, tlcm` qul lgplzhr h ushr sbooh kl
rulkhs, d`ckbdbôc qul rldnhdl thahctlglctl y gl oolvô h bcvlsmhr h trhvâs kl
bctlrclt t`k` o` d`cdlrcblctl h gb lcflrglkh
lcflrglkhk,
k, y sus kbsct`s trhthgblct`s.
trhthgblct`s.
Lgpldâ d`c uch kblth hodhobch qul, slmñc o`s lstukb`s rlhobzhk`s, fucdb`ch
thct` phrh gç d`g` phrh `tr`s phkldbgblct`s, o` qul sudlkl d`c lst` ls qul
tho vlz sus elcldb`s sl rldbelc h guy ohrm` pohz`, d`gpolglct` gb kblth d`c
pr`kudt`s chturhols d`g` ghmclsb`, zbcd, dhodb`, y `tr`s gbclrhols y vbthgbchs
qul sâ qul gb dulrp` rlqublrl.
\c kçh bcvlsmhck`
bcvlsmhck` gl lcd`ctrâ d`c bcf`rghdbôc kl o` qul lc lsl lgp`
sl oohgheh, Tupolglct` Gbclrho Gbohmr`s`, pr`kudt` qul p`r su c`gerl c` gl
nhdçh plcshr sbc` lc `tr` gès kl dnhrohthcls yh qul t`k` o` qul gl s`chrh h
gbohmr`s` c` klsplrtheh d`chczh lc gç.
Tbc lgehrm` rld`pbohck` oh mrhc dhckhk kl tlsg`cb`s p`sbv`s, qul kl
kbscths fulctls
fulctls sl lcdulctrhc lc oh ]le, s`erl o`s elcldb`s klo GGT kldbkç
pr`fuckbzhr gb bcvlsmhdbôc y ful lc lsl g`glct` k`ckl h trhvâs kl o`s vbkl`s
qul lcd`ctrâ klo slø`r Hckrlhs Oukwbm Jhodjlr, qublc hp`rth ehsl dblcdh klo
GGT lc lo dulrp`, gl d`cvlcdç y kldbkç pr`ehro`.
Gl rlbcd`rp`râ h gb vbkh ohe`rho. Lc lo prlslctl, dhgbc` sbc ehstôc, gb erhz`
klrldn` sl nh rlduplrhk` c`theolglctl y lo k`o`r lc lo kbsgbcuyô lc uc =9% y
hucqul t`khvçh lst`y guy ola`s kl slr uch plrs`ch d`gpolthglctl shch, sb pulk`
822
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
khr fl qul mrhdbhs ho GGT rlhobz` gbs d`shs p`r gb gbsg`. Lgpldâ culvhglctl
h slr uch plrs`ch pr`kudvh, yh pulk` hozhr h gb cbøh kl trldl glsls kl chdbkh,
y s`erl t`k` ghctlcm` uch lsplrhczh kl qul lc homñc g`glct` pulk` oolmhr h
lsthr t`thoglctl shc`.
Fulctl1 np1//k`duglcts.ps/k`duglcts/ggs-tlsg`cb`sk`dx.ntgo
C  H Ow Jj
Jj1
1
R` gbsg` tuvl `dhsbôc kl lxplrbglcthro`. Nhdl lgp` qul phkldç uch
hrtrbs rlught`bkl lc ohs ghc`s, lcflrglkhk qul gl bgplkçh klshrr`oohr kl
f`rgh hklduhkh gb trheha` y ohs hdvbkhkls kl gb vbkh d`kbhch. Oolmô uc
g`glct` lc lo qul sufrçh thct` k`o`r, ¡qul c` lrh dhphz kl sualthr cb sbqublrh
uch shrtâc! Ylrlmrbcâ kl gâkbd` lc gâkbd` y kl doçcbdh lc doçcbdh, y o` ñcbd` qul
pukblr`c nhdlr p`r gç ful rldlthrgl glkbdhglct`s qul qubthehc lo k`o`r, plr`
qul Ful
c` durhehc,
y d`c
uc`s
lfldt`s
slduckhrb`s
clfhst`s.
lc hqulooh
âp`dh
duhck`,
h trhvâs
kl uc hgbm`,
gl sumbrblr`c qul ushrh
uc rlglkb` d`c`dbk` d`g` ‟gbclrho gbohmr`s`‟, hucqul lo c`gerl c` gl nbz`
cbcmuch mrhdbh y, s`o` d`c `çro`, gl ldnô phrh htrès.
Duhck` oolmô h dhsh lo phqultl, ol t`dô h culstrh plrrbth nhdlr kl d`claboo`
kl Bckbhs. Oh p`erl yh lstheh guy ghy`r y lcflrgh, y hplchs sl g`vçh. D`g`
gudn`, glclheh lo rhebt` phrh shoukhr klskl su dhgh, p`rqul sl phsheh t`k`
lo kçh tugehkh. Yrlphrâ oh glzdoh, y sl oh kb h elelr d`c uch alrbcmubooh. D`g`
lrh kl lsplrhr, c` ol mustô chkh, p`rqul lo GGT (kbôxbk` kl do`r`) nulol h
olaçh, hucqul c` o` ls. Fulrh kl t`k` pr`côsd`, ho kçh sbmublctl oh plrrbth sl
lcd`ctrheh gla`r qul cucdh, d`rrblck` p`r t`k` lo ahrkçc y d`c uch lclrmçh
bgprlsb`chctl. Ol v`ovç h khr lo erlehal, qul slmuçh sbc musthrol, y sl phsô gès
kl glkbh thrkl d`gblck` gès dâsplk qul uch vhdh. Lo dhs` ls qul gla`rô kl
tho ghclrh, qul hdheô durhkh kl t`k`s sus ghols. Hsç qul c` gl qulkô gès
rlglkb` qul pr`ehro` y` thgebâc.
Lc hqulooh âp`dh, lo pr`t`d`o` t`khvçh d`csbsh lc suebr oh k`sbs
phuohchglctl, nhsth 8< m`ths hdvhkhs (8< m`ths kl do`rbt` y 8< m`ths kl
hdvhk`r). Lgpldâ h t`ghro` p`d` h p`d` y thpèck`gl oh chrbz…
R o` qul phrldçh bgp`sbeol, sl nbz` rlhobkhk1 ¡lo GGT fucdb`cô! N`y pulk`
v`ovlr h t`dhr lo pbhc` `trh vlz.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
` E d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J ([email protected]) lc ohs z`chs
hfldthkhs kurhctl 4 glsls.
599
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Hrtr`sbs
Ohhrtr`sbs, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh
ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch lcflrglkhk drôcbdh klmlclrhvh
qul pr`kudl oh hotlrhdbôc klstrudvh kl o`s dhrohm`s kl ohs hrduohdb`cls.
[hgebâc oohghkh
oohgh kh ‟rlugh klo klsmhstl‗,
klsmhstl‗, ls kl ‟supulsthglctl‗ `rbmlc gldècbd`
gld ècbd`
c` bchght`rb`, d`g` oh hrtrbs.
Oh hrtr`sbs, lc fhsls hvhczhkhs,
hvhczhkhs, pr`v`dh klf`rgbkhk.
klf`rgbkhk. Ohs hrduohdb`cls gès
hfldthkhs
hfldthk
hs s`c1 vârtlerhs dlrvbdhols, ougehrls, dhklrhs, ghc`s, r`kboohs, t`eboo`s.
Mlclrhoglctl hphrldl klspuâs kl uc lsfulrz` s`stlcbk` y klshphrldl lc
rlp`s`.
Tç1
K`o`r1 klebk` h oh klmlclrhdbôc klo dhrohm` y lo r`dl kl o`s k`s nuls`s
klscuk`s. Ho prbcdbpb` kl oh lcflrglkhk sulol hphrldlr ho g`vlr oh hrduohdbôc
y klshphrldl lc rlp`s`, plr` duhck` oh lcflrglkhk lstè hvhczhkh, hphrldl
lc rlp`s`. Ho k`o`r pulklc sughrsl1 druabk`s, p`r fhoth kl ouerbdhdbôc y
lcshcdnhgblct` kl oh hrduohdbôc: klf`rghdbôc, p`r lo drldbgblct` ohtlrho
kl o`s nuls`s: bchghdbôc y lklghs, p`r bchghdbôc y hdñguo`s kl oçqubk` y
rbmbklz trhs plrç`k`s kl bchdvbkhk.
[1 G H Tèz V (D) — 85/88/84
N`oh Hcmâobdh qublr` d`cthrol qul oolv` ;< kçhs t`ghck` lo GGT y o`s
rlsuothk`s s`c guy eulc`s. Lst`y guy d`ctlcth y hmrhkldbkh kl nhelr shebk`
klo ggs.
R` lstheh d`c hrtr`sbs kl ghc`s guy
gu y slvlrh, c` p`kçh rlhobzhr gbs ohe`rls kl
dhsh, puls t`k` o` qul t`gheh sl gl dhçh ho sulo`, lrhc uc`s k`o`rls tlrrbeols.
Tl gl k`rgçhc ohs ghc`s y gl khehc dhohgerls klghsbhk` k`o`r`s`s. O`s
gâkbd`s s`o` gl rldlthehc phrhdlthg`o y kbdo`flchd` d`c o`s duhols yh c` sl
gl phshehc o`s k`o`rls.
Gl nbdblr`c uc`s lxèglcls y qul gl kltldthr`c oh gbsgh lcflrglkhk,
plr` hn`rh lc dhklrhs y r`kboohs, hphrtl qul tlcm` uch kbheltls y d`c thct`
hcbchght`rb`
hcbchght
`rb` sl gl lstheh khøhck` lo rbøôc bzqublrk`. Lstheh thc nbcdnhkh,
qul gbs ghc`s y pbls phrldçhc rlvlcthr.
Kl pr`ct` sl gl prlslct` oh `p`rtucbkhk kl d`c`dlr h uch plrs`ch qul gl
nheoô kl ggs, gl kb` su tloâf`c` y oohgl. O` lgpldâ h t`ghr y duhck` beh lc
lo
duhrt`
kçh
lgpldâ
h c`thrKlshphrldblr`c
lo dhgeb`. Nh sbk`
ghrhvboo`s`
ghrhvboo
p`klr v`ovlr
h
uobzhr
gbs
ghc`s
kl culv`.
o`s k`o`rls
y`s`
oh nbcdnhzôc,
hklgès
gbs mobdlgbhs sl ghclclc dhsb c`rghols. ¡Gl sblct` thc eblc! Gb vbkh nh
dhgebhk` gudn`, lst`y guy d`ctlcth kl nhelr t`ghk` lo GGT.
598
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Gudnhs mrhdbhs h oh plrs`ch qul gl nheoô kl lstl ghrhvboo`s` pr`kudt`
gbohmr`s`, y mrhdbhs h  Hcmâobdh X\L [email protected] [L ELCKBMH.
D`c dhrbø`1 Ghrçh Hobdbh Tèlz Vbkho
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/88/85/tlsg`cb`-kl-hrtr`sbs-y-kb`xbk`-kldo`r`/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk`
bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E
d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J ([email protected]) kurhctl 4 glsls.
Hsgh
Lo hsgh, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh
ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls dhushkh p`r uch bchghdbôc kl ohs vçhs
rlspbrht`rbhs.
Lc ohs plrs`chs d`c vçhs rlspbrht`rbhs slcsbeols, o`s sçct`ghs kl hsgh
pulklc klslcdhklchrsl p`r oh bcnhohdbôc kl susthcdbhs oohghkhs hoârmlc`s `
klslcdhklchctls. Ohs vçhs rlspbrht`rbhs gès chs pulklc kbsgbcubr `dhsb`cho
y rlvlrsbeolglctl, ho d`ctrhlrsl su gusduohturh obsh ` p`r lcshcdnhgblct` kl
su gud`sh, p`r o` mlclrho lc rlspulsth h uc` ` gès fhdt`rls klslcdhklchctls,
d`g` oh lxp`sbdbôc h uc glkb` hgeblctl bchklduhk` (frç`, nñglk` `holrmâcbd`
`holrmâcbd`),
),
lo lalrdbdb` ` lsfulrz` lc phdblctls nbplrrlhdv`s, ` lo lstrâs lg`db`cho.
Lc o`s cbø`s o`s klslcdhklchctls gès frldulctls s`c ohs lcflrglkhkls
d`gucls d`g` hquloohs qul dhushc lo rlsfrbhk` d`gñc.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs gès dhrhdtlrçsd`s klo hsgh er`cqubho s`c oh kbsclh ` kbduothk
rlspbrht`rbh kl bctlcsbkhk y kurhdbôc vhrbheol y d`c oh prlslcdbh kl lsphsg`s
er`cqubhols, nhebtuhoglctl hd`gphøhk`s kl t`s, sldrldb`cls gud`shs y
rlspbrhdbôc sbebohctl ` uc phtrôc hc`rgho kl oh rlspbrhdbôc d`c lxnhohdb`cls
qul kurhc lo k`eol qul ohs bcnhohdb`cls. [hgebâc sl dhrhdtlrbzh p`r oh rbmbklz
t`rèdbdh lc lo phdblctl. Lc homuc`s phdblctls lst`s sçct`ghs pulklc slr slvlr`s
y kurhr vhrb`s kçhs ` slghchs.
[1 ] F (Dè) — 54/89/8<
Dhrth lcvbhkh h oh rlp`rtlrh kl c`dbhs Dbcky Mhoob
595
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Yr`eheolglctl lo GGT nh shovhk` oh vbkh kl gb nbah. Nhdl < hø`s gb nbah oolmô
h uc puct` kl drbsbs1 \ch d`gebchdbôc kl hsgh y oh bcflddbôc qul rlsuotô lc su
bchghdbôc kl oh mhrmhcth dhsb dlrrhkh ‛nhdblck` dhsb bgp`sbeol oh bcmlsôc y oh
rlspbrhdbôc -, d`c mrhc k`o`r, bcmrlshkh lc n`spbtho lc râmbglc B/V kl hcebôd`s.
Lst`
sl d`cvbrô
lc Klspuâs
uc trhthgblct`
d`csl
k`s
vbsbths p`r lo
kçhtrhthgblct`.
kurhctl uc O`s
phr
kl n`rhs
lc lo B/V.
kl trlskbhrb`,
slghchs
bctlrrugpbô
sçct`ghs plrsbslr`c lc glc`r mrhk`, plr` lo us` kl hcebôd`s sl tlcçhc qul
kltlclr. [`gô vhrb`s glsls v`ovlr h oh c`rghobkhk.
\c hø` gès thrkl, gb nbah sl vbc` h vbvbr d`cgbm`. \c`s glsls gès thrkl lo
hsgh v`ovbô hñc gès hmrlsbvh. Gl pbkbô qul oh oolvhrh ho n`spbtho, uch vlz gès,
sbc lgehrm`, bctlctâ d`cvlcdlroh phrh d`glczhr uc trhthgblct` d`c GGT. (Oh
T`oudbôc Gbclrho Gbohmr`sh qul hprlckç kl Abg Nugeol.) Lrh uc vblrcls p`r oh
c`dnl duhck` d`glczô 4-; vldls p`r kçh. Lo k`gbcm` hñc c` nheçh gla`rhk` y
gb nbah pbkbô uch vlz gès qul sl ol oolvhrh ho n`spbtho.
D`c oh lxplrblcdbh qul nheçh tlcbk` nhdçh uc hø`, ol pr`gl qul sb c` nheçh
uch gla`rh, phrh lo oucls oh oolvhrçh. H oh ghøhch sbmublctl lstheh lcdhcthkh
p`rqul sl slch gudn` gla`r y kldbkbô h d`ccuhr d`c lo GGT. Yhrh lo aulvls
aulvls
sl lcd`ctrheh kl vuloth h oh c`rghobkhk, d`c eulch shouk.
Cucdh v`ovbô h tlclr lpbs`kb`s hsgèd`s. Homñc plqulø` lpbs`kb` lc o`s
sbmublctls 5 hø`s y klskl lct`cdls cbcmñc sçct`gh lc hes`out`, kurhctl uc`s
trls hø`s.
GGT nh o`mrhk` lc glc`s kl uch slghch, o` qul trls slghchs lc râmbglc
kl hcebôd`s c` nbdblr`c. Y`r c` nheohr kl oh s`oudbôc kurhklrh klo pr`eolgh.
pr`eolgh.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/d`gp`clct/altlsg`cbho/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o`
D ` E d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` N (nhebthdbôc). Lc
homuc`s dhs`s pulkl slr dhushk` p`r phrèsbt`s y sl hpobdhrçh lo pr`t`d`o` Y
(phrèsbt`s).
Hutbsg`
Lo husg`, lcflrglkhk kl dhush `dbhoglctl klsd`c`dbkh (hucqul sl
shel
qul fhrghdâudh
ls dhushk` lcldhz
su ghy`rçh
vhduchs,
s`erl t`k` oh
vçrbdh) y sbc
s`oudbôc
p`r oh p`r
glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho
lstrbpol
uc trhst`rc`
kl
dhush bhtr`mlcbdh klo klshrr`oo` qul hfldth oh s`dbhobzhdbôc, oh d`gucbdhdbôc, oh
594
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
bghmbchdbôc, oh pohcbdhdbôc y oh rldbpr`dbkhk lg`db`cho, y lvbklcdbh d`ckudths
rlplvhs ` bcusuhols.
O`s sçct`ghs, lc mlclrho, s`c oh bcdhphdbkhk kl bctlrhddbôc s`dbho, lo
hbsohgblct` y ohs lstlrl`pbh
lstlrl`pbhss (g`vbgblct`s bcd`ctr`ohk`s kl homuch lxtrlgbkhk,
mlclrhoglctl
ohs ghc`s).
phrtl
o`s trhst`rc`s
klo lspldtr`
husth
([LH)1 lo trhst`rc`
husth, F`rghc
lo sçckr`gl
klkl
hsplrmlr,
lo trhst`rc`
klsbctlmrhv`
bcfhco y lo trhst`rc` mlclrhobzhk` klo klshrr`oo`.
Tç1
O`s sbmublctls pulklc slr sçct`ghs kl husg` bcfhco.
Bcbdbhoglctl nbplrslcsbebobkhk hukbvh: lc gudn`s dhs`s lvbth lo d`cthdt`
vbsuho d`c ohs plrs`chs: sl qulkh gbrhck` a` h chkh, lc d`cdrlt` ` h uc `ealt`
bchcbghk`: c` rlsp`ckl hctl lsguo`s vlrehols, mlstuhols y s`dbhols: c` prlsth
bctlrâs phrh o`s aulm`s d`g` o`s klgès cbø`s: c` hkqublrl, hkqublrl thrkçhglctl
` pblrkl lo nheoh, lxplrbglcth hcmush duhck` ol dhgebhc ohs ruchs, lfldtñh
g`vbgblct`s d`rp`rhols rlplv`s, gulstrh hplm`s h `ealt`s, ls bcdhphz kl
ghctlclr uch d`cvlrshdbôc, c` nhdl hgbm`s, c` phrdbph lc aulm`s bctlrhdv`s,
lvbth lo d`cthdt` sbd` p`rqul ls guy lsguohctl ` herughk`r, lcl bctlrlsls
rlstrbdv`s qul ol d`csuglc gudnh htlcdbôc y d`cdlctrhdbôc.
[1 K (\) — ;/;/86
Kyhch, ghgè kl Mherblo (cbø` rlduplrhk` t`thoglctl kl husg`). \ch kl
ohs ghkrls kl gès kl 4<9 cbø`s rlduplrhk`s d`c rlgbsbôc t`tho.
Mherblo chdbô sblck` uc cbø` c`rgho. D`c 5 hø`s ol kbhmc`sdhr`c ‟husg`
slvlr`‗. Duhck` qulrçh nheohr c` sl lctlckçh o` qul kldçh y lrh uch hcmush
guy mrhckl. Ho trhthr kl nheohr, sl hcmusheh p`rqul c` ol shoçh y âo bctlctheh
d`gucbdhrsl,, plr` c` p`kçh. Lct`cdls lgpldâ
d`gucbdhrsl
lgpld â h bcvlsmhr quâ lrh o` qul ol lstheh
phshck` y o` oolvâ h o`s gâkbd`s, h oh gutuhobsth. O`s gâkbd`s gl kbalr`c qul ls`
lrh uc trhst`rc` klo lspldtr` husth. Tl c`s vbc` lo guck` lcdbgh. ‟C` pulkl
slr‗, plcsâ y` ‟sb kbdlc qul lo husg` ls mlcâd` y nlrlkbthrb`‗ y c` nhy chkbl
lc gb fhgbobh cb lc oh kl gb lsp`s` qul tlcmh husg`, chkbl lcl pr`eolghs kl
hprlckbzhal.
hprlckbz
hal. °Dôg` pulkl slr lst`0
Hklgès c`s kldçhc qul lrh bcdurheol… qul pulkl oolmhr h gla`rhr d`c lo
lgp`, plr` qul vh h tlclr ls`s sçct`ghs sblgprl, vh h lsthr d`c lsh kbduothk
phrh d`gucbdhrsl, d`c lsh kbduothk phrh oolmhr ho `tr`, phrh d`gprlcklr ho
`tr`, lshs kbduothkls ohs vh h hdhrrlhr t`kh su vbkh y ful uc pls` guy mrhckl,
kldbr h uc phkrl ‟Tu nba` lcl husg` y qul tl lctrlmulc lo phqultl‗.
Mrhdbhs h gb ghkrl qul sblgprl gl kba` ‟cucdh tl qulkls d`c oh `pbcbôc
kl o`s klgès, v`s s`bs guy bctlobmlctl, bcvlsmh qul vhs h lcd`ctrhr‗, y hklgès
oh psbdôo`mh kl Mherblo gl kba`1 ‟bcvlsmul, ghkrl, qul y` oh vl` qul \k. ls
59;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
guy bcqublth. Bcvlsmul qul \k. vh h lcd`ctrhr. Nhy kblths, nhy trhthgblct`s
eb`gâkbd`s, nhy kblths qul nhc gla`rhk` oh sbtuhdbôc. Lct`cdls lgpldâ h
bcvlsmhr lc bctlrclt y lcd`ctrâ lo pr`t`d`o` KHC, oh kblth MHYT. Nhy gudnhs
kblths qul lcsløhc dôg` fucdb`ch lsth lcflrglkhk, qul ls uch bct`xbdhdbôc
erutho
h cbvlo
bctlscho.
Lo glrdurb`,
lo prbcdbpho
dhushctl
kl o`s
sçct`ghs lo
klohougbcb`,
husg`.lo po`g`, plr` lo glrdurb` ls
Lo ‟kbôxbk`
‟kbôxbk` kl do`r`‗ c`s dhgebô oh vbkh p`rqul hklgès, d`c`dblck` t`khs
ohs hpobdhdb`cls qul lcl phrh `trhs lcflrglkhkls. D`glczhg`s h t`ghro` y
t`k`s c`s rlduplrhg`s kl kbscths k`olcdbhs. Vlg`s h Mherblo flobz, su nlrghch
thgebâc lstè flobz. [blcl uch nlrghcbth qul lcl k`s hø`s y lstèc flobdls o`s
k`s y c` nhy ghy`r flobdbkhk phrh uc phkrl y uch ghkrl qul tlclr o`s nba`s
shc`s.
Hdtuhoglctl lcl slbs hø`s y lstè d`ctlct`. Lstè durhk`, ho puct` kl qul
o` oolvâ lo `tr` kçh ho d`ctr`o kl shouk y ho chobzhr, prlmuctâ sb ol vlçhc homñc
rhsm` kl husg` h gb nba` y gl d`ctlsthr`c1 ‟Ghkrl, °dôg` vh h kldbr ls`0
Ls uc cbø` plrfldthglctl shc`, holmrl, flobz. °duèct`s cbø`s oolmhc flobdls h uc
d`ctr`o gâkbd`0‗
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/qD9=gz5nzyL
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` ls lo pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s) y nhsth oh fldnh
sl nhc p`kbk` rlduplrhr gès kl 4<9 cbø`s k`duglcthk`s d`c c`gerl y
hploobk`.
Uld`gblck` d`cthdthr d`c o`s mrup`s Fhdle``j kl phkrls hfldthk`s
d`g` p`r lalgpo` ‟phrhsbt`sbs husth kl bcdb`‗ u `tr`s qul lstèc lc gb
pèmbch wle www.hckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g ` d`g` hotlrchvh www.dkhusg.
`rm.
Lc lo ober` kl Jlrrb Ubvlrh lstè klsdrbt` lo trhthgblct`
trhthgblct` d`c gès klthool.
Er`cqubtbs
Oh er`cqubs ls uch bchghdbôc l nbcdnhzôc klo rldueblrt` kl o`s er`cqub`s
qul d`cldthc oh trèqulh h o`s puog`cls, pr`v`dhck` qul lctrl glc`s hbrl.
Oh er`cqubs hmukh (EH) dhsb sblgprl hphrldl klspuâs kl nhelr tlcbk` uc
rlsfrbhk`
` lcflrglkhk
mrbpho,phrhchshols,
y lstè dhushkh
p`rhcth
uc vbrus,
qul hfldth
oh
rlmbôc
chsho,
oulm` h o`s slc`s
h oh mhrm
mhrmhcth
y choglctl
h ohs hvçhs
rlspbrht`rbhs d`cldthkhs d`c o`s puog`cls. Oh er`cqubs drôcbdh (ED) ls uch
hflddbôc pr`o`cmhkh.
59<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Tç1
G`olsh lc lo pldn`, t`s d`c gud`sbkhk, h vldls shcmubc`olcth. Tb lo
g`d` kl oh er`cqubs ls vlrkl hghrboolct` y vh hd`gphøhk` kl lerl, o` gès
pr`eheol ls qul nhyh bcflddbôc ehdtlrbhch, pbk`s ` sbebohcdbhs, fhmh, eureual`,
kbduothk rlspbrht`rbh, gholsthr mlclrho, lerl, usuhoglctl ehah.
Lc oh er`cqubs drôcbdh, thgebâc pulklc prlslcthrsl o`s sbmublctls
sçct`ghs1 Bchghdbôc kl t`eboo`s, pbls y pblrchs, d`o`rhdbôc hzuohkh kl o`s
oheb`s pr`v`dhkh p`r o`s eha`s cbvlols kl `xçmlc` lc shcmrl.
[1 Hô - </;/84
Lo phshk` bcvblrc` gl kbhmc`sdhr`c er`cqubs y prbcdbpb` kl clug`cçh,
c` ls oh prbglrh vlz qul gl `durrl, gl rldlthr`c d`g` lc `trhs `dhsb`cls
hcebôd` y d`rs`ch (o` pbd`), hge`s glkbdhglct`s gl pr`v`dhc slck`s
lfldt`s slduckhrb`s, plr` lc lsth `dhsbôc, yh d`c`dçh lo GGT. Gl o` t`gâ slmñc
lo pr`t`d`o` 8999, y lc uch slghch nheçh d`cslmubk` uch gla`rçh bcdrlçeol,
hom` qul d`c pr`kudt`s fhrghdâud`s c` d`cslmuçh nhsth phshk` uc gls, y
høhkblck` k`s glsls gès phrh klpurhr t`khs ohs t`xbchs pr`kudbkhs p`r o`s
fèrghd`s.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</er`cqubs-y-clug`cbh-tlsg`cb`ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk`
bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E
d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` N kurhctl 4 slghchs.
Erudlo`sbs
Oh Erudlo`sbs, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho, thgebâc oohghkh lerl kl Ghoth, lerl glkbtlrrèclh, lerl
`ckuohctl, ` lcflrglkhk kl Ehcm, ls uch lcflrglkhk bcflddb`sh kl kbstrbeudbôc
guckbho, pr`kudbkh p`r ehdtlrbhs klo mâclr` Erudlooh, qul hthdh h vhrbhs
lspldbls
kl ghgçflr`s,
klctr`bclspldçd`.
kl o`s duhols sl lcdulctrh lo slr nughc`, lc lo
duho pr`kudl
uc duhkr` flerbo
596
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Tç1
Fblerl hoth y dhgeb`s erusd`s kl tlgplrhturh.
[1 K
K.. G E (H) — 89/</86
[lcm` <> hø`s, vbv` lc Glck`zh, Hrmlcch, y gl d`cthmbâ kl erudlo`sbs
d`g` lcflrglkhk pr`flsb`cho
pr`flsb`cho trhehahck` lc lo dhgp`. Lcflrgâ kl f`rgh guy
hmukh d`c tuo` 8/699 d`c lerl, k`o`rls ltd. ltd. Oulm` kl 86 hø`s kl tuo`
p`sbv` kl erudlo`sbs, prlvb` hddls`
hdd ls` hmuk` y k`s trhthgblct`s
trhthgblct`s d`c hcebôd`s
p`r ;< kçhs dhkh uc`, gb tuo` ehaô h 8/<9 y sl ghctuv` hsç p`r vhrb`s hø`s.
Lc lo hø` 598;, p`r `tr` g`v` y phrh pr`ehr, t`gâ GGT p`r 58 kçhs
(pr`t`d`o` dhkh dblrt` lgp` gl nhdçh rlhddbôc kl Nukolss`c phrh d`ctr`ohr lo
tuo`. Y`r hø`s lstuv` lc 8/>6, 8/<<, 8/<9. H cls kl 598< p`r `tr`s g`v`s gl
nhm` hcèobsbs kl shcmrl kl ruch y pbk` Nukolss`c, BMM phrh erudlo`sbs l BMG
phrh erudlo`sbs ‛s`o` phrh d`ctr`o ‛hpr`vldnhck` qul gl lxtrhçhc shcmrl
phrh `tr`s lstukb`s. Bcdrlçeolglctl gl kb` CLMH[[email protected] lo tuo` Nukolss`c y c`
rlhdv` BMM l BMG.
T`y vltlrbchrb` y sâ d`c slmurbkhk qul oh erudlo`sbs ahgès sl nhdl clmhvh,
plrghcldl oh erudloh bctrhdlouohr kurhctl gudn`s hø`s y hctl oh ehah kl
bcgucbkhk p`r mrbpl u `trh dhush sl rlhmukbzh oh erudlo`sbs, p`r ls` klel
vbmbohrsl lo tuo` plrbôkbdhglct
plrbôkbdhglctl.
l.
Lst` ls hom` hsç d`g` uc gbohmr` bclsplrhk`. Nhy p`dh bcf`rghdbôc s`erl
GGT y erudlo`sbs lc Bctlrclt. Y`r ls` drl` qul ls guy bctlrlshc
bctlrlshctl
tl lo dhs` y gl
`frlzd` sb ols rlsuoth bctlrlshctl lc t`k` o` qul pulkh hp`rthr phrh elcldb` kl
o`s qul phkldlc erudlo`sbs.
Ols hmrhklzd` qul sbmhc trhehahck` phrh eblc kl t`k`s!
Fulctl1 np1//ggs8pous.eo`msp`t.d`g.ls/slhrdn/ohelo/Erudlo`sbs
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk`
bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E
d`g` hotlrchvh.
Eursbtbs
Oh eursbs, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho, ls oh bchghdbôc kl uchs e`oshs oolchs kl oçqubk` qul sl
lcdulctrhc lctrl o`s gñsduo`s, tlck`cls y nuls`s, oohghkhs eurshs, y qul
59=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
hyukhc ho g`vbgblct` kl ohs hrduohdb`cls lvbthck` oh frbddbôc lctrl loohs. LO
dulrp` nughc` lcl gès kl 8<9 eurshs, hucqul oh eursbs sl ghcblsth s`erl
t`k` lc o`s n`ger`s, r`kboohs, dhklrhs, plovbs, d`k`s, guøldhs, klk`s kl o`s
pbls y o`s tho`cls, ls kldbr lc hquloohs z`chs k`ckl lo g`vbgblct` hrduohr ls
gès rlplv`.
Tç1
K`o`r hrduohr y slcsbebobkhk
s lcsbebobkhk qul sl ghcblsth ho prlsb`chr oh z`ch qul r`klh
h oh hrduohdbôc, rbmbklz
r bmbklz ho g`vlr ohs hrduohdb`cls hfldthkhs, lcr`aldbgblct`
lcr`aldbgblct` kl
oh z`ch, lc homuc`s dhs`s, d`c nbcdnhzôc y lerl.
[1 T T (B) — 52/6/85
Nl lsthk` t`ghck` pr`t`d`o` GGT 8999 p`r 6 kçhs y n`y gl nl olvhcthk`
sbc oh rbmbklz kl oh hrtrbs lc oh lsphokh ¡Tl nh bk`!!! Oh bchghdbôc kl oh eursbs
yh sl nheçh bk` klspuâs klo slmuck` ` tlrdlr kçh.
C` pulk` lsplrhr h klsplrthr ghøhch phrh vlr o` eblc qul gl sblct`. Drl`
qul o` qul lstè nhdblck` y dôg` sl nhc bk` ho rlspldt` ls ¡¡¡hes`outhglctl
ghrhvboo`s`!!!
Elckbdb`cls y gbohmr`s.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/d`gp`clct/altlsg`cbho/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk`
bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E
d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk`
d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) lc oh z`ch
hfldthkh kurhctl 4 slghchs.
Dèoduo` rlcho
O`s târgbc`s dèoduo` rlcho, clfr`obhsbs, obhsbs rlcho y pblkrh lc lo rbøôc sl
rllrlc h oh f`rghdbôc kl uc tr`z` kl ghtlrbho sôobk` klctr` klo rbøôc h phrr
kl susthcdbhs qul lstèc lc oh `rbch.
Oh pblkrh sl pulkl qulkhr lc lo rbøôc ` pulkl klsprlcklrsl l br ehahck`
h trhvâs klo trhdt` urbchrb`. Oh bctlcsbkhk kl oh sbct`ght`o`mçh (k`o`r) lstè
mlclrhoglctl rlohdb`chkh d`c lo thghø` klo dèoduo`. Lc `dhsb`cls sl pr`kudl
su lxpuosbôc dhsb sbc sbct`ght`o`mçh.
59>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Tç1
Yulkl c` prlslcthro`s nhsth qul o`s dèoduo`s ehalc p`r o`s tue`s (urâtlrls) h
trhvâs kl o`s duhols oh `rbch sl vhdçh nhdbh oh vlabmh, eo`qulhck` lo ua` kl `rbch.
Lo prbcdbpho sçct`gh ls lo k`o`r bctlcs` qul d`gblczh y klshphrldl sñebthglctl y
pulkl slr lc oh z`ch hek`gbcho ` lc uc d`sthk` kl oh lsphokh l brrhkbhrsl h oh z`ch
kl oh bcmol (bcmubcho) ` h o`s tlsduo`s (tlsduohr). @tr`s sçct`ghs s`c1 d`o`r hc`rgho
kl oh `rbch,
`rbch, shcmr
shcmrll lc oh `rbch,
`rbch, lsdho`frç`s, lerl, cèuslhs y vôgbt`s.
vôgb t`s.
[1 Dhr`obch
Ols d`glct` qul nl glzdohk` lo GGT d`c [email protected], y lstl gl plrgbô
lobgbchr 5 dèoduo`s rlchols klo thghø` kl uc hrr`z. Nue` gudn` k`o`r, plr`
shoblr`c y n`y o`s tlcm` muhrkhk`s kl rldulrk`.
Klskl n`y d`glczhrl d`c lo trhthgblct` p`r pblo.
Fulctl1 np1//`xb.b-`.d`g.hr/
np1//`xb.b-`.d`g.hr/lxplrblcdbhs-kl-usuhrb`s/
lxplrblcdbhs-kl-usuhrb`s/
[rhthgblct`1
Elelr 4 bcfusb`cls ho kçh kl oh pohcth r`gplpblkrhs ( Olpbkbug
ohf`obug)) frlsdh, sb ls p`sbeol (thgebâc pulkl slrvbr ôxbk` kl ghmclsb`
ohf`obug
d`g` hotlrchvh, lc dhs` qul c` nhyh).
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` J
d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E d`g` hotlrchvh, kurhctl 4 slghchs.
Dhovbdbl
Oh dhovbdbl, thgebâc oohghkh ho`pldbh, ls oh pârkbkh hc`rgho ` rhrlfhddbôc
klo dheloo`. Yulkl hfldthr ho dulr` dheloouk` ` h `trhs z`chs kl oh pblo lc oh qul
lxbstl plo`, d`g` ohs plsthøhs, dlahs, hxbohs, rlmbôc mlcbtho y ehreh.
Oh ho`pldbh hckr`mâcbdh (mlcâdhglctl nlrlkhkh) ls oh gès d`gñc. Ohs
gualrls thgebâc oh phkldlc hucqul lc glc`r pr`p`rdbôc y lc loohs oh pârkbkh
kl dheloo` ls kl f`rgh kbfush, c` o`dhobzhkh, d`g` lc o`s n`gerls. Oh ho`pldbh
kbfush sl pr`kudl klebk` h lcflrglkhkls d`g` hotlrhdb`cls r`bklhs, bcmlsth kl
dblrt`s glkbdhglct`s (d`g` qubgb`tlrhpbh), dhgeb`s n`rg`chols, lstrâs ` uch
hobglcthdbôc p`d` lquboberhkh.
Tç1
Yârkbkh lxdlsbvh y hc`rgho klo dheloo`, hpr`xbghkhglctl kl gès kl dblc
dheloo`s kbhrb`s.
592
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[1 T (De)
Thgulo h phrr klo gls kl t`ghr GGT c` s`o` gla`r` kl su lsthk` kl
shouk, (t`gheh d`rs`ch, sl qulkô sbc fulrzhs lc ohs pblrchs), sbc` qul c`tô
d`g` rlduplrheh dheloo` lc k`ckl yh s`o` sl hprldbheh dhovbdbl.
Fulctl1 nps1//f`r`.rlduplrhrloplo`.d`g/vblwt`pbd.pnp0t7;4>>6
D`glcthrb` klo hut`r1
Nhy qul kldbr oh vlrkhk1 sb lcls uch dhovbdbl
dhovb dbl ho gès pur` lso` e`oh kl eboohr,
lo kbôxbk` do`r` c` tl vh h klv`ovlr oh glolch klo olôc: sbc lgehrm`, uobzèck`o`
duhck` lgpblzh oh dhçkh pr`eheolglctl frlch ` bcdous` phrh oh dhçkh, s`erl
t`k` y sb ls p`r dhushs kl n`cm`s d`g` lc gudnhs ho`pldbhs flglcbchs.
Yr`eheolglctl
Yr`eheolglc
tl thgebâc rlhdvh oh hdvbkhk gbt`d`ckrbho kl o`s f`oçduo`s.
[rhthgblct`1
O` gès hklduhk` ls lo pr`t`d`o` K (klrght`oômbd`), hpobdhk` lc f`rgh
kl sprhy vhrbhs vldls ho kçh lc oh z`ch hfldthkh
hfldthkh kurhctl 4 glsls. Tl pulkl
d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` H (hghtlur) ` D (DKT).
Dècdlr d`o`rrldtho
Lo dècdlr d`o`rrldtho, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh
glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, thgebâc oohghk` dècdlr kl d`o`c, ls uc p` kl dècdlr
qul d`gblczh lc lo d`o`c ` lo rldt`, qul s`c phrtls klo bctlsc` mruls`, qul
d`cstuylc oh phrtl bcflrb`r klo hphrht` kbmlsv`. Lo d`o`c hes`rel hmuh y
cutrblctls kl o`s hobglct`s y hoghdlch klsnldn`s qul phshc klskl lo d`o`c
nhdbh lo rldt` hctls kl shobr klo dulrp`. Tl pblcsh qul gudn`s kl o`s dhs`s kl
dècdlr d`o`rrldtho chdlc kl uc pôobp` lc lo d`o`c. Lst`s drldbgblct`s dlouohrls
lc f`rgh kl n`cm` s`c usuhoglctl elcbmc`s, plr` kl vlz lc duhck` sl vulovlc
dhcdlr`s`s d`c lo lgp`. Lc oh ghy`rçh kl o`s dhs`s, lo kbhmcôsd` klo dècdlr
o`dhobzhk` ls p`r d`o`c`sd`pbh. Lo trhthgblct` ls p`r o` mlclrho qubrñrmbd` y lc
gudn`s dhs`s slmubk` p`r qubgb`tlrhpbh.
Tç1
Dècdlr kl d`o`c klrldn`
O`s sçct`ghs prbcdbphols s`c k`o`r hek`gbcho, sçckr`gl hcâgbd` y,
`dhsb`choglctl,
`dhsb`choglc
tl, oh phophdbôc kl uc tug`r hek`gbcho.
589
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Lo k`o`r hek`gbcho `durrl lc gès klo 69% kl o`s phdblctls rlflrbk` lc oh
gbthk klrldnh klo hek`glc. Lo sçckr`gl hcâgbd` `durrl thgebâc lc gès klo
69% kl o`s dhs`s y sl klel h pârkbkh d`ccuhkh, hucqul gçcbgh, kl shcmrl
qul c` g`kbdh lo hspldt` kl ohs nldls, h phrr kl oh suplrdbl uodlrhkh klo
tug`r.
O`s phdblctls
fhmh (dhcshcdb`,
klebobkhk)
phopbthdb`cls
l
bcdous` hcmbch
kl pldn`rllrlc
y sl ols klsduerl
uch hclgbh
gbdr`dçdh
l nbp`dr`gh
qul bckbdh uc kâdbt kl nblrr`.
Dècdlr kl d`o`c bzqublrk`
Y`r slr gès lstrldn`, lo k`o`r dôobd` lc hek`glc bcflrb`r pulkl hobvbhrsl
d`c ohs klfldhdb`cls, lc lo dhs` kl homuc`s phdblctls pulkl klshrr`oohr hclgbh
p`r fhoth kl nblrr` bmuho qul lc lo dhs` kl Dècdlr kl d`o`r klrldn` ls bgp`rthctl
khrsl dulcth qul c` sôo` pblrkh shcmrl p`r ohs nldls sbc` thgebâc p`r `tr`s
`rbdb`s klo dulrp` d`g` pulklc slr oh chrbz ` oh e`dh. Ls gès pr`eheol qul
lst`s phdblctls c`tlc uc dhgeb` lc ohs klfldhdb`cls y lobgbchdbôc kl shcmrl
r`ah erboohctl (rldt`rrhmbh
(rldt`rrhmbh)) d`ckbdb`chk`s p`r oh rlkuddbôc kl oh ouz klo d`o`c. Lo
drldbgblct` klo tug`r pulkl `doubr oh ouz bctlscho pr`v`dhck` uc duhkr` kl
`estruddbôc bctlscho d`c k`o`r dôobd`, kbstlcsbôc hek`gbcho, vôgbt`s y dblrrl
bctlscho.
Dècdlr kl rldt`sbmgh
D`g` ohs nldls sl vhc d`cdlctrhck` h glkbkh qul htrhvblshc lo d`o`c
trhcsvlrs`
trhcsvl
rs` y lo d`o`c klsdlcklctl, o`s tug`rls o`dhobzhk`s h lstl cbvlo lcklc h
bgplkbr su phs` ho lxtlrb`r
lxtlrb`r,, o` qul `rbmbch uc k`o`r hek`gbcho p` dôobd`, h vldls
d`c `estruddbôc bctlscho (bol` `estrudv`) l bcdous` d`c plrf`rhdbôc bctlscho.
bctlscho.
Lc lsth o`dhobzhdbôc ls frldulctl oh rldt`rrhmbh, tlclsg` rldtho y kbsgbcudbôc
klo kbègltr` kl ohs nldls. Tbc lgehrm`
lgehrm`,, oh hclgbh ls uc nhoohzm` bcfrldulctl.
bcfrldulctl.
[1 N Cv Røz (D) — ;/2/85
Gb oohg` Nbokh Chvhrrltl Rèølz, tlcm` 6> hø`s y rlsbk` lc Thc Dhro`s, VBBB
Ulmbôc (Dnbol).
Lc Auob` kl 5988 fub kbhmc`sdhkh kl dècdlr kl d`o`c klrldn` p`r o` qul fub
`plrhkh sbc hdlpthr qubgb`tlrhpbh cb rhkb`tlrhpbh.
Lo 6 kl slplgerl kl 5988 gl d`cthdtl d`c GGT Dnbol d`c oh Trh. Hcmâobdh
D`sth
D`rrlh yd`c
glGGT5.
rld`glckô
Yr`t`d`o`
lclghs
GGT,
d`gebcèck`o`
C` fullofèdbo,
tuvl gbs5999,
drbsbs gès
durhvhs
plr`d`c
cucdh
gl
rlckç sblgprl tuvl gudnh Fl lc lstl Gbclrho lc qul gl beh h durhr.
588
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Gl khehc ohs drbsbs durhvhs y ehaheh k`sbs y oulm` bctlctheh suebr `trh
vlz. Oulm` kl ; glsls t`ghck` lo GGT, gl t`gâ uc`s lxèglcls y ho vlr o`s
rlsuothk`s c` o` p`kçh drllr. Oh holmrçh ful lc`rgl. Lsthehc guy eulc`s plr`
fhotheh uc p`d` gès… Hnç bcd`rp`rl ohs dhpsuohs GGT5, s`o` o`mrl t`ghr 5
dhpsuohs
kçh d`c ohs
d`gbkhs,
s`o` 8y frhsd`
kllxèglcls
899 dhpsuohs.
Tlmuçhoklahck`
phshr
uc lgp`
gl nbdl
kl d`gpr`ehdbôc lc
herbo kl 5985 y slmuçh ehahck` gb hcmlc` dhrdbc`lgerb`chrb`.
R oh mrhc c`dbh oh tuvl lc hm`st` kl 5985 lcd`ctrèck`gl hn`rh klctr` kl
o`s rhcm`s c`rghols, o` qul sbmcbdh qul gb dècdlr nh sbk` lrrhkbdhk`.
Xublr` khr ohs mrhdbhs h GGT-DNBOL h Hcmâobdh qul sblgprl gl htlckbô
guy dhrbø`shglctl.
Hkauct` gbs lxèglcl
lxèglcls.
s.
Fulctl1 nps1//ggsobchrlsghuol.w`rkprlss.d`g/5985/92/9;/tlsg`cb`kl-shchdb`c-kl-dhcdlr-kl-d`o`c/
C  1
Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul lo GGT5 pulkl dhushr lfldt`s slduckhrb`s
fulrtls y lo hut`r sl kbsthcdbh kl su us` sbc d`ctr`o gâkbd`.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` U
(rldtho d`c plrbooh) kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L
(lclgh), hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dècdlr kl lsôfhm`
Lo dècdlr kl lsôfhm`, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh
glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho,
d`cvlcdb`cho, lstè khk` p`r lo drldbgblct` kl uc tug`r dhcdlr`s` lc
lo lsôfhm`, qul ls lo d`ckudt` qul trhcsp`rth lo hobglct` klskl oh e`dh nhsth
lo lstôghm`.
585
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Lxbstlc k`s p`s prbcdbphols1 lo ls`fèmbd` lsdhg`dlouohr qul lstè hs`dbhk`
d`c lo thehqubsg` y lo d`csug` kl hod`n`o y lo hklc`dhrdbc`gh, qul ls lo
p` gès d`gñc kl dècdlr ls`fèmbd`. O`s tug`rls plqulø`s y o`dhobzhk`s p`r
o` mlclrho s`c trhthk`s qubrñrmbdhglctl, gblctrhs qul o`s tug`rls hvhczhk`s
‟`eobmhc‗
qubgb`tlrhpbh,
rhkb`tlrhpbh
d`gebchdbôc
kl hge`s.
Lo
pr`côsd`hklplckl
lctrl `trhs
d`shs kl` ohuch
lxtlcsbôc
klo tug`r
y kl ohs
d`gpobdhdb`cls gâkbdhs hs`dbhkhs.
Tç1
G`vbgblct` kl klv`oudbôc
klv`oud bôc klo hobglct` h trhvâs klo lsôfhm` y p`sbeolglctl
oh e`dh (rlmurmbthdbôc), k`o`r t`rèdbd` qul c` lcl rlohdbôc d`c lo nldn` kl
d`glr, kbduothk phrh klmour sôobk`s ` oçqubk`s, hdbklz mèstrbdh, vôgbt`s kl
shcmrl y pârkbkh kl pls`.
[1 H Yw (Cv Q)
Q) — 4/85/85
Ylrkç h gb ghkrl d`c dècdlr ‛c` sheçh o` sudblctl hdlrdh kl GGT lc lo
g`glct` kl ushro`. Hn`rh lst`y trhthck` kl hyukhr h gb phkrl h suplrhr lo
dècdlr klo lsôfhm`. Nhdl 8> glsls qul ol kbhmc`sdhr`c lo dècdlr. [blcl >5
hø`s y o`s k`dt`rls lsthehc ehsthctl clmhv`s. Ylr` 8> glsls klspuâs, hquç
lsthg`s.
Drl` qul oh rhzôc p`r oh qul o` lstè nhdblck` thc eblc, ls p`rqul 5 hø`s
hctls kl qul âo fulrh kbhmc`sdhk` klo dècdlr, lstheh t`ghck` GGT, d`c lo
pr`t`d`o` hcmu` kl uch k`sbs kl 8< m`ths p`r oh ghøhch y `trhs p`r oh c`dnl.
Drl` qul nh lsthk` lc uch eulch p`sbdbôc.
Tu tug`r c` nh drldbk` ` lxtlckbk
lxtlckbk`
` klskl lo kbhmcôsd`. O`s gâkbd`s lstèc
d`cfuckbk`s hucqul phrh loo`s lo tug`r sbmul hnç y sbmul sblck` plobmr`s`. Lo
Yr`t`d`o` qul lstè oolvhck` ls lo culv` pr`t`d`o` 5999 sbc GGT5, yh qul c`
pulkl trhmhr ohs dèpsuohs. T`y plrslvlrhctl, plr` ls kbdbo h vldls y fèdbo kl
rlcucdbhr duhck` lo GGT ol lstè nhdblck` slcr gho. Homuchs vldls ho nhelr
thct`s pr`t`d`o`s ls herughk`r phrh lo dubkhk`r (GGT8 / GGT5 / DKT /
[email protected]… bcmlrbro`, ehøhrsl, lclghs, ltd.).
Fulctl1 nps1//m5df`rug.`rm/bcklx.pnp/obst/mlclrho-kbsdussb`c/
5<929-ls`pnhmus-dhcdlr-sthml-5
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
584
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J
([email protected]) kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dècdlr mèstrbd` (lstôghm`)
Lo dècdlr mèstrbd` ls uch lcflrglk
lcflrglkhk
hk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh
glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho. Kbsct`s p`s kl drldbgblct` tug`rho ghobmc` pulklc
`durrbr lc lo lstôghm`. Lo gès d`gñc sl klc`gbch hklc`dhrdbc`gh.
Lstl dècdlr d`gblczh h phrr kl uc` kl o`s p`s kl dâouohs qul sl
lcdulctrhc lc lo rlvlsgblct` klo lstôghm`.
Tç1
Lo dècdlr kl lstôghm` pulkl slr kbdbo kl kltldthr lc sus bcbdb`s yh qul h
glcuk` c` nhy sçct`ghs, y lc gudn`s dhs`s, lo dècdlr sl nh lxtlckbk` hctls
kl qul sl lcdulctrl. Duhck` `durrlc o`s sçct`ghs, s`c h glcuk` thc kbsdrlt`s
qul oh plrs`ch c` sl prl`duph p`r loo`s.
Yulkl dhushr o`s sbmublctls lfldt`s1 gholsthr ` k`o`r hek`gbcho (qul
pulkl `durrbr klspuâs kl uch d`gbkh plquløh), cèuslhs y vôgbt`s, kbhrrlh `
lstrløbgblct`, pârkbkh klo hplt`, klebobkhk y fhmh, shcmrhk`s bcnhebtuhols,
dhgeb`s lc lo rbtg` bctlscho ` urbchrb`, nlrbkhs qul thrkhc lc dbdhtrbzhr,
kbduothk phrh bcmlrbr hobglct`s, dhgeb`s rlplcc`s lc lo hspldt` kl vlrrumhs
dutèclhs, t`s plrsbstlctl ` r`cqulrh, pârkbkh kl pls` y gho hoblct`.
[1 Lq H N (D) — 49/</8;
Lc slplgerl kl 5985 gl kltldthr`c uc dècdlr mèstrbd` p` Mbts y gl
bctlrvbcblr`c shdèck`gl t`k` lo lstôghm` y sl kltldtô uch gltèsthsbs lc lo
nçmhk`, p`r o` qul kblr`c uc trhthgblct` hgeuoht`rb` d`c Mobvld. Klspuâs kl
uc`s glsls kl trhthgblct` tuvl uch hclgbh pr`v`dhkh lc mrhc phrtl p`r lo
trhthgblct`, o` qul gl tlcçh guy gho.
O`s gâkbd`s
`plrhrgl
lo tug`r
nçmhk`
yh qul
lo
glkbdhglct`
glqulrçhc
nhdçh gho.
Ful lcphrh
lsl shdhr
g`glct`
qul klo
supl
klo DKT.
Nheoâ
d`c Hcmâobdh l bcbdbâ lo trhthgblct`. Ho gls klo trhthgblct` gl nbdl uch
ld`t`g`mrhh mèstrbdh
mèstr bdh y yh c` sl vlçh lo tug`r.
tug`r. Ho d`gpolthr lo slmuck`
sl muck` gls gl
58;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
nbdl uch rls`chcdbh ghmcâdh y s`o` sl kltldtô uch olsbôc kl 6 gg kl rlsbku`s
klo tug`r. Klspuâs kl uc gls gès kl trhthgblct` klshphrldbô p`r d`gpolt` y
c` nhy gès dècdlr.
Fulctls1 nps1//y`utu.el/r<y][email protected]
&
nps1//y`utu.el/G9^C`pebnYG
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D,
bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthc
k` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot` lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls
ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J ([email protected]) kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls.
Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`), sb sl pulkl.
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
hccuh
bcfusb`cls
kl hrtlgbsbh
(Hrtlgbsbh
kl Jhohcdn`l
khbmrlg`chch
frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dècdlr kl nçmhk`
Lo dècdlr kl nçmhk` ls uch lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz
p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho. Lo nçmhk` ls lo ôrmhc` bctlrc` kl ghy`r thghø`,
hyukh
ho `rmhcbsg`
h kbmlrbr(DND)
o`s hobglct`s,
hoghdlch lclrmçh
y lobgbch
Lo dhrdbc`gh
nlpht`dlouohr
` nlpht`dhrdbc`gh
ls uc dècdlr
klot`xbchs.
nçmhk`
qul d`cstuyl lo >9-29% kl o`s tug`rls nlpèd`s ghobmc`s prbghrb`s.
Lstl tug`r sl klel h uch dbrr`sbs nlpèdh lc lo 29% kl o`s dhs`s y sl
klsduerl lc lo 4-;% kl o`s lstukb`s cldrôpsbd`s kl phdblctls dbrrôd`s.
Tç1
Nhebtuhoglctl lo nlpht`dhrdbc`gh c` prlslcth sçct`ghs. Yulst` qul oh
ghy`rçh kl loo`s sl klshrr`oohc s`erl uc nçmhk` dbrrôd`, lo phdblctl pulkl
phkldlr o`s sçct`ghs pr`pb`s kl oh dbrr`sbs. Oh klsd`gplcshdbôc kl uc dbrrôd`
klel
nhdlr plcshr lc
hphrbdbôc kl
uc nlpht`dhrdbc`gh
lctrl
`trhs dhushsgh
kl
klsd`gplcshdbôc.
\cohp`rdlcthal
gçcbg`
kl phdblctls, duy`
nlpht`dhrdbc`
nlpht`dhrdbc`gh
sl klshrr`ooh s`erl uc nçmhk` shc`, pulkl prlslcthr
prlslcthr sçct`ghs bclspldçd`s klo
p` k`o`r, pârkbkh kl pls`, ghsh phopheol, ltd.
58<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
O`s sçct`ghs gès frldulctlgl
frldulctlglctl
ctl klsdrbt`s s`c1 k`o`r
k`o`r,, lspldbhoglctl lc oh
phrtl klrldnh suplrb`r klo èrlh hek`gbcho, dlrdh klo `gôpoht` klrldn` ` lc oh
lsphokh: pârkbkh kl pls` sbc rhzôc hphrlctl: côkuo` kur` kleha` kl ohs d`soohs
s`erl lo ohk` klrldn` klo dulrp` qul p`krçh klelrsl ho tug`r
tug`r,, ` sbmc` kl qul lo
nçmhk` nhyh huglcthk` kl thghø`. Klebobkhk ` fhmh.
[1 D C (B) — 49/</84
Gl kbhmc`sdhr`c dècdlr kl nçmhk` lc lo 5989 y 6 glsls kl vbkh, hsç qul
gl ghckhr`c h dhsh h g`rbr.
T`y uc n`gerl kl == hø`s kl lkhk, gl lcdulctr` y gl sblct` eblc, y lst`y
eblc mrhdbhs s`erl t`k` h GGT8. lo kbhmcôsd` ful lc 5989!!!!!
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/dhcdlr0sthrt789
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
` lo pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT
kbsulot` lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo
pr`t`d`o` U (rldtho d`c plrbooh) kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl ls lslcdbho
qul sl hpobqul lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh d`c lo
pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dècdlr kl olcmuh
Dècdlr kl olcmuh, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh
glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uc tug`r ghobmc` p`d` frldulctl qul sl o`dhobzh,
s`erl t`k`, lc lo tlrdb` hctlrb`r kl oh olcmuh. O`s lxplrt`s drllc qul lctrl ohs
p`sbeols dhushs kl lstl p` kl dècdlr lstèc lo d`csug` kl hod`n`o y thehd`.
p`sbeols dhushs kl lstl p` kl dècdlr lstèc lo d`csug` kl hod`n`o y thehd`.
O`s tug`rls lc oh olcmuh sl sulolc lxtlcklr p`r ohs lstrudturhs d`cmuhs d`g`,
p`r lalgpo`, oh ohrbcml. O`s tug`rls qul sl klshrr`oohc lc oh z`ch hctlrb`r kl oh
olcmuh s`c o`s qul pulklc dhushr ohs olsb`cls gès mrhvls kl o`s tlabk`s.
586
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Tç1
Oohmh lc oh e`dh ` lo oheb` qul c` dbdhtrbzh (lstl ls lo sçct`gh gès d`gñc),
ghcdnh r`ah ` eohcdh lc ohs lcdçhs, oh olcmuh, ohs hgçmkhohs ` lo rlvlsgblct`
kl oh e`dh, côkuo` lc lo oheb`, oh e`dh, lo duloo` ` oh mhrmhcth ` slcshdbôc kl
lcmr`shgblct` kl oh glabooh, k`o`r kl mhrmhcth plrsbstlctl ` slcshdbôc kl hom`
ht`rhk` lc oh mhrmhcth, r`cqulrh ` dhgeb` lc oh v`z, hk`rgldbgblct`
hk`rg ldbgblct` kl oh e`dh
` oh olcmuh, k`o`r ` shcmrhk`
s hcmrhk` lc oh e`dh, kbduothk
kbd uothk phrh ghsdhr, trhmhr,
trhmhr, ` g`vlr
oh ghckçeuoh ` oh olcmuh, k`o`r kl `çk` y/` ghckçeuoh, gho hoblct` drôcbd`,
dhgeb`s lc oh f`rgh kl nheohr, pârkbkh kl pblzhs klcthols ` k`o`r kl kblctls
` gulohs: pârkbkh kl pls` sbc rhzôc hphrlctl: fhmh: pârkbkh klo hplt`, lc
lspldbho duhck` ls pr`o`cmhkh. Lst` pulkl sudlklr kurhctl o`s lsthkb`s gès
hvhczhk`s kl oh lcflrglkhk.
[1 Lq @a (D) — =/85/8<
N`oh, gb c`gerl ls Lcrbqul @alkh y vbv` lc Thchm` kl Dnbol.
Klsl` khr gb tlsg`cb` s`erl o` hd`ctldbk` d`c gb shouk lc lo prlslctl
hø` 598<1 lo kçh 54 kl Aucb` fub bctlrvlcbk` kl uc dècdlr h gb olcmuh (Dhrdbc`gh
kl Dâouohs Lsdhg`shs), uch uodlrh kl dhsb 5 dgs, o`dhobzhkh lc lo e`rkl ohtlrho
bzqublrk`
bzqublr
k` kl gb olcmuh.
Lo `rbmlc kl lsth ñodlrh sl rlg`cth ho gls kl slplgerl u `dtuerl klo hø`
598;. Tl prlslctô d`g` uch plquløh ghcdnh r`abzh, d`c k`o`r y hrk`r (phrldbk`
h uc Nlrpls), supusl qul sl kleçh h uch g`rklkurh hddbklctho y qul pr`ct`
shchrçh, d`g` `durrçh c`rghoglctl d`c lst`s lpbs`kb`s. Ylr`, trhcsdurrblr`c
vhrb`s glsls y c` klshphrldçh, ho d`ctrhrb`, beh dhgebhck` kl f`rgh y d`o`r
t`rcèck`sl kl uc t`c` eohcquldbc`.
Lc flerlr` klo 598< gl surmbô lo tlg`r kl qul p`kçh slr hom` gès slrb`.
D`cdurrç k`ckl uch gâkbd` klrghtôo`mh qublc c` gl kb` uc kbhmcôsd`, sbc`
qul gl klrbvô h nhdlrgl uch eb`psbh, h o` duho c` nbdl dhs` y gl hv`quâ h
bcvlsmhr lc oh wle s`erl lsth olsbôc qul c` shcheh phrh lcd`ctrhr uc rlglkb`
phrh su durhdbôc.
Lcd`ctrâ lvbklcdbh d`cf`rgl h gbs sçct`ghs y su hphrblcdbh oolmhck` h
oh d`cdousbôc kl qul sl trhtheh kl uch Dhckbkbhsbs (pr`v`dhkh p`r lo n`cm`
Dhckbkh hoebdhcs) lcd`ctrhck` thgebâc lo rlglkb` phrh trhthroh. Ful hsç qul
d`gprâ lo glkbdhglct` Btrhd`chz`o, lo duho hdhehrçh d`c oh dèckbkh lc uc
trhthgblct`
trhthgblc
t` p`r 89 kçhs.
[rhcsdurrçhc o`s kçhs y c` vlçh gla`rçh. [lrgbcâ d`c lo trhthgblct` y oh
nlrbkh slmuçh bmuho… Gl hsustl. D`cdurrç k`ckl uch `k`ctôo`m
`k`ctôo`mhh qublc, thgebâc
gl klrbv` h nhdlr uch eb`psbh kl oh nlrbkh. Tlmuçh bcdrâkuo`, sbc qulrlr hdlpthr
qul p`kçh slr hom` gès mrhv
mrhvl.
l. Fbchoglctl kldbkç vbsbthr h uc gâkbd` lspldbhobsth
58=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
dbruahc` Ghxbo`fhdbho kl vhsth lxplrblcdbh, qublc, d`c s`o` vbsuhobzhr oh z`ch
hfldthkh gl kbhmc`sdô lo dècdlr.
Oh c`dbh gl klrrugeô. Ylcsâ lc ohs n`rrbeols sldulohs qul p`kçh klahr,
klskl plrklr oh dhphdbkhk kl nheohr ` nheohr d`c kbduothk, nhsth c` p`klr
klmour
hobglct`s
klebk`
oh guohdbôc
gb olcmuh.
Lo k`dt`r
gl t`gô
uchh gulstrh
phrh kl
lcvbhroh
h eb`psbh, oh qul glsls hctls
nheçh rlnubk`, o` qul choglctl d`crgô lo kbhmcôsd` lo kçh ; kl ghy`,
sblck` klrbvhk` ho Bcstut` Chdb`cho klo Dècdlr (BCD) k`ckl qulkâ lc lsplrh
kl dbrumçh phrh hpr`xbghkhglctl chols kl aucb`.
Klskl lo kçh klo kbhmcôsd` gl d`cdlctrâ lc eusdhr homñc trhthgblct` phrh
phrh
d`gehr lo dècdlr, y c` khrol ghs dnhcdl kl slmubr lxphckbâck`sl. Lcd`ctrâ
bcf`rghdbôc s`erl gudn`s lolglct`s chturhols d`g` oh mrhvb`oh, ho`l vlrh y
gblo, ebdhre`cht` y `tr`s h o`s qul rldurrç kl bcglkbht`. H glkbhk`s kl ghy`,
lcd`ctrâ lc bctlrclt uc vbkl` k`ckl prlslcthehc uc d`gpulst` qul d`gehrçh
lo dècdlr ldhzglctl, lo GGT. Klsduerç qul lxbsh gudnh bcf`rghdbôc ho
rlspldt` y gudn`s gès tlsg`cb`s qul khehc dulcth kl su ldhdbh. Ful hsç
qul, h cls kl ghy`, oolmul nhsth k`ckl Hcmâobdh D`sth h qublc d`c`dç d`g`
d`cslalrh y kbstrbeubk`rh klo GGT. D`glcdâ d`c lo pr`t`d`o` bcglkbhthglctl
lsplrhck` tlrgbchro` klspuâs kl uc gls, y d`c oh rgl fl lc gb durhdbôc,
lgp` qul rlstheh phrh qul gl dbthrhc klo BCD phrh oh dbrumçh (Mo`sldt`gçh
phrdbho y kbslddbôc kl mhcmob`s dlrvbdhols).
Oolvheh s`o` 59 kçhs kl trhthgblct` duhck` s`rprlsbvhglctl sl hklohcth gb
n`spbthobzhdbôc phrh bctlrvlcbrgl. Ylcsâ1 c` tlrgbcâ lo trhthgblct`, plr` homñc
elcldb` nbz` lc gb. Lstheh `pgbsth hñc duhck` c` nheçh d`cdoubk` oh tlrhpbh
d`c lo GGT.
Fub bctlrvlcbk` y plrghcldç n`spbthobzhk` 86 kçhs qulkhck` h oh lsplrh klo
rlsuothk` kl ohs eb`psbhs klo tug`r y kl o`s gès kl ;< mhcmob`s kbsldthk`s kl
gb duloo`.
Ful hcmushctl oh lsplrh hucqul prlslch qul t`k` lstheh eblc. Ful
hsç qul oolmô lo kçh kl oh c`dbh1 ¡ohs gulstrhs lsthehc obgpbhs, sbc lvbklcdbh
kl pr`phmhdbôc klo dhrdbc`gh! Lo tug`r lstheh ‟lsthdb`chk`‗ y c` sl nheçh
lxphckbk`.. C` kbglcsb`câ o` elckbt` kl oh c`dbh, nhsth qul beh hehck`chck`
lxphckbk`
lo n`spbtho y c` pukl lvbthr oh lg`dbôc y homuchs oèmrbghs…
N`y gl lcdulctr` dhsb t`thoglctl rlduplrhk`, dhsb sbc pr`eolghs kl
g`kuohdbôc, s`o` d`c homuch bcslcsbebobkhk lc gb duloo` y lc oh z`ch kbsldthkh
kl gb olcmuh y uch olvl obgbthdbôc klo g`vbgblct` kl gb erhz` bzqublrk`
klebk` h o`s d`rtls kl gñsduo` y clrvb`s, plr` d`csbklr` qul ls gçcbg` sb
kbglcsb`chg`s o` hmlohctl qul puk` nhelr sbk`.
Ls dblrt` qul ho nhelr t`ghk` lo GGT kurhctl 55 kçhs nbz` qul
klshphrldblrhc ohs dâouohs ghobmchs qul pukblr`c nhelr lsthk` ho`ahkhs lc
58>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
ohs z`chs dlrdhchs h gb olcmuh, yh qul lo k`o`r sl gl lstheh pr`yldthck` h oh
ghckçeuoh y lo `çk`.
K`y mrhdbhs h Kb`s y ho g`glct` qul klsduerç lstl Gbohmr`s` Gbclrho.
Fulctl1np1//ggsdnbol.cbcm.d`g/mr`up/tlsg`cb`s0mr`up\ro7tlsg`cb`s &xmPs`urdl7h
dvbty&bk76;48889%4HMr`up%4H89;;4=&phml7;
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o`
D ` lo pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl
DKT kbsulot` lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c
lo pr`t`d`o` U (rldtho d`c plrbooh) kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Bckukheolglctl
pr`t`d`o` A (ohvhk` eudho). Kl c`dnl ls lslcdbho qul sl hpobqul lo pr`t`d`o`
L (lclgh) hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dècdlr kl ghgh
Lo dècdlr kl ghgh, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh
glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls lo drldbgblct` hc`rgho kl dâouohs ghobmchs lc lo
tlabk`
Lxbstlc qul
k`s p`s
prbcdbphols
kl dècdlr kl
dhrdbc`gh
kudtho ghghrb`.
lo gès frldulctl
d`gblczh
lc o`s d`ckudt`s
qulghgh,
oolvhclooldnl
klskl
oh ghgh nhsth lo plzôc y lo dhrdbc`gh o`euoboohr qul d`gblczh lc phrtls kl ohs
ghghs, oohghkhs o`euoboo`s, qul pr`kudlc oh oldnl ghtlrch.
Tç1
Lo dècdlr kl ghgh prld`z mlclrhoglctl c` dhush sçct`ghs. H glkbkh
qul lo dècdlr drldl, o`s sçct`ghs pulklc bcdoubr1 lcr`aldbgblct`, nbcdnhzôc y
rltrhddbôc kl oh pblo ` klo plzôc. @tr` sçct`gh pulkl slr oh sldrldbôc klo plzôc.
Lc homuc`s dhs`s, oh sldrldbôc pulkl slr kl d`o`r dohr` h hghrboolct` ` vlrk`s`
y oudbr d`g` pus.
Nhy qul lcfhzhr qul lo dècdlr kl ghgh pulkl ghcbflsthrsl d`g` uch
tug`rhdbôc hsbct`gèdh y qul duhck` yh nhy rltrhddbôc kl oh pblo, sl trhth kl
uc dècdlr hvhczhk`.
582
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[1 G   È U (H) - 8/4/84
Hsuct`1 LT[@R
LT[@R FLOBQ GBT LT[\[email protected] KL KBLQ ¡!!! dècdlr kl ghgh
Hckrlhs, qublr` d`cthrol qul gbs lstukb`s kl ohe`rht`rb`s (gl nbdl kl t`k`,
gudn`s) lstèc kl ghrhvbooh, qul lst`y guy flobz y qul qublr` d`gphrro` d`c
\k. y d`c lo lqubp`.
Lst`y sñplr flobz y lg`db`chkh, lcd`ctrâ uch gâkbdh drlylctl klo kbôxbk`
kl do`r` y gl hchobzô o`s lstukb`s y gl sholc kl kblz.
Lst`y lc lo f`r` y kla` sblgprl gbs d`glcthrb`s kl gb dhs`.
Xublr` hmrhkldlrol su hp`y`. Gl `plrâ s`o` uch vlz, shquâ lo côkuo` kl oh
ghgh y c` `plrâ oh slmuckh vlz qul qulrçhc o`s gâkbd`s, c` shquâ mhcmob`s,
c` gl t`quâ cucdh gès, thgp`d` gl nbdl qubgb`, cb rhy`s,
rhy`s, cb n`rg`chs… chkh
kl bcvhsbôc.
[`g` lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` d`csthctlglctl, ho`l vlrh d`c gblo, nblrehs vhrbhs
phrh obgpbhr nçmhk`, puogôc y rbøôc y `trhs phrh klsphrhsbthr. Gl klsphrhsbt`
d`c homuc`s kl o`s pr`kudt`s qul su wle glcdb`ch p`rqul c` o`s lcdulctr`
t`k`s lc Hrmlcch, ehø`s kl bcglrsbôc d`c sho. Gudn` hg`r h gb hogh y fl.
Ol ghck` uc mrhc herhz` ho hogh y kl gès lstè kldbrol kl t`k` gb hp`y`
bcd`ckbdb`cho. Uulm` ho ucbvlrs` o` elckbmh bccbthglctl h uk. y h su fhgbobh.
MUHDBHT, MUHDBHT, MUHDBHT, MUHDBHT
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J
(pblo d`c [email protected]) hpobdhk` lc oh z`ch kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl
hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`) duhck` sl pulkh. Lc dhs`s kl hoth t`xbkhk `
hdbklz, sl pulkl thgebâc høhkbr lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) vhrbhs vldls h oh
slghch. D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr,
dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
559
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Dècdlr ôsl`
Lo dècdlr ôsl` prbghrb`, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r
oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uc p` kl dècdlr p`d` d`gñc qul hfldth ho tlabk`
ôsl`.
H kbflrlcdbh klo slduckhrb`,
slduckhrb`, sl `rbmbch lc lo nuls` y c` ls d`csldulcdbh kl
uc dècdlr kl `trh phrtl klo dulrp` kbslgbchk` ho nuls`, lc lsl dhs` sl oohghrçh
glthstèd`
glthstè
d` y rldbebrçh lo c`gerl klo ôrmhc` ` tlabk` lc lo duho sl `rbmbcô.
Tç1
Tu sçct`gh gès frldulctl ls lo k`o`r plrsbstlctl ` bcusuho ` bchghdbôc
lc/` dlrdh klo nuls`.
C  1
Nhsth oh fldnh c` tlclg`s uch rlmrlsbôc t`tho kl dècdlr kl nuls`
d`gpr`ehkh y d`crghkh, hucqul sb sl nh rlp`rthk` gla`rh kl dhobkhk kl
vbkh. Tlmubg`s bcvlsmhck` phrh lcd`ctrhr s`oudb`cls ldhdls h lstl dècdlr
thc kbdbo kl trhthr.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J
([email protected]) kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh)
hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O ( ehø`).
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dècdlr kl `vhrb`
Lo dècdlr kl `vhrb` ls uch lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz
p`r
oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho.
O`s `vhrb`s lclc
uckl
rlduerbgblct`
p`r dâouohs
lpbtlobhols.
Kl oh trhcsf`rghdbôc
ghobmch
lsths dâouohsf`rghk`
surml oh
bcglcsh ghy`rçh kl dècdlrls kl `vhrb`. Hfldth s`erl t`k` h gualrls lctrl <9 y
=9 hø`s. Ls lo p` kl dècdlr gès frldulctl klo hphrht`
hphrht` rlpr`kudt`r flglcbc`.
flglcbc`.
558
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs sulolc
sulol c hphrldlr duhck` oh lcflrglkhk lstè lc uch fhsl hvhczhkh,
plr` nhy sløhols kl holrth qul plrgbtlc su kltlddbôc prld`z y lsths s`c1 k`o`r lc
oh plovbs ` lc oh phrtl bcflrb`r klo hek`glc, sbgbohr h uch bckbmlsôc: kbduothk
phrh bcmlrbr hobglct`s ` slcshdbôc rèpbkh kl oolcurh ho d`glr: sçct`ghs urbchrb`s,
thols d`g` urmlcdbh (slcshdbôc d`csthctl
d`csthctl kl tlclr qul `rbchr
`r bchr ` frldulcdbh (`rbchr
h glcuk`).
Y`krçh hphrldlr nbcdnhzôc klo hek`glc ho rltlclr oçqubk`s ` p`r huglcthr
kl thghø` lo `vhrb`. Lc lsth fhsl oh gualr p`krçh prlslcthr hclgbh ` pârkbkh
kl pls`.
Lst`s sçct`ghs thgebâc p`krçhc slr dhushk`s p`r lcflrglkhkls elcbcmchs
` p`r dècdlr lc `tr`s ôrmhc`s. Duhck` s`c dhushk`s p`r lo dècdlr kl `vhrb`,
lst`s sçct`ghs lcklc h slr plrsbstlctls y h rlprlslcthr uc dhgeb` kl o` qul
ls c`rgho.
[1 O Bwj (D) — =/;/86
Gb c`gerl ls Obkbh Bwhcbuj, s`y p`ohdh y jbclsbôo`mh.
Nhdl kblz hø`s qul vbv` lc Dnbol. Lc slplgerl kl 598< gl slc
d`c g`olshs lc gb hphrht` rlpr`kudv` (k`o`r lc o`s `vhrb`s) y hdukç h
nhdlrgl lxèglcls o`s duhols hrr`ahc < qubstls lc gbs `vhrb`s. Lc kbdblgerl
gl kbhmc`sdhr`c dècdlr lc o`s `vhrb`s d`c tug`rls kl ; h < dg. oh `pdbôc
glkbdh lrh `plrhrgl lcslmubkh y shdhrgl t`k`. R` c` qublr` qul gl d`rtlc
chkh kl gb dulrp` y lgpblz` h eusdhr bcf`rghdbôc lc bctlrclt nhsth qul gl
lcdulctr` oh pèmbch kl Dnbol kl Hcmâobdh D`sth, c`s d`gucbdhg`s, c`s aucthg`s
y lstheoldbg`s o`s phs`s h slmubr d`c GGT, DKT y [email protected], qul lrhc pr`kudt`s
qul
nheçh
d`c`dbk`,
plr` Hcmâobdh
lcsløô hohuobzhro`s
klouz
oh (Eb`ptr`c).
ghclrh gès
lfldvh.
lfldv
h. D`g`
jbclsbôo`mh
thgebâc gl
gl d`o`quâ
oègphrh kl
Lgpldâ h t`ghr GGT eblc slmubk` kurhctl 8 gls t`ghck` 89 vldls ho kçh,
plr` y` qulrçh huglcthr oh k`sbs rèpbkhglct
rèpbkhglctll y oolmuâ rèpbk` h t`ghr 4 m`ths 89
vldls ho kçh, d`c lst` s`o` tuvl qul br gudnhs vldls ho ehø` y slmuç nhsth t`ghr
6 m`ths y duhck` phs` oh drbsbs
d rbsbs durhvh. Ho p`d` lgp`, gb dulrp` lstheh obgpb`
y slmuç t`ghck` 6 m`ths kl GGT hdvhk` 89 vldls ho kçh, sueçh y ehaheh k`sbs
kl hdulrk` h gb t`olrhcdbh. Klspuâs kl uc gls gl nbdl lxèglcls culvhglctl
culvhglctl
(hquç lstèc t`k`s gbs lxèglcls) k`ckl shoçh qul gbs tug`rls yh c` lrhc <
s`o` 4 y kl uc thghø` gudn` glc`r, sbc hspldt` dhcdlrçmlc`. Tlmuç t`ghck`
GGT lc k`sbs gès ehahs p`r qul yh gl lstheh d`sthck` t`ghr 6 m`ths, plr`
gl hpobdheh lo [email protected] p`r oh pblo 4 vldls ho kçh auct` d`c lo GGT y hphrtl slmuç
t`ghck` 89 vldls ho kçh.
555
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Klspuâs bcd`rp`rl ohvhk`s vhmbchols kl GGT d`c [email protected] 4 vldls ho kçh.
Ylrs`choglctl, o` nbdl kbflrlctl h o`s pr`t`d`o`s1 5<9 go kl [email protected] d`c = m`ths
nhsth 8< m`ths kl GGT d`c 8,< go ho prbcdbpb` nhsth < go kl [email protected]
Hn`rh, d`c lo 4lr lxèglc rlhobzhk` nhdl 4 glsls, sholc gbs `vhrb`s
d`gpolthglc
d`gpolthglctl
tl obgpb`skl
y nhm`
s`o` kl ghctlcdbôc t`ghck` 4 vldls
ho kçh 6 m`ths hdvhkhs
GGTuch
d`ck`sbs
[email protected]
Hcmâobdh gl prlmucth s`erl homuch g`olsh d`c o`s ohvhk`s vhmbchols y
kle` kldbr qul cbcmuch, cb sbqublrh slc slqulkhk vhmbcho.
Hctl oh prlmucth kl oh d`ohe`rhdbôc qul Hcmlobdh lctrlmh d`c uc lqubp`
kl tlrhpluths phrh trhthr ohs sbtuhdb`cls lg`db`chols, kle` kldbr qul sblct`
qul o`s pr`eolghs lg`db`chols fulr`c oh dhush kl gb dècdlr y mrhdbhs h lsth
hyukh rlohahrgl, shdhr gbs lg`db`cls, plcshr p`sbvhglct
p`sbvhglctl,
l, khrgl lo lgp`
phrh ls` d`c ohs tlrhpbhs qul ustlkls gl hpobdhr`c, hyukô gudnçsbg` p`rqul lo
dulrp` c` lxbstl sbc hogh.
R` d`g` jbclsbôo`mh nl bcd`rp`rhk` h gb trheha` klskl nhdl 59 hø`s uch
tlrhpbh kl ouz d`c uc hphrht` gâkbd` (Eb`ptr`c) y d`g` hmrhkldbgblct` h gb
shchdbôc n`y gl bcd`rp`r` kl ghclrh mrhtubth d`c lsth tlrhpbh lclrmâdh
d`gpolglcthrbh qul thgebâc nl uobzhk` d`g` hut` shchdbôc. Lsth tldc`o`mçh
lgbtl uch ouz vbsbeol phrh eb`lsguohr lo dulrp`, ol kh oh lclrmçh qul ol fhoth h
o`s dlctr`s lclrmâd`s klo dulrp` phrh su rlmlclrhdbôc.
Fbchoglctl kle` d`cthr qul dhgebl gb hobglcthdbôc h uch kblth shch y qul
rld`gblck` GGT yh qul c` pr`kudl cbcmñc lfldt` slduckhrb` y p`r lo d`ctrhrb` ho
t`ghr dhckhkls thc hoths gl slch d`c gudnh lclrmçh y d`c gès mhchs kl mhchr
lsth ehthooh.
Y`r o` thct`, rld`gblck` slmubr lo pr`t`d`o` bckbdhk` y qul t`glc lo GGT
kl hdulrk` h su t`olrhcdbh.
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/[email protected]]eqcKnKs
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` U
(rldtho d`c plrbooh) kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` V
(brrbmhdbôc vhmbcho) y thgebâc sl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
554
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Dècdlr phcdrlètbd`
Lo dècdlr kl pècdrlhs, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uc tug`r ghobmc` qul sl
`rbmbch lc oh moèckuoh phcdrlèdh.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs gès frldulctls s`c1 k`o`r lc oh rlmbôc suplrb`r ` glkbh klo
hek`glc, qul sl bctlcsbdh klspuâs kl d`glr ` duhck` lo phdblctl sl hdulsth.
Bdtlrbdbh, khkh p`r oh rltlcdbôc kl ebobs y lo huglct` kl oh ebobrruebch, qul sl kh lc
homuc`s dhs`s lc qul lo tug`r lstè lc oh dhelzh klo pècdrlhs, pârkbkh kl pls`,
cèuslhs y vôgbt`s, lsphsg`s.
[1 Gô G (H) — =/85/8<
Lc 5988 gl kbhmc`sdhr`c dècdlr kl pècdrlhs. Lc kbd. 5985 lstheh lc fhsl
BV d`c glc`s kl 8 gls kl vbkh. Yhsâ p`r 86 qubgb`s sbc lfldt` p`sbv` y d`c
lo rlsuothk` kl rlkuddbôc kl pls` h glc`s kl ;9 jm,
jm , sbc plo`, sbc erboo` lc `a`s,
pblo d`c t`c` lcflrgbz` hdlrhk` y klshnudbhkh p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho.
Gl ghckhr`c h dhsh h g`rbr. Gl nheohr`c klo GGT y d`glcdâ lo trhthgblct`.
Nhdbh 89 t`ghs ho kçh, hsç d`g` t`k` p` kl pr`t`d`o`s p`sbeols. Nue` uch
rlgbsbôc t`tho d`crghkh p`r hchoçdhs y hn`rh lst`y shch.
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/[email protected]
nps1//y`utu.el/[email protected][JpL/
[JpL/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o`
J ([email protected]) hpobdhk` lc oh z`ch kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh lo
pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`). Hklgès sl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh)
phrh lobgbchr t`xbdbkhk nlpèdh.
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho
slmubr
kblth hklduhkh
ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs
susthcdbhs
quluch
hdbkbdhc
lo dulrp`,hcdhcdlrçmlch,
y qul klel slr hkhpthkh,
slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
55;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Dècdlr kl prôsthth
Lo dècdlr kl prôsthth ls uch lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh
ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho. Tl klc`gbch dècdlr kl prôsthth ho qul
sl klshrr`ooh lc uc` kl o`s ôrmhc`s mohckuohrls klo sbstlgh rlpr`kudt`r
ghsduobc`. Oh prôsthth ls oh lcdhrmhkh kl pr`kudbr oçqubk` slgbcho. Lo dècdlr sl
pr`kudl duhck` homuchs dâouohs pr`stèd
pr`stèdhs
hs guthc y d`gblczhc h guopobdhrsl
klsd`ctr`ohkhglctl.
klsd`ctr`ohkh
glctl. Ls oh dhush gès frldulctl kl dècdlr lc n`gerls.
Tç1
Yulkl slr hsbct`gèd` lc fhsls bcbdbhols ` prlslcthrsl d`g` bcd`cclcdbh
urbchrbh ` kbsgbcudbôc klo dhoberl ` bctlrrupdbôc klo dn`rr`
d n`rr` kl `rbch y kbduothk
` lsd`z`r ho `rbchr. Lc fhsl hvhczhkh nhy sçct`ghs `estrudv`s dohr`s, pukblck`
prlslcthrsl d`c k`o`r frldulctl lc oh rlmbôc ougehr y kbduothkls lc ohs
rlohdb`cls slxuhols.
[1 N V A (D) — </;/84
64 hø`s, dhshk`, 4 nba`s, plcsb`chk` kl Dhrhebclr`s, k`gbdbobhk` lc
Thchm`.
‟Lo kçh 89/85/5989 gl rlhobdâ uc hcmlc` pr`stèd` d`c uc rlsuothk` kl
4=,=6 Cm.GO, p`r o` qul lo gâkbd` kl dheldlrh `rklc` uch eb`psbh k`ckl lo
lxhglc hrr`a` hklc`dhrdbc`gh pr`stèd` 6 (4+4), ôslh uc tug`r kl 6 dg, qul
sl lcd`ctrheh dhpsuohk` klctr` kl oh prôsthth, kl `rbmlc dhcdlrçmlc`, p`r o` qul
sl gl prhddô uch pr`sthtldt`gçh rhkbdho p`r obcfhklcldt`gçh lxtlckbkh. D`c uc
rlsuothk`
shsfhdt`rb`,
sl rlrô t`k` lo bctlrb`r (sl vhdbô) hklgès kl
mhcmob`s y `plrht`rb`
prôsthth ghs
vlsçduohs slgbchols.
O` shsfhdt`rb` ls oh phoherh klo gâkbd` qul prlphrô lo pr`dlkbgblct`, plr`
lo rlsuothk` klo hcmlc` pr`stèd` t`tho p`stlrb`r
p`stlrb`r h oh `plrhdbôc ful kl 9,6<6,
hucqul kba` qul nheçh qul brrhkbhr p`rqul lst` bckbdheh qul hñc nheçh bckbdb`s
dhcdlrçmlc`s lc lo sldt`r.
Y`stlrb`rglctl fub lcvbhk` ho Bcstut` kl Uhkb`glkbdbch (BUHG) k`ckl sl
d`csthtô qul oh `plrhdbôc rlhobzhkh sl trhtheh kl uc dècdlr kl prôsthth kl hot`
rblsm` p`r o` qul lo hcmlc` rlsuot` slr guy hot`, o` qul bckbdheh qul lxbshc
phrduohs dhcdlrçmlchs.
Gl rld`glckhr`c bcbdbhr kl bcglkbht` hurço`m`s ON — UH y oulm` U[,
klaèck`gl
d`c
rlp`s`
p`ry49
kçhs.
D`glcdâ
d`c
lo GGT
h o`s
; kçhs gl kç dulcth qul hom` lstheh phshck`
lc gb dulrp`. Gl p`kçh olvhcthr
olvhcthr kl oh dhgh.
55<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[`gâ lo pr`t`d`o` 5999 d`g` gl bckbdhr`c, gès o`s lclghs. H o`s 84
kçhs gl rlhobdâ uc lxhglc pr`stèd` d`c uc rlsuothk` FHC[ÈT[[email protected] (slmñc lo
gâkbd`) p`rqul lstl bckbdheh uc hcmlc` kl 9,2 Cm/GO.
Tl gl bckbdh brrhkbhdbôc gls kl `dtuerl, sbm` t`ghck` lo GGT y sâ qul lc
`dtuerl yh c` tlckrâ chkh.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</dhcdlr-kl-pr`sthth-nlrdb`nps1// tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</dhcdlr-kl-pr`sthth-nlrdb`-vlrkum`vlrkum`ahrh/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` U
(rldtho d`c plrbooh) klspuâs kl dhkh klfldhdbôc kurhctl
kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls.
Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh
d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dècdlr kl puogôc
Lo dècdlr kl puogôc ls uch lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz
p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho.
Lo dècdlr kl puogôc sl pr`kudl duhck` nhy uc drldbgblct` lxhmlrhk`
kl dâouohs ghobmchs lc lstl ôrmhc`. Ls oh dhush gès frldulctl kl gulrtl p`r
dècdlr, thct` lc n`gerls d`g` lc gualrls.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs gès frldulctls sulolc slr1 kbduothk rlspbrht`rbh, t`s sldh, d`c
lghs ` shcmubc`olcth, hsç d`g` k`o`r t`rèdbd`, hphrbdbôc kl sbebohcdbhs (sboebk`
kl pldn`), r`cqulrh l nbcdnhzôc lc lo duloo` y oh dhrh, dhcshcdb`, pârkbkh kl
hplt` y d`csldulctl pârkbkh kl pls`.
556
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1 K. D M. L. (Lø) — 6/>/86
Lo 8; kl kbdlgerl 598< sl gl kltldt` uch ghsh (< dg) lc puogôc klrldn`.
Hctls kl d`glczhr ohs prulehs, phrh lo kbhmcôsd` lxhdt`
lxhdt` kl oh olsbôc, d`glcdâ
h t`ghr GGT hd`cslahkh p`r uch d`gphølrh kl trheha`. T`y gâkbd` y lsdâpdh
h t`k`s o`s trhthgblct`s fulrh kl o` ‟c`rghols‗.
Lstukbâ lo d`gpulst` y vb qul gl p`krçh hyukhr. Hsç o` nbdl kurhctl uc gls
prlvb` h oh bctlrvlcdbôc qul lc uc prbcdbpb` lrh d`gpobdhkh, yh qul oh olsbôc
bckbdheh qul lo tlgh c` lrh eulc` y gl tlckrçhc qul qubthr glkb` puogôc.
Lc t`k` g`glct` nl sbk` `pgbsth, plcshck` lc qul t`k` beh h br guy
eblc y sb c` lrh hsç, puls o` hkgbrçh (s`y drlylctl).
drlylctl). Nl klsdueblrt` h plrs`chs
qul tlcçh h gb horlklk`r qul gl nhc hyukhk` gudnçsbg` (ghrbk` l nba`s) qul
o`s tlcçh hphrthk`s, yh qul lstheh klkbdheh ho trheha`, ¡d`c uch dhrmh kl lstrâs
guy bgp`rthctl!
Hklgès, h O`ob qul sblgprl ol lsthrâ hmrhkldbkh, p`rqul d`c 8< gbcut`s kl
d`cvlrshdbôc gl hyukô gudn` y s`erl t`k` gl kba`1 ‟lcls VBKH lc oh dhrh‗.
Oh bctlrvlcdbôc ful t`k` uc âxbt`1 c` hfldthdbôc mhcmob`chr y lc vlz kl
qubthrgl glkb` puogôc, gl qubthr`c s`o` oh phrtl hfldthkh. Lo rlsuothk` kl oh
eb`psbh bctrh`plrht`rbh
bctrh`plrht`rbh p`r 5 vldls ful clmhv`,
clmhv`, kl hnç oh s`rprlsh y holmrçh kl
oh dbruahch ho c` tlclr qul lxrphr oh z`ch hfldthkh. ¡[`k`s guy d`ctlst`s!!!
Ho slr mrhckl lo tug`r y khk` qul s`y plrs`ch a`vlc phrh lo dècdlr,
dècdlr, sl kldbkl
d`c gb hpr`ehdbôc d`glczhr qubgb`tlrhpbh d`hkyuvhctl kurhctl ; slsb`cls.
Kurhctl ohs k`s prbglrhs qubgb`s slmuç t`ghck` GGT, plr` gl slctheh gho y
gb dulrp` o` rldnhzheh. O` nl klahk` kl f`rgh tlgp`rho nhsth qul tlrgbcl ohs
slsb`cls kl qubgb`. [lcm` qul kldbr qul c` lst`y tlcblck` cbcmñc sçct`gh kl
‟o`s lfldt`s‗ kl oh qubgb` y sl qul lo GGT lstè nhdblck` su ‟trheha`‗, nl hnç
qul o`s gâkbd`s thgebâc lstèc s`rprlckbk`s kl o` eblc qul lst`y. Lsplr` qul
gb lxplrblcdbh sbrvh phrh hyukhr h `trhs plrs`chs.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/0s7puog`c
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J
([email protected]) hpobdhk` lc lo pldn` kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl pulkl hpobdhr
lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
D`g` kl
t`k`s
o`s pr`t`d`o`s
slry hd`gphøhk`
p`rm
bcfusb`cls
hrtlgbsbh
(Hrtlgbsbhkl
hccdècdlr,
hccuh
uh) ‛< pulkl
m ho kçh‛
oh bcmlsth kl 8<
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
55=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dècdlr rlcho
Lo dècdlr kl dâouohs rlchols, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r
oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, thgebâc oohghk` dècdlr kl rbøôc ` hklc`dhrdbc`gh
rlcho, lstè khk` p`r oh prlslcdbh kl dâouohs ghobmchs lc lo rlvlsgblct`
rlvlsgblct` kl o`s
tñeuo`s (tue`s guy plqulø`s) klo rbøôc. Lst`s tñeuo`s s`c o`s lcdhrmhk`s kl
obgpbhr y otrhr oh shcmrl, t`ghck` o`s pr`kudt`s kl klsnldn`, pr`kudblck` oh
`rbch, qul phsh klskl dhkh rbøôc h oh vlabmh, h trhvâs kl uc tue` ohrm` oohghk`
urâtlr.
Tç1
Lc oh hdtuhobkhk, oh ghy`rçh kl o`s tug`rls rlchols s`c hsbct`gèd`s y sl
kltldthc hddbklcthoglctl kurhctl uc lxhglc kl bghmlc`o`mçh, lc eusdh kl
dhushs c` rlohdb`chkhs.
O`s sçct`ghs pulklc bcdoubr1 nbcdnhzôc y k`o`r hek`gbcho, k`o`r kl lsphokh,
shcmrl lc oh `rbch, nbcdnhzôc kl ohs vlchs horlklk`r kl uc tlsduo` (vhrbd`dlol),
k`o`r kl d`sthk`, pârkbkh kl pls`. [hgebâc pulkl d`cdurrbr sbmc`s d`g` lo
d`o`r hc`rgho kl oh `rbch (ghrrôc, r`abz`, d`erl, ltd), klebk` h oh hphrbdbôc kl
nlghls.
[1 T (D) — 88/5/8<
Dècdlr rlcho d`c gltèsthsb
gltèsthsbss puog`cls. Mrhk` BV (tlrgbcho).
Lo =/95/84 d`glczô lo trhthgblct` y lc ; glsls yh c` tlcçh gltèsthsbs.
Klspuâs kl 8 hø` sl ol nbdblr`c prulehs y lo tug`r kl 86,> dg nheçh
rlehahk` h 5 dg.
Oh Krh. ol rld`glckô slmubr d`c lo GGT. H kçh kl n`y ls uch plrs`ch
c`rgho.
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/\p]N8HNXrYX
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
55>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` U
(rldtho d`c plrbooh) kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L
(lclgh) hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dècdlr tbr`bkl`
Lo dècdlr r`bkl`, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh
glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, hmruph h uc plqulø` cñglr` kl tug`rls ghobmc`s qul
nhdlc su hphrbdbôc lc oh moèckuoh r`bkls, oh duho lstè sbtuhkh lc lo bctlrb`r y ho
frlctl kl oh phrtl hoth klo duloo`. Yulkl `durrbr lc t`k`s o`s mrup`s kl lkhkls.
Tç1
Bcdouylc oh t`s, kbduothk
kbduoth k phrh bcmlrbr,
bcmlrbr, hmrhckhgblct` kl oh moèckuoh r`bkls,
r`cqulrh ` dhgeb`s lc oh v`z, nbcdnhzôc lc lo duloo`, y prlslcdbh kl uc tug`r
` côkuo` r`bkl`.
[1 Mv F. Oôz M (H)
[uvl uc HDV (Hddbklctl dlrler`vhsduohr) lo 59 kl c`vblgerl klo 5984, h
rhçz kl lst` gl nbdblr`c vhrb`s lstukb`s phrh eusdhr sldulohs, lc uc` kl ls`s
lstukb`s (Ld`-K`ppolr kl vhs`s klo duloo`) gl lcd`ctrhr`c uc côkuo` kl 5 dg
kl kbègltr` lc ohs r`bkls.
Lgpldâ trhthgblct` vçh `rho kl DKT, hmuh kl ghr, slsb`cls kl Tuplr rhe`
Qhpplr (Eb`tr`nc®), dhgbchths kbhrbhs, hobglcthdbôc sbc nhrbchs, cb oèdtl`s cb
hzñdhrls. D`glczô oh rlkuddbôc klo côkuo` y ho dhe` kl uc hø` y dhsb trls glsls
sl rlkua` h 9,5 dg kl kbègltr`.
Lgpldâ d`c nlghturbh, gl ld`mrhhr`c y kltldthr`c dècdlr gñopol kl
vlabmh. Gl `plrhr`c y h o`s slbs glsls tlcçh gès dhrdbc`ghs qul hctls. Hnç
d`c`dç ho Kr. Ècmlo Mrhdbh y d`glcdâ h elelr hmuh kl ghr. [hgebâc d`c`dç lo
GGT y h Nbrh Uhthc Ghclj y lgpldâ "su" Yr`t`d`o` T`ohr y h d`csugbr GGT.
[hgebâc supl klo drukbvlmhcbsg` y gl `rblct` h loo` p`r lo ober` kl Ghrd Hgs
s`erl olud`sbt`dbs kbmlsv
kbmlsvh.
h.
Lst` ls eèsbdhglctl o` qul nhm` d`g` trhthgblct`.
552
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
C`th1 lctrl lo 8 kl auob` klo 598; y lo 8> kl lsl gbsg` gls nl bcmlrbk` 859 go
C`th1
kbhrb`s kl DKT rlphrk`s lc 85 t`ghs sbc lfldt`
lfldt`ss slduckhrb`s kl d`csbklrhdbôc.
\c p`d` kl flerçduoh lo kçh 85, vôgbt`s kçhs <, =, 8; y 8< y p`oburbh.
H kçh kl n`y yh c` nhy côkuo` y oh r`bkls lstè klctr` kl o`s phrègltr`s
kl oh c`rghobkhk.
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J
(pblo d`c [email protected]) hpobdhk` lc oh z`ch kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl
hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`) sb sl pulkl.
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dècdlr utlrbc`
Lo dècdlr utlrbc` ls uch lcflrglkhk kl dhush d`c`dbkh ` klsd`c`dbkh y sbc
s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho. Lo târgbc` dècdlr
utlrbc` nhdl rlflrlcdbh h vhrb`s kbflrlctls p`s kl dècdlr qul sl klshrr`oohc
lc lo ñtlr`.
Lo dècdlr utlrbc` sl dohsbdh lc1 shrd`gh utlrbc`, dècdlr kl lck`gltrb`,
dècdlr dlrvbdho (` kl duloo` utlrbc`) y oh lcflrglkhk tr`f`eoèsdh
tr`f`eoèsdh mlsthdb`cho.
mlsthdb`cho.
Tç1
Lc su fhsl bcbdbho sulol slr hsbct`gèdh, plr` hphrldlc duhck` lo dècdlr
sl nh lxtlckbk`, pukblck` slr o`s gès frldulctls1 ohs ghcdnhs kl shcmrl olvl
lctrl ohs glcstruhdb`cls ` klspuâs kl oh gbsgh, k`o`r ho ghctlclr rlohdb`cls
slxuhols, shcmrhk` glcstruho gès ohrm` y heuckhctl kl o` c`rgho, shcmrhr
klspuâs klo d`bt` ` kurhctl lo lxèglc pâovbd` lc oh d`csuoth mbcld`oômbdh,
huglct` kl oh sldrldbôc vhmbcho ` shcmrhk` klspuâs kl oh glc`phusbh.
549
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1 Y ô  GGT (   FKH) - 52/96/85
Lsghk` Tr. Nugeol,
Ylcsâ qul ol musthrçh shelr qul gl nl durhk` kl dècdlr kl ñtlr` y kl
dècdlr kl `vhrb` d`c GGT.
Nhdl uc hø` fub kbhmc`sdhkh kl glohc`gh ghobmc` mrhk` ; (dècdlr kl
pblo kbslgbchk` lc o`s mhcmob`s). Gl nbdblr`c uotrhs`cbk` lc aucb` kl lstl hø`. Lo
k`dt`r gl kba` qul tlcçh uc tug`r lc lo `vhrb` klrldn` y qul gb ñtlr` g`strheh
g`strheh
sbmc`s kl dècdlr / prldècdlr. Lo k`dt`r gl d`glctô qul tlckrçh qul s`gltlrgl
h uch nbstlrldt`gçh. Kldbkbg`s rlplr oh ld`mrhh lc 8 gls y nhdlr uch eb`psbh
y p`clr fldnh phrh oh dbrumçh klspuâs kl o`s rlsuothk`s klo slmuck` uotrhs`cbk`.
Lc auob` nbdl uc durs` kl GGT kl uchs 4 slghchs. Lo trhthgblct` d`c GGT ful
klshmrhkheol. Dhkh vlz qul t`gheh uch k`sbs gl slch lcflrgh. [lcçh kbhrrlh,
cèuslhs y vôgbt`s. [hgebâc lxplrbglctâ uc k`o`r bcs`p`rtheol lc gb ohk`
klrldn` (lo `vhrb` hfldthk`). Tlmuç d`c lo trhthgblct` huglcthck` mrhkuhoglctl
ohs m`ths d`g` slmurbkhk nhsth oolmhr h 8< m`ths 5 vldls ho kçh. C`tâ qul sb d`gçh
glkbh n`rh hctls kl ohs t`ghs tlcçh glc`s cèuslhs.
Hdhe` kl rldbebr o`s rlsuothk`s kl oh ld`mrhh kl rlpldbôc. Lo tug`r kl
`vhrb` sl nh bk` p`r d`gpolt` y gb ñtlr` ls c`rgho y shoukheol, lo k`dt`r kba`
qul c` shel p`r quâ, plr` yh c` cldlsbt` uch dbrumçh ` uch eb`psbh. [`k` ls
c`rgho y ¡shoukheol!
Fulctl1 nps1//m5df`rug.`rm/bcklx.pnp/m`t`/tlsg`cbhos/
895>-sthml-bv-ghobmchct-glohc`gh-durlk/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` V
(ohvhk` vhmbcho) kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L
(lclgh) hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
548
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Dècdlr kl vlabmh
Lo dècdlr kl vlabmh, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r
oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho ls o`dhobzhk` lc oh vlabmh, uc ôrmhc` nuld` qul sl
lcdulctrh
lc oh phrtl
bcflrb`r
hek`glc,o`sdhphz
kl lcd`mlrsl
y hmrhckhrsl
phrh hoghdlchr
oh `rbch
qulklopr`kudlc
rbø`cls.
Lo dècdlr
sl `rbmbch
duhck` ohs dâouohs dhcdlr`shs lgpblzhc h drldlr lc oh vlabmh. Tb ls kltldthk`
tlgprhchglctl,
tlgprhchglc
tl, pulkl slr `plrhk` d`c dbrumçh.
Tç1
Oh nlghturbh (prlslcdbh kl shcmrl lc oh `rbch) ls lo sçct`gh gès frldulctl
lc lo dècdlr kl vlabmh. Lo mrhk` kl nlghturbh c` sl d`rrlohdb`ch d`c oh lxtlcsbôc
kl oh lcflrglkhk. Yulkl slr uch nlghturbh ghdr`sdôpbdh, frhcdh, kltldthkh
lc uc hcèobsbs kl `rbch ` vbsbeol p`r lo pr`pb` phdblctl. Duhoqublr mrhk` kl
nlghturbh,
lgehrm`,
rlqublrl
klsdhrthr
uc o`s
dècdlr
kl urbchrb`s
vlabmh, bcdous`
sb
lxbstlc `trhssbc
p`sbeols
dhushs
kl nlghturbh,
d`g`
dèoduo`s
` dbss
ehdtlrbhchs.
@tr`s sçct`ghs s`c1 k`o`r ` lsd`z`r ho `rbchr,
`rbchr, cldlsbkhk kl `rbchr d`c gès
frldulcdbh ` tlclr slcshdbôc kl qulrlr `rbchr sbc p`klr nhdlro` ` kl tlclr
mhchs aust` klspuâs kl nhdlro`.
[1 Hcôcbg`
H gb ghgè ol kbhmc`sdhr`c dècdlr kl vlabmh y kldbkç khrol lo GGT, puls
eha` bcvlsmhdbôc plrs`cho gl nl lctlrhk` qul sl lstè ushck` lc gudn`s
phçsls hdtuhoglctl lc tlrhpbhs hotlrchvhs.
hotlrchvhs.
T    (sbc obdlcdbh gâkbdh,) sbc lgehrm` gl `pusl h qul
h gb ghgh oh s`gllrhc h qubgb`tlrhpbhs y rhkb`tlrhpbhs,
rhkb`tlrhpbhs, puls gb ghgè ls kl
lkhk hvhczhkh, hklgès kl slr gb rlsp`cshebobkhk.
Nh phshk` uc gls y glkb` y gb ghgè lsth gâkbdhglctl
gâkbdhglctl shch.
Tl o` hkgbcbstrâ vçh bctrhvlc`sh d`g` sl bckbdh lc lo ober` kl Abg Nugeol,
thgebâc vçh `rho.
Kurhctl uc lgp` gb ghgè lgplzô h hrr`ahr d`g` ploola`s p`r oh `rbch.
Hdtuhoglctl sl o` k`y s`o` vçh `rho phrh qul c` rldhbmh.
Elckbdb`cls kl ouz.
Fulctl1 nps1//m5df`rug.`rm/bcklx.pnp0sthrt7=<69
545
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. l pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` U
(rldtho d`c plrbooh) ` lo V (ohvhk` vhmbcho) lc dhs` kl gualr, kurhctl 4 h 6
glsls. Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl
kçh d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
D`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r
bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh hccuh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m
kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Dhckbkbhsbs (vhmbcho)
Oh dhckbkbhsbs ls uch lcflrglk
lcflrglkhk
hk sbc hphrlctl s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz
p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho. \ch bcflddbôc fñcmbdh (gbd`sbs) kl duhoqublrh kl
ohs lspldbls Dhckbkh (t`khs ohs olvhkurhs), kl ohs duhols oh Dhckbkh hoebdhcs ls
oh gès d`gñc.
Tç1
Klplckblck` kl su o`dhobzhdbôc. Klctr` kl ohs dhckbkbhsbs gud`shs lstè
lo gumult qul sl ghcblsth d`g` uchs pohdhs drlg`shs y eohcquldbchs, qul
d`cuylc lc lo k`rs` kl oh olcmuh, vlo` klo phohkhr, gud`sh mbcmbvho y mlcbtho.
Oh bcflddbôc thgebâc pulkl ghcbflsthrsl d`g` uch olcmuh r`ah, obsh, erboohctl y
k`o`r`sh. Oh dhckbkbhsbs thgebâc sl pulkl khr lc lo hphrht` kbmlsv`, rlspbrht`rb`
y rlpr`kudt`r, d`c kbsct`s sçct`ghs.
[1 K. [. G. (Gâx) — 5</4/85
Nl rldbebk` lo plrgbs`, phrh pueobdhr lstl dhs` ho qul hdhe` kl khr kl
‟hoth‗, n`y kçh 6 kl Ghrz`. Hucqul sôo` p`ckrâ sus k`s prbglrhs bcbdbhols phrh
shovhmuhrkhr
shovhmuhrk
hr su bklckhk, gl phrldl uc dhs` kbmc` kl pueobdhr p`r oh dhckhk
kl lgp` qul nh kurhk` oh bcflddbôc y p`r oh vbruolcdbh qul nh prlslcthk` oh
Dèckbkh lc lsth dnbdh.
Tus bcbdbhols s`c H.B., kl trlbcth y dbcd` hø`s. Oolmh h gb d`csuoth klspuâs
kl 89 hø`s kl bcflddbôc, ls kldbr, d`c uch dhckbkbhsbs drôcbdh lc t`kh rlmoh. Tu
nbst`rbh y su oudnh d`gblczh 89 hø`s htrès lc o`s qul lgplzô h tlclr bcflddb`cls
544
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
vhmbchols, ho prbcdbpb` lsp`rèkbdhs. Tu mbcldôo`m` ol kheh uc hcfñcmbd` `rho, y
uc ôvuo` vhmbcho. Hsç, sl lstuv` trhthck`, y hsç, sus bcflddb`cls d`glczhr`c h
slr dhkh vlz gès frldulctls. Tl phsô o`s prbglr`s trls hø`s kl mbcldôo`m` lc
mbcldôo`m`, dhgebhck` kl vlz lc duhck` p`r c` lcd`ctrhr gla`rçh, nhsth qul
uc` Klspuâs
kl loo`s olklkba`
bcdous`
sl hd`stugerhrh
h vbvbr d`c loo`.
trls
hø`s,qul
oh bcflddbôc
sl nbz` plrghclctl.
D`c plrb`kbdbkhk
glcsuho. Gès ud`chz`o, gès Dhclstâc… y chkh. Chkbl ol kbhmc`sdô nhsth
lsth fldnh qul tuvblrh dhckbkbhsbs drôcbdh. O` hvlrbmuô looh p`r su dulcth
duhck` lo duhkr` kl sçct`ghs lgplzô h hmrhvhrsl, dhcshcdb` mlclrho,
bcs`gcb`, hm`thgblct`, k`o`rls gusduohrls… bcdous` lstuv` kbhmc`sdhkh kl
frber`gbhombh. Yr`eô d`c oh n`gl`phh, qul ol ful eblc, y v`ovbô h rlpr`kudbrsl
lc uc`s duhtr` glsls.
Dhkh gls su bcflddbôc oh vbsbtheh oolmhck` bcdous` h hd`stugerhrsl h looh
d`c t`k` o` qul ls` d`coolvh.
Tl lctlrô kl qul nheçh uc chturôphth lc Ehrdlo`ch (looh ls kl Hobdhctl) qul
tlcçh
guy eulc`s
oh dèckbkh ylc
d`ctrls
su `dhsb`cls.
klslsplrhdbôc
vbhaô nhsth
hooç phrhrlsuothk`s
p`clrsl d`c
lc trhthgblct`
C` yol lsplrhczh
fucdb`cô.
Lo chturôphth ol kba` qul looh lrh oh ñcbdh qul sl ol nheçh rlsbsk`. [uv` kblth
hcfñcmbdh, ltd…, kurhctl trls hø`s.
Hn`rh nhdl k`s glsls qul c` nh tlcbk` bcflddbôc. (looh t`khvçh drll qul ls
klghsbhk` pr`ct` phrh dhcthr vbdt`rbh, c` pulkl drllro` …
[rhthg`s su pr`eolgh klskl trls frlctls, qul slmñc gb nugbokl `pbcbôc, ls
o` qul gla`r fucdb`ch klspuâs kl t`k`s o`s dhs`s qul nl trhthk`
trhthk`..
Lstheh dohr` qul H.B. vlcçh d`c oh dèckbkh lc fhsl fucmho. Rh lstheh eblc
ho`ahkh lc su bctlsc`. Tu bctlsc` slrçh yh plrglheol h lsths hoturhs… y lstheh
oolcèck`sl kl tôxbd`s t`k` su `rmhcbsg` p`r lst`. Klspuâs kl trls hø`s kl
kblth hcfñcmbdh, hñc tuvbg`s qul nhdlroh uc p`d` gès slvlrh. Lobgbchg`s oh
fruth kl oh kblth. [lcm` qul kldbr qul lo ècbg` kl oudnh y oh f`rtholzh kl H.B, nhc
sbk` lcd`gbheols. [rls hø`s kl kblth lstrbdth hcfñcmbdh, drl` sbcdlrhglctl
qul nhy p`dhs plrs`chs qul o` s`p`rtlc. D`c oh kblth, d`glczhg`s lo Yhr
Eb`ghmcâd`. Hphrldl oh dèckbkh lc lo prbglr bgphdt`. Y`r su mrhvlkhk, ol
rld`gblck` oh d`gebchdbôc kl GGT y Yhr Eb`, hsç hd`rthrçhg`s lo cñglr` kl
slsb`cls… Hddlkl y d`glczhg`s lo trhthgblct`.
trhthgblct`.
Ulsuothk`1 < slsb`cls kl Yhr Eb`ghmcâd` phrh cbvlohr lo pN, suebr lo
sbstlgh bcgucl qul tlcçh p`r o`s sulo`s
s ulo`s y qul oh dèckbkh c` pukblrh s`erlvbvbr
p`r c` tlclr uc ‟sulo` pr`pbdb`‗,
pr`pbdb`‗, hklgès kl klebobthroh y d`ctr`ohr oh p`eohdbôc
d`c oh kblth hcfñcmbdh qul c` nheçh fucdb`chk` p`r sb s`oh lc trls hø`s… y 58
kçhs kl GGT.
[`khvçh c` sl o` drll. Lstè sbc bcflddbôc, ¡k`s glsls yh! l bctlcthck`
hprlcklr hn`rh h vbvbr sbc tlclr qul lsthr plckblctl kl oh dèckbkh.
54;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Drl` sbcdlrhglctl qul phrh hdhehr d`c oh dèckbkh nhy qul tlclr uch
sldulcdbh oômbdh kl trhthgblct`. Tb sbmuls oh sldulcdbh, lcls uch `p`rtucbkhk.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/94/durhdb`c-dhckbkbhsbs-dr`cbdh/
C  1
Lc lstl p` kl dèckbkhs kl kbdbo lrrhkbdhdbôc, nl p`kbk` `eslrvhr lc
gudn`s dhs`s prlslcdbh kl phrèsbt`s. Lc lst`s dhs`s sl klel hpobdhr lo pr`t`d`o`
Y (phrèsbt`s), hklgès sl klel d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` Q (zhpplr) lobgbchck`
phrèsbt`s lc shcmrl.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct`
bckbdhk
bckbdhk`
` phrh lstl
slrçh uch E
kblth
hklduhkh
ehah
lc hzñdhrls,
y uobzhr
lo pr`t`d`o`
D `dhs`
lo pr`t`d`o`
d`g`
hotlrchvh,
bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthc
k` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot` lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls
ho kçh. Tl d`gebch d`c lo pr`t`d`o` V (vhmbcho) kurhctl 4 slghchs. Lc dhs`
mrhvl sl pulkl hpobdhr kl c`dnl lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) høhkbk` lo sbmublctl
kçh d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`) kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
Hotlrchvhglctl sl pulkl d`gebchr d`c uc phr eb`ghmcâd`, `
thgebâc d`c homuc`s ohvhk`s vhmbchols d`c aum` kl 8< m kl Jhohcdn`l
trbturhk` y kbsulot` lc 499 go kl hmuh.
[hgebâc lxbstlc tlsg`cb`s k`ckl trhthgblct`s kl oh Krh. Khcblos,
qul oolvh gès kl 59 hø`s trhehahck` d`c trlglcch, fucdb`chc guy eblc.
Looh ldnh trlglcch lc guy plquløhs dhckhkls h o`s tlrr`cls kl hzñdhr.
Ohs k`sbs s`c eblc ehahs, kl 5,< go h uc gèxbg` kl < go kl trlglcch y sl
ush trlglcch chturho kl o`s ère`ols p`r uc pr`dls` kl klsohdbôc. C` ls
oh trlglcch qul sl d`gprh lc flrrltlrçhs. (Dhp. 5 — [rlglcch).
Dhsph
Oh dhsph (Ybtyrbhsbs sbgpolx) ` furfurèdlh, ls uch rlhddbôc qul pr`v`dh
d`glzôc, rlslqulkhk y lcr`aldbgblct`. Oh brrbthdbôc hdlolrh oh rlc`vhdbôc
kl ohs dâouohs kl oh pblo y nhdl qul ohs dâouohs bcghkurhs sl hduguolc lc oh
suplrdbl klo dulr` dheloouk`, o` qul klrbvh lc lsdhghs vbsbeols kl dhsph.
Hphrldl
duhck`
sl pr`kudlc
trls fhdt`rls
sbguotèclhglctl1 uc gbdr`eb`, mrhsh
sbguotèclhglctl1
lc lo dulr`
dheloouk`
y slcsbebobkhk
lc oh pblo.
54<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Tç1
Hphrbdbôc kl lsdhghs kl d`o`r eohcd` lc lo dulr` dheloouk`, d`glzôc,
rlslqulkhk y lcr`aldbgblct
lcr`aldbgblct`.
`.
[1 Gj (E) - 52/96/85
[lcçh lo dulr` dheloouk` sld` ` d`c dhsph (rlhoglctl c` sâ duèo) klskl qul
lrh uc cbø` qul pr`eâ lo dnhgpñ hcdhsph kl gbs phkrls.
Eulc`, t`gâ oh e`tlooh kl sprhy ; `z (;9 m`ths kl GGT + ;9 m`ths kl
s`oudbôc kl èdbk` dçtrbd` ho <9% y sl oolch kl hmuh).
Lgpldâ r`dbhck` gb dheloo` p`r uc`s eulc`s 89 gbcut`s, ghshalhck` lo
dulr` dheloouk` y lsl gbsg` kçh c`tâ gudnh gla`rçh. Hn`rh ; kçhs gès thrkl
gb dulr` dheloouk` c` lstè sld` lc hes`out`.
Y`r o` mlclrho, sbgpolglctl d`c t`dhr lo plo`, d`glczheh dhlr ‟cblvl‗ nhdbh
heha`
lcduhck`
gb r`ph,
°vlrkhk0
Eulc`, lsl
pr`eolgh
sldheloouk`
nh bk`. C`sld`
nhysl‟cblvl‗
cb
sbqublrh
lgpblz
lgpblz`
` h rhsdhrgl
fulrtl.
¡Lo dulr`
hdheh kl
br! Tl ful. ¡Lxdlpdb`cho!
Mrhdbhs h o`s p`olgbsths kl R`utuel qul trhlrèc puct`s vèobk`s h fhv`r kl
GGT p`rqul y` lrh uc lsdâpd` ho prbcdbpb`, plr` gl holmr` kl qul ol kb uch
`p`rtucbkhk y gl sblct` gho p`r t`k` lo guck` qul kleh hdlrdh kl GGT
d`g` sb tuvblrh bklh. R` cucdh tuvl uch bklh, s`o` d`câ o` qul oh ‟d`rrblctl
prbcdbpho‗ oh dblcdbh y o`s glkb`s kl d`gucbdhdbôc gl kblr`c kl d`glr y sl
fulr`c d`c ls`, p`rqul y` d`cheh dblmhglctl o` qul tlcçhc qul kldbr, y p`r
ls` gl sblct` hvlrm`czhk` hn`rh. Cucdh v`y h nhdlro` kl culv`.
Ohglct` t`k` lo guck` qul ful bculcdbhk` p`r o` qul kldçh y lsplr` qul
vulovhc h khrsl dulcth kl qul lo GGT fucdb`ch.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/kry-sdhop
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` K
(klrght`oômbd`) 5 ô 4 vldls ho kçh sl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) kurhctl 4 slghchs.
Dnhmhs
Oh lcflrglkhk ` gho kl Dnhmhs ls uch lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh
ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho y pr`v`dhkh p`r lo phrèsbt` [rbphc`s`gh
546
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
druzb. Tl pr`phmh p`r oh pbdhkurh kl o`s bcsldt`s rlkñvbk`s y ls uc` kl o`s
ghy`rls pr`eolghs kl shouerbkhk lc Tukhgârbdh. Klebk` h oh bcgbmrhdbôc, oh
lcflrglkhk thgebâc
thgebâc hfldth h plrs`chs lc o`s Lsthk`s \cbk`s.
Tç1
Oh lcflrglkhk kl Dnhmhs lcl k`s fhsls1 oh hmukh y oh drôcbdh. Oh fhsl
hmukh pulkl prlslcthrsl sbc sçct`ghs ` d`c sçct`ghs guy olvls, qul bcdouylc1
lerl, gholsthr mlclrho, nbcdnhzôc
nbcdnhzôc kl uc `a` (sb oh pbdhkurh lstè dlrdh kl âstl),
èrlh bchghkh y lcr`aldbkh lc lo sb` kl oh pbdhkurh klo bcsldt`.
Klspuâs kl oh fhsl hmukh, oh lcflrglkhk lctrh lc rlgbsbôc. Ls p`sbeol qul
c` sl prlslctl cbcmñc `tr` sçct`gh kurhctl gudn`s hø`s. Duhck` o`s sçct`ghs
choglctl sl prlslcthc, pulklc bcdoubr1 lstrløbgblct`, pr`eolghs kbmlsv`s,
bcsudblcdbh dhrkçhdh, k`o`r hek`gbcho, rbtg` dhrkçhd` trlpbkhctl ` phopbthctl,
kbduothkls phrh trhmhr.
[1 K Yâz (H) — 5;/;/8;
Hsuct`1 N`oh Ghrhvboo`sh Mlctl.
N`oh Hckrlhs (gbs shouk`s guy lspldbhols h Abg Nugeol), dulct` qul klskl
qul d`c`dç GGT lc c`v/kbd 5984 y d`glcdâ gbkhglctl, yh nhc phshk` uc`s
duhct`s glsls. Gb Dnhmhs nh bk` dlkblck`. Yr`eâ kl t`k`. Gl d`stô gudn`
p`klr d`ccuhr d`c GGT p`r cèuslhs. Ylr` lo 86 kl ghrz` 598; d`glcdâ
d`c DKN 8> go 5 vldls kçh nhsth lo 48 kl ghrz`. Lclghs d`c GGT y purmhs.
Eulcçsbg`. Hn`rh klsdhcs` uc p`d` d`c 699 go hmuh d`c 6 go kl DKN kbhrb`s.
Lc uc lgpbt` gès vulov` h nhdlr hcèobsbs kl Dnhmhs lc Bcstut` Fhthoh
Dnhelc. V`y prlphrhck` gb tlsg`cb` qul nl ushk`. GGT. Yr`t`d`o` 8999
(7 pr`t`d`o` E). Ehø`s kl bcglrsbôc d`c GGT (ls` dbdhtrbzô gbs lrupdb`cls).
Mèrmhrhs. Ohvhk` klctho d`c GGT. Vhs` lc e`dh. Vhs` phrh hspbrhr p/vçhs
rlspbrht`rbhs. Tprhy GGT lc o`s g`glct`s gès mrhvls d`c [email protected] Obgpblzh kl
t`kh oh dhsh d`c GGT (d`o`dhck` vhs`s lc nhebthdb`cls y dlrrhck`) y obgpbhck`
d`c lo hmuh klo ehø` kl bcglrsbôc. Yr`t`d`o` kl e`osh (gl nl nldn` uch d`c oh
duho pulk` slcthrgl y t`k` y s`o` kla` gb dhrh hfulrh). Ylr` o` gès bgp`rthctl
ls qul lst`y hdvh. Gl vulov` h rld`c`dlr h gç gbsgh.
[`k` lcl GGT (o`s lcvhsls kl dnhgpñ y lcauhmuls dhpbohr).
Uldbâc lstl aulvls kl Yhsduh nl bgprls` lo ober` kl Abg d`c su f`t` lc d`o`r
lc oh thph. ¡¡Eulcçsbg`!! y lst`y d`csbmublck` hrdbooh vlrkl y lrrh kl kbht`glhs.
Lcvç` 5 f`t`s, c` tlcm` rldblctls p`rqul lst`y eblc y DHTB t`k` dbdhtrbzhk` y
Lcvç` 5 f`t`s, c` tlcm` rldblctls p`rqul lst`y eblc y DHTB t`k` dbdhtrbzhk` y
dlrrhk`.
trhthgblct`
ucmrhdbhs
p`qubt`y rldbehc
gès y nhm`
hcèobsbsyyhfldt`!!!
tlsg`cb`. Ylr`
klskl yh.Tbm`
¡¡¡Gudnhs,
gudnhs
gb rlsplt`s
Fulctl1 np1//olb2=8.eo`msp`t.d`g.ls/p/dhs`s-kl-durh.ntgo
54=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Fbm. 4;1 F`t`mrhh kl ohs lsphokhs hfldthkhs Fbm. 4<1 F`t`mrhh uc gls l glkb` klspuâs
p`r oh lcflrglkhk kl Dnhmhs.
klo trhthgblct`.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct`
phrh lstllgphphr
dhs` slrçh
lo DKT
pr`t`d`o`
` E d`g`
hotlrchvh.bckbdhk`
Hkbdb`choglctl,
uchuobzhr
mhsh lc
9,4% (7D
4999 ppg) klo frbm`rçd` y hpobdhr bcglkbhthglctl
bcglkbhthglctl lcdbgh kl oh pbdhkurh `
g`rklkurh. Lo k`o`r sulol dlshr lc lo hdt`.
Lstl pr`t`d`o` sbrvl phrh t`k` p` kl bcsldt`s, hrhøhs y glkushs. Lc
dhs` kl uch g`rklkurh kl slrpblctl vlclc`sh, pbdhkurh kl lsd`rpbôc ` rhy
rhyhh
vlclc`sh, sl pulkl nhdlr bcylddb`cls kl DKB (pr`t`d`o` R) suedutèclhs `
hpobdhro` kl ghclrh qul lctrl lc oh nlrbkh, `xbkhck` oh t`xbch.
Dnbjucmucyh
Oh lerl kl dnbjucmucyh, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz
p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, thgeblc d`c`dbkh d`g` hrtrbs lpbkâgbdh
dnbjucmucyh (DNBJ) ls uch f`rgh rldblctl kl lerl vbrho dhushkh p`r uc
Hopnhvbrus, trhcsgbk` p`r oh pbdhkurh kl uc g`squbt`. Lo gbsg` qul pr`phmh
lo klcmul, p`r o` qul lc homuc`s dhs`s pulklc d`ctrhlrsl hgehs bcflddb`cls.
Tç1
Lo sçct`gh gès frldulctl ls oh lerl lolvhkh qul pulkl oolmhr h ;9 `D y
kurhr lctrl k`s y dbcd` kçhs, o`s k`o`rls hrduohrls d`c ` sbc bchghdbôc kl ohs
hrduohdb`cls kl pbls y ghc`s y `dhsb`choglctl thgebâc oh d`ougch. Lo k`o`r
sulol slr pl`r p`r oh ghøhch, sl hobvbh d`c lo lalrdbdb` suhvl y lgpl`rh d`c
o`s g`vbgblct`s erusd`s. K`o`rls gusduohrls y kl dhelzh, thgebâc pulklc
`eslrvhrsl lrupdb`cls dutèclhs d`c ghcdnhs r`ahs lc oh pblo, qul h vldls sl
hd`gphøhc kl pbd`r.
54>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1 A O (Vz)
(Vz) — 8;/85/8;
8;/85/8;
Lc lo sldt`r klo Yhoghr h uc`s 8< gbcut`s kl Dnhrhoohvl, uc n`gerl kl
5< hø`s h qublc oohghrâ Hckrâs, d`c su pblo g`rlch g`ahkh lc suk`r c` p`r
lo
s`o sbc`
p`r oh lerl,
pr`flsbôc
hoehøbo
d`c
sus erhz`s
rlp`shk`s
s`erl
o`s n`ger`s
kl su kl
nlrghcbt`
glc`r
qul
h kurhs
plchsfulrtls
o` p`kçh
hyukhr h
dhgbchr gblctrhs lstl hrrhstrheh o`s pbls y dhgbcheh lcd`rvhk`.
Hckrâs oolvheh ghs kl uch slghch lc dhgh y dhsb sbc p`klr g`vlrsl
p`r o`s k`o`rls hrduohrls y ohs `ohs kl lerl. Âo s`o` nheçh t`ghk` hmuh y
hdlthgbc`flg qul ls lo pr`t`d`o` bckbdhk` phrh trhthr o`s sçct`ghs klo vbrus
puls c` lxbstl cbcmñc trhthgblct` hcvbrho.
hcvbrho. D`c gudn` k`o`r sl hd`g`kô lc oh
dhgh y ol lxpobqul o` qul beh nhdlr phrh hyukhro` h phobhr lo vbrus y tlclro` lc
pbl o` hctls p`sbeol. Vhg`s nhdlr k`s d`shs lxtrlghkhglc
lxtrlghkhglctl
tl slcdboohs, slmurhs
y qul vhc nhdlr qul shomhs rèpbk` kl lsth lcflrglkhk.
8. Hut`nlg`tlrhpbh1 oh prbglrh ls oh hut`nlg`tlrhpbh, d`csbstl lc uch
f`rgh kl hut`vhduch lc oh qul t`ghg`s uc p`d` kl tu shcmrl (kl 5 dd
h 89 dd) y tl oh rlbcyldthg`s bctrhgusduohrglctl. Lst` phrh o`mrhr k`s
d`shs1
h) Xul tu `rmhcbsg` tlcmh uch rlhddbôc bcguc`oômbdh ho vbrus y o`
rld`c`zdh.
e) Xul oh dulcth kl ghdrôfhm`s
ghdrôfhm`s sueh phrh qul pulkh
pulkh oudnhr d`ctrh looh.
5. GGT1 o` slmuck` qul vhg`s h nhdlr
nhdlr ls khrtl k`sbs d`ccuhs kl hom`
hom`
oohghk` GGT phrh hyukhrtl h d`gehr lo vbrus. Lo GGT r`gpl oh
lstrudturh pr`tlbdh klo vbrus, y lvbth qul sl sbmh rlpobdhck`,
rlpobdhck`, nhdblck` qul
shomhs gès rèpbk`. H phrtl lo GGT lsguoh tu sbstlgh bcguc`oômbd`.
Klspuâs kl nhdlr oh hut`nlg`tlrhpbh qul kurô 5 gbcut`s lc nhdlrsl, ol
g`strâ h Hckrâs d`g` hdvhr lo GGT lc uch e`tlooh kl uc obtr` phrh qul tuvblrh
uch k`sbs phrh t`k` lo kçh y qul o` nbdblrh p`r o`s prôxbg`s 4 kçhs.
Lc hqulooh dhsh Hckrâs c` lrh lo ñcbd` lcflrg`, nheçh uch slø`rh ghy`r y
k`s cbø`s. Oh slø`rh ghy`r yh lstheh shoblck` kl oh lcflrglkhk y ol qulkhehc
k`o`rls guy fulrtls lc ohs hrduohdb`cls y uc shopuoobk` r`abz` p`r t`k` lo
dulrp`. O`s k`s cbø`s lsthehc lc oh lthph bcbdbho kl oh lcflrglkhk. Oh slø`rh
plrgbô qul ol nbdblrhc oh hut`nlg`tlrhpbh y o`s cbø`s p`r lo gblk` h ohs hmuahs
c` qubsblr`c hsç qul s`o` sl t`ghr`c GGT.
Yhrh s`rprlsh gçh ‛y kbm` s`rprlsh, p`rqul c` lsplrheh qul oh rlduplrhdbôc
fulrh thc rèpbkh‛ lo gudnhdn` lc oh thrkl klo `tr` kçh klspuâs kl phshr oh
c`dnl y phrtl klo kçh d`c lerl gl d`gucbdh qul yh sl sblctl plrfldt`, sbc k`o`r
kl cbcmñc p`, cb lerl, s`o` uc p`d` dhcshk`. Oh slø`rh fhgbobhr kl âo thgebâc
hghcldbô sbc lo shopuoobk` lc lo dulrp` y hucqul d`c glc`s k`o`r hrduohr,
hrduohr, lstl
542
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
plrsbsh y klspuâs kl uc phr kl kçhs sl ol qubtô. O`s cbø`s qul s`o` ushr`c GGT
thrkhr`c uc phr kl kçhs plr` ho cho shoblr`c kl oh lcflrglkhk ehsthctl rèpbk`.
Fulctl1 nps1//ggsohc`hglrbdh.w`rkprlss.d`g/598;/85/8;/
dnbjucmucyh-olvhcthck`-ho-n`gerl-k`eohk`/
[rhthgblct`1
Y 88< Y,  J ]
Lo pr`dlkbgblct`1 oolchr 4 e`tloohs kl 8/5 obtr` (86 `czhs) d`c hmuh
otrhkh ` gbclrho y > go kl DKT lc dhkh e`tlooh.
8ª e`tlooh1 sl nhdlc ; t`ghs. \ch t`gh dhkh 8< gbcut`s, ` slh, sl t`gh
lsth e`tlooh lc 8 n`rh.
5ª e`tlooh1
thgebâc
nhdlclc
; t`ghs.
slh, sl t`gh
lsthsl
e`tlooh
5 n`rhs.Ylr` uch t`gh dhkh 49 gbcut`s, `
4ª e`tlooh1 thgebâc sl nhdlc ; t`ghs. Ylr` uch t`gh dhkh ;< gbcut`s, `
slh, sl t`gh lsth e`tlooh lc 4 n`rhs.
Oh bklh y d`cdlpt` s`c dohr`s. Lxtlcklg`s lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` p`r
gudnhs gès n`rhs lc oh shcmrl sbc klahr gudn` lgp` p`r lo glkb`, phrh
qul sl ghctlcmhc o`s cbvlols hot`s lc oh shcmrl.
Lo Yr`t`d`o` 88< d`c uch t`gh dhkh 8< gbcut`s ls lo bcbdbho phrh
e`gehrklhr y shturhr lo sbstlgh. Rh phrh oh slmuckh y tlrdlrh e`tlooh,
chkbl sl vh h qulahr kl nhelr t`ghk` thcth hmuh yh qul sl nh rlphrk`
oh dhckhk lc gudnhs gès n`rhs y p`r o` thct` ls gès t`olrheol. Lc `trhs
phoherhs,
klhmuh
lsth ghclrh,
lsthrçhg`s
d`csugblck`
y rlphrlck`
y glkb` kl
lc 6 n`rhs.
Ulplr lstl
pr`dls` uc
gçcbg` p`ruc
5 obtr`
kçhs
(d`cslduv`s),
(d`cslduv`s
), 4 kçhs sb fulrh cldlshrb`. Kl hnç lc hklohctl sl d`ccuh d`c
Yr`t`d`o` 898 (8 k`sbs p`r n`rh).
C  1
Tl pulkl høhkbr lo pr`t`d`o` Q (zhpplr), yh qul ls hothglctl ldhz lc
trhthgblct` vbrho.
Dbètbdh
Oh dbèdh (thgebâc clurbs dbèdh, dbhthombh ` ouge`dbèdh) sl rllrl ho
k`o`r, klebobkhk, lctugldbgblct` u n`rgbmul` dhushk` p`r olsbôc ` prlsbôc
5;9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
s`erl lo clrvb` dbèd`, qul d`gblczh lc oh rlmbôc ougehr y ehah p`r oh phrtl
p`stlrb`r kl dhkh pblrch.
Tç1
N`rgbmul` olvl, hrk`r ` k`o`r s`rk` ` hmuk`, qul sl sblctl lc oh z`ch ougehr,
ougehr,
moñtl`s, ` kbvlrshs phrtls kl oh pblrch y lo pbl. Lo k`o`r `durrl gès h glcuk`
lc uc d`sthk`, lc uch phrtl kl oh pblrch ` oh dhklrh, lc oh phrtl p`stlrb`r kl oh
phct`rrbooh ` lc oh pohcth klo pbl. Oh pblrch hfldth
hfldthkh
kh pulkl slcrsl kâebo y lo pbl
sl pulkl qulkhr „htrhphk`‒ ho dhgbchr.
[1 A (H) — 86/88/85
N`oh qublr` kldbrols d`g` gl hyukô gudn` lo GGT, plrs`choglctl phrh
gç, ls ghrhvboo`s`, drl` lc âo y o` d`csug` klskl flerlr` klo 5985.
Yrbglr` d`g` t`k`s c` lstheh slmurh, plr` duhck` fub bcvlsmhck`
gès y vblck` o`s vbkl`s y d`cflrlcdbhs s`erl lstl supolglct` gbclrho, oh
vlrkhk, qulkâ fhsdbchkh puls ho ollr o`s tlsg`cb`s kl ohs plrs`chs kl dôg`
sl nhc gla`rhk` y nhsth bcdous` shchk` kl lcflrglkhkls qul o`s gâkbd`s
d`csbklrhehc bcdurheols ` drôcbdhs y gb kukh chdl h phrr kl hquç, p`rqul nl
t`ghk` gudnhs hotlrchvhs y c` gl rlsuothr`c, plr` kldbkç pr`ehr uch vlz gès
h vlr qul phsheh.
T`y uch plrs`ch qul nl oolvhk` dblrt`s klsôrklcls hobglcdb`s y eulc`,
drl` qul hn`rh lst`y phmhck` ohs d`csldulcdbhs. R` sufrçh kl oh mhstrbs, lo
nçmhk`,, kl d`olstlr`o, trbmobdârbk`s y s`erl t`k` o` pl`r y c` sl o` klsl` h chkbl
nçmhk`
gb pr`eolgh d`c oh d`ougch, oh fhg`sh dbèdh.
Klspuâs kl br h thct`s gâkbd`s c` pulk` clmhr qul gl slch hobvbhkh kl
o`s pr`eolghs qul klsdrbe`, plr` lo gès frustrhct
frustrhctll y kbdbo phrh gç ful oh dbèdh
yh qul phkldçh kl loo` klskl nhdl 6 glsls.
C` p`kçh lsthr ldnhkh, slcthkh, cb phrhkh gudn` lgp`. Gl rlhobzhr`c
vhrb`s lxèglcls kl oh d`ougch, lc kbvlrshs doçcbdhs, prbglr` gl kbalr`c qul
tlcçh uch surh lc uch kl gbs vlrtlerhs, gl shdhr`c pohdhs, gl nbdblr`c oh
rls`chcdbh ghmcâdh y klsdhrthr`c lo kbhmcôsd` kl oh surh, plr` c` gl
hobvbhr`c lo gholsthr, puls gl rldlthr`c hchomâsbd`s y gudn` rlp`s`, klaâ lo
trheha` y nhsth lsthr lc dhsh lrh uc pr`eolgh p`rqul c` gl p`kçh g`vlr.
D`c gudn` tlg`r y kukhs kl qul slh d`g` o`s klgès trhthgblct`s qul
oolvâ, t`gl GGT p`rqul qulrçh qul sl gl fulrh lo pr`eolgh kl oh dbèdh, hsç
qul
lo pr`t`d`o`
c`dnl,
prbglr`y4ghrl`s,
m`ths ohhprbglrh
oulm`slmuç
6 m`ths,
d`glcdâdn`qul
h slcrlc
ucohp`d`
kl cèuslhs
oh glkbht`gh,
n`rh
sl gl phshr`c o`s ghrl`s y gl fub h k`rgbr. Ho klsplrthr gl kb dulcth qul yh
c` gl k`oçh oh lsphokh ` oh d`ougch, c` p`kçh drllro`, hsç qul slmuç t`ghck`
5;8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
lo GGT p`r vhrb`s kçhs gès y lo k`o`r c` gl v`ovçh y sbc khrgl dulcth o`s
klgès pr`eolghs kl mhstrbs drôcbdh, nçmhk`, lo d`olstlr`o y o`s trbmobdârbk`s
phshr`c h slr slduckhrb`s y qulkhr`c kl ohk`. °Y`r quâ kbm` qul sl gl phsô
o` klo d`olstlr`o y trbmobdârbk`s0 p`rqul o`s sçct`ghs klshphrldblr`c (chuslhs y
ghrl`s ho d`glr d`gbkhs d`c hot`s d`ctlcbk`s kl mrhsh).
Klskl hnç sl o` k`y h gb ghgè phrh oh prlsbôc y `tr`s pr`eolghs pr`pb`s
kl oh lkhk. Mrhdbhs p`r tlclr lstl sb`, sblgprl o` rld`gblck` y gudnhs
elckbdb`cls y âxbt`s p`r oh eulch ohe`r qul nhdlc.
Thouk`s Ahkbtn.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/ghohkbls/`tnlr0sthrt759
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D `
E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot` lc 899
go
kl hmuh
89 vldls
kçh. Tl
d`c
lo pr`t`d`o`
J (pblo d`c
[email protected])
hpobdhk`
lc ohhoz`ch.
Klpulkl
c`dnld`gebchr
sl hpobdh lo
pr`t`d`o`
O (ehø`).
Dbrr`sbs nlpè
nlpètbdh
tbdh
Oh dbrr`sbs nlpèdh, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh
glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho ls oh ñogh fhsl kl oh lcflrglkhk nlpèdh drôcbdh,
lc oh qul lo nçmhk` sl kltlrb`rh olcth l brrlvlrsbeolglctl klebk` h uch
olsbôc. Lo tlabk` shc` klo nçmhk` sl sustuyl p`r tlabk` dbdhtrbdbho, eo`qulhck`
phrdbhoglctl oh dbrduohdbôc kl oh shcmrl h trhvâs klo nçmhk`. Lst` kltlrb`rh su
dhphdbkhk phrh1 d`ctr`ohr ohs bcflddb`cls, lobgbchr ohs ehdtlrbhs y ohs t`xbchs
kl oh shcmrl, pr`dlshr o`s cutrblctls, n`rg`chs y glkbdhglct`s, fherbdhr ohs
pr`tlçchs qul rlmuohc oh d`hmuohdbôc shcmuçclh y pr`kudbr ebobs phrh hyukhr h
hes`relr mrhshs, bcdoubk` d`olstlr`o y vbthgbchs.
Tç1
Klebobkhk, fhmh, pârkbkh kl hplt`, cèuslhs, vôgbt`s, pârkbkh kl pls`,
k`o`r hek`gbcho l nbcdnhzôc duhck` sl hduguoh oçqubk` lc lo hek`glc,
pbdhzôc, vhs`s shcmuçcl`s
shcmuçcl`s lc f`rgh kl hrhøh dlrdh kl oh suplrdbl kl oh pblo.
5;5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1 D K (D) — ;/=/84
Hckrlhs, tl lcvç` hcèobsbs kl oh durh t`tho kl oh dbrr`sbs nlpèdh, phrh mo`rbh
klo mrhc trheha` qul rlhobzhc Abg N. y tu.
Lo
hrdnbv`dN5,
dN8logulstrh
duhck`
ful kltldthk`
lo gho.
Hrdnbv`
phdblctl
ls trhthk`
p`r gâkbd`
hoôphth y s`o` d`csbmul
brrbthr lo d`o`c y kbsgbcubr uc p`d` lo bvu rlcho y lo phdblctl ls klshnudbhk` p`r
lo hvhcdl kl oh dbrr`sbs nlpèdh kèck`ol < h > glsls kl vbkh.
D`c`zd` ho phdblctl lc Vlrhdrñz (Gâxbd`) lo kçh 2 kl flerlr` y ls trhthk`
d`c o`s sbmublctls pr`t`d`o`s1
• Yr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E) y lclghs.
• Ulsthur
Ulsthurhdbôc
hdbôc kl oh shouk1
shouk1 5 glsls y 8; kçhs.
kçhs.
Tl lcvçh ho phdblctl h \TM nlpèd` (\otrhT`c`Mrhh - uotrhs`cbk`) y vçhs
ebobhrls y lo s`rprlcklctl rlsuothk` sl pulkl vlr lc lo hrdnbv` dN4.
Dhusô d`cg`dbôc hoôphth, c` o` p`kçhc drllr qul nhyh shchk` lo phdblctl…
¡¡¡\c herhz
herhz`!!!
`!!!
Fbm. 46 y 4=1 Hcèobsbs doçcbd` (hrdnbv`s dN8 y dN5) kl Oubs Hrc`ok` Qhvhoh K`chtn.
5;4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Fbm. 4>1 Hcèobsbs doçcbd` (hrdnbv` dN4) kl Oubs Hrc`ok` Qhvhoh K`chtn.
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` E
(eèsbd`) ` D (DKT) d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh)
dhkh k`s kçhs nhsth su rlgbsbôc.
Dbstbtbs ` bcflddbôc urbchrbh
Oh dbss, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho, ls oh bchghdbôc hmukh ` drôcbdh kl oh vlabmh urbchrbh, d`c
bcflddbôc ` sbc looh.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs gès frldulctls s`c lo huglct` lc oh cldlsbkhk kl `rbchr,
bcdous` kurhctl oh c`dnl, k`o`r bctlcs` lc oh rlmbôc suprhpñebdh (s`erl oh
vlabmh), hrk`r y kbduothk, ` bcdous` k`o`r kurhctl ` klspuâs kl `rbchr.
[hgebâc pulkl prlslcthr `rbch turebh
tur ebh hd`gphøhkh ` c` kl pburbh (huglct`
kl o`s olud`dbt`s lc oh `rbch) ` nlghturbh (prlslcdbh kl nlghls lc oh `rbch).
Tulol br hd`gphøhkh thgebâc p`r gho `o`r
`o`r.. Lc o`s cbø`s glc`rls kl dbcd` hø`s
ls frldulctl qul o`s sçct`ghs hk`ptlc f`rghs gès bgprldbshs d`g` klebobkhk
5;;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
mlclrho, brrbthebobkhk, fhoth kl hplt` ` vôgbt`s. Lc plrs`chs ghy`rls, o`s
sçct`ghs pulklc d`gpobdhrsl d`c klebobkhk, d`cfusbôc, lerl ` dhçkhs.
[1 Y (H) — 88/6/88
Eulchs c`dnls, ls uch elckbdbôc shelr qul hn`rh GGT lstè lc D`o`gebh.
Gb tlsg`cb` ls guy mrhckl, y` vbv` lc Hustrhobh klskl nhdl 6 hø`s, (hn`rh
lst`y lc D`o`gebh p`r vhdhdb`cls), ful hooç k`ckl klsduerç lo GGT. O` d`glcdâ
h bcvlsmhr, p`r uc klsl` kl qulrlr durhr h homuchs plrs`chs h gb horlklk`r
qul phkldlc kbflrlctls
kbflrlctls lcflrglkhkls, olç y olç gudnh bcf`rghdbôc, y d`glcdâ
h bcvlsmhr gès hdlrdh kl t`kh oh glkbdbch hotlrchvh. R` sufrç kl dbss klskl
nhdl gudn`s hø`s y uc k`o`r kl dhelzh lc oh phrtl ehah kl htrès, sblgprl sl gl
hduguoheh lstl k`o`r,
k`o`r, d`glcdâ h t`ghro`, y sbc glcrols lc uch slghch sl
s l gl
nheçh klshphrldbk` oh dbss.
Ho prbcdbpb` plcsâ qul lrh tlgp`rho, plr` hn`rh nhc phshk` > glsls y cucdh
ghs
vulot` h ohslcr
lstl gho.
Lo k`o`r kl dhelzh
sl plobmr`s`,
gl qubtô yls`
slc
d`g`
sl glnlrlduplrô
lclrmçh…
ls bgprlsb`chctl,
y c` ls
o` pulk`
hslmurhr. O` qul phsh ls qul lstl guck` lstè oolc` kl glcrhs, y oh mlctl ol
drll gès h ohs lgprlshs fhrghdâudhs qul h uch plrs`ch qul hucqul c` ls
gâkbd`, sb lcl uc eulc d`rhzôc y lcl lo klsl` kl hyukhr h oh nughcbkhk.
Lc lstl g`glct` qul lst`y lc D`o`gebh, ol nl khk` lstl glkbdhglct` h 4
plrs`chs y lc t`khs sl nhc vbst` rlsuothk`s p`sbv`s. Ols lsthrâ d`cthck`
d`cthck` gès
hklohctl d`g` sbmublr`c. Gudnhs elckbdb`cls h t`k`s.
Fulctl1 nps1//ggsohc`hglrbdh.w`rkprlss.d`g/tlsg`cb`s/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` V
(vhmbcho) lc gualrls ` U (rldtho d`c plrbooh) phrh vhr`cls. Lc dhs`s mrhvls,
sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh d`c lo pr`t`d`o`
O (ehø`).
D`olstlr`o
Lo d`olstlr`o hot` ls… (°uc gbt`0)
Hucqul dhsb oh gbthk kl oh p`eohdbôc ghy`r kl 59 hø`s lcl vho`rls kl
d`olstlr`o d`csbklrhk`s hot`s, lst` c` ls uch lcflrglkhk y nhy t`k` uc gbt`
horlklk`r klo d`olstlr`o.
5;<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Lo d`olstlr`o ls uc pr`kudt` quçgbd` mlclrhk
mlclrhk`
` p`r lo nçmhk`, cldlshrb` phrh
lo d`rrldt` fucdb`chgblct` kl dblrths n`rg`chs, kl o`s èdbk`s kbmlsv`s y kl
ohs lstrudturhs d`rp`rhols. Lxbstlc k`s dohsls kl d`olstlr`o ` kl obp`pr`tlçchs1
d`olstlr`o eulc` (NKO) y d`olstlr`o gho` (OKO). Lo supulsthglctl gho` sl
hduguoh lc ohs hrtlrbhs y lo eulc` o` lobgbch kl âsths.
@evbhglctl oh `estruddbôc kl ohs vlchs y hrtlrbhs h dhush klo d`olstlr`o
gho`, rlstrbcml oh dbrduohdbôc d`rrldth kl oh shcmrl nhdbh lo d`rhzôc y ho
rlst` klo `rmhcbsg` y lst` pulkl hdhrrlhr kbflrlctls lcflrglkhkls d`g`1
hrtlrb`sdolr`sbs, hddbklctl dlrler`vhsduohr, hcmbch kl pldn` y lcflrglkhkls
d`r`chrbhs.
Tl nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr qul o`s cbvlols kl d`olstlr`o sl rlmuohc lc ohs
plrs`chs qul t`ghc kbôxbk` kl do`r`. Lo kbôxbk` c` hfldth lo d`olstlr`o, plr` sç
lobgbch oh bchghdbôc h trhvâs kl oh `xbkhdbôc kl nbsthgbch y kl oh hodhobcbzhdbôc
klo lct`rc`. \ch vlz lobgbchkh oh dhush, lo dulrp` sl hut` rlmuoh y d`c âo o`s
cbvlols kl d`olstlr`o.
Tç1
Nhsth lo g`glct` c` lxbstl cbcmñc sçct`gh d`ctucklctl qul, sbc hcèobsbs
kl shcmrl, hyukl h bklcdhr qul sl phkldl kl lsth d`ckbdbôc: sbc lgehrm`, o`s
‟supulst`s‗
‟supulst
`s‗ lxplrt`s nhc rlohdb`chk` oh rldurrlcdbh kl dblrt`s sçct`ghs d`c lo
rblsm` kl lsthroh klshrr`oohck`1
C  1
Tl nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr qul lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lcl uc lfldt` g`kuoht`rb`
s`erl o`s cbvlols kl d`olstlr`o: ls kldbr, o`s cbvloh kl ghclrh d`rrldth. Nhy
gudn`s tlsg`cb`s qul o` nhc p`kbk` d`glcthr d`g` lfldt` slduckhrb` kl
`tr`s trhthgblct`s. Lo d`olstlr`o hot` c` ls thct` pr`eolgh, s`c gès eblc o`s
trbmobdârbk`s y lxbstl gudnh d`ctr`vlrsbh, bcdous` lc oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho
s`erl lo trhthgblct`.
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` D, ` E d`g`
hotlrchvh, kurhctl
kurhctl 4 slghchs.
5;6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
D`obtbs uodlr`sh
Oh d`obs uodlr`sh lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho ls uch lcflrglkhk
bchght`rbh
d`o`c (lokl
bctlsc`
klo d`o`c.
rldt`. Lstè dhrhdtlrbzhkh
dhrhdtlrbzhkh p`r oh
bchghdbôc yklo
uodlrhdbôc
oh phrlkmruls`)
bctlrb`ry klo
Tç1
K`o`r hek`gbcho lc oh z`ch vlctrho
vlctrho y dôobd`s, shcmrl y p`sbeolglctl pus lc
ohs nldls, kbhrrlh p`d` ` guy frldulctl, lerl, slcshdbôc kl qul sl cldlsbth
lvhduhr ohs nldls, hucqul o`s bctlsc`s lstâc vhdç`s, pulkl bgpobdhr lsfulrz`,
k`o`r y dôobd`s, pârkbkh kl pls`. Lc o`s cbø`s pulkl rholczhr su drldbgblct`.
@tr`s sçct`ghs pulklc slr k`o`r l nbcdnhzôc hrduohr,
hrduohr, oohmhs eudhols, cèuslhs
y vôgbt`s y ñodlrhs kl oh pblo.
[1 Hô (Lø) — 8>/4/84
Lstuvl kurhctl uc hø` shcmrhck` lc ohs klfldhdb`cls t`k`s o`s kçhs, t`k`s,
t`k`s, t`k`s o`s kçhs. H o`s slbs glsls gès ` glc`s fub ho gâkbd` y lct`cdls gl
nbdblr`c uch d`o`c`sd`pbh y gl kbhmc`sdhr`c uch d`obs uodlr`sh, lct`cdls vç
lc ohs a`rchkhs qul sl nbdblr`c lc Oolbkh, nhrè uc hø` ghs ` glc`s ` hsç lc uch
d`cflrlcdbh, phrdbpô Hckrlhs, c` lrh lo ñcbd` p`clctl. Lrh uc eb`sbd` qul
lstheh p`r hnç l nbz` uch phrdbphdbôc. Gl phrldbô guy d`nlrlctl y h phrr kl
hnç gl d`cslmuç y` p`r gb dulcth lo GGT y eulc` ol d`csuotâ lc uc g`glct`1
‟°qul tl phrldl0‗. C` o` tlcçh guy dohr` y gl kba`1 ‟sç, nhztl uchs prulehs kl
vbrus‗.
Oh dulsôc ls qul hñc hsç pr`eâ, dhgebâ kl kblth, lstuvl vblck` n`glôphths y
dhkh kçh shcmrheh nhsth qul oolmô uc puct` qul gl lgpldâ h prl`duphr y lct`cdls
pr`eâ.
H o`s trls kçhs kl t`ghr GGT ohs nldls lrhc guy `sdurhs y yh cucdh gès nl
vulot` h shcmrhr. Rh thgp`d` o` t`g` t`k`s o`s kçhs. O` t`g` kl vlz lc duhck`
sb c`t` homñc sçct`gh, d`csphk` ` o` qul slh, plr` yh c` o` t`g` d`c gudnh
rlmuohrbkhk. Lstl ls gb tlsg`cb`.
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/[VbzVo^d4`m
5;=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
@tr` tlstlg`cb`1 D Va U (D) — 8>/85/84
Klskl nhdl 59 hø`s sufr` kl d`obs uodlr`sh y, klspuâs kl t`ghr 5 vldls lo
pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E) kl GGT, lstl ls lo rlsuothk` kl gb d`o`c`sd`pbh
t`ghkh
lc uch
kl ohs gla`rls
¡!Mrhdbhs
Hckrlhs!
¡Mrhdbhs‛sbc`
GGT!oh gla`r‛ doçcbdhs kl Dnbol.
Fulctl1 dhrth y rlsuothk` kl oh eb`psbh lcvbhk`s ho hut`r
Fbm. 421 Ulsuothk` kl oh d`o`c`sd`pbh.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` U
(rldtho d`c plrbooh) kurhctl 8 h 4 glsls slmñc mrhvlkhk. Kl c`dnl sl hpobdh
lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) sb ls cldlshrb`.
D`cauctbvbtbs
Oh d`caucvbs ls oh bchghdbôc ` bcflddbôc kl oh dhph d`caucvh,
glgerhch gud`sh qul rlduerl lo bctlrb`r kl o`s pèrphk`s y qul sl lxlckl h
oh phrtl hctlrb`r klo mo`e` `duohr.
5;>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Tç1
Lcr`aldbgblct` y ohmrbgl`, vbsbôc e`rr`sh, k`o`r kl `a`s, slcsbebobkhk h oh ouz
Lcr`aldbgblct`
(f`t`f`ebh),
(f`t`f
`ebh), pbdhzôc y `tr`s sbmc`s, klplckblck` kl su dhush1 olmhøhs ghtuchs
lc
ohs bcflddb`shs, mhcmob`s huglcthk`s kl thghø` lc ohs vçrbdhs, ` prurbt` lc
ohs hoârmbdhs.
[1 Y E (LL. \\.) — 5</>/8;
Gb nba`, kl 5 hø`s y glkb` sl bcfldtô d`c d`caucvbs lc oh muhrklrçh. Oh
bcflddbôc nheçh klshphrldbk` klspuâs kl k`s kçhs kl trhthgblct` d`c GGT. Nl
glzdohk` 5 m`ths kl GGT hdvhs d`c hpr`xbghkhglctl
hpr`xbghkhglctl 49 go kl hmuh.
Lc prbglr oumhr, nl bctlcthk` d`cgbm` phrh vlr sb nheçh homuch qulghkurh.
C` lstheh gho phrh gç, sôo` qulgheh uc p`d` plr` hmrlmuâ kl 8< h 59 go kl
hmuh hkbdb`cho y oh slcshdbôc klspuâs kl ls` ful d`g` p`clrsl m`ths phrh o`s
`a`s.
D`c lsth s`oudbôc nbdbg`s ; kçhs kl trhthgblct`, 8 m`th, p`r o`s `a`s, p`r
oh ghøhch, thrkl y c`dnl. Lc lo slmuck` kçh kl oh d`caucvbs sl nheçh bk`.
Tlmubg`s 5 kçhs gès phrh hslmurhrc`s qul sl nheçh bk` klo t`k`. Lc uc gls
gb `tr` nba`, kl 89 hø`s, thgebâc tuv` uch bcflddbôc lc o`s `a`s, qul bcdous` c`
fubg`s h d`gpr`ehr o` qul lrh. Tl nhc trhthk` d`c oh gbsgh s`oudbôc kl GGT y
lc 5; n`rhs sus `a`s v`ovblr`c h oh c`rghobkhk.
Hklgès, nlg`s trhthk` uch mrbpl uc phr kl vldls, y uch vlz uc nlrpls d`c
âxbt`. Lsplr` qul hyukl.
Mrhdbhs Abg.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/hoo-ggs-tlsg`cbhos
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` @
(`hog`-oômbd`) d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) kurhctl 4 h = kçhs,
slmñc lo mrhk`.
Klglcdbh
Oh klglcdbh ls oh pârkbkh kl oh fucdbôc dlrlerho qul `durrl h dhush kl
dblrths lcflrglkhkls. Hfldth h oh glg`rbh, lo plcshgblct`
plcshgblct`,, lo olcmuhal, lo aubdb`
y lo d`gp`rthgblct` l bcnhebobth ho phdblctl phrh rlhobzhr hdvbkhkls kl oh vbkh
kbhrbh. Gblctrhs oh lcflrglkhk lv`oudb`ch, sl pulkl `eslrvhr oh pârkbkh kl oh
`rblcthdbôc thct` lsphdb`-tlgp`rho,
lsphdb`-tlgp`rho, d`g` kl bklckhk. Oh klglcdbh pulkl slr
rlvlrsbeol
rlvlrsbe
ol ` brrlvlrsbeo
brrlvlrsbeoll slmñc lo `rbmlc l`oômb` klo kls`rklc.
5;2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Tç1
Oh klglcdbh hphrldl prbglr` mlclrhoglctl
mlclrhoglctl d`g` „`ovbk`‒ y sl kbflrlcdbh klo
kltlrb`r` d`mcbv` olvl (KDO) p`rqul bctlrlrl d`c ohs hdvbkhkls d`kbhchs.
sçct`ghs
pulklc
kbduothk
thrlhs
qul O`s
lxbmlc
plcshrtlgprhc`s
uc p`d`, plr`
qul bcdoubr1
s`oçhc slr
fèdbols, phrh
thols rlhobzhr
d`g` oolvhr
lo
shok` kl oh dnlqulrh, phrdbphr lc aulm`s ` hprlcklr culvh bcf`rghdbôc `
ruchs, plrklrsl lc ruths fhgbobhrls, pr`eolghs klo olcmuhal d`g` tlclr
kbduothk phrh lcd`ctrhr lo c`gerl kl `ealt`s d`c`dbk`s, plrklr bctlrâs lc
d`shs qul prlvbhglctl kbsfrutheh, lsthk` hcçgbd` bckbflrlctl, lxtrhvbhr d`shs,
dhgeb`s kl plrs`chobkhk y pârkbkh kl ohs nhebobkhkls s`dbhols, qul d`ckudlc h
d`gp`rthgblct`s
d`gp`rthgblct
`s bchpr`pbhk`s.
[1 K (LL. \\.) — 52/6/85
phkrl tuv`
uchhpr`xbghkhglctl
`plrhdbôc lc oh lsphokh
y sl lcd`ctrheh
eha`Gb
hclstlsbh
kurhctl
< n`rhs. guy
Lc lomrhvl
p`st`plrht`rb`
lstheh
d`cfuckbk`. H glkbkh qul su lsthcdbh lc lo n`spbtho pr`mrlsô, âo rltr`dlkbô.
Lstheh lxplrbglcthck`
lxplrbglcthck` klglcdbh sbmcbdhvh. O`s gâkbd`s kbalr`c qul oh dbrumçh
sôo` kbô h ouz y lo pr`eolgh kl f`ck` yh lstheh hooç. Gb phkrl, d`c => (lc lsl
g`glct`) lstheh guy shoukheol hctls kl oh dbrumçh.
\c kçh rld`rkâ lo GGT8 y kldbkç khrol uch `p`rtucbkhk h gb phpè. Yhrh
lct`cdls yh lstheh lc tlrhpbh hsbskh. Nbdl lo pr`t`d`o` kl Dohrh lc âo y lc lo
g`glct` lc qul gl fub lsl kçh lstheh gudn` gès oñdbk`. V`ovç ho kçh sbmublctl
y o` gbsg` d`c uch gla`rh hñc ghy`r.
Ho tlrdlr kçh, klspuâs kl ohs k`sbs, ful kl culv` âo gbsg` y dhphz kl v`ovlr
h dhsh.
Tb c` fulrh p`r lo GGT c` drl` qul nueblrh sbk` dhphz kl klahr oh vbkh
hsbskh. Tl lstheh p`cblck` pl`r y pl`r, sbc shelr kôckl lstheh cb qublc
ârhg`s.
¡Lstheh thc lg`db`chkh! ¡Lo GGT fucdb`ch kl vlrkhk! ¡Mrhdbhs p`r su
d`gpr`gbs` kl hyukhr h o`s klgès!
Fulctl1 np1//mlclsbs5dnurdn.`rm/obst-hoo-ggs-tlsg`cbhos
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk`
bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E
d`g` hotlrchvh kl ghclrh d`ccuh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo
d`c [email protected]) hpobdhk` lc oh cudh y d`ougch vlrtlerho kurhctl 4 slghchs y
uch kl klsdhcs`, y thgebâc d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O duhck` sl ehøh
lo phdblctl. Tl rlpbtl lo pr`t`d`o` dhkh gls.
5<9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Klcmul
Lo klcmul, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho ls uch lcflrglkhk bcflddb`sh dhushkh p`r lo vbrus klo klcmul,
klo
mâclr` hvbvbrus
`ccuhg
dho`pus
qul. ls trhcsgbkh p`r g`squbt`s,
prbcdbphoglctl
p`r lo ug`squbt`
Hlkls
hlmyp
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs hphrldlc kl 4 h 8; kçhs (pr`glkb` ; h = kçhs) klspuâs kl oh
pbdhkurh bcfldvh
bcfldvh y s`c1 lerl lolvhkh (;9 ±D) hd`gphøhkh kl k`o`r kl dhelzh
guy bctlcs` y kltrès kl o`s mo`e`s `duohrls, k`o`rls gusduohrls y hrduohrls,
cèuslhs, vôgbt`s, hmrhckhgblct` kl mhcmob`s obcfèd`s ` shrpuoobk`. Lo klcmul
mrhvl ls uch d`gpobdhdbôc p`tlcdbhoglctl g`rtho, p`rqul dursh d`c lxtrhvhsbôc
kl pohsgh, hduguohdbôc kl oçqubk`s, kbduothk rlspbrht`rbh,
rlspbrht`rbh, nlg`rrhmbhs mrhvls
` fhoo` `rmècbd`.
[1 Uf U @ (H) — 5;/6/8< F1 5;  a 
598<, 581<= V O H, Cq H1 D\UH KL KLCM\L
Lstbghk` Hckrlhs, tl sbm` klskl qul d`c`dç vulstr` trheha` ho
lcflrghrgl lc oh slovh e`obvbhch kl klcmul. Ulhoglctl o` phsâ guy gho,
plr` o` pl`r t`khvçh lstheh p`r vlcbr. Klspuâs kl oh lthph kl duhtr` kçhs
kl fblerls guy hoth rlmrlsl h Hrmlctbch y gbs hrtbduohdb`cls qulkhr`c
klstrubkhs. Nl trhehahk` lc loldtr` glkbdbch t`kh gb vbkh y fherbd` rlhdt`rls
kl `z`c` phrh lstlrbobzhr qubrôfhc`s, tlrhpbhs, cl`cht`o`mçh ltd. Lc lstl vbhal
fub
bcsthohr
lqubp`skl
h n`spbthols
y gl
d`cthmbâ
klklklcmul.
Lstheh
guyh gho
y glsbltl
d`glcthr`c
oh lxbstlcdbh
kl GGT
y hom`
bcf`rghdbôc.
Oolmuâ h Hrmlcch y dhkh kçh qul phsheh gl lcflrgheh gès. C` p`kçh
hmhrrhr o`s dueblrt`s phrh d`glr, c` p`kçh ehahr kl oh dhgh p`r lo k`o`r kl
t`eboo`s, ltd. Gl pusl lc d`cthdt` d`c kr`mulrçhs y d`cslmuç ohs shols kl do`rbt`
kl s`kb` y èdbk` dçtrbd`.
[us muçhs lc vçkl`s gl sbrvblr`c phrh prlphrhro`s y lgpldâ h pr`ehr d`c
k`s m`ths dhkh n`rh y klspuâs kl k`s kçhs d`c trls m`ths, gb hs`ger` ful qul
ho duhrt` kçh yh dhsb c` slch lo k`o`r lc t`eboo`s y guøldhs y gbs klk`s sl
h`ahr`c.
Eulc`, qublr` d`cthrtl qul n`y lst`y plrfldt` y t`g` s`o` 5 m`ths lc oh
ghøhch
y 5 lcd`c
oh c`dnl,
qublr`
hmrhkldlrtl
p`r tuytrheha`
y h t`khs
ohscldlsbtlc.
plrs`chs
qul trhehahc
lo d`rhzôc
y c`
d`c o`s e`osboo`s
lst`y phrh
o` qul
Gl pulklc p`clr lc sus lsthkçsdhs. [l ghck` uc herhz` y mrhdbhs mrhdbhs
culvhglctl. [`k` o` qul sl nhdl d`c hg`r shol eblc…
5<8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Lc uc` kl o`s n`spbthols lc k`ckl bcsthoâ uc` kl o`s lqubp`s, lo kbrldt`r
klo gbsg` gl nbz` o`s hcèobsbs lc lo g`glct` y hnç gl shobô qul lfldv
lfldvhglctl
hglctl
lstheh d`cthmbhk`.
d`cthmbhk`. C` tlcm` lc gb p`klr lstl hcèobsbs, o` qul sb tl pulk` kldbr
ls qul lo hctls ful tlrrbeol y lo klspuâs ful d`g` c` nhelr tlcbk` klcmul.
O` qul thgebâc tl pulk` kldbr ls qul lo klcmul lc gb dulrp` gl klaô kl uc
kçh phrh lo `tr` d`c hrtrbs rlught`bklh, y lc kçhs uobzhck` GGT sl gl ful
t`thoglctl.
t`thoglct
l. O` slmuç t`ghck` p`r uc lgp`.
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
K è ( è)
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` F (frldulctl)
slmubk` p`r lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E d`g` hotlrchvh.
h otlrchvh. Tl d`gebch d`c lo pr`t`d`o`
J (pblo d`c [email protected]) phrh o`s k`o`rls hrduohrls, y phrh oh lerl ` oh dlfholh
d`c lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh). Lc dhs` kl pbdhzôc, sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` O
(ehø`).
Klprlsbôc
Oh klprlsbôc, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho sl pr`kudl duhck` lo lsthk` kl ècbg` kl uc bckbvbku` lc uc
kltlrgbchk` g`glct` kl su vbkh, sufrl slcgblct`s slvlr`s y pr`o`cmhk`s kl
trbstlzh ` sçct`ghs rlohdb`chk`s, qul hfldthc h su dhphdbkhk phrh rlohdb`chrsl
d`c `tr`s, trhehahr ` hfr`cthr lo kçh h kçh.
Tç1
Oh trbstlzh, lo hehgblct`, lo klsècbg`, oh duophebobkhk, lo klrr`sg`, lo
plsbgbsg` drôcbd` vbst` d`g` uc phshkbz` `sdur` sbc p`sbebobkhk kl shobkh `
oh rlhobkhk vbsth h trhvâs kl uchs mhfhs `sdurhs bgp`sbeols kl qubthrsl y qul
bgpbklc vlr oh ouz lc dhkh sbtuhdbôc, s`c o`s lsthk`s kl ècbg` kl uc klprlsbv`.
Lc o`s cbø`s y hk`olsdlctls lo lsthk` kl ècbg` pulkl slr brrbtheol.
Kbsgbcudbôc hdushkh klo bctlrâs ` kl oh dhphdbkhk phrh lo pohdlr lc t`khs `
dhsb •t`khs
ohs hdvbkhkls.
Yârkbkh
bgp`rthctl kl pls` ` huglct` kl pls`.
• Bcs`gcb` ` nbplrs`gcbh.
• Hmbthdbôc ` lcolctldbgblc
lcolctldbgblct`
t` psbd`g`t`rls.
5<5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
• Tlcgblct`s kl bcuobkhk
bcuobkhk ` kl duoph lxdlsbv
lxdlsbv`s
`s ` bchpr`pbhk`s.
• Kbsgbcudbôc kl
kl oh dhphdbkhk kl plcshr
plcshr ` d`cdlctrhr
d`cdlctrhrsl
sl l bckldbsbôc.
• Ylcshgblc
Ylcshgblct`s
t`s rldurrlctls
rldurrlctls kl gulrtl,
gulrtl, bklhdbôc subdbkh d`c ` sbc pohc
lspldçd` kl laldudbôc.
[1 H F (H) — 59/94/8<
Hckrlhs,
Eulchs thrkls. Nl gbrhk` sus vbkl`s lc R`utuel y gl g`vhc gudn`.
Xubsblrh shelr kôckl d`gpr` lo klsphrhsbthk`r, y` lst`y prl`duphkh plcshck`
qul tlcm` phrèsbt`s. C` gl nl nldn` cbcmuch pruleh plr` p`r sb hdhs`.
R` t`gâ lo GGT y h oh slmuckh slghch v`gbtâ hom` eohcd` d`g` sb fulrh
ghsh eohcdh kboubkh d`c hmuh °qul pulkl slr ls`0 C` gl kbô kbhrrlh y ls` phsô
duhck` huglctâ oh k`sbs h 5; m`ths, y ohs ehaâ nhsth 85 y nl lsthk` huglcthck`
kl 8 m`th p`r 8 dhkh kçh. Lgpldâ h ushr lo GGT lo 2 kl ghrz` 598<, nhsth hn`rh
c` tlcm` cbcmñc sçct`gh y tlcçh uch klprlsbôc slvlrh. Rh c` sblct` ls`, cb oo`r`
kl rlplctl d`g` hctls kl t`ghr lo GGT.
Gudnhs mrhdbhs kl hctl ghc` p`r su rlspulsth y mrhdbhs p`r lxbsr lc lsth
vbkh y t`k` o` qul ustlk nhdl ls ¡¡bgprlsb`chctl!!
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
C  1
Tl nh p`kbk` rlohdb`chr gudnçsbg`s dhs`s kl klprlsb`cls kbrldthglctl
d`c oh phrhsbt`sbs bctlscho, yh slh p`r hsdèrbkls, kulohs nlpèdhs, `xbur`s u
`tr`s. Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, nhebtuhoglctl, lobgbch ohs t`xbchs obelrhkhs p`r lo
glthe`obsg` kl lst`s phrèsbt`s, o` qul pr`p`rdb`ch uch gla`rçh rèpbkh homuchs
vldls, sbc lgehrm` lc `trhs c` fucdb`ch. Lc lst`s dhs`s, nhy qul hpobdhr lo
pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s).
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D `
E d`g` hotlrchvh. Lc dhs`s mrhvls d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh)
kurhctl 4 slghchs. Tb klspuâs kl lst` sbmul plrsbslck` ls cldlshrb`
nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o
pr`t`d`o`
` Y (hcphrhsbthrb`
(hcphrhsbthrb`).
).
5<4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Klrghtbtbs htôpbdh
Oh klrghs htôpbdh, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r
oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls oohghkh d`gñcglctl lddlgh (htôpbd`), y uch
lcflrglkhk
bchght`rbh
kl oh lx`rhs
pblo, bctlcshglctl
prurbmbc`sh,
hfldth
fuckhglcthoglctl
fuckhglcth
oglctl
ohs suplrdbls
kl d`k`s y r`kboohs,
lo dulr`qul
dheloouk`,
oh dhrh y lo t`rs` y s`erl t`k` h eleâs y cbø`s.
Tç1
Ybd`r t`k` lo lgp` (bcdous` kl c`dnl), f`rghdbôc kl hgp`oohs qul supurhc
y f`rghc d`strhs, lcr`aldbgblct` horlklk`r kl ohs hgp`oohs, lrupdbôc dutèclh.
Lc o`s cbø`s ohs olsb`cls lgpblzhc lc ohs glaboohs, d`k`s ` r`kboohs. Lc o`s hkuot`s,
d`c gès frldulcdbh lc ohs suplrdbls lx`rhs (bctlrchs) kl ohs r`kboohs, d`k`s y
t`eboo`s. Oh pblo sl gulstrh guy sldh (xlr`sbs) y prlslcth pbd`r (prurbt`) qul
pulkl slr guy bctlcs`. Tb sl klshrr`ooh lddlgh drôcbd`, oh pblo pulkl hphrldlr
lcmr`shkh y dhushr lsd`z`r. Oh rlslqulkhk hgeblctho, oh lxp`sbdbôc ho hmuh, o`s
dhgeb`s kl tlgplrhturh y lo lstrâs pulklc hmrhvhr o`s sçct`ghs.
[1 @ Dâ (De) — 49/=/85
Oolv` gès kl 89 hø`s obkbhck` d`c uch klrghs qul sl gl prlslcth lc o`s
sb`s kl lxbôc kl ohs r`kboohs y d`k`s y lc ohs guøldhs. O`s sçct`ghs qul sulolc
prlslcthrsl s`c1 rlslqulkhk, pbdhzôc y lcr`aldbgblct` kl oh z`ch. Tblgprl
tlcçh qul ushr d`rd`bkls y hcgbdôd`s lc oh z`ch. Ls` gl prl`dupheh gudn`
p`rqul sâ qul h ohrm` pohz` lst`s glkbdhglct`s pulklc mlclrhr homuc`s
pr`eolghs h cbvlo kl nuls`s (slmñc nl olçk`). Ho
H o prbcdbpb` uobdâ GGT hdvhk`
d`c èdbk` dçtrbd` plr` gl hrkçh gudn` ho hpobdhr,
hpobdhr, hsç qul c` o` nbdl gès, yh qul
lo hrk`r gl pr`v`dheh gès rhsqubøh y gès gl ohsgheh, plr` duhck` hprlckç
h fherbdhr lo dks kldbkç bctlcthr kl culv`, yh qul y` sç qul tlcçh dohr` qul o` qul
gl dhusheh hrk`r lrhc ohs shols qul qulkhehc sbc rlhddb`chr, y ful lstuplck`.
Nbdl uc sprhy kl DKT h 8999 YYG y r`dbâ s`erl ohs phrtls hfldthkhs y lcdbgh
hmrlmuâ hom` kl [email protected] ho =9% c`tâ qul kl lsth f`rgh gl beh gla`r y d`ccuâ
nhdbâck`o` kl ghclrh lvlctuho
lvlctuho..
C` nl vulot` h cldlsbthr drlghs kl lshs d`st`shs y o` gla`r lst`y oberèck`gl
kl lfldt`s slduckhrb`s. Ls` sb, h vldls lo [email protected] gl rlsldh ` gl hrkl uc p`qubt`,
plr` sl gl phsh lc gbcut`s, plr` lo pr`eolgh klshphrldl p`r gudn` lgp`.
Lc gb lxplrblcdbh d`c lstl pr`eolgh kl oh pblo gl phsh h gb qul duhck`
tlcm` prl`duphdb`cls ` lst`y guy lstrlshk` lo pr`eolgh hphrldl d`g` p`r
hrtl kl ghmbh! Ylr` d`c DKT y [email protected] lo pr`eolgh klshphrldl.
Fulctl1 np1//f`r`.tlrhpbhs`
np1// f`r`.tlrhpbhs`xbkhvhs.go/bcklx.pnp0t7gsm&tn74<&sthrt79&
xbkhvhs.go/bcklx.pnp0t7gsm&tn74<&sthrt79&
5<;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` K
(klrght`oômbd`) ` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) slmñc mrhvlkhk, 5 ô 4 vldls ho kçh,
d`gebchk` lc dhs`s mrhvls d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E d`g` hotlrchvh, kurhctl
4 slghchs.
Kbheltls
Oh kbheltls gloobtus, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch lcflrglkhk drôcbdh
lc oh duho lo dulrp` c` pulkl rlmuohr oh dhckhk kl hzñdhr lc oh shcmrl, yh slh
p`r c` p`klr pr`kudbr oh sudblctl bcsuobch, (qul ls oh n`rg`ch pr`kudbkh p`r
lo pècdrlhs phrh d`ctr`ohr o`s vho`rls kl hzñdhr lc oh shcmrl), p`r rlsbstlcdbh h oh
bcsuobch, ` p`r hgehs rhz`cls. Ohs plrs`chs d`c kbheltls c` pulklc g`vbobzhr lo
hzñdhr klskl oh shcmrl nhsth o`s hkbp`dbt`s y dâouohs gusduohrls phrh qulghro`
` hoghdlchro` d`g` lclrmçh.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs prbcdbphols kl oh kbheltls gloobtus s`c lgbsbôc lxdlsbvh
kl `rbch (p`oburbh), huglct` hc`rgho kl oh cldlsbkhk kl d`glr (p`obfhmbh),
bcdrlglct` kl oh slk (p`obkbpsbh), vbsbôc e`rr`sh, slk lxdlsbvh, fhmh y pârkbkh
kl pls` sbc rhzôc hphrlctl. Lc `dhsb`cls sl t`ghc d`g` rlflrlcdbh lst`s trls
sçct`ghs (p`oburbh, p`obfhmbh y p`obkbpsbh ` rlmoh kl ohs 4 Y) phrh p`klr s`spldnhr
kl oh kbheltls p` 5 yh qul s`c ohs gès d`gucls lc oh p`eohdbôc.
Oh @rmhcbzhdbôc Guckbho kl oh Thouk rld`c`dl trls f`rghs kl kbheltls
gloobtus1 p` 8, p` 5 y kbheltls mlsthdb`cho
mlsthdb`cho (`durrl kurhctl lo lgehrhz`), dhkh
uch d`c kbflrlctls dhushs y d`c kbscth bcdbklcdbh.
C  1
Lxbstlc gudn`s gès p`s y suedohsls kl kbheltls y p`r o` thct` sl trhth kl
uch lcflrglkhk d`gpolah d`c dhushs gñopols y kbflrlctls lc dhkh dhs`. Tl
nh hodhczhk` lo âxbt` lc gudnçsbg`s dhs`s, plr` thgebâc nhy qul glcdb`chr
qul lc `tr`s gudn`s c` nh fucdb`chk` lo trhthgblct`, sbc d`c`dlr t`khvçh ohs
rhz`cls lxhdths. Kl t`khs ghclrhs, phrh gudn`s nh vhobk` oh plch bctlcthro`.
5<<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[1
Kbheltls [bp` B - Nhcbln Tuolbghc Nhsshc Kbhz (Yhchgè) — 48/>/85 [lcm`
46 hø`s y s`y kl Yhchgè. Klskl o`s 86 hø`s prlslctheh pr`eolghs d`c
mobdlgbhs
H o`s
59 hø`s
kbhmc`sdhc
kbheltls
mlst
lc gb
prbglr
lgehrhz`.hoths.
Lc lsl
lgp`
fulgltrhthkh
d`c bcsuobch.
Ho mlsthdb`cho
khr hdb`cho
h ouz, gbs
mobdlgbhs
sl klsd`ctr`ohr`c y gl kbhmc`sdhr`c kbheltls p` 8, yh qul o`s gâkbd`s gl
kbalr`c qul gb kbheltls vlcçh klskl gb hk`olsdlcdbh: H o`s 5; hø`s pblrk` oh
slcsbebobkhk kl gbs pbls (clur`phh kbheâdh), gb hzñdhr c` ehaheh. H o`s 56
hø`s tlcm` h gb slmuck` nba` d`c gudnhs d`gpobdhdb`cls. Lstuvl n`spbthobzhkh
n`spbthobzhkh
; vldls. Gl sugbcbstrhr`c gudnh bcsuobch y gb nba` chdbô d`c 88 oberhs. Ho shobr
kl gb lgehrhz` gl rldlthr`c Gl`gbch
Gl`gbch kl ><9 y Mobelcdohgbkh. H o`s 5> hø`s
gl hmrlmhc bcsuobch =9/49.
Lc kbdblgerl klo 5988 gl hgputhc lo 4lr klk` klo pbl klrldn`, pr`v`dhk`
p`r uch mhcmrlch y `stl`globs. Hnç gl dhgebhc oh bcsuobch =9/49 y oh k`sbs kl
Gl`rgbch h uch Gl`rgbch kl ><9 lc oh ghøhch, 59 ucbkhkls kl bcsuobch
rèpbkh h glkb` kçh y 89 ucbkhkls kl bcsuobch rèpbkh y ; ucbkhkls kl bcsuobch
olcth lc oh c`dnl.
Nhdl uc gls y k`s slghchs d`glcdâ gb trhthgblct` d`c GGT y èdbk`
dçtrbd`. H o`s 4 kçhs kl nhelr d`glczhk` lo trhthgblct` d`glcdâ h slcr
gudnçsbgh lclrmçh y fulrzhs. H oh slghch d`glcdâ h slcr uc n`rgbmul` lc
gbs pbls y oh phct`rrbooh. H o`s 8< kçhs lgpldâ h rld`erhr oh slcsbebobkhk lc o`s
klk`s y lc o`s pbls. ¡Gl sblct` guy fulrtl! Gb mobdlgbh sl c`rghobzô. Hn`rh
lc hyuchs tlcm` mobdlgbh kl => h 26, ls gès, nhdl = kçhs gl qulgâ lo klk`
d`c hdlbtl dhoblctl y gb nlrbkh shcô h o`s k`s kçhs, duhck` hctls gbs nlrbkhs
klg`rhehc lc shchr. Duhck` d`glcdâ h t`ghr GGT tlcçh uch bcflddbôc lc lo
pbl (pbl kbheâd`), oh nlrbkh yh lstheh sldh. Nh shchk`. R` t`gheh kburâd`s
phrh p`klr `rbchr y `rbcheh guy lspug`s` p`r tlclr heuckhcdbh kl pr`tlçchs
lc oh `rbch y oolv` uc gls qul c` t`g` kburâd`s y `rbc` eblc. Rh ehaâ gb k`sbs
kl bcsuobch. T`o` gl bcyldt` ohs ; ucbkhkls kl bcsuobch olcth lc oh c`dnl y oh
Gl`rgbch lc oh ghøhch.
GGT ls uc pr`kudt`r lxdlolctl qul hyukh h rlsthurhr oh shouk kl ghclrh
c`theol.
Fulctl1 np1//www.ggsohc`hglrbdh.d`g/tlsg`cb`s-p`r- lsdrbt`-kl-durhdb`c-klvhrbhs-lcflrglkhkls-d`c-lo-ggs/
Kbheltls p` 5 - Thchm` Vhrmhs (Lsphøh) — 6/;/8<
N`oh, gl musthrçh d`gphrr d`c v`s`tr`s gb lxplrblcdbh d`c ‟Thouk Chturho‗
y oh ‟Kuodl Ulv`oudbôc‗1
[rls glsls klspuâs kl uch hchoçdh prl`duphctl (lczbghs nlpèdhs guy
lolvhkhs, kbheltls, shcmrl `duoth lc nldls…), nl rld`mbk` nhdl uc`s kçhs o`s
5<6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
rlsuothk`s kl culv`s hcèobsbs. Ulhoglctl nh sbk`
s bk` fhctèsd` qul oh k`dt`rh qul
gl htlckçh sl qulkhsl hes`outhglctl s`rprlckbkh d`c o`s culv`s rlsuothk`s:
t`k`s o`s vho`rls s`c hes`outhglctl c`rghols y, o` fuckhglctho phrh gb, nh
klshphrldbk` oh kbheltls p` BB qul gl nheçhc kbhmc`sdhk`. [`k`
[`k` lst` klspuâs
kl uc trhthgblct` kl 58 kçhs d`c GGT, oh bcmlsth kbhrbh kl uc phr kl n`ahs kl
jhohcdn`l y oh t`gh, hpr`xbghkhglctl 8 obtr` ho kçh, kl bcfusb`cls kl lstlvbh.
[hgebâc nl pr`durhk` slmubr uch kblth hodhobch o` gès rbmur`shglctl p`sbeol y
nhdlr lalrdbdb` kbhrb`.
Lo dhs` ls qul oh gâkbd` c` sl drlçh qul o`s k`s hcèobsbs lrhc kl oh gbsgh
plrs`ch, plr`,
plr`, sç, s`y y` gbsg` klspuâs kl phshr p`r oh lxplrblcdbh kl hdlrdhrgl
h uc p` kl glkbdbch gès chturho y lfldvh qul c` d`ctrbeuyl h hobglcthr lo
clm`db` qul rlsuoth kl dr`cbdhr kbvlrshs lcflrglkhkls qul, d`g` oh kbheltls,
s`c dhkh vlz gès d`gucls.
Fulctl1 nps1//k`odhrlv`oudb`.dht/ohcmuhml/ls/0s7kbheltls
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` phrh oh kbheltls ls lo pr`t`d`o` D ` d`g` hotlrchvh
E, plr` nhy qul tlclr dohr` qul ls uc pr`dls` ohrm` k`ckl nhy qul
klsphrhsbthrsl dhkh gls kurhctl 6 glsls d`g` gçcbg`, slmubr uch kblth
shoukheol (sbc dhrcls, nhrbchs rlchkhs, oèdtl`s), lct`cdls p`klg`s
`etlclr rlsuothk`s.
Ls p`sbeol klahr kl slr klplckblctl kl oh bcsuobch, lc hpr`xbghk
hpr`xbghkhglctl
hglctl
5 h 4 glsls, y oh rlgbsbôc d`gpolth pulkl oolmhr h o`s < glsls, plr` d`c
kbsdbpobch.
Lc dhs` kl kbheltls [bp` B, sl pulkl nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s) yh
qul nh khk` rlsuothk` lc homuc`s dhs`s.
Ho pr`t`d`o` D ` E, høhkbr 8 dudnhrbooh kl lstlvbh chturho y nhsth 8< m kl
Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch rlphrk` kurhctl lo kçh.
Kbhrrlh
Oh kbhrrlh ls uc huglct` krèsd` lc oh frldulcdbh kl ohs klp`sbdb`cls,
c`rghoglctl gès kl trls vldls ho kçh, hd`gphøhkh kl uch kbsgbcudbôc lc oh
d`csbstlcdbh kl âsths. H vldls oh kbhrrlh pulkl d`ctlclr shcmrl, g`d`, pus `
hobglct`s
c` kbmlrbk`s.
Lc cbø`s
y eleâs klel slr vbmbohk` lstrbdthglctl yh qul lc loo`s pulkl
klrbvhr lc uc duhkr` gès mrhvl.
5<=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Tç1
Yulkl lsthr hd`gphøhkh kl k`o`r hek`gbcho, lerl, cèuslhs, vôgbt`,
klebobkhk ` pârkbkh klo hplt`.
[1 Gç  Y (De) — 5;/2/84
[l ghck` uc shouk` guy lspldbho. Xublr` khrtl ohs mrhdbhs p`r p`clr lc
gbs ghc`s lstl ghrhvboo`s` pr`kudt`1 [email protected][@ KL [email protected]@. Klspuâs kl nhelro`
t`ghk` lc d`gphøçh kl vhrbhs plrs`chs kl gb fhgbobh y hgbm`s, kl ghclrh
prlv
pr
lvlc
lctb
tbvvh y vl
vlrr qu
qull cu
culs
lstr
tr`s
`s `r
`rmmhc
hcbs
bsg`
g`ss o` hs
hsbg
bgbobohr
hr`c
`c gu
guyy eb
eblc
lc..
G
l
nl klkbdhk` h pr`g`db`chro`, lc lspldbho d`c gbs slrls qulrbk`s y hgbm`s
dlrdhc`s, y qublr` d`cthrtl k`s tlsg`cb`s1
(…) Gb nbah tlcçh uch kbhrrlh kl 8< kçhs y k`o`r kl lstôghm` duhck` d`gçh
duhoqublr d`sh, y klspuâs kl br ho gâkbd` lc k`ckl ol `rklchr`c lxèglcls, y
o`s duhols yh sl prhddô, kldbkç khrol lo [email protected][@. Xul s`rprlsh qul oulm` kl
khrol oh gçcbgh k`sbs kl uch m`th kl dhkh frhsd` y s`o` d`c uch t`gh, duhck`
v`ovbô h d`glr, yh c` tuv` k`o`r y oh kbhrrlh klshphrldbô. Y`r supulst` qul
kurhctl ohs n`rhs sbmublctls y dhkh n`rh ol slmuç khck` oh k`sbs, d`c lo c kl
hthdhr lo gho qul tlcçh.
Ls ghrhvboo`s` p`klr d`gphrr lsth lxplrblcdbh d`cm` y nhdlr shelr
h t`k`s o`s qul lstâc bctlrlshk`s y lclc tlg`r kl t`ghr LO [email protected][@, qul
sbgpolglctl o` uobdlc y pulkhc d`gpr`ehr oh ghmbh kl pr`kudt` qul tlclg`s
y hsç p`klr hyukhr h qublcls o` cldlsbtlc. Kb`s tl hd`gphøl sblgprl y tl sbmh
khck` oh shebkurçh cldlshrbh phrh oolmhr h t`khs ohs plrs`chs qul cldlsbthc d`c
urmlcdbh t`ghr lstl p`klr`s` pr`kudt`. Gbo elckbdb`cls y mrhdbhs.
Fulctl1 nps1//www.fhdle``j.d`g/[email protected]/pn`t`s/h.665;;5<;9;4;;92.89 =4=;8>4
9.<=28682=>=65;66/6=42;;>4<2<9>;6/0typl74
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` lc lstl dhs` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` \ (urmlcdbhs) sb
sl trhth kl uc hkuot`. Lc dhs`s kl cbø`s sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` C (cbø`s). Lo
lgp` klo trhthgblct` ls slmñc oh kurhdbôc kl oh kbhrrlh. Lc dhs`s mrhvls
sl pulkl høhkbr lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo
d`c [email protected]) hpobdhk` lc oh ehrrbmh.
5<>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Kbsfucdbôc lrâdtbo
Oh kbsfucdbôc lrâdo ls oh bcdhphdbkhk plrsbstlctl
plrsbstlctl phrh d`cslmubr ` ghctlclr
uch lrlddbôc qul plrgbth uch rlohdbôc slxuho shsfhdt`rbh. [`k`s o`s n`gerls
pulklc
oolmhr h d`c
tlclr
pr`eolghs
phrh
tlclr uchmrhvl
lrlddbôc,
lspldbhoglctl
sb
lstèc dhcshk`s,
lstrâs,
d`c uch
lcflrglkhk
` eha`
o`s lfldt`s klo
hod`n`o y ohs kr`mhs.
Tç1
Dhgebh oh dhobkhk kl oh lrlddbôc, thct` lc târgbc`s kl rbmbklz, d`g` lc oh
dhphdbkhk kl ghctlclr uch lrlddbôc. \c` kl o`s bckbdhk`rls kl qul oh dhush ls
sbdh, ls oh bcdhphdbkhk phrh tlclr uch lrlddbôc ho klsplrthrsl p`r oh ghøhch
y sb ls psbd`oômbdh, oh kbsfucdbôc pulkl plrkurhr p`r uc plrç`k` kl lgp`
d`cdrlt`, p`r lalgpo` gblctrhs kurl oh sbtuhdbôc kl lstrâs. Tb plrsbstl p`r gès
kl trls glsls, lo phdblctl klelrè eusdhr uc urôo`m` lspldbhobzhk`.
lspldbhobzhk`.
[1 Hô (E) — 86/4/85
Klebk` ho lstrâs, oh fhm
fhmhh pr`fuckh, lo dhcshcdb`, oh ghoh cutrbdbôc, hod`n`o
y gudn`s hø`s sbc klsdhcs`, fub vçdgh kl trhst`rc`s n`rg`chols, kbsgbcudbôc
kl oh oçebk` (klsl`) y o`s sçct`ghs klo dècdlr kl prôsth
prôsthth
th (pr`sths), n`cm`s /
nlrpls.
O`s gâkbd`s qulrçhc rldlthrgl Vbhmrh y hcebôd`s plr` hñc hsç, c` lst`y
t`ghck` glkbdhglct`s kl fhrghdbh.
Ulsulov` lo pr`eolgh d`c ohvhvhs
ohvhvhs bctlschols, t`k`s o`s kçhs (h vldls 5 p`r
kçh, p`rqul slch ohs gla`rhs) y uobz` DKT (T`oudbôc kl Kbôxbk` kl Do`r`) phrh
prlvlcbr oh kbhrrlh qul gl dhush lo èdbk` dçtrbd`.
Lc trls glsls gl v`ovbô oh lclrmçh y oh c`rghobkhk. Drl` qul ful uc
pr`eolgh hduguohv` kl tôxbd`s.
[hgebâc gl hyuk` d`c KNLH <9 gm, gloht`cbch 4 gm ` 6, do`rur` kl
ghmclsb`, mhrrhfhkh, eôrhx y hmuh kl ghr, sho ghrbch, kblth hodhobcbzhctl, lo s`o
y mbgchsb`. \obdâ thgebâc hut`nlg`tlrhpbh y oh `rbch.
Nbdl t`k` o` qul lstheh h gb hodhcdl p`rqul sheçh qul lrh klebk` h oh
bct`xbdhdbôc
bct`xb
dhdbôc drôcbdh. … C` tlcçh chkh qul plrklr…
Mrhdbhs y ho gèxbg` rlsp`csheol kl oh rlduplrhdbôc, lo GGT. Mrhdbhs h Abg
Nugeol!
Fulctl1 np1//olb2=8.eo`msp`t.d`g.ls/p/dhs`s-kl-durh.ntgo
5<2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk`
bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E
d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) kurhctl
uc gls.
Kbvlrtbduobtbs
Oh kbvlrduobs, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho,
d`cvlcdb`c
ho, ls uch bchghdbôc ` bcflddbôc kl ohs plquløhs e`oshs ` shd`s qul
pr`truylc y qul sl f`rghc s`erl oh phrlk bctlrch klo bctlsc`, d`c frldulcdbh
lc lo bctlsc` mruls` (d`o`c).
Tç1
Yulklc prlslcthrsl kbstlcsbôc y dôobd`s lc oh phrtl ehah klo hek`glc,
slcsbebobkhk mlclrhoglctl
mlclrhoglctl lc lo ohk` bcflrb`r bzqublrk` klo hek`glc, kbstlcsbôc
` mhsls, lerl y lsdho`frç`s, cèuslhs y vôgbt`s y fhoth kl hplt`.
[1 U D (H) — 8/5/89
Kl 599< h 599= sufrç uch slrbl rldurrlctl kl bcflddb`cls bctlrchs (…) O`s
pr`eolghs d`ccuhr`c y sl pusblr`c pl`r. Gl slc eblc duhck` t`gâ o`s
hcebôd`s rldlthk`s p`r vhrb`s k`dt`rls, plr` duhck` phrâ, o`s pr`eolghs
rlmrlshr`c
klspuâs
kl k`s
y sbcâck`gl
Fbchoglctl
tlrgbcâ
lcslghchs,
oh shoh klklebobtèck`gl
lglrmlcdbhs kl
uc n`spbtho gbslrheol.
klspuâs kl
klsghyhrgl. \c lspldbhobsth lc Glkbdbch Bctlrch gl kbhmc`sdô lo pr`eolgh
d`g` d`o`c d`cstrløbk` dhushk` p`r kbvlrduobs y gl rldltô `trh slrbl kl
hcebôd`s lc oh hctlshoh kl uch `plrhdbôc phrh lxrphr oh slddbôc eo`qulhkh
klo d`o`c.
Kurhctl ohs prulehs prlvbhs h oh `plrhdbôc, lcd`ctrâ p`r dhsuhobkhk uc
d`glcthrb` lc Bctlrclt p`r uch gualr qul hslmurheh nhelrsl durhk` su
kbvlrduobs d`c GGT.
Hsç qul o` plkç p`r Bctlrclt. K`s slghchs hctls qul oolmhrh lo GGT nheçh
tlrgbchk` gb slrbl kl hcebôd`s y v`ovçh h slcrgl gbslrheol kl culv`.
Lgpldâ lo pr`t`d`o` GGT rld`glckhk`, lo gbsg` kçh qul oolmô. H o`s 59
gbcut`s gl slc gla`r. Ho kçh sbmublctl gl lcd`ctrheh ghrhvboo`shglctl ‛
gla`r qul lc gudn`s hø`s.
569
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Y`spusl gb `plrhdbôc kl d`oldt`gçh y d`ccuâ t`ghck` GGT. Klspuâs
kl k`s glsls gl nbdblr`c uc culv` [HD y vbsbtâ lo alfl klo klphrthglct` kl
dbrumçh klo N`spbtho. Gl kba` qul c` vlçh cbcmuch rhzôc phrh d`ccuhr d`c oh
`plrhdbôc.
D`ccuâ t`ghck` 6 m`ths kl GGT dhkh c`dnl kurhctl o`s sbmublctls <
hø`s y nl kbsfruthk` kl uch lxdlolctl shouk y eblclsthr.
C` tlcm` cbcmuch kukh lc hes`out` qul GGT gl shovô kl phshr p`r lo
qubrôfhc` y gl klv`ovbô oh shouk. Lc 599= rlhoglctl drlçh qul c` vbvbrçh phrh
vlr 599>. Hn`rh tlcm` =5 y gl sblct` guy eblc.
Mrhdbhs Abg Nugeol p`r d`ccuhr oh druzhkh
dr uzhkh p`r oh eulch shouk kl culstr`
pohclth.
Fulctl1 np1//mlclsbs5dnurdn.bs/hoo-ggs-tlsg`cbhos
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
` lo pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT
kbsulot` lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o`
U (rldtho d`c plrbooh) klspuâs kl dhkh klp`sbdbôc kurhctl 4 slghchs. Kl
c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh d`c lo
pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
K`o`r kl dhelzh
Lo k`o`r kl dhelzh thgebâc oohghk` dlfholh, nhdl rlflrlcdbh h o`s k`o`rls y
g`olshs o`dhobzhk`s lc duhoqublr phrtl kl oh dhelzh, lc o`s kbflrlctls tlabk`s
kl oh dhvbkhk drhclhch, lc ohs lstrudturhs qul o` uclc h oh ehsl klo drècl`, o`s
gñsduo`s y vhs`s shcmuçcl`s qul r`klhc lo dulr` dheloouk`, dhrh y duloo`. Lo
p` kl k`o`r kl dhelzh gès d`gñc ls oh dlfholh tlcsb`cho, dhushkh p`r tlcsbôc
gusduohr lc o`s n`ger`s, duloo`, dulr` dheloouk` y ghckçeuoh y qul pulkl lsthr
rlohdb`chkh d`c lo lstrâs, oh klprlsbôc ` oh hcsblkhk, ` uch p`sturh bcd`rrldth
kl oh dhelzh.
Tç1
Oh dlfholh gbmrhø`sh bgpobdh uc k`o`r fulrtl qul `durrl mlclrhoglctl d`c
trhst`rc`s vbsuhols, slcsbebobkhk ho rubk` ` h oh ouz y cèuslhs. Tb eblc lo k`o`r kl
dhelzh ls uc trhst`rc` mlclrhoglctl elcbmc` y trhcsbt`rb` qul lc oh ghy`r phrtl
568
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
kl ohs `dhsb`cls dlkl lsp`ctèclhglctl ` d`c oh hyukh kl homñc hchomâsbd`.
Yulkl lsthr thgebâc `rbmbchkh p`r uch lcflrglkhk mrhvl qul p`cmh lc plobmr`
oh vbkh klo phdblctl.
C  1
Lo k`o`r kl dhelzh c` ls uch lcflrglkhk, sbc` uc sçct`gh qul pulkl
slr dhushk` p`r kbflrlctls duhkr`s doçcbd`s. Yulkl slr dhushk` p`r t`xbdbkhk
lolvhkh ho rblm` shcmuçcl` ` eo`qul` clur`gusduohr.
clur`gusduohr. Lc homuchs p`dhs `dhsb`cls
klspuâs kl oh bcmlsôc klo kbôxbk` homuch plrs`ch pulkl slcr k`o`r kl dhelzh
klebk` h ohs t`xbchs kl o`s phtômlc`s gulrt`s. Ls uc lfldt` phshalr` qul c`
plrkurh ho t`ghr oh susthcdbh. Lc dhs` kl pr`eolgh lstrudturho ` gusduohr sl
rld`gblckh vbsbthr uc `stlôpht
`stlôphthh phrh rllstheoldlr uch d`rrldth hobclhdbôc.
[1 U Uè (Yè)
‟…Eulc`s kçhs, gb c`gerl ls U`sh U`shrb`, y vbv` lc Yhchgè, s`y oh ghgè
kl A`chtnhc Vlmh U`shrb` kl 8; hø`s, s`y uch ghgè qul d`g` duhoqublr `trh
sl prl`duph p`r oh shouk kl sus nba`s. Gb nba` lstuv` ylck` h gès kl ; gâkbd`s
kbflrlctls d`c rlspldt` h o`s k`o`rls kl dhelzh drôcbd`s qul c` ol phrhehc d`c
cbcmuch glkbdbch, (ho glc`s d`g` hchomâsbd`s, cbcmuc` ol fucdb`cô). R` guy
prl`duphkh p`rqul dhkh kçh o`s k`o`rls lrhc gès fulrtls y tlcçh trls slghchs
kl c` hsbsr h oh lsduloh. Ybkblck` lc gbs `rhdb`cls qul lcd`ctrhrh hom` qul
o` durhrh. Yhrh ls`s kçhs gl oohgô lo Kr. Bshçhs Ghkrbk qul c` sheçh chkh kl âo
nhdçh gudn` lgp` y gl prlmuctô p`r Dnrbstn`plr (nlrghc` kl A`chtnhc)
qublc thgebâc lstuv` gho d`c k`o`rls kl lstôghm` drôcbd`s. Lc lsl g`glct`
ol d`glctâ oh sbtuhdbôc kl A`chtnhc y âo gl klsdrbebô ohs e`ckhkls klo GGT,
y` d`c uc p`d` kl klsd`cchzh p`rqul phrldçh guy eulc` o` qul gl d`ctheh
phrh slr vlrkhk.
D`glczhg`s d`c lo trhthgblct` y klskl lo slmuck` kçh d`glczhg`s h vlr
o`s rlsuothk`s, y` kldçh qul lrh guy pr`ct` phrh slr rlho. Lst`y guy kbdn`sh kl slr
uch kl ohs p`dhs plrs`chs qul pulkl kbsfruthr kl lstl gbohmr` lc Yhchgè, sløho`
qul p`dhs, p`rqul vç lc lo vbkl` o` qul phsô lc Èfrbdh, kl dôg` durheh oh ghohrbh
y klelrçhg`s c`s`tr`s gbsg`s lcdhrmhrc`s kl su kbfusbôc d`c thcths plrs`chs
qul o` lstèc cldlsbthck` y phrhr lo k`o`r kl plrs`chs cldlsbthkhs qul c` lclc
kbclr` phrh slr shchkhs. Hmrhklzd` klskl o` pr`fuck` kl gb d`rhzôc p`r nhelro`s
lcd`ctrhk`s. Gbo mrhdbhs..‗
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
565
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` F
(frldulctl) ` E d`g` hotlrchvh. Lc dhs`s rldurrlctls thgebâc nh sbk` ño
uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh), yh qul gudnhs vldls lo `rbmlc klo k`o`r lc
oh dhelzh ls p`r bct`xbdhdbôc bctlscho.
Âe`oh
Lo âe`oh ls uch lcflrglkhk dhushkh lc lo slr nughc` p`r lo vbrus klo âe`oh.
Lstl vbrus sl bctr`kudl lc oh p`eohdbôc nughch ‟supulsthglctl‗ p`r d`cthdt`
lstrldn` d`c hcbghols.
Lo vbrus klo âe`oh lstè phtlcthk` p`r uch phtlctl hglrbdhch. Lo cñglr` kl
phtlctll ls ‟C`. DH5=;8<54 H8‗ y sl ol `t`rmô lc 5989.
phtlct
Tç1
C`rghoglctl o`s sçct`ghs d`gblczhc lctrl
lctrl o`s k`s kçhs y ohs trls slghchs
klspuâs kl nhelr d`ctrhçk` lo vbrus. Ohs plrs`chs bcfldthkhs c` s`c d`cthmb`shs
nhsth qul lgpblzhc o`s sçct`ghs qul durshc d`c lerl, k`o`r kl mhrmhcth,
k`o`rls gusduohrls, k`o`r kl dhelzh, vôgbt`s, kbhrrlh, lrupdb`cls dutèclhs,
kbsfucdbôc rlcho y nlpèdh y lc homuc`s dhs`s nlg`rrhmbhs bctlrchs y lxtlrchs.
Fbm. ;91 Yhtlctl c.± DH 5=;8<54 H8 rlf
rlflrlctl
lrlctl ho vbrus âe`oh.
564
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[1
Lxbstl uch pèmbch wle k`ckl lstèc pueobdhk`s o`s sudls`s d`c kbôxbk` kl
do`r` lc dhs`s kl âe`oh.
Fulctl1 np1//ggsahphc.snhrlp`bct.d`g/phmls/le`oh.hspx
C  1
Xublr` hmrhkldlr h Gutsur` Bsnbb su trheha` vhoblctl lc ohs z`chs lcklgbdhs
kl âe`oh k`ckl ful sbc tlglr su pr`pbh vbkh y p`r bcbdbhvh pr`pbh, `etlcblck`
lxdlolctls rlsuothk`s.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` F (frldulctl)
slmubk` p`r lo pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`) ` lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) d`g` hotlrchvh.
Lc dhs` doçcbd` sl klelrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` R (bcylddbôc)
(bcylddbôc) lc dhs` qul
c` rlsp`ckh h o`s hctlrb`rls.
Lcflrglkhkls hut`bcgucls
Lcflrglkhkls hut`bcgucls s`c lcflrglkhkls ‟supulsthglctl‗ dhushkhs
p`r uc hthqul klo sbstlgh bcgucbthrb` h ohs dâouohs klo pr`pb` `rmhcbsg`.
Ylr`, °quâ pr`kudl lsh rlhddbôc lc lo sbstlgh bcgucbthrb` °Duèo ls oh hddbôc
prbglrh qul klslcdhklch lsl „lrr`r‒0 Lsh prbglrh hddbôc pulkl slr kl `rbmlc
phrhsbthrb` y p`r o` thct` klsd`c`dbkh p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`c
d`cvlcdb`cho
ho n`spbthohrbh.
Nhebtuhoglctl, o`s phrèsbt`s, d`c su dhphdbkhk kl hoelrmhr uch d`gebchdbôc
kl vbrus, ehdtlrbhs y n`cm`s klctr` kl su pr`pbh lstrudturh, lc d`cauct` d`c
uch hdbk`sbs gltheôobdh pr`v`dhkh p`r uch kblth bchklduhkh, pulklc slr oh
vlrkhklrhh dhush kl t`khs ohs lcflrglkhkls d`csbklrhkhs hut`bcgucls… slmñc
vlrkhklr
gb drbtlrb`.
Y`r o` thct` uch lcflrglkhk hut`bcgucl ls uc târgbc` ushk` p`r oh
glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho lc su bctlct` p`r khr uch lxpobdhdbôc h uch lcflrglkhk
duy` vlrkhklr` `rbmlc klsd`c`dlc.
Lctrl ohs lcflrglkhkls dohsbdhkhs kl hut`bcgucls lstèc1 lsdolr`sbs
gñopol, kbheltls, r`bkbs hut`bcgucl, hrtrbs rlught`bkl, lcflrglkhk kl
Dr`nc, dècdlr kl oh shcmrl, dècdlr kl ghgh, hrtr`sbs, `stl`p`r`sbs ltd. Homuchs
kl loohs d`g` oh hrtrbs y oh `elsbkhk s`c d`csbklrhkhs d`g` lcflrglkhkls
lcflrglkhkls kl
oh heuckhcdbh, y oh @rmhcbzhdbôc
@rmhcbzhdbôc Guckbho kl oh Thouk (@GT) hrgh qul oh hrtrbs
hr trbs
ls gès d`gñc lc o`s phçsls klshrr`oohk`s.
56;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1 K. K (Yñ) — 84/=/8;
Nhdçh 4 hø`s qul ol nheçhc kbhmc`sdhk` lcflrglkhk
lcflrglkhk hut`bcgucl tlcblck`
bchghdb`cls lc ohs hrduohdb`cls y dhcshcdb` lxtrlg`.
Yr`eô kbflrlctls tlrhpbhs plr` ful h rhçz kl t`ghr GGT qul sl sbcô uc =9%
gla`r.
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/qTfg-9BGb]B
Lcflrglkhk kl Dr`nc
\ch lcflrglkhk bctlscho bchght`rbh, sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz
p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls drôcbdh y kl `rbmlc klsd`c`dbk`, qul qubzès
lcl uc d`gp`clctl hut`bcgucl, lc oh duho lo sbstlgh bcgucbthrb` klo
bckbvbku` ‟supulsthglctl‗
‟supulsthglctl‗ hthdh su pr`pb` bctlsc` pr`kudblck` bchghdbôc.
Frldulctlglctl, oh phrtl hfldthkh ls lo çol`c ` trhg` cho klo bctlsc` klomhk`
y d`gblcz` klo bctlsc` mruls`, hucqul oh lcflrglkhk pulkl hphrldlr lc
duhoqublr oumhr klo trhdt` kbmlsv`, klskl oh pr`pbh e`dh nhsth lo lxtrlg` klo
rldt`.
Tç1
Homuc`s phdblctls d`c lcflrglkhk kl Dr`nc dhsb c` sufrlc g`olshs
gblctrhs `tr`s lclc g`olshs mrhvls y d`ccuhs, oh ghy`rçh sl lcdulctrh
lctrl lst`s k`s lxtrlg`s (hge`s).
Klplckblck` kl kôckl lstâ o`dhobzhkh oh lcflrglkhk, o`s sçct`ghs pulklc
vhrbhr. Tb oh hfldthdbôc ls h cbvlo klo bctlsc` klomhk`, oh gès d`gñc, lclc
s`erl t`k` kbhrrlh, k`o`r hek`gbcho y o` qul sl oohgh sçct`ghs mlclrhols1
klebobkhk, pârkbkh kl pls`, fhoth kl hplt`. Tb lstè sbtuhkh oh bchghdbôc lc lo
d`o`c, vh h prlk`gbchr oh kbhrrlh, h vldls d`c shcmrl.
[hgebâc lo p` kl lcflrglkhk kltlrgbch o`s sçct`ghs. O`s phdblctls qul
lclc sçct`ghs bchght`rb`s sulolc tlclr gès k`o`r y kbhrrlh, gblctrhs qul
o`s qul lclc sçct`ghs kl lstlc`sbs ` lstrldnlz, lclc glc`s k`o`r,
k`o`r, l bcdous`
pulklc prlslcthr `estruddbôc bctlscho.
[1 G H (LL. \\.) — 8>/89/85
GGT ful culstr` gbohmr`!
‟Kb`s, c` pulk` lolmbr sb gb nba` vbvl ` gulrl, plr` sb sl sup`cl qul vbvl,
guâstrhgl lo dhgbc` …‗ Lsh ful gb gès flrvblctl `rhdbôc uch c`dnl klslsplrhkh
klslsplrhkh
lc herbo kl 5989. Gb nba` kl 85 hø`s lstheh gurblck` kl o`s lstrhm`s kl oh
56<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
lcflrglkhk kl Dr`nc y oh D. kbdbol qul hkqubrbô lc 5992. Bcguc`suprls`rls,
d`rd`bkls, BmBV,
BmBV, trhspohctls fldhols, ohs k`sbs k`eols kl vhcd`gbdbch c` fulr`c
sudblctls phrh kltlclr lo klsobzhgblct` nhdbh heha` kl gb cbø` kuodl. O`s
lspldbhobsths gl kbalr`c qul c` nheçh chkh gès qul pukblrhc nhdlr p`r gb nba`.
(...) Ls` gl pus` lc uc trhyldt` kl 4 hø`s kl hprlckbzhal y hñc d`ccñh oh
bcvlsmhdbôc, oh `rhdbôc y slcr mubhk` phrh nhdlr dblrths d`shs. \c` kl o`s
duhols lrh GGT. \c rlsuglc rèpbk`1 nhsth 5989, h o`s 88 hø`s kl lkhk ol ful
kbhmc`sdhkh oh lcflrglkhk kl Dr`nc, y lc 5985 thgebâc sl oh kbhmc`sdhr`c
h gb lsp`s`.
D`glczhr`c h t`ghr GGT y lc p`d`s kçhs yh c` tlcçhc sçct`ghs. Nbdbg`s
lo trhthgblct` kurhctl uchs ; slghchs phrh hslmurhrc`s y o` rlplg`s ho
dhe` kl uc`s glsls. C`s`tr`s plcshg`s qul oh cutrbdbôc y ohs vbthgbchs s`c
bgp`rthctls plr` lo GGT c`s oolvô h k`ckl c` ful dhphz kl nhdlro` cbcmñc
glkbdhglct`.
Gb ghrbk` lstheh durhk` lc uc gls. Bcdous` o`s gâkbd`s lsthehc
klsd`cdlrthk`s. Lc phoherhs tlxtuhols1 ‟[us dnbd`s s`c gla`rls qul lo 2<% kl
gbs phdblctls qul t`ghc glkbdhglct`s!‗
Drl` qul lo Dr`nc s`c rlhoglctl ehdtlrbhs shovhals h dhush kl t`k`s o`s
glkbdhglct`s
glkbdhglct
`s qul p`clg`s lc culstr`s dulrp`s, lspldbhoglc
lspldbhoglctl
tl o`s lstlr`b
lstlr`bkls.
kls. Oh
ehdtlrbh ls `p`rtucbsth y sl nhdl dhrm` kl uch suprlsbôc klo sbstlgh bcguc`oômbd`.
Gb nba` h o`s 85 hø`s kl lkhk, lrh uc cbø` shc`, vberhctl nhsth qul t`gô uc phr kl
r`ckhs kl lstlr`bkls phrh oh nblkrh vlclc`sh, y uc gls gès thrkl, ful kbhmc`sdhk`
kl oh lcflrglkhk klo Dr`nc.
Lst` y gudn` gès qul p`krçh lsdrbebr
lsdr bebr uc ober` s`erl ls` drl` GGT fucdb`ch
p`rqul gudn`s kl culstr`s ghols s`c dhushk`s p`r ehdtlrbhs, plr` o`s gâkbd`s
sl cblmhc h vlr qul, auct` d`c oh d`gucbkhk gâkbdh, nhdblck` oh vbsth m`rkh…
Fulctl1 np1//olb2=8.eo`msp`t.d`g.ls/p/dhs`s-kl-durh.ntgo
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` U
(rldtho d`c plrbooh) kurhctl 4 glsls klspuâs kl dhkh klfldhdb
klfldhdbôc.
ôc. Kl c`dnl
sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh d`c lo pr`t`d`o`
O (ehø`).
566
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Lcflrglkhk kl Oygl
Oygl
Oh lcflrglkhk kl Oygl, thgebâc d`c`dbkh d`g` e`rrlob`sbs kl Oygl, ls
uch lcflrglkhk bcflddb`sh, dhushkh p`r oh lspbr`qulth E`rrlobh eurmk`rflrb.
Ls oh prbcdbpho lcflrglkhk trhcsgbkh p`r mhrrhphths lc Lur`ph y LL. \\. Lo
rlslrv`rb` hcbgho kl lsths mhrrhphths
mhrrhphths (kl oh lspldbl Bx`kls rbdbcus)
rbdbcus) o` d`cstuylc
o`s r`lk`rls shovhals (cb rhths cb rht`cls
rht`cls d`gucls) y o`s dblrv`s.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs kl oh lcflrglkhk kl Oygl tlgprhch y o`dhobzhkh (lthph 8)
d`gblczhc kçhs ` slghchs klspuâs kl oh bcflddbôc. T`c sbgbohrls h oh mrbpl y
pulklc hehrdhr1 lsdho`frç`s, lerl, bckbsp`sbdbôc mlclrho, k`o`r kl dhelzh y
hrduohr,, k`o`r gusduohr y rbmbklz lc lo duloo`.
hrduohr
Tl pulkl prlslcthr uch lrupdbôc lc ‟f`rgh kl lsdhrhploh‗, uch ghcdnh
r`ah y pohch ` obmlrhglctl lolvhkh lc lo sb` kl oh pbdhkurh kl oh mhrrhphth, h
glcuk` d`c uc èrlh dohrh lc lo dlctr`. Lsth olsbôc pulkl slr ehsthctl mrhckl y
lxphckbrsl
lxphckbr
sl lc thghø`. Lsth lrupdbôc sl klc`gbch lrbtlgh gbmrht`rb`.
O`s sçct`ghs pulklc hphrldlr y klshphrldlr. Oh lcflrglkhk kl Oygl
pulkl kbslgbchrsl ho dlrler`, lo d`rhzôc y ohs hrduohdb`cls.
O`s sçct`ghs kl oh lcflrglkhk kl Oygl kl kbslgbchdbôc tlgprhch (lthph
5) pulklc `durrbr kl slghchs h glsls klspuâs kl oh pbdhkurh kl oh mhrrhphth
mhrrhphth y
pulklc hehrdhr1 lctugldbgblct` ` k`o`r lc lo èrlh hfldthkh, phrèobsbs ` klebobkhk
lc o`s gñsduo`s kl oh dhrh, pr`eolghs kl d`rhzôc, kbduothk phrh rlspbrhr. O`s
sçct`ghs kl lsth lcflrglkhk kl kbslgbchdbôc thrkçh (lthph 4) pulklc `durrbr
glsls ` hø`s klspuâs kl oh bcflddbôc, sblck` o`s gès d`gucls1 g`vbgblct`
gusduohr hc`rgho, nbcdnhzôc hrduohr, klebobkhk gusduohr, lctugldbgblct` y
n`rgbmul`, pr`eolghs kl nheoh y kl plcshgblct` ` d`mcbv`s.
[1 E H (LL. \\.) — 4/88/85
Lsghk` Abg, nl sbk` kbhmc`sdhk` d`c Yhrjbcs`c y oh lcflrglkhk kl
Oygl y rldbeç trhthgblct` lstèckhr t`ghck` k`phgbch y hcebôd`s. Lst` gl
kbô uch c`theol gla`rçh, plr` kl culv` gb lsthk` lgpl`rô olcthglctl.
olcthglctl.
Klskl nhdl k`s slghchs nl lsthk` ushck` GGT, slc cèuslhs t`ghck`
4 m`ths > vldls ho kçh, rlmrlsâ h 4 m`ths = vldls ho kçh, y huglctâ h 4 m`ths 8<
vldls ho kçh. Oh slghch phshkh d`ccuâ h uc rbtg` kl 8 m`th 8< vldls ho kçh.
Ls durb`s`, gl sblct` gudn` gla`r. ¡Fucdb`ch! Lst`y guy lg`db`chk`, y
lo pohc h slmubr ls ushro` phrh t`k` lo hø` ` kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`, oulm`
dhgebhr h ghctlcbgblct`
ghctlcbgbl ct` sôo` phrh lsthr slmur`. [hgebâc
[hgebâc rldbebrâ
rldbeb râ phrhk`pnboous
y/` nblreh bckbh. Mrhdbhs p`r shovhrgl oh dhobkhk kl gb vbkh.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/oygl-kbslhsl
56=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o`
U (rldtho d`c plrbooh) kurhctl 4 slghchs klspuâs kl dhkh klp`sbdbôc. Kl
c`dnl sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) hotlrchck` lo sbmublctl kçh d`c lo
pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
[hgebâc lxbstlc tlsg`cb`s k`ckl c` nh fucdb`chk` lo trhthgblct`
y lct`cdls nbdblr`c uc trhthgblct` kl oh Krh. Khcblos qul oolvh ghs kl 59
hø`s trhehahck` d`c trlglcch. Looh ldnh trlglcch lc guy plquløhs
dhckhkls h o`s tlrr`cls kl hzñdhr. Ohs k`sbs s`c eblc ehahs, kl 5,< go
h uc gèxbg` kl < go kl trlglcch y sl ush trlglcch chturho kl o`s
ère`ols p`r uc pr`dls` kl klsohdbôc. C` ls oh trlglcch qul sl d`gprh
lc flrrltlrç
flrrltlrçhs.
hs.
Lcflrglkhk puog`chr `estrudtbvh drôcbdh ([email protected])
Oh lcflrglkhk puog`chr `estrudvh drôcbdh, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho ls uch lcflrglkhk puog`chr
d`gñc qul dhush kbduothk phrh rlspbrhr. Nhy k`s f`rghs prbcdbphols kl [email protected]
oh er`cqubs drôcbdh, oh duho bgpobdh uch t`s pr`o`cmhkh d`c g`d` y lo lcslgh,
lo duho bgpobdh uc khø` h o`s puog`cls d`c lo lgp`.
Tç1
Yulklc bcdoubr duhoqublrh kl o`s sbmublctls1 t`s d`c ` sbc lgh, fhmh,
gudnhs bcflddb`cls rlspbrht`rbhs, kbduothk rlspbrht`rbh (kbsclh) qul lgpl`rh
d`c hdvbkhk, olvl kbduothk phrh t`ghr hbrl y sbebohcdbhs.
[1 Gj (LL. \\.) — 52/6/85
\c hgbm` gl prlslctô nhdl p`d` h su nbah (;5 hø`s kl lkhk) qul nh sufrbk`
[email protected] kurhctl hø`s y rldblctlglc
rldblctlglctl
tl nheçh lgpl`rhk` tlrrbeolglctl. Tu ghkrl
gl prlmuctô sb oohghrçh h su nbah phrh `frldlrol hyukh.
Oh prbglrh vlz qul oh oohgâ hplchs p`kçh ghctlclr uch d`cvlrshdbôc y
lrh guy kbdbo kl lctlcklr oh ghy`r phrtl kl o` qul kldçh. Looh gl kba` qul
nheçh sbk` bcdhphz kl trhehahr p`r uc gls y lrh h glcuk` bcdhphz kl br kl uch
nhebthdbôc h `trh sbc plrklr lo d`c`dbgblct`, p`r o` qul p`d` lrh su fulrzh y su
rlspbrhdbôc. Looh ol nheçh kbdn` h su k`dt`r qul oh phrtl bcflrb`r kl sus puog`cls
lstheh gulrth y oh lcflrglkhk sôo` pr`mrlshrçh.
56>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Ol lcvbâ hom` kl GGT5 y looh t`gô 8 dhkh n`rh phrh 4 k`sbs. Klaô kl t`ghro`
h dhush kl uc k`o`r slvlr` lc su hek`glc suplrb`r, qul d`glczô ;< gbcut`s
klspuâs kl oh prbglrh k`sbs. D`ccuô kl t`k`s g`k`s d`c 5 k`sbs gès hctls kl
rlcucdbhr klo t`k`. Ho kçh sbmublctl, duhck` nheoâ d`c looh lstheh uc <9% gla`r.
Ho kçh sbmublctl rlspbrheh y dhgbcheh gla`r.
Tu gâkbd` lct`cdls ol qubtô ohs hoths k`sbs kl lstlr`bkls qul nheçh t`ghk`
y looh lstè hn`rh (< kçhs klspuâs), kl culv` trhehahck` y sl sblctl gla`r kl o`
qul o` nh nldn` lc hø`s. Looh ls phrtl kl uc lstukb` [email protected] y duhck` trhtô kl
kldbrol ho k`dt`r o` qul nheçh nldn` phrh nhdlr lo dhgeb` rlplcc`
rlplcc`,, sl obgbtô h
kldbr ‟C` qublr` `çr nheohr kl ls`‗ y y` kbm`1 °quâ kbrè duhck` looh sbmh lsthck`
eblc y o`s klgès klo lstukb` lgpl`rlc0 Hohehk` slh Kb`s phrh lo GGT
GG T y mrhdbhs
h Abg p`r trhlr lst` h culstrh d`cdblcdbh.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/d`pk/
C  1
Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul lo GGT5 pulkl dhushr lfldt`s slduckhrb`s
fulrtls y lo hut`r sl kbsthcdbh kl su us` hucqul pulkl slr ldhz lc homuc`s
dhs`s.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o`
E ` lo D d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` N (nhebthdbôc),
bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthc
k` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot` lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls
ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) hpobdhk` lc
lo pldn` kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl pulkl hpobdhr lo pr`t`d`o` O
(ehø`).
Lrupdb`cls lc oh pblo
Oh lrupdbôc dutèclh ls uch bchghdbôc kl oh pblo qul bgpobdh dhgeb` kl
d`o`r ` tlxturh. Oh lrupdbôc dutèclh sbgpol sl oohgh klrghs, y ls kl d`cthdt`
sb sl pr`kudl p`r hom` qul oh pblo nh t`dhk`.
Lxbstlc gudn`s p`s kl lcflrglkhkls lc oh pblo, y lc gudn`s dhs`s c` ls
p`sbeol uc kbhmcôsd` lxhdt` ` bcdous` cbcmuc`.
[1 G F \qz (Lø) — 8</2/84
N`oh, ol dulct` gb sbtuhdbôc1 R` nl t`ghk` lo GGT y lo [email protected] p`rqul
lstheh lc uch sbtuhdbôc klslsplrhkh klskl nhdl yh dhsb vlbctl hø`s, y`
562
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
tlcçh lc hgehs ghc`s lo sbmublctl pr`eolgh, gl pbdhehc, gl lsd`dçhc, gl
qulghehc y lc slmubkh gl shoçhc uchs oohmhs qul sl gl rhaheh oh pblo. Lrh uc
lsd`z`rr klslsplrhk`. Gl shoçhc uchs p`gphs oolchs kl uc oçqubk` trhcsphrlctl
lsd`z`
y d`g` beh phshck` lo lgp` yh lrh dhsb d`g` kl pus, hklgès, yh gl shoçhc
d`g` gudnhs p`gpbdhs plquløhs, plr` qul gl duerçh ohs ghc`s y phrtl kl o`s
erhz`s.
Gb gâkbdh gl rldltheh uch p`ghkh qul sl oohgh Hkvlcthc 8 gbobmrhg`,
d`c o` qul h vldls slch homñc hobvb`, plr` qul c` thrkheh gudn` lc v`ovlr
lo pr`eolgh y tlcçh qul gltlr d`rrblck` ohs ghc`s lc hmuh nlohkh ` lc uc
vlcohk`r qul gl kblrh gudn` frb`, ` sb beh d`ckudblck` shdhck` oh ghc` p`r
oh vlcthcbooh phrh p`klr hobvbhrgl hom`. Ohs c`dnls lrhc klslsplrhctls, p`rqul,
lrh khrgl uc p`d` kl dho`r y tlcçh qul lsthr dhsb t`kh oh c`dnl d`c ohs ghc`s
glkhs lc hmuh nlohkh.
R` yh nheçh olçk` hom` kl lstl pr`kudt`, p`rqul gb gâkbdh gl kldçh qul
lsth p`ghkh lrh o` qul gl p`kçh rldlthr, qul c` nheçh `trh d`sh, y y` drl` qul
gl o` kldçh kl vlrkhk y c` o` p`cm` lc kukh, plr` lo pr`eolgh o` tlcçh y`, hsç
qul gl kldbkç h ushro` h prbcdbpb`s kl lstl vlrhc`, y ol pulk` kldbr qul h kçh
kl n`y prèddhglctl c` qulkh chkh klo pr`eolgh kl ohs ghc`s, hsç qul kldbkç
ushro` thgebâc phrh uc`s k`o`rls guy fulrtls qul tlcçh kl lsphokh, n`ger`s,
erhz`s, guøldhs y ghc`s qul gl bgp`sbebobtheh trhehahr.
H o`s dbcd` kçhs lgpldâ h gla`rhr, nhsth lo kçh kl n`y c` sl o` qul ls uch
g`olsh, c` gl kulol chkh nhsth lo g`glct`, nheblck` dhgebhk` gb vbkh,
p`r qul y` yh gl vlçh lc uch sbooh kl rulkhs,
r ulkhs, hom` qul gl ht`rglctheh y c` o`
hdlptheh.
N`y lst`y guy d`ctlct` y ôahoh o` nueblrh d`c`dbk` hctls h vbvbr d`g`
lstheh. Lo gât`k` h slmubr ful lo sbmublctl1 phrh ohs ghc`s hdvheh 85 m`ths
klo
GGT
y uch
dudnhrhkbth
kl dhfâvldls
klo [email protected]
kheh
p`r t`kh
ghc`s
erhz`s.
erhz`
s. Tb qul
dhgebâ
uchs duhcths
d uhcths
oh pbloyygl
sl gl
p`cçhc
r`ahsohs
duhck`
gly
o` hpobdheh y gl ghrdheh t`kh oh z`ch bcfldthkh, plr` dhkh vlz beh phrh gla`r
nhsth qul prèddhglctl
prèddhglctl qulkhc uc`s puct`s qul gl phsô kçhs qul yh c` gl
hpobd` lo pr`kudt` p`rqul cb gl hdulrk` kl o` eblc qul tlcm` ohs ghc`s. Rh
hn`rh pulk` nhdlr lsfulrz`s d`c loohs, y c` gl pbdhc, cb lsduldlc cb qulghc,
cb gl sholc oohmhs, hsç qul kldbkç hpobdhro` phrh us` bctlrc`. Yhrh o`s k`o`rls kl
lsphokh, erhz`s, guøldhs, ghc`s y t`k`s lst`s pr`eolghs nhc klshphrldbk`
nhsth lo kçh kl n`y qul gl lcdulctr` guy eblc.
Hsç qul lsh ls gb nbst`rbh qul lst`y h kbsp`sbdbôc kl d`glcthro` sb homublc
lcl homñc pr`eolgh kl lstl p`, y` dulct` d`g` gl nh bk` h gb hsb qul
¡¡¡¡guuuuuuuuuuuudnhs
¡¡¡¡guuuuuuuuuuuu
dnhs mrhdbhs p`r nhelr dhgebhk` gb vbkh!!!
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
5=9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` K
(klrgh-t`oômbd`) 5 ô 4 vldls ho kçh d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D kurhctl 4
slghchs.
Lsdnlrbdnbh d`ob (L. d`ob)
Oh Lsdnlrbdnbh d`ob ls lo `rmhcbsg` pr`dhrb`th gès lstukbhk` p`r lo slr
nughc`. Vbvl lc lo bctlsc` y oh ghy`rçh phrldl c` dhushr pr`eolghs, plr`
homuc`s p`s kl L. d`ob pulklc pr`kudbr lcflrglkhkls
lcflrglkhkls y dhushr kbhrrlh. \ch kl
loohs ls oh kbhrrlh klo vbhalr`.
Lo pl`r p` kl L. d`ob dhush uch kbhrrlh nlg`rrèmbdh y h vldls bcsudblcdbh
rlcho y nhsth oh gulrtl. Lst` lc mlclrho pulkl `durrbr lc cbø`s y hkuot`s d`c lo
sbstlgh bcgucbthrb` klebobthk`.
Tç1
Cèuslhs ` vôgbt`s, fulrtls dôobd`s hek`gbchols, kbhrrlh oçqubkh ` d`c
gudnh shcmrl, dhcshcdb`, lerl y lc homuc`s dhs`s shcmrl lc oh `rbch.
C  1
Lo lkuod`rhctl Hsphrthg`® lstè fherbdhk` h trhvâs kl lsth gbsgh ehdtlrbh
duyhs nldls sl uobzhc phrh oh pr`kuddbôc, dhushck` uch bchghdbôc kl tlabk`
h ohrm` pohz` qul h su vlz pr`v`dh `elsbkhk y mrhvls pr`eolghs glcthols d`g`
gl ful plrs`choglctl d`crghk` p`r uch ‟lx-dblcdh‗ kl G`ctshct` qul
trhehaheh lc lo pr`yldt`. [hgebâc sl uobzh phrh lo lcm`rkl cho klo mhchk`. Lo
us` klo hsphrthg` lstè fulrtlglctl klshd`cslahk`.
[1 U. F. J (LL.\\.) — 8>/=/85
\ch hgbmh v`ovbô kl uch bsoh klo Yhdçd` d`c shcmrl y d`èmuo`s kl shcmrl lc
su `rbch. Oh pruleh kl ohe`rht`rb` y lo kbhmcôsd` kl su gâkbd` d`crghr`c L.
d`ob. Tl ol prlsdrbebô hcebôd`s. Hctls kl qul looh d`glczhrh
d`glczhrh d`c o`s hcebôd`s,
nbdl 8,< obtr`s kl s`oudbôc kl [email protected] (DKT) lc hmuh hodhobch, ol plkç qul eleblrh lc lo
trhcsdurs` kl ohs prôxbghs 85 n`rhs, y oulm` v`ovlr ho gâkbd` phrh `tr` hcèobsbs kl
shcmrl ho kçh sbmublctl. Looh o` nbz` y hctl lo hs`ger` kl su gâkbd`, sus sçct`ghs
kl L. d`ob sl nheçhc bk`.
Fulctl1 nps1//m5df`rug.`rm/bcklx.pnp/obst/wlod`gl/599>8-l-d`ob-suddlss-st`ry
5=8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) ` E
(eèsbd`) kurhctl uc`s 4 kçhs hpr`xbghkhglctl.
Lsdolr`sbs ohtlrho hgb`trôfbdh (LOH)
Oh Lsdolr`sbs Ohtlrho Hgb`trôdh, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc
s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch lcflrglkhk
klmlclrhvh, thgebâc oohghkh ‟lcflrglkhk kl O`u Mlnrbm‗, kl p`
clur`gusduohr.
Tl pulkl `eslrvhr duhck` uchs dâouohs klo sbstlgh clrvb`s` oohghkhs
g`t`clur`chs kbsgbcuylc mrhkuhoglctl su fucdb`chgblct` y gulrlc,
pr`v`dhck` uch phrèobsbs gusduohr pr`mrlsbvh kl pr`côsd` g`rtho1 lc sus
lthphs hvhczhkhs o`s phdblctls sufrlc uch phrèobsbs t`tho qul sl hd`gphøh
kl uch lxhothdbôc kl o`s rlla`s tlckbc`s`s (rlsuothk` kl oh pârkbkh kl o`s
d`ctr`ols gusduohrls bcnbebt`rb`s). Oh ghy`rçh kl lcflrg`s kl LOH fhooldl p`r
bcsudblcdbh rlspbrht`rbh, duhck` d`gblczhc h fhoohr o`s gñsduo`s klo pldn`.
Tç1
C` t`khs ohs plrs`chs d`c LOH lxplrbglcthc o`s gbsg`s sçct`ghs ` ohs
gbsghs sldulcdbhs ` g`klo`s kl pr`mrlsbôc, sbc lgehrm` t`khs lxplrbglcthc
klebobkhk y phrèobsbs gusduohr pr`mrlsbvh. Tl ols dhlc o`s `ealt`s, tr`pblzhc,
sblctlc uch fhmh bcusuho lc erhz`s ` pblrchs, gulstrhc kbduothk phrh nheohr y
sufrlc dhohgerls gusduohrls y ds clrvb`s`s.
Oh klebobkhk gusduohr bgpobdh kbduothk h oh n`rh kl hckhr y kbduothk kl
d``rkbchdbôc lc homuch kl sus lxtrlgbkhkls (ohs ghc`s, lspldbhoglctl, lc o` qul sl
rllrl h bcd`cvlcblctls h oh n`rh kl rlhobzhr kltlrgbchkhs hdvbkhkls d`kbhchs).
Oh lxtlcsbôc kl lsl klebobthgblct` y kl oh phrèobsbs ho tr`cd` tlrgbch p`r pr`v`dhr
pr`eolghs phrh ghsdhr, trhmhr y rlspbrhr, oolmèck`sl h oh cldlsbkhk, kl rldurrbr h oh
rlspbrhdbôc gldècbdh.
Yr`mrlsbvhglctl, hphrldlc g`vbgblct`s gusduohrls hc`rghols d`g`
fhsdbdu-ohdb`cls, lsphsg`s, shdukbkhs, dhohgerls ` klebobkhk, ` uch hc`rgho
pârkbkh kl ghsh gusduohr ` kl pls` d`rp`rho. Oh pr`mrlsbôc kl oh lcflrglkhk
ls c`rghoglctl brrlmuohr, ls kldbr, hsbgâtrbdh (oh lcflrglkhk pr`mrlsh kl
g`k` kbflrlctl
kbflrlctl lc dhkh phrtl klo dulrp`). H vldls, oh pr`mrlsbôc ls guy olcth,
klshrr`ooèck`sl h o` ohrm` kl o`s hø`s y tlcblck` plrç`k`s kl lsthebobkhk d`c uc
vhrbheol mrhk` kl bcdhphdbkhk.
5=5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1 K. Mv Oô — 8=/96/598<
H kçh kl n`y, gb lsthk` ls eulc`, c` nhy bcv`oudbôc. Lo lalrdbdb` gl dhcsh
plr` gl rlduplr` guy eblc. D`g` d`c hplt` y kl t`k`, ele` sbc pr`eolgh,
c` us` lsplshctl. Kulrg` pohc` sbc rlspbrhdbôc hsbskh. C` tlcm` ohebobkhk
cbcmuch. C` tlcm` lsphsdbkhk cb nbplrrllxbh y ohs fhsdbduohdb`cls hphrldlc
trhs lalrdbdb` `dhsb`choglctl y guy olvls.
Fulctl1 dhrth lcvbhkh ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` lstè rlslrvhk` phrh lo us` kl pr`flsb`chols kl oh
shcbkhk y klshrr`oohk` lc d`cauct` d`c lo dbruahc` k`dt`r Musthv` Olôc.
8. Ls cldlshrb` d`glczhr
d`glczhr d`c oh vçh `rho ho glc`s kurhctl
kurhctl uc gls phrh
klsbct`xbdhr.
5. Oh k`sbs kl DKB c` klel lxdlklr lo <% klo sulr` h hpobdhr.
4. Oh hpobdhdbôc klel slr bcdrlglcthkh
bcdrlglcthkh phuohchglctl
phuohchglctl d`glczhck`
d`glczhck` p`r
< go lc 899 go kl sulr` dhkh < kçhs 4 slrbls.
;. Bcdrlglct
Bcdrlglcthr
hr h 85,< go lc 5<9 go kl sulr`,
sulr`, p`r 4 slrbls, dhkh = kçhs.
<. Huglcthr h 5< go kl DKB lc
lc <99 go kl sulr` dhkh = kçhs.
kçhs.
6. Lo lgp` kl bcfusbôc bctrhvlc`sh (BV) klel slr o` ghs ohrm` p`sbeol
phrh bcdrlglcthr lo plrb`k` kl lxp`sbdbôc.
=. D`cvblcl dhkh 6 kçhs t`ghr Hdlodbst
Hdlodbstlçch
lçch y Tbobghrbch.
T bobghrbch.
>. Lo dhoberl kl oh vçh h ushr
ushr ls lo 59M.
C  1
Xublr` hmrhkldlr lspldbhoglctl h Musthv` p`r su tlsg`cb` y lo pr`t`d`o`
phrlctho lc lstl oumhr, ol klsl` ècbg` y fulrzh kl t`k` d`rhz`c.
Lsdolr`sbs gñotbpol
Oh lsdolr`sbs gñopol, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch lcflrglkhk d`csbstlctl
d`csbstlctl
lc oh hphrbdbôc kl olsb`cls klsgblobcbzh
klsgblobcbzhctls,
ctls, clur`klmlclrhvhs
clur`klmlclrhvhs y drôcbdhs klo
sbstlgh clrvb`s` dlctrho. Oh gblobch ls uch susthcdbh mrhsh qul r`klh y hçsoh o`s
clrvb`s, hdtuhck` d`g` oh d`elrturh kl uc dheol loâdtrbd` y plrgblck` qul o`s
clrvb`s trhcsgbthc sus bgpuos`s gès rèpbkhglctl. Hdtuhoglctl sl klsd`c`dlc
ohs dhushs qul oh pr`kudlc.
5=4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
C  1
[lcm` d`csthcdbh kl vhrb`s dhs`s kbhmc`sdhk`s kl Lsdolr`sbs Gñopol y lc
rlhobkhk nhc sbk` E`rrlob`sbs klspuâs kl nhdlr uc hcèobsbs kl shcmrl vbvh eha` uc
gbdr`sd`pb` lc dhgp` `sdur`.
Tç1
Yulkl nhelr dhgeb`s d`ckudtuhols (hphh, fhoth kl g`vhdbôc,
psluk`klprlsbôc: ` p`r lo d`ctrhrb` klsbcnbebdbôc, bgpuosbvbkhk, hmrlsbvbkhk l
brhsdbebobkhk,
brhsdbebobk
hk, bcfhcobsg`…) y lc ohs fucdb`cls lalduvhs (dhphdbkhk
(dhphdb khk phrh pohcbdhr,
pohcbdhr,
lxbebobkhk glctho, rhz`chgblct`…) hklgès kl ohs hctlrb`rglctl glcdb`chkhs.
Khk` qul oh lsdolr`sbs gñopol hfldth lo dlrler` y oh lspbch k`rsho, ls kl
chturholzh klmlclrhvh y h glcuk` oolvh h uch kbsdhphdbkhk pr`mrlsbvh, c` ls
lxtrhø` qul ohs plrs`chs hfldthkhs sufrhc kbduothkls lg`db`chols. Klprlsbôc,
hcsblkhk,
brh, gblk`,
lg`db`cls sl kbhmc`sdhc h glcuk`
lctrl ohs plrs`chs
qul auct`
sufrlcd`c
LG `trhs
` o`s hoolmhk`s.
[1 G
‟[lcm` lsdolr`sbs gñopol y drl` qul oh dhush ls p`r phtômlc`s. Gl
nhc nldn` prulehs kl ohe`rht`rb` y sl lcd`ctrô qul1 Oygl (E`rrlob`sbs),
Dnohgyk`pnboh pclug`cbhl, Lpstlbc-Ehrr, gbd`pohsghs, olvhkurhs (dèckbkh), lo
g`n` Eohdjelrry y gudn`s `tr`s.
Gl nl lsthk` nhdblck` qulohdbôc phrh oh lobgbchdbôc kl o`s glthols
plshk`s, glrdurb`, lo po`g`, lo hrsâcbd`, lo dhkgb`, ltd. Nl rlsp`ckbk` h
gudn`s trhthgblct`s
trhthgblct`s y nl nldn` pr`mrls`s lc gb shouk.
Nl t`ghk` GGT kurhctl gès kl uc gls. Lgpldâ p`d` h p`d` klebk` h oh
ghmcbtuk kl gb lcflrglkhk. Nl huglcthk` mrhkuhoglctl
mrhkuhoglctl gbs k`sbs kl 8 m`th
8 vlz ho kçh hn`rh h t`ghr < m`ths < vldls ho kçh.
Gl qulkâ lc k`sbs ehahs phrh slmurbkhk y phrh plrgbr qul ohs pohqulths
v`ovblrhc h su slr.
slr. [lcçh
[lcçh uc p`d` kl cèuslhs,
cèuslhs , phsâ hmuhs lspug`shs
lspu g`shs klo bctlsc`
(qul drl` qul lrh olvhkurh gulrth). Lst`y c`thck` gudnhs gla`rhs d`g` oh
rlkuddbôc klo lklgh lc ohs ghc`s, pbls, pblrchs, erhz`s, dhrh, lstôghm` y gbs
mhcmob`s obcfèd`s eha` o`s erhz`s lstèc plrkblck` su nbcdnhzôc. Gb rlspbrhdbôc
ls ghs pr`fuckh.
Ohs ghcdnhs kl oh lkhk lc oh phrtl p`stlrb`r kl gbs ghc`s sl lstèc
klsvhcldblck`.
klsvhcl
dblck`. Gbs duduohs
d uduohs lstèc plrkblck` oh drlsth lckurldbkh horlklk`r kl
ohs uøhs. Gbs uøhs lstèc plrkblck` ohs drlsths y pr`tuelrhcdbhs o`cmbtukbchols
y n`rbz`cthols. Gb pblo y ohs uøhs s`c erboohctls lc oumhr kl pèobkhs y sbc erboo`
Nheoâ d`c Abg y âo gl rld`glckô qul p`kçh plrghcldlr lc oh k`sbs hdtuho
kurhctl k`s slghchs y oulm` nhdlr ghctlcbgblct` kl 6 m`ths ho kçh. Drl` qul
5=;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
v`y h pr`ehr lst`, plr` klplckblck` kl oh rlduplrhdbôc slmubrâ d`c < m`ths x <
vldls ho kçh, sblgprl y duhck`
d uhck` c`tl gla`rhs.
Oh Lsdolr`sbs Gñopol ls uch lcflrglkhk kbdbo y pulkl thrkhr gès lgp`
d`c lstl trhthgblct`. [hgebâc nl plrkbk` > oberhs y 6 puomhkhs kl gb dbcturh y
c` lst`y h kblth. T`y uc g`cbt`r lc oh eulch f`rgh nbsthgbch, OKC y theolr` kl
glcshals hotlrchv`. Tl trhth kl uc theolr` kl glcshals hdv` y kl hp`y` qul
gudnhs plrs`chs d`c lsdolr`sl gñopol o` uobzhc.
Fulctl1 nps1//ggs;obfl.w`rkprlss.d`g/ggs-tlsg`cbhos/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
` lo pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c pr`t`d`o` Q (zhpplr).
[hgebâc sl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) hpobdhk`
kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl pulkl hpobdhr lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh)
dhkh 5 ô 4 kçhs.
Homuc`s gâkbd`s lstèc uobzhck` thgebâc lo pr`t`d`o` R (bcylddbôc
bctrhvlc`s`) plr` c` sl kbsp`cl kl rlsuothk`s d`cdouylctls nhsth oh
fldnh. Lo Kr. Auobèc U. rld`gblckh thgebâc hd`gphøhro` d`c k`sbs hoths kl
gloht`cbch.
Lsqubz`frlcbh
Oh lsqubz`frlcbh ls uch lcflrglkhk glctho dhushkh p`r uc kls`rklc
dlrlerho qul kltlrb`rh oh dhphdbkhk kl ohs plrs`chs lc kbsct`s hspldt`s
psbd`oômbd`s d`g` lo plcshgblct`, oh plrdlpdbôc, ohs lg`db`cls y oh v`oucthk.
Lo târgbc` lsqubz`frlcbh sbmcbdh ‟glctl lsdbckbkh‗, klebk` h ohs hotlrhdb`cls
klo plcshgblct` qul prlslcthc ohs plrs`chs hfldthkhs.
Tç1
Klobrb`s, houdbchdb`cls, trhst`rc`s klo plcshgblct`
plcshgblct`,, hbsohgblct` y kltlrb`r`
kl ohs lg`db`cls.
C  1
Tl nh khk` lo dhs` qul nhy vhrb`s dhs`s kl lsqubz`frlcbh qul nl p`kbk`
rlohdb`chr kbrldthglctl d`c phrèsbt`s, yh qul ho nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o` kl
5=<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
klsphrhsbthdbôc oberhr`c mrhckls dhckhkls kl gud`sbkhkls bctlschols, ho
bmuho qul o`s cbø`s d`c husg`. \ch vlz tlrgbchk` lo pr`t`d`o` kl trls glsls
sl nh p`kbk` vlr uc bcdrlglct` dohr` y gla`rh lc ohs plrs`chs hfldthkhs p`r
lsth lcflrglkhk. Duhck` nhy uc pr`eolgh dlrlerho nhebtuhoglctl eusdhg`s
lo pr`eolgh lc oh dhelzh, sbc lgehrm` gl nl khk` dulcth qul oh mrhc ghy`rçh
kl o`s pr`eolghs lstèc dhushk`s lc lo bctlsc` p`r t`xbchs, yh slhc bcmlrbkhs,
lo hod`n`o p`r lalgpo`, ` dhushkhs p`r phrèsbt`s y `tr`s phtômlc`s qul obelrhc
hg`cb` lc hoths dhckhkls, eo`qulhck` lo ouglc bctlscho y oh hes`rdbôc kl
cutrblctls ho gbsg` lgp`.
[1 Kv @. \. (Lø) — 9;/85/8<
5 lpbs`kb`s kl ‟lsqubz`frlcbh‗ hmukh d`c bctlrchgblct` n`spbthohrb` y
gudn`s lpbs`kb`s olvls kl er`tls psbdôd`s kurhctl glsls.
[rhthgblct` ho`pèd` d`g` gçcbg` kl uc hø` (slmñc lo gâkbd`). Ho gls
klo trhthgblct` ho`pèd` d`glczô pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E) y pr`t`d`o` Y
(klsphrhsbthdbôc).
(klsphrhsbt
hdbôc). Lc uch slghch klaô d`gpolthglctl oh glkbdhdbôc. Nhsth kçh
kl n`y, 8> glsls klspuâs, cbcmñc lpbs`kb` cb sçct`gh kl rldhçkh.
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` lc lstl dhs` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E d`g` hotlrchvh,
kurhctl 4 slghchs, slmubk` p`r lo pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s).
Lst`ghtbtbs
Lst`gh
tbtbs Vlsbduohr
Oh lst`ghs nlrpâdh ls uch bcflddbôc, dhushkh p`r lo vbrus kl oh lst`ghs
vlsbduohr (VTV), uc vbrus HUC qul plrtlcldl h oh fhgbobh Unhek`vbrbkhl, mâclr`
Vlsbduo`vbrus.
Tl `rbmbch lc oh e`dh y dhush ñodlrhs l bchghdbôc.
Tç1
Hgp`oohs lc oh e`dh, d`c f`rghdbôc p`stlrb`r kl ñodlrhs, pârkbkh kl hplt`,
kbduothk phrh klmour, ehel`, lerl, brrbthebobkhk, k`o`r lc oh e`dh.
5=6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1 K. Lv T
H uch phdblctl d`c lst`ghs hmukh ful hpobdhk` lo pr`t`d`o` lstèckhr kl
kbôxbk` kl do`r` y lc sôo` 5; n`rhs sl nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr uch rlgbsbôc t`tho.
C` nl p`kbk` `eslrvhr lst` d`c cbcmñc `tr` glkbdhglct` lc gb trheha` d`g`
klcsth lst`ghtôo`mh.
lst`ghtôo`mh. Yulk` d`crghr qul ls 899% ldhz y o` uobzô h glcuk`
s`erl t`k` phrh bgpohctls sbc nhelr tlcbk` bcflddb`cls klskl lct`cdls.
Fulctl1 d`glcthk` ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) qul sl
pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` A (lcauhmul) kurhctl uch slghch.
Fber`gbhombh
Oh er`gbhombh, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch lcflrglkhk drôcbdh
qul sl dhrhdtlrbzh p`r k`o`r gusduohr mlclrhobzhk` y fhmh (dhcshcdb`), d`c
uch lxhmlrhkh nbplrslcsbebobkhk (ho`kbcbh l nbplrhomlsbh) lc gñopols puct`s
prlklcbk`s lc t`k` lo dulrp`, sbc hotlrhdb`cls `rmècbdhs klg`strheols.
Tç1
Hklgès kl k`o`r y hm`thgblct`, oh er`gbhombh thgebâc pulkl `dhsb`chr
uc` ` vhrb`s kl o`s sbmublctls sçct`ghs pbd`s1 trhst`rc`s klo sulø`,
hcqubo`shgblct`, rbmbklz ghtuch, bcdrlglct` kl k`o`rls kl dhelzh ` kl
dhrh, gholsthr hek`gbcho, pr`eolghs mlcbt`urbchrb`s, phrlstlsbh, slcsbebobkhk
hgeblctho, pr`eolghs kl oh pblo, klslquboberb`, trhst`rc`s d`mc`sdbv`s,
prlslcdbh kl uc trhst`rc` clur`oômbd` d`c`dbk` d`g` lo ‟sçckr`gl kl ohs
pblrchs bcqublths‗, klprlsbôc y hcsblkhk.
[1 Hô — </;/84
Gb gualr
phkldbô
kl t`k`
er`gbhombh,
drôcbdh.
Kurhctl
hø`s
phshg`s
uc dhovhrb`,
s`erl
looh, thct``lcfhmh
dhsh d`g`
lc su
trheha`,k`s
k`ckl
oh
lcflrglkhk c` ol plrgbh rlckbr c`rghoglctl oolmhck`
oolmhck` h plobmrhr su pulst` kl
trheha`. Lsth lcflrglkhk d`csbstl lc k`o`rls lc ohs lxtrlgbkhkls y dhcshcdb`
5==
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
lc mlclrho, kl f`rgh klmlclrhvh, oolmhck` h klahr h oh plrs`ch dhsb d`g` uc
vlmltho.
Kurhctl o`s k`s hø`s qul kurô c` klaheh kl br h rlnhebobthdbôc. Duhck`
hdheheh, v`ovçh h plkbr slr hkgbkh kl culv`, y hsç d`ccuhglctl, puls lstl
rldurs` c` lobgbcheh lo pr`eolgh. Lst` d`gebchk` d`c glkbdhdbôc vhrbh,
d`g` dhoghctls. Khk` qul c` nhy glkbdbch lspldçdh, ol rldlthr`c Oyrbdh, uc
hclpboâpd`, p`rqul klsduerblr`c qul d`g` lfldt` slduckhrb` hcuoheh lo
k`o`r y sl o` qubtheh h d`sth kl klahroh slkhkh. Oh t`gô uch s`oh vlz.
Lo GGT lctrô lc culstrhs vbkhs y y` o` t`gheh phrh oh nlphts D, plr` looh
c`. Duhck` c`tâ oh lclrmçh qul gl kheh trhs uc`s kçhs kl t`ghro`, d`cvlcdç h
gb gualr h ehsl kl bcsbstlcdbh kl qul o` t`ghrh looh thgebâc, ho glc`s phrh qul
c`thrh oh lclrmçh. Looh c` d`ch lc d`shs qul sl shomhc kl o` trhkbdb`cho, plr`
p`r c` `çrgl gès hddlkbô h t`ghro`.
Ho c`vlc` kçh o`s k`o`rls klshphrldblr`c. Kl lst` nhdl yh ; hø`s. Lst`y
guy hmrhkldbk` h Kb`s p`r Abg Nugeol, p`r klsduerbr dôg` hpobdhr ho dulrp`
nughc` lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
O` slmubg`s t`ghck` phrh ghctlcbgblct` kl oh shouk. Gb nlphs c` nh
rlgbk`, plr` o`s hcèobsbs slglstrhols qul gl nhm` khc rlsuothk`s lstheols, y
nhm` vbkh c`rgho.
Hd`csla` lo GGT h t`k` lo guck`.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</er`gbhombh-tlsg`cb`-ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` slrçh lgplzhr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh (H lc dhs`s slvlr`s), qul sl pulkl d`gebchr,
sb ls p`sbeol, d`c pr`t`d`o` Q (zhpplr) y d`c lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh).
\ch vlz qul lo phdblctl sblctl uch gla`rh lstheol klebk` h oh
lobgbchdbôc kl t`xbchs sl rld`gblckh nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s), yh
qul sl nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr prlslcdbh lc prèddhglctl t`k`s o`s dhs`s.
Klspuâs kl oh klsphrhsbthdb
klsphrhsbthdbôc
ôc sl vulovl h nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o` D kurhctl
4 glsls phrh lobgbchr o`s rlsbku`s tôxbd`s kl o`s phrèsbt`s.
Lc homuc`s dhs`s pulkl nhelr drbsbs durhvhs s`erl t`k` duhck`
nhy prlslcdbh ghsbvh kl phrèsbt`s y lc lstl dhs` sl hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` L
(lclgh).
Fber`sbs quçstbdh
Oh er`sbs quçsdh, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r
oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch lcflrglkhk drôcbdh qul rlprlslcth uc
5=>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
mrhvl pr`eolgh kl shouk, hfldth prbcdbphoglctl h o`s puog`cls y ho sbstlgh
kbmlsv`. Yhrh ghctlclr d`ctr`ohkh oh lcflrglkhk, ohs plrs`chs d`c er`sbs
quçsdh cldlsbthc uc dubkhk` plrghclctl d`c d`ccu`s trhthgblct`s phrh ohs
d`gpobdhdb`cls puog`chrls y kbmlsvhs, d`c d`ctr`ols plrbôkbd`s lc lo n`spbtho
y uch klkbdhdbôc polch p`r phrtl kl ohs plrs`chs y su fhgbobh.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs dhrhdtlrçsd`s kl lsth lcflrglkhk s`c1 she`r shohk` kl oh
pblo, frldulctls pr`eolghs rlspbrht`rb`s, fhoth kl pls` y pr`eolghs kbmlsv`s.
[1 K. D M.
DLU[BFBDHDBÔC HDULKB[H[BVH KLO LT[[email protected] KL THO\K
DLU[BFBDH1
XulyKøh.
GBUBHGer`cd`puog`chr
F.M, kl 59 hø`s kl
lkhk,
kbhmc`sdhkh
kl Fber`sbs
Xuçsdh
Hsplrmbo`sbs
klskl
lo lstè
hø` 5999:
lsthck`
d`c hcebôd`tlrhpbh
hcebôd`tlrhpbh `rho y/6 BV
BV,, lc dbdo`s
d bdo`s rlplk`s, slmñc duov`s kl lsput`.
Tl ol nhc prhddhk` trls lge`obzhdb`cl
lge`obzhdb`clss (5989, 5988 y 5984) p`r nlg`psbs
kl rlpldbôc. Nldn` p`r lo qul o`s trhthgblct`s bcnhoht`rb`s lstèc guy
obgbthk`s, hucqul prlslctl slcsbebobkhk h [`erhgbdbch y D`obsch.
Lc C`vblgerl 5985 hphrldlc ohs prbglrhs rlsbstlcdbhs ‟bc vbtr`‗ h o`s
hcebôd`s: hucqul ‟bc vbv`‗ sbmul rlsp`ckblck`, h k`sçs gès hoths kl ohs
nhebtuhols, d`c [GY/TG^ ([rbglt`prbg-Tuofhglt`xhz`o). Lc Ghy` 5984, hctl oh
fhoth kl ldhdbh frlctl h Ttlc`tr`pn`g`ch ghot`pnbobh, sl kldbkl bctlcsbdhr oh
sb`tlrhpbh rlspbrht`rbh
rlspbrht`rbh nhsth ; vldls kbhrbhs, phrh gla`rhr oh dhobkhk kl vbkh kl
oh phdblctl (klsdhcs` c`dturc` y fhdbobthr su hdvbkhk ucbvlrsbthrbh).
Lc oh gbsgh fldnh, sl bcbdbh trhthgblct` kl Hsplrmboous fugbmhtus d`c
Btrhd`chz`o y d`rd`tlrhpbh, ghctlcbâck`o` nhsth chols kl Auob` 5984: c`
`etlcbâck`sl rlspulsth. Lc duov`s kl lsput` sl klgulstrh slcsbebobkhk h
V`rbd`chz`o,
V`rbd`ch
z`o, plr` c` sl phuth p`r o`s lfldt`s slduckhrb`s vbsuhols prlslcthk`s
nhdl hø`s.
Oh fhgbobh kldbkl bcbdbhr trhthgblct` d`c GGT lo 8= kl Hm`st` 5984, d`c
uch bgp`rthctl kbsgbcudbôc kl ohs sldrldb`cls er`cqubhols, plrgbâck`ol
uc klsdhcs` c`dturc` c`rgho y kbsgbcubr h 8-5 sus slsb`cls kl sb`tlrhpbh
rlspbrht`rbh.
rlspbrht
`rbh. Y`r o` qul oh phdblctl gla`rô, d`csbklrheolglctl,
d`csbklrheolglctl, lo lso` kl vbkh
kbhrb` pr`pb` kl su lkhk.
Nhsth oh fldnh kl âstl bcf`rgl, oh phdblctl nh rlhobzhk` 5 dbdo`s d`c 4 m`ths
hdvhkhs, > vldls ho kçh, kl GGT nhsth clmhvbzhdbôc
clmhvbzhdbôc kl duov` kl lsput`.
Hdtuhoglctl, lcl d`g` ñcbd` trhthgblct` `rho, oh t`gh kl uc vhs` kbhrb`
kl hmuh kl ghr. Klebk` h oh dhsb bclxbstlcdbh kl sldrldb`cls er`cqubhols, d`ccñh
5=2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
d`c uch slsbôc kl sb`tlrhpbh rlspbrht`rbh kbhrbh, rlhobzhkh p`r uc sb`tlrhpluth
kl oh lsduloh frhcdlsh.
Fulctl1 dlrdhk` glkbd` lcvbhk` ho hut`r
C  1
Tl nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr lo gbsg` p` kl gud`sbkhk lc gudn`s phdblctls
d`c pr`eolghs mhstr`bctlschols (husg`, d`obs uodlr`sh, er`gbhombh) y sl
pulkl pr`ehr lo pr`t`d`o` Y phrh klsphrhsbthdbôc lvhouhck` lo dhs` p`r uc
pr`flsb`cho
pr`flsb`
cho yh qul c` klsdhrt` uch fulrtl prlslcdbh phrhsbthrbh d`g` dhushctl
prbcdbpho kl oh lcflrglkhk.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` E (eèsbd`) d`gebchk` d`c pr`t`d`o` Q (zhpplr) y Y (phrèsbt`s).
Fblerl tbf`bklh
Oh lerl f`bklh ` lerl lctârbdh ls uch lcflrglkhk bcflddb`sh pr`kudbkh
p`r ehdtlrbhs klo mâclr` Thog`clooh. Lo gldhcbsg` kl d`cthmb` ls fldho-`rho, h
trhvâs kl hmuh y kl hobglct`s d`cthgbchk`s. C` d`cfuckbr d`c fus qul sl
pr`kudl p`r vhrbhs lspldbls kl ehdtlrbhs klo mâclr` Ubdjlsbh trhcsgbkhs p`r
phrèsbt`s lxtlrc`s (pb`a`s).
Tç1
Ohlerl f`bklh lstè dhrhdtlrbzhkh p`r lerl lolvhkh y s`stlcbkh (;9 ±D),
suk`rhdbôc pr`fush, k`o`r hek`gbcho, k`o`r kl dhelzh y pârkbkh kl hplt`.
Glc`s d`gñcglctl pulkl hphrldlr uc shrpuoobk` kl ghcdnhs hpohchkhs kl
d`o`r r`sèdl`. [rhkbdb`choglctl sl kbvbkl lc duhtr` fhsls, kurhck` dhkh uch kl
loohs uch slghch hpr`xbghkhglctl. Oh kbhrrlh, pbdh kl ohs bcflddb`cls p`r lo
rlst` kl slr`p`s kl Thog`clooh (shog`clo`sbs) ls p`d` frldulctl lc oh lerl
f`bklh.
[1 Hcôcbg`
R` d`glcdâ h ushr GGT d`c gb nbah kl 84 hø`s phrh trhthr oh [bf`bklh qul
phkldçh frldulctlglctl.
frldulctlglctl. Hctls kl oolvhroh ho k`dt`r gl oohgô gb nlrghc` phrh
5>9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
kldbrgl sb qulrçh bctlcthr d`c uchs m`ths qul ol nheçh rld`glckhk` uc hgbm`
qul thgebâc lstheh guy gho p`r oh lerl f`bklh y qul lc hpr`xbghkhglctl
lc 5 n`rhs yh sl slch eblc. Y`r ls` gl bctlrlsô y hdlptâ, puls yh lstèehg`s
dhcshk`s kl thct` Dbpr``xhdbc` ` bcylddb`cls kl `tr`s hcebôd`s, puls ls
hoârmbdh h o`s suofhs.
Drl` qul ol kb` s`o` 6 m`ths y lc n`rh y glkbh ` 5 n`rhs gl oohgô phrh
kldbrgl qul yh sl slch eblc, hsç kl s`rprlcklctl, ho kçh sbmublctl ol kbô uc
rlfulrz`
rlfulrz
` puls lo sl rlmrlsheh h T`c`rh (Gâxbd`).
Klskl lsh fldnh (`dtuerl 5985) ol lcdhrmuâ uc phdj kl GGT y hdvhk`r y h
oh fldnh chkbl kl oh dhsh nh ushk` cbcmñc `tr` glkbdhglct`. [hgebâc phrh mrbpls
lxdlolctl. H gb nbah cucdh ol kb` chñslh ` kbhrrlhs. H gb sb o`s prbglr`s kçhs nhsth
qul oolmuâ h t`ghr o` gçcbg` y ol fub sueblck` nhsth t`ghr lo pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7
pr`t`d`o` E).
¡Ôahoh qul gb tlsg`cb` ols pulkh slrvbr!
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/tu-tlsg`cb`-s`erl-ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` E (eèsbd`) d`g` hotlrchvh. Lc dhs`s slvlr`s sl rld`gblckh hpobdhr
thgebâc lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh).
Fçstuoh hcho
stuoh
ls uchohd`clxbôc
hc`rgho lctrl
oh suplrdbl
bctlrch klo lc
dhcho
hchoOh
y oh
pblo hcho
qul r`klh
rlmbôc plrbhcho.
Oh stuoh
pulkl lcd`ctrhrsl
lo
bctlrb`r klo hc` y c` kltldthr
kltldthrsl.
sl.
Tç1
K`o`r lc oh z`ch k`ckl sl lcdulctrl lo trhyldt` stuo`s` kurhctl oh
klfldhdbôc:
klfld
hdbôc: brrbthdbôc lc oh z`ch hcho p`r k`ckl sl lcdulctrh oh shobkh kl oh stuoh
plrbclho: supurhdbôc d`ccuh ` kl f`rgh bctlrgbtlctl, oolmhck` h ghcdnhr oh
r`ph bctlrb`r klo phdblctl d`c frldulcdbh: pbd`rls y lsd`z`r lc oh z`ch klo hc`
k`ckl sl lcdulctrh oh stuoh.
Lc lo dhs` kl qul lxbsth bcflddbôc ls p`sbeol qul hphrlzdh oh lerl. Khk`
qul lo phdblctl gudnhs vldls klel muhrkhr rlp`s`, hphrldlc o`s k`o`rls
gusduohrls.
5>8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[1 V (B) — 52/6/85
Xulrbk` Abg,
Gb c`gerl ls Vbcdlct y lst`y lsdrbeblck` kl Dhgphcbh lc lo sur kl Bthobh
phrh kldbr qul shovô oh vbkh kl gb nlrghc`.
Lstl hø`, lc ghy` gb nlrghc` sufrçh kl stuoh hcho p`r duhrth vlz. Nh
lsthk` sufrblck` kl stuoh hcho klskl lo hø` 5998.
Oh prbglrh vlz qul `durrbô ful lc slplgerl klo 5998 y ful `eobmhk` h
plrghcldlr lc dhgh kurhctl uc`s ;9 kçhs. Lc lsl plrç`k`, ful ho n`spbtho k`s
vldls kurhctl duhtr` kçhs phrh slr trhthk`.
Oh slmuckh vlz `durrbô lc lo 599; y kl culv` sl vb` `eobmhk` h plrghcldlr
lc dhgh kurhctl uc`s 49 kçhs, kurhctl lsl plrç`k` ful ho n`spbtho k`s vldls
kurhctl duhtr` kçhs phrh slr trhthk`.
Oh tlrdlrh vlz qul ol `durrbô ful lc lo 599>, lsth vlz ful f`rzhk` h oh dhgh
sôo` p`r uch slghch, ful ho n`spbtho y o`s gâkbd`s ol kbalr`c qul c` nheçh chkh
gho`.
Oh duhrth vlz ful lstl hø` lc ghy` y yh lstheh guy lcflrg`, c` p`kçh
dhgbchr,, sus pblrchs ol k`oçhc, sus pbls ol k`oçhc y âo lstheh guy prl`duphk`.
dhgbchr
Gl kba` qul cucdh sl sbcô thc gho lc t`kh su vbkh. [hc pr`ct` d`g` gl
o` d`glcdâ h trhthro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E), qul ls kl 4 m`ths
kl GGT hdvhkhs dhkh n`rh y gl prlphrâ uch e`tlooh kl sprhy d`c ;9 m`ths
hdvhkhs kl GGT phrh r`dbhr s`erl oh z`ch hfldthkh kl f`rgh d`ccuh dhkh
vlz qul sl sldheh.
Klspuâs kl t`ghr GGT p`r uc kçh, ohs pblrchs y o`s pbls lgplzhr`c h
gla`rhr y puk` p`clrsl kl pbl y dhgbchr olcthglctl.
olcthglctl.
Kçh 4 c` slch cbcmñc k`o`r lc hes`out` y t`k`s lstèehg`s flobdls. Kçh ;
ful kl d`gprhs d`c su lsp`sh. Âo lstheh guy eblc.
Kçh <, v`ovbô h trhehahr, kba` qul sl slch gès fulrtl qul cucdh, oolc` kl
lclrmçh. Ho bmuho qul y` âo thgebâc lstè t`ghck` 6 m`ths kl GGT hdvhkhs t`k`s
o`s kçhs d`g` ghctlcbgblct`. Gl kba` qul hn`rh lstheh nhdblck` d`shs qul c`
p`kçh nhdlr hctls p`rqul ol k`oçh oh lsphokh duhck` trhtheh kl g`vlr ` olvhcthr
`ealt`s h su horlklk`r. Hn`rh âo ls uch plrs`ch shch. Xul Kb`s o`s elckbmh Abg y
t`k`s o`s qul lstèc d`c ustlk.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/hcho-stuoh
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh oh uobzhdbôc klo pr`t`d`o`
D (DKT) ` E (eèsbd`), d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` K (klrght`oômbd`) kurhctl
8 ô 5 slghchs y pr`t`d`o` U (plrbooh rldtho) klspuâs kl dhkh klp`sbdbôc.
5>5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Frhdturh
\ch frhdturh ls oh rupturh ` phrdbôc kl uc nuls` p`r lxdlsbvh prlsbôc. Tb oh
pblo sl r`gpl, sl oohgh frhdturh lxpulsth. Hehrdh bmuhoglctl mrhckls olsb`cls
d`g` olsb`cls gbdr`sdôpbdhs.
Tç1
O`s sbmublctls s`c o`s sbmc`s y sçct`ghs gès nhebtuhols kl uch frhdturh1
lxtrlgbkhk ` hrduohdbôc vbsbeolglctl fulrh kl oumhr, ` klf`rghkh, nbcdnhzôc,
nlght`gh ` shcmrhk`, k`o`r bctlcs` (nhsth sn`dj
s n`dj clur`mâcbd`), lctugldbgblct`
y n`rgbmul`, g`vbgblct` obgbthk` ` bcdhphdbkhk phrh g`vlr uch lxtrlgbkhk.
[1 Èv V
V Lvç (D) — </;/84
</;/84
Lc lo gls p`r
kl kbdblgerl
klo
5988
olsb`cls mrhvls lc uch kl sus
lxtrlgbkhkls
hmrlsbôc kl
uchø`
mrup`
klsufrbô
hcs`dbhols.
Ulsuothck` d`c su pblrch qulerhkh lc 4 phrtls, ful d`ckudbk` ho
lstheoldbgblct` hsbstlcdbho k`ckl p`stlrb`r h lxèglcls y rhkb`mrhhs uc
gâkbd` qubclsbôo`m` ol hd`g`kô o`s nuls`s y ol lcylsô oh pblrch nhsth gès
hrrbeh kl oh r`kbooh, klrbvèck`o` h su k`gbdbob` d`c dhoghctls y rlp`s` p`r 6
glsls, tlcblck` qul v`ovlr lc 59 kçhs phrh uc d`ctr`o.
D`glczô h t`ghr GGT, y d`c oh s`rprlsh qul h o`s ; kçhs sl ol phshr`c o`s
k`o`rls, y d`glczô h dhgbchr hp`yhk` h uc ehstôc. H o`s 59 kçhs duhck` v`ovbô
ho d`ctr`o, o`s gâkbd`s sl lcd`ctrhr`c d`c oh s`rprlsh qul lc oh rhkb`mrhh
g`strheh qul o`s nuls`s nheçhc s`okhk`: p`r o` thct` ol qubthr`c lo yls` y ol
kblr`c kl hoth. Xublr` nhdlr prlslctl qul lo GGT hyukô h lsth plrs`ch h qul
lc s`o` ; kçhs sl suplrhrhc o`s k`o`rls y ehsthr`
ehsthr`c
c s`o` 59 kçhs phrh qul s`okhrhc
sus nuls`s y c` 6 glsls d`g` sl ol kbhmcôsd` phrh su rlduplrhdbôc t`tho. H oh
fldnh sl lcdulctrh lc guy eulchs d`ckbdb`cls.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</frhdturh-klpblrch-lc-trls-phrtls-tlsg`cb`-ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` E (eèsbd`) kurhctl 4 h 6 slghchs slmñc oh mrhvlkhk kl oh frhdturh.
Yhrh oh s`obkbdhdbôc gès rèpbkh sl pulkl uobzhr thgebâc k`s bghcls
fulrtls kl hothv`z lc hge`s ohk`s kl oh frhdturh ucbk`s p`r uc nblrr`. Lo
dhgp` ghmcâd` hfldth
hfldth h oh shcmrl qul ls slcsbeol ho ghmclsg` klebk`
h su hot` d`ctlcbk` lc ôxbk` kl nblrr` qul ol kh lo d`o`r r`a`. Oh hp`rthdbôc
hkbdb`cho kl shcmrl hdlolrh lo pr`dls` kl durhdbôc.
5>4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Mhstrbtbs
Oh mhstrbs `durrl duhck` lo rlvlsgbl
rlvlsgblct`
ct` klo lstôghm` rlsuoth nbcdnhk` `
bchghk`, prlslctèck`sl
prlslctèck`sl lc f`rgh kl ghcdnhs r`abzhs, ohs duhols rlprlslct
rlprlslcthc
hc
brrbthdbôc ` nlg`rrhmbhs suelpbtlobhols. Lo kbhmcôsd` prldbs` sl `elcl p`r
lxpo`rhdbôc lck`sdôpbdh, lc oh qul sl hprldbhrè sb oh phrtl hfldth h t`kh oh
lsflrh mèstrbdh ` sôo` h uch z`ch. T`c vhrbhs sus dhushs, lctrl loohs, o`s gho`s
nèebt`s hobglcdb`s, lo lstrâs, lo heus` lc lo d`csug` kl hchomâsbd`s (hspbrbch,
pbr`xbdhg,
pbr`xbdh
g, bck`glthdbch, ltd.), klsôrklcls kl hut`bcgucbkhk ` oh bcflddbôc p`r
Nlobd`ehdtlr pyo`rb.
Tç1
K`o`r hek`gbcho, mhsls ` htuolcdbhs, gholsthr lst`ghdho lc mlclrho, hdbklz
lst`ghdho. O`s hrk`rls lc lo lpbmhstrb` sulolc dlklr h d`rt` pohz` d`c oh bcmlsth kl
hobglct`s.
C  1
Tl nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr lc gudn`s dhs`s oh prlslcdbh kl oh ehdtlrbh
Nlobd`ehdtlr pyo`rb d`g` dhushctl.
[1 Hô (Yñ)
(…) o`s gâkbd`s gl kbalr`c qul tlcçh mhstrbs y klgès h dhush kl thcths
phsoohs
phrh
ohsc`gbmrhøhs,
qul prèddhglctl
g`rbrçh
d`c
oh gbmrhøh
puls
nhy durh gl
y klkbalr`c
ohs holrmbhs
cb nheohr. [lcçhy`qul
dubkhrgl
lo lstôghm` puls p`krçh phkldlr h futur` kl uodlrhs, h phrtl sl sughc gbs
gñopols vbsbths ho `t`rrbc` ` ho clugôo`m`, cucdh sheçh h k`ckl br p`rqul
dhkh vlz qul gl vlcçh uch mrbpl fulrtl sl gl d`gpobdheh oh rlspbrhdbôc d`c
lsphsg`s er`cqubhols.
Lc kbdblgerl klo 5988 hctls kl lsths, gb mhstrbs sl nheçh hdlctuhk`
p`r vhrbhs slghchs, c` p`kçh t`ghr cb uc poht` kl s`ph, s`o` t`gheh mlohchs
nlohkhs p`rqul lo lstôghm` gl k`oçh n`rr`rls sb d`gçh hom`, p`r gès suhvl `
obmlr` qul fulrh.
Ulsbmchk` h phshr ohs lsths lc dhgh, gb phkrl qul vbvl lc Dnbol gl
d`glct` klo GGT, y gl lcvbô lo supolglct` h Ylrñ, y` c` ol nbdl dhs`, c` o`
beh h t`ghr ahgès, puls tlcçh gudnhs kukhs, hphrtl qul tlcçh pr`mrhghkh uch
dbth gâkbdh lc uc`s kçhs, (hdè lc Ylrñ tl nhdlc lsplrhr slghchs ` glsls phrh
uch dbth gâkbdh, slghchs phrh t`ghr uc lxèglc, slghchs phrh o`s hcèobsbs,
5>;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
slghchs phrh o`s rlsuothk`s y lc oh lsplrh nhsth c`s p`klg`s g`rbr, phrh o`s
qul tlclg`s slmur` s`dbho).
Lc c, uch thrkl k`ckl yh c` hmuhctheh lo k`o`r kl lstôghm` cb dhelzh
y ohs phsoohs phrh oh mhstrbs c` gl nhdçhc lfldt`, y cb p`kçh t`ghr phsoohs
phrh oh gbmrhøh p`rqul ghthrçh gb lstôghm`, ahahah, gl hd`rkl qul tlcçh oh
GGT p`r homñc rbcdôc kl oh dhsh. Tlmuç ohs bckbdhdb`cls kl gb phkrl y t`gâ lo
pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E).
8.± kçh1 6 m`ths p`r n`rh, d`g` bckbdheh oh hcmuh lsduloh klo GGT, y p`r
gb brrlmuohrbkhk o` nbdl ; vldls ho kçh, slc uc obmlr` ghrl` plr` chkh g`olst`,
ho chobzhr lo kçh c`tâ qul lo k`o`r kl lstôghm` dhsb cb o` slch, lsl kçh hog`rdâ
ghczhchs nlohkhs y mhoolths kl hmuh.
5.± kçh1 6 m`ths p`r n`rh, 4 ` ; vldls ho kçh, rlhoglctl c` fub d`csthctl,
plr` h su vlz gl kb dulcth qul yh c` slch g`olshs lc lo lstôghm`, y ls hquç
k`ckl c`tâ qul hom` mlcbho lstheh phshck`. D`glcdâ h bcvlsmhr gès s`erl
lo GGT, phrh lo 4lr kçh, o` t`gl ho pbl kl oh oltrh, dhkh n`rh p`r > n`rhs ho kçh.
H phrr kl lstl g`glct` kldbkç klahr ohs ghczhchs nlohkhs y ohs mhoolths kl
hmuh qul hog`rzheh, y d`c t`k` lo tlg`r klo guck` gl hcbgâ h d`glr uch
s`ph culvhglctl. Gl kb dulcth y slc qul yh c` tlcçh hes`outhglctl cb uc
s`o` gholsthr lc lo lstôghm`. Gl slc shc` klo lstôghm`, y ho kçh sbmublctl
d`gçh t`k` d`c c`rghobkhk.
Thouk`s d`c shouk!!
Fulctl1 np1//ggsplrushouk.d`g/558-5/
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT)
kurhctl 4 h 6 kçhs. [hgebâc sl pulkl uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` \ (urmlcdbhs)
slmñc mrhvlkhk y oh sbtuhdbôc.
Mhstr`lctlrbtbs
Oh mhstr`lctlrbs ls uch lcflrglkhk dhrhdtlrbzhkh p`r oh bchghdbôc
klo trhdt` mhstr`bctlscho qul lstè d`gpulst` p`r lo lstôghm` y lo bctlsc`
klomhk`. O`s sçct`ghs prbcdbphols s`c kbhrrlh, vôgbt`, k`o`r hek`gbcho y
dhohgerls.
Ohs dhushs pulklc slr ehdtlrbhs, vbrus y phrèsbt`s. Tu trhcsgbsbôc pulkl
`durrbr glkbhctl lo d`csug` kl hobglct`s prlphrhk`s bchklduhkhglctl ` kl
hmuh d`cthgbchkh ` h trhvâs klo d`cthdt` sbd` d`c plrs`chs bcfldthkhs.
5><
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Tç1
Oh mhstr`lctlrbs sl dhrhdtlrbzh p`r pârkbkh kl hplt`, cèuslhs, vôgbt`s,
kbhrrlh g`klrhkh ` bctlcsh y gholsthr lc lo hek`glc.
C`th11 Kbflrlcdbhs lctrl mhstrbs y mhstr`lctlrbs1 oh mhstrbs ls uch
C`th
lcflrglkhk qul d`csbstl lc oh bchghdbôc kl oh gud`sh klo lstôghm` y oh
mhstr`lctlrbs
mhstr`l
ctlrbs ls oh bchghdbôc kl oh gud`sh klo lstôghm` y klo bctlsc`.
[1 89/89/8<
Gb c`gerl ls Alsñs G`rlc`, tlcm` <; hø`s y s`y kl Ghkrbk. Yhkldçh uch
MHT[[email protected][LUB[BT DUÔCBDH klskl nhdl gès kl 49 hø`s. O`s gâkbd`s c` tlcçhc
s`oudbôc y thc s`o` p`kçhc rldlthrgl hcebôd`s, pr`tldt`rls kl lstôghm` y
hcèdbk`s, d`g` trhthgbl
trhthgblct`s
ct`s phobhv`s.
Y`r lstl g`v`, nhdl gès kl 59 hø`s, kldbkç klahr kl br ho gâkbd`, kl
s`gltlrgl h lxpo`rhdb`cls, lck`sd`pbhs, hcèobsbs,… Gl pr`pusl c` v`ovlr h
t`ghr glkbdhglct`s. D`glcdâ nhdblck` kblths, lvbthck` o`s hobglct`s qul
gl slcthehc gho,… Eusquâ tlrhpbhs hotlrchvhs
hotlrchvhs y yh lct`cdls p`kçh vbsougerhr
qul oh hodhobcbzhdbôc kl gb dulrp` lrh uch kl ohs dohvls. Klsduerç qul t`ghrgl
ebdhre`cht` y obgôc gl slctheh guy eblc… Yr`eâ thgebâc hmuh kl ghr d`c
rlsuothk`s guy p`sbv`s, …
Lc slplgerl kl 598; gl oohgô uc hgbm` y gl nheoô s`erl uc g`t`r
kl pohsgh d`c hmuh kl uc tho Hckrlhs Jhodjlr, duy` c`gerl lsdudnheh p`r
prbglrh vlz. Gl d`glctô thgebâc, sb nheçh `çk` nheohr klo kbôxbk` kl do`r` y
gl rlgbô h bctlrclt. Hqulooh c`dnl hplchs k`rgç vblck` vbkl`s l bcf`rghdbôc
kl Hckrlhs,… Lstheh rlhoglctl lg`db`chk`, puls klskl o`s prbglr`s vbkl`s
pukl khrgl dulcth, qul gb pr`eolgh sl p`krçh rls`ovlr sb d`cslmuçh hdhehr
d`c ohs ehdtlrbhs y phrèsbt`s kl gbs bctlsc`s y lstôghm` y lctlckç qul oh
s`oudbôc lstheh lc lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`. O`dhobdâ lo pr`kudt` y k`s kçhs klspuâs
d`glcdâ lo trhthgblct`. Gb lctusbhsg` gl nbz` t`ghrgl ohs gèxbghs k`sbs
klskl lo prbglr kçh, klshtlckblck` t`khs ohs rld`glckhdb`cls. Oh kbhrrlh qul
gl pr`v`dô ful bgp`rthctl, plr` lstheh flobz kl shelr qul lstheh lobgbchck`
gbols kl phrèsbt`s qul nheçhc sbk` o`s dhushctls kl thct`s hø`s kl lcflrglkhk.
Ulkual oh k`sbs y lc p`dhs n`rhs t`k` v`ovbô h oh c`rghobkhk. H phrr kl lct`cdls
slmuç lo pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E) kurhctl 58 kçhs. Gl slch guy eblc.
D`glcdâ h pr`ehr dblrths
d blrths d`gbkhs qul sheçh qul hctls gl slcthehc fhtho,
fhtho, y o`s
rlsuothk`s fulr`c ôpg`s.
Hñc c`
o` tlrgbcheh
drllr
duhck`, ucHogls
klspuâs
kl
d`glczhr
lo gl
trhthgblct`,
hdukçklh uc
dugpolhø`s.
choyklglkb`
oh lsth
hphrldbô
hctl gç oh pruleh kl fulm`,… ¡\ch e`tlooh kl dnhgpèc!,…
d nhgpèc!,… Kurhctl t`k`s lst`s
hø`s lo nldn` kl t`ghr uch s`oh m`th gl nhdçh vlr ohs lstrloohs. [`gâ
[`gâ uc prbglr
5>6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
trhm` d`c dblrt` rldlo`, plr` ho vlr qul c` slch cbcmuch g`olsh, hdheâ gb
d`ph nhsth lo cho, sbc slcr culvhglctl
culvhglctl cbcmuch rlhddbôc clmhvh. Ahgès gl
nheçh sudlkbk` chkh bmuho. Gb mhstr`
mhstr`lctlrbs
lctlrbs drôcbdh nheçh phshk` h oh nbst`rbh.
Klspuâs gb lxplrblcdbh d`c lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`, c` kla` phshr `dhsbôc homuch sbc
d`glcthr h gb lct`rc` gbs rlsuothk`s thc p`sbv`s y o`s kl hgbm`s y d`c`dbk`s
qul, p`r gb rld`glckhdbôc, nhc pr`ehk` lsth tlrhpbh. Loo`s thgebâc nhc
d`cslmubk` rlsuothk`s fhctèsd`s phrh trhthgblct`s kl lcflrglkhkls d`g`
kbheltls, holrmbhs,
holrmbh s, dècdlrls, lsdolr`sbs,
lsdo lr`sbs, y gl sblct` flobzglctl ‟d`rrlsp`c
‟d`rrlsp`csheol‗
sheol‗,,
auct` d`c ohs gbols kl plrs`chs
plrs`chs qul nlg`s kldbkbk` pr`ehro`,
pr`ehro`, kl oh kbfusbôc kl
sus e`ckhkls.
Gb hmrhkldbgblct` bccbt` h Hckrlhs, gb hp`y` bcd`ckbdb`cho, gb
rld`c`dbgblct` y hkgbrhdbôc p`r o`s lspldthduohrls rlsuothk`s kl sus
bcvlsmhdb`cls
bcvlsm
hdb`cls y s`erl t`k` p`r tlclr lo mrhc vho`r kl kbfuckbro`s.
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT)
kurhctl 4 h 6 kçhs. [hgebâc sl pulkl uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` \ (urmlcdbhs)
slmñc mrhvlkhk y oh sbtuhdbôc.
Mbcmbvbtbs
Oh mbcmbvbs ls uch lcflrglkh
lcflrglkhk
k qul bchgh y klstruyl o`s tlabk`s kl s`p`rtl
kl o`s kblctls, d`g` lfldt` h ohrm` pohz` kl o`s klpôsbt`s kl pohdh. Tb oh pohdh
c` sl qubth, hphrldl lo shrr`. Oh pohdh y lo shrr` brrbthc l bchghc ohs lcdçhs. Ohs
ehdtlrbhs qul âsths pr`kudlc, nhdlc qul ohs lcdçhs sl bcfldtlc l bchglc y sl
t`rclc slcsbeols.
Tç1
Thcmrhk` kl ohs lcdçhs, hphrblcdbh r`ah erboohctl ` r`a` pñrpurh kl ohs lcdçhs,
lcdçhs slcsbeols ho thdt`, plr` bck`o`rhs, ñodlrhs eudhols, lcdçhs bchghkhs y kl
hspldt` erboohctl, g`vbobkhk klcthrbh y pârkbkh klo nuls` hovl`ohr qul s`slcl
h o`s kblctls, d`c oh p`sbebobkhk kl plrklr pblzhs klcthols.
klcthols.
5>=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[1 M R. T. L — </;/84
Gb lxplrblcdbh d`c lo GGT ls lxdlolctl,
lxdlolctl, nl durhk` uch mbcmbvbs hmukh lc
uch slghch, rlgbô d`gpolthglc
d`gpolthglctl,
tl, sbc hcebôd`s cb hcbchght`rb`s, s`o`
d`c lcauhmuls frldulctls kl 8< m`ths.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</mbcmbvbs-hmukh-tlsg`cb`-ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` A (lcauhmul
eudho) kl 4 h < vldls ho kçh slmñc mrhvlkhk kurhctl uc gls. Tl pulkl
hd`gphøhr thgebâc klo pr`t`d`o` D ` E d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c
lo pr`t`d`o` J (d`c [email protected]) sb oh mrhvlkhk o` rlqublrl.
Mo`glruo`clfrbtbs p`slstrlpt`dôdbdh (Tçckr`gl Clfrçd`)
Oh mo`glruo`clfrbs p`slstrlpt`dôdbdh, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh
y sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ls uch
bcflddbôc dhushkh p`r uc p` kl ehdtlrbh lstrlpt`d`d`s, hucqul ohs ehdtlrbhs
lstrlpt`dôdbdhs
lstrlpt`
dôdbdhs pr`v`dhc oh bchghdbôc kl o`s plqulø`s vhs`s shcmuçcl`s lc ohs
ucbkhkls kl otr` kl o`s rbø`cls (mo`gâruo`s) obgbthck` su dhphdbkhk phrh otrhr
oh `rbch, lc lstl dhs` oh bcflddbôc c` sl prlslcth lc o`s rbø`cls, sbc` lc uc èrlh
kbflrlctl klo dulrp` d`g` oh pblo ` oh mhrmhcth.
Tç1
Kbsgbcudbôc klo mhst` urbchrb`, `rbch kl d`o`r r`abz`
r`abz`,, nbcdnhzôc klo hek`glc,
nbcdnhzôc kl oh dhrh, ` kl o`s `a`s, kl ohs ghc`s, o`s pbls y o`s t`eboo`s, shcmrl
vbsbeol lc oh `rbch. [hgebâc pulklc prlslcthrsl k`o`rls ` rbmbklz hrduohr.
[1 Hô — 2/4/85
Yhklzd`
Yhklz
d` kl mo`glruo`clfrbs drôcbdh
d rôcbdh (uc trhst`rc` rlcho), plr` klspuâs kl
sôo` k`s slghchs kl GGT gbs hchoçdhs nhc gla`rhk` sbmcbdhvhglctl.
sbmcbdhvhglctl.
Mlcbho! 1)
Fulctl1 np1//supolglct`gbclrhogbohmr`s`.ls.to/[LT[[email protected]@[email protected]
np1//supolglct`gbclrhogbohmr`s`.ls.to/[LT[[email protected]@[email protected]
tg
5>>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` lc lstl dhs` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` H (hghtlur)
kurhctl
5 slghchs
slmubk` p`stlrb`rglctl
p`r4loglsls.
pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) `,
d`g` hotlrchvh,
lo pr`t`d`o`
E (eèsbd`) kurhctl
M`c`rrlh
Oh m`c`rrlh ls uch lcflrglkhk kl trhcsgbsbôc slxuho, dhushkh p`r oh
ehdtlrbh Clbsslrbh m`c`rrn`lhl (M`c`d`d
(M`c`d`d`),
`), qul pr`obflrh lc ohs z`chs d`rp`rhols
nñglkhs y dèobkhs klo dulrp`. Bcdous` lc oh urltrh, qul ls lo d`ckudt` qul
trhcsp`rth oh `rbch fulrh klo dulrp`, ` lc lo hphrht` rlpr`kudt`r kl oh gualr, `
lc oh z`ch nñglkh kl o`s `a`s, thgebâc pulkl drldlr y pr`obflrhr lsth ehdtlrbh.
Tç1
K`o`r y hrk`r ho `rbchr, k`o`r kl mhrmhcth, rlohdb`cls slxuhols k`o`r`shs,
k`o`r bctlcs` lc oh phrtl ehah klo hek`glc, lerl (lst`s k`s ñog`s sçct`ghs
sb oh bcflddbôc sl kbslgbch h ohs tr`gphs kl Fho`pb` y h oh z`ch klo lstôghm`)
lc dhgeb` sb sl kbslgbch ho t`rrlctl shcmuçcl`, `durrl d`c lerl, shopuoobk`,
sçct`ghs sbgbohrls h oh hrtrbs y sldrldb`cls vhmbchols hc`rghols.
C  1
Hfrbdh ls uc` kl o`s phçsls d`c gès m`c`rrlh y lo Kr.
Kr. Johus Tdnustlrlklr nh
lsthk` trhehahck`
trhehahck` lc Èfrbdh d`c GGT. Nbz` lstukb`s s`erl lo sbkh y oh ghohrbh y
nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr ldhdbh d`c oh m`c`rrlh. Ho slr uch lcflrglkhk dhushkh p`r
uch ehdtlrbh lo mrhk` kl durhdbôc ls rlohvhgl
rlohvhglctl
ctl hot`.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
` E d`g` hotlrchvh. Lc dhs`s kl gualrls, d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` V
(vhmbcho) y lc dhs` klo vhrôc sl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` U (rldtho
d`c plrbooh) kurhctl uch slghch. Lc dhs`s slvlr`s pulkl thrkhr gès y sl
hohrmh trhthgblct`.
5>2
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
M`th
Oh m`th, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho ls uch lcflrglkhk gltheôobdh, pr`kudbkh p`r oh hduguohdbôc
kl èdbk` ñrbd` lc oh shcmrl, dhushck` bchghdbôc y k`o`r lc ohs hrduohdb`cls.
Oh m`th hmukh hfldth c`rghoglctl h uch ` p`dhs hrduohdb`cls y oh drôcbdh sl
rllrl h lpbs`kb`s rlplv`s kl k`o`r lc gès kl uch hrduohdbôc klo dulrp`. Tl
d`csbklrh uc p` kl hrtrbs. Oh dhush bctlrch ls oh kbduothk sloldvh klo rbøôc,
phrh lobgbchr lo èdbk` ñrbd` kl oh shcmrl.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs bcdouylc lo k`o`r kl oh hrduohdbôc, qul d`gblczh sñebthglctl,
h glcuk` kurhctl oh c`dnl, sblck` h vldls puosèo, `prlsbv` ` bcs`p`rtheol. Oh
hrduohdbôc oudl dhoblctl y r`ah, y lstè guy slcsbeol. Yulkl nhelr lerl. Lc
uch
kl shcmrl,
sl `eslrvh
nbplrudlgbh
(hoths d`cdlctrhdb`cls
d`cdlctrhdb`cl
s kl èdbk`
ñrbd`hchoçdh
lc oh shcmrl).
Oh z`ch
hfldthkh
prlslcth thgebâc
nbcdnhzôc y usuhoglctl
pulkl trhthrsl
trhthrsl klo klk` m`rk` klo pbl, lo t`eboo` ` oh r`kbooh.
[1 O H (D) — </;/84
Nhdl 5 glsls y glkb`, qul lst`y t`ghck` GGT, slmñc pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7
pr`t`d`o` E), klspuâs o` t`gâ 4 vldls ho kçh nhsth oh fldnh (6 m`ths).
Duhck` nheohg`s oh 8ª vlz tl d`ctâ qul tlcçh [email protected][H, lc vlrkhk lstheh
guy d`gpobdhk` h plshr qul slmuçh uch kblth. [lcçh gudn`s gholsthrls lc gbs
t`eboo`s, r`kboohs, klk` m`rk` klo pbl y klk`s kl ohs ghc`s (klk`s dnbd`s c`
p`kçh
k`eohro`s).
tlcçhy 4glkb`,
` ; kçhs
sbcdulct`
p`klr dhgbchr
eblc y gudn`
k`o`r
Nhc
phshk` 5Gl
glsls
y tl
o` lxdlolctlglctl
eblck`o`r.
qul. gl
sblct`, nhc klshphrldbk` t`khs ohs g`olshs y k`olcdbhs. Tbm` d`c gb trhthgblct`
kl c` d`glr dhrcls r`ahs, t`ghtl, lgeuk`s ltd.
Xublr` hmrhkldlrtl lo p`klr nhelr oolmhk` h , y p`klr nhelr d`cslmubk` lo
GGT, rlhoglctl ls uc rlglkb` gbohmr`s`.
G\DNHT MUHDBHT, uc herhz` y dulcth d`cgbm`.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</m`th-tlsg`cb`-ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk`
bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E
d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) kurhctl 8
nhsth 4 glsls slmñc mrhvlkhk.
529
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Mrbpl (Bcfoulczh)
Oh mrbpl ls uch lcflrglkhk vbrho rlspbrht`rbh pr`pbh kl ohs lsthdb`cls frçhs
klo hø`. Hucqul ohs plrs`chs hfldthkhs pulklc rlduplrhrsl h o` ohrm` kl uch
` k`s slghchs sbc trhthgblct` gâkbd`, o`s cbø`s y ohs plrs`chs hqulahkhs kl
`trhs bcflddb`cls mrhvls, pulklc sufrbr d`gpobdhdb`cls.
Tç1
K`o`r kl mhrmhcth, kl dhelzh y gusduohr, klebobkhk y gholsthr mlclrhobzhk`,
d`cmlsôc chsho, lerl suplrb`r h 4> ±D, t`s. Lc o`s cbø`s thgebâc sl pulklc
prlslcthr vôgbt`s ` kbhrrlh, brrbthebobkhk ` s`gc`olcdbh.
[1 K. R Lze M (Gâx)
D`gphrt` qul gb s`erbcbth kl 2 glsls kl lkhk, bcbdbô lo sèehk` phshk`
d`c uch mrbpl guy fulrtl d`c vôgbt`s p`r oh c`dnl, kl d`ctlcbk` hobglcthrb`
(oldnl) y gud`sbkhk y prlslctheh uch rbc`rrlh drbsthobch hdu`sh bctlcsh, lo
k`gbcm` p`r oh ghøhch. Bcbdbâ d`c uch m`th kl GGT y uch m`th kl èdvhk`r,
nbdl oh d`gebchdbôc lc uc vhs` kl drbstho y ol hmrlmuâ hmuh, hpr`xbghkhglctl
49 go. y o` pusl lc uc frhsqubt` m`tlr` kl vbkrb`, y kl hooç ol lstuvbg`s khck` 8
m`th dhkh > n`rhs y lfldvhglctl lsl gbsg`
gbsg ` k`gbcm`, yh lstè d`c uch gla`rh
c`theol, y nhsth lo kçh kl n`y gudn` gla`r.
Fulctl1 np1//www.dlc
np1//www.dlctr`slr
tr`slr.d`g/phmbchs/ggstlsg`cb`s.ntgo
.d`g/phmbchs/ggstlsg`cb`s.ntgo
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` F (frldulctl)
slmubk` p`r lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E d`g` hotlrchvh kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
D`g` d`gpolglct` thgebâc sl pulkl uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` Q (zhpplr) qul
kh uc`s rlsuothk`s lxdlolctls lc d`gebchdbôc d`c lo kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
Nlphtbtbs
Oh nlphs ls uch bchghdbôc klo nçmhk`. Tu dhush pulkl slr bcflddb`sh
(vbrho, ehdtlrbhch, ltd.), bcgucbthrbh (p`r hut`hcdulrp`s, nlphs
hut`bcgucl) ` tôxbdh (p`r lalgpo` p`r hod`n`o, vlclc`s ` fèrghd`s). [hgebâc
ls
d`csbklrhkh,
klplckblck`kl
klohsupr`kuddbôc
l`o`mçh, uch
lcflrglkhk
slxuho.
Yr`v`dh kbsgbcudbôc
kl ebobs,
kâdbt lckl
oh trhcsgbsbôc
pr`kuddbôc
kl pr`tlçchs, nbp`moudlgbh, kldblcdbhs lc lo glthe`obsg` kl susthcdbhs d`g`
glkbdhglct`s, hod`n`o y t`xbchs y kbsgbcudbôc kl oh dhphdbkhk kl klflcsh klo
`rmhcbsg` frlctl h ehdtlrbhs y vbrus.
528
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Tç1
O`s sbmc`s y sçct`ghs kl oh nlphs s`c k`o`r ` kbstlcsbôc lc oh z`ch
hek`gbcho, bdtlrbdbh, `rbch turebh y klp`sbdb`cls dohrhs, kl d`o`r hrdbooh ` pèobkhs,
fhmh, bchpltlcdbh, cèuslhs y vôgbt`s, pârkbkh klo hplt` y kl pls`, gholsthr
mlclrho, lsdho`frç`s, prurbt` y k`o`r kl dhelzh.
[1 F Hx Y Ez (D) — 8/89/85
N`oh Trh. Hcmâobdh, ol d`cthrâ qul lst` klo ggs nh sbk` guy eulc` phrh gb
ustlk shel, y` o` rld`gblck`. Nl vbst` rlsuothk`s bgprlsb`chctls lc gb shouk
d`c uch nlphs E qul tlcm` eblc d`gpobdhkh, yh c` o` ls. Gla`rô gudn`
gb nçmhk` y o` klgès gbs DK; sueblr`c lo k`eol, kulrg` guy eblc, chkh kl
klprlsbôc, ls ghrhvboo`s`. Gudnhs mrhdbhs ltlrchglctl hmrhkldbk` uc herhz`tl
h oh kbsthcdbh. Xul Kb`s oh dubkl gudn`. Lsplr` homñc kçh d`c`dlroh y gl vlh o`
eblc qul lst`y…
Trh. Hcmâobdh uc pohdlr shoukhrol, eulc` phs` h d`cthrol qul tlcm` lc gbs
ghc`s o`s rlsuothk`s kl gbs lxèglcls, ol d`cthrâ qul klskl qul lgpldâ h
t`ghr lo GGT gla`rhr`c bcdrlçeolglctl
bcdrlçeolglctl gbs rlsuothk`s. Hctls kl t`ghr GGT
tlcçh gbs dk; lc ;42. N`y p`r n`y tlcm` >=2 ls` sbmcbdh qul lo GGT ls guy
lfldv` y gb dhrmh vbrho ls glc`s 59. Ls` sbmcbdh qul lstè clmhvh. Ol lcvç`
p`r lstl glkb` lst` d`g` tlsg`cb` kl gb rlduplrhdbôc. Rh ol lcvbhrâ gbs
lxèglcls p`r glkb` kl uc d`rrl`. R` lgpldâ h t`ghr lo 2 kl kbdblgerl y lc
uc plrb`k` kl slbs glsls gl nl slck` guy eblc.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</nlphs-e-tlsg`cb`-ggs/
C  1
H vldls, h prbcdbpb`s klo trhthgblct`,
trhthgblct`, sl pulklc hotlrhr o`s vho`rls kl dhrmh
vbrho y DK; kl ghclrh klsfhv`rheol. Tbc lgehrm`, lo phdblctl sblctl gla`rh,
duhck` sl sbmul d`c lo trhthgbl
trhthgblct`
ct` sl nh p`kbk` `eslrvhr qul o`s cbvlols oulm`
sl vulovl c`rghols y fhv
fhv`rheols
`rheols lc d`cauct` d`c lo eblclsthr klo phdblctl.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D `
E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot` lc 899
go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh, d`gebcèck`o` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) uch
vlz ho kçh, hotlrchck` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`). Lo trhthgblct` nhebtuho ls
kl 4 glsls.
525
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Nlrbkh
\ch nlrbkh ls uch olsbôc qul sl pr`kudl lc lo dulrp`. Yulkl slr dhushkh
p`r hddbklctls, dhçkhs, m`opls, qulghkurhs ` hrghs y mlclrhogl
mlclrhoglctl,
ctl, r`gplc oh
pblo u `tr`s tlabk`s klo dulrp`.
Bcdouylc d`rthkurhs, hrhøhz`s y pbdhkurhs lc oh pblo, g`rlt`cls,
kbso`dhdb`cls, frhdturhs, t`rdlkurhs y kbstlcsb`cl
kbstlcsb`cls.
s.
[1 Av — 8>/=/84
Nhdl k`s kçhs phslhck` p`r lo dhgp` bctlctâ r`gplr d`c oh ghc` uc ght`a`
y o` qul nbdl ful herbrgl lo klk` gløbqul bzqublrk` d`c uc eulc ‟tha`‗. Gl
nbdblr`c uch durh kl urmlcdbh lc uc p`obklp`rv` dlrdhc` d`c uc klsbcfl
klsbcfldthctl
dthctl
y gl fub h dhsh d`c uch rbth plr` d`c lo klk` dhsb heblrt`.
\c kçh klspuâs c` phrheh kl k`olrgl. Nheçh d`gprhk` DKT y gl kbal1 ‟p`r
quâ c` pr`ehro` phrh uch nlrbkh thc pr`fuckh‗.
Gl kç uch s`oh hpobdhdbôc kl DKT d`c uc hom`kôc y klspuâs kl uc plqulø`
lsd`z`r lo k`o`r klshphrldbô y oh nlrbkh lgplzô h dlrrhrsl. Bcdous` prlsb`chck`
lc oh nlrbkh c` gl kulol y ls` qul nhc phshk` s`ohglctl k`s kçhs klo
‟hddbklctl‗.
Bccbthglctl gla`r lo DKT qul duhoqublr klsbcfldthctl ` hcebôd` kl
fhrghdbh. (…)
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/tu-tlsg`cb`-s`erl-ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` K
(klrght`oômbd`) r`dbhck` DKT kbrldthglctl s`erl oh nlrbkh lc dulsôc.
D`g` hotlrchvh thgebâc sl pulkl uobzhr uch s`oudbôc hdu`sh kl DK kl
uchs 6 m`ths hdvhkhs lc 899 go kl hmuh.
Lc dhs`s mrhvls d`c plobmr` kl tâthc` ` sbgbohr sl rlhobzh lo pr`t`d`o` E
(eèsbd`) ` D (DKT) kurhctl uch slghch ` gès slmñc sbtuhdbôc.
\ch s`oudbôc kl DKT hpobdhkh kbrldthglctl lc oh nlrbkh pr`v`dh oh
d`hmuohdbôc dhsb bcglkbhth lvbthck` t`k` p` kl bcflddbôc
bcflddbôc..
Tl nh uobzhk` lc dbrumçh kl dhgp` d`c âxbt` phrh d`rthr nlg`rrhmbhs y
oh rlduplrhdbôc klo tlabk` ls gudn` gès rèpbkh qul d`c `tr`s klsbcfldthctls
klsbcfldthctls
qubrñrmbd`s.
524
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Nlrcbh
\ch nlrcbh sl pr`kudl duhck` uc ôrmhc` ` tlabk` htrhvblsh
htrhvblsh uc puct` kâebo
lc lo gñsduo` dbrduckhctl ` tlabk` d`cldv`, oohghk` fhsdbh. Lstl pr`dls`
sl klc`gbch pr`trusbôc, qul bckbdh qul lo ôrmhc` s`erlshol kl su uebdhdbôc
c`rgho ` sl gulvl gès hooè kl sus oçgbtls. Homuc`s p`s kl nlrcbh s`c1 oh kbsdho,
dlrvbdho, ugebobdho, drhclho, bcmubcho, oh kl tlsduo`s, flg`rho, nbhtho, qubrñrmbdh
` kl lvlctrhdbôc.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs kl ohs nlrcbhs pulklc hphrldlr kl rlplctl, plr` thgebâc
pulklc klshrr`oohrsl mrhkuhoglctl. Tlcshdb`cls kl k`o`r pulklc vhrbhr
d`csbklrheolglctl
d`csbklrheolgl
ctl nhsth k`o`r slvlr`. Ohs g`olshs sl pulklc slcr ho phrhrsl,
nhdlr lsfulrz` ` olvhcthr `ealt`s plshk`s. Ohs plrs`chs hfldthkhs pulklc
qulahrsl gès thrkl ` gès tlgprhc`, kl oh prlslcdbh kl uch pr`tuelrhcdbh
qul ls slcsbeol y lstè drldblck`. Yulklc hphrldlr cèushs y vôgbt`s y slcr
bgp`sbebobkhk kl lobgbchr mhsls ` tlclr lvhduhdb`cls bctlschols.
bctlschols.
[1
Nlrcbh Kbsdho1 Lkbs`c (D`o`gebh)
89 hø`s d`c nlrcbh kbsdho. K`o`r guy hmuk` sbc p`klr nhdlr chkh.
[rhthgblct` kbhrb` dhkh n`rh > t`ghs. Mrhdbhs h lstl trhthgblct` yh lstè
trhehahck`.
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/[email protected]
Nlrcbh tlsduohr1 Bsrhlo Qhg`rh (D`o`gebh) K`o`r lc tlsduo`s. Rh c` p`kçh
dhgbchr p`rqul lsthehc guy bchghk`s.
Ol behc h `plrhr, plr` pr`eô hctls lo GGT. 8 slghch kl trhthgblct` y ful
kbsgbcuylck` lo k`o`r y thghø` nhsth qul v`ovbô h su thghø` c`rgho.
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/[email protected]<fG6j
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` E (eèsbd`) y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) lc oh
z`ch hfldthkh kurhctl
kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
52;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Nlrpls
Lo nlrpls, ls uch bcflddbôc pr`kudbkh p`r lo vbrus klo nlrpls sbgpol (VNT).
Lo nlrpls sbgpol ls uch olsbôc ` lcflrglkhk dutèclh bchght`rbh qul sulol
hphrldlr s`erl t`k` lc o`s oheb`s y qul sl dhrhdtlrbzh p`r oh hphrbdbôc kl plquløhs
vlsçduohs, dhushkh p`r lo vbrus nlrpls n`gbcbs kl o`s p`s B ‛nlrpls ohebho‛ y
p` BB ‛nlrpls mlcbtho‛.
Lxbstlc `tr`s k`s p`s kl nlrpls1 lo nlrpls zôstlr ` duolerbch, c`gerl kl
oh rlhdvhdbôc klo vbrus kl oh vhrbdloh, dhrhdtlrbzhkh p`r plquløhs hgp`oohs
k`o`r`shs lc f`rgh kl hcboo`, hmruphkhs h o` ohrm` kl uc klrght`gh: y o`s
nlrpls vbrus, t`k`s o`s vbrus kl oh fhgbobh Nlrplsvbrbkhl.
[1 Hô — 54/4/85
Lsplr` ols pulkh slrvbr gb tlsg`cb` s`erl oh durh kl gb lcflrglkhk.
Lgpldâ d`c pucz`cls lc lo ohk` klrldn` kl oh dhelzh, slch qul lrhc lc oh
ghsh dlrlerho o` duho ful k`o`r`s`, kl hklctr` nhdbh hfulrh.
Gl prl`dupâ sb lrh hom` mrhvl yh qul lc dhkh puczôc plrkçh lo lquboberb`
g`glctèclhglctl. Fub ho gâkbd` y gl kba` qul lrh ‟klrghs htôpbdh‗. Ho kçh
sbmublctl tlcçh oh pblo brrbthkh y d`c hgp`oohs lc lo pldn`, duloo`, `rlah klrldnh,
ohk` phrbltho y `ddbpbtho kl oh dhelzh.
\ch k`dt`rh gl kbhmc`sdô nlrpls zôstlr (duolerbooh). Gl kba` qul c` tlcçh
durh s`o` sl p`kçh d`ctr`ohr d`c hcvbrhols y ol prl`dupheh sb tuvblrh lcdlfhobs
(bchghdbôc klo dlrler`).
D`glcdâ ushck` GGT t`ghck` 6 m`ths dhkh 5 n`rhs, lctrl ; y < vldls ho
kçh, y r`dbhck` DKT ; h < vldls ho kçh lc oh pblo, lsh c`dnl c` pukl k`rgbr klo
k`o`r. Ho kçh sbmublctl lrh tho gb k`o`r klskl hklctr` nhdbh hfulrh lc oh pblo y uc
tlrrbeol hrk`r qul dohgâ h Alsñs phrh c` slcr k`o`r y durhrgl, lsh gbsgh thrkl
slc hobvb` y gbs hgp`oohs lgplzhr`c h sldhrsl.
Fulctl1 np1//www.hebsv
np1//www.hebsv.d`g/bcklxPhrdnbv`s/tlsg`cb`s.ntg
.d`g/bcklxPhrdnbv`s/tlsg`cb`s.ntg
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT)
` E (eèsbd`) d`c Q (zhpplr) y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` K (klrght`oômbd`)
(klrght`oômbd`)
lc ohLc
z`ch
hfldthkh
kurhctsl
kurhctl
l lorld`gblckh
lgp` cldlshrb`.
dhs`
rldurrlctl
thgebâc nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o` Y
(phrèsbt`s).
52<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Nbplrtlcsbôc
Nbplrtlcsb
ôc hrtlrbho
Oh prlsbôc hrtlrbho ls oh qul lalrdl lo d`rhzôc s`erl ohs hrtlrbhs, phrh qul âsths
d`ckuzdhc
d`ckuzdh
c oh shcmrl nhdbh o`s kbflrl
kbflrlctls
ctls ôrmhc`s klo dulrp`. Oh prlsbôc gèxbgh
sl `elcl lc dhkh d`ctrhddbôc klo d`rhzôc
d`rhzôc y oh gçcbgh, d`c dhkh rlohahdbôc. Oh
nbplrtlcsbôc ls oh lolvhdbôc kl o`s cbvlols c`rghols kl prlsbôc hrtlrbho kl
f`rgh s`stlcbkh ` d`ccuh. Nhy vho`rls gçcbg`s y gèxbg`s kl oh prlsbôc,
d`csbklrhk`s c`rghols klplckblck` kl oh lkhk y lo slx`. Oh nbplrtlcsbôc ls
kbdbo kl kltldthr y pulkl phshr bchkvlrkh y sbmcbdh uc lsfulrz` klo d`rhzôc
y kl ohs hrtlrbhs p`r dugpobr su fucdbôc.
Tç1
Hucqul c` sulol prlslcthr sçct`ghs lvbklctls homuchs vldls d`cdurrl d`c
dlfholh ` k`o`r kl dhelzh, thgebâc ghrl`s.
C  1
Oh nbplrtlcsbôc c` ls uch lcflrglkhk, ls uch d`csldulcdbh kl uc lct`rc`
klslquboberhk`
klslquboberh
k` d`c klghsbhkh hdbklz.
[1 A (Xè)
"\shck` GGT kurhctl 6 hø`s. T`erlpls`.
Lo puos` sl gl nh rlkudbk` d`g` duhck` lrh a`vlc y nhdçh klp`rtl.
Gb prlsbôc hrtlrbho lstè gla`r qul cucdh."
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/UHOro`;`v`R
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) ` E
(eèsbd`) d`g` hotlrchvh kurhctl uc gls nhsth c`rghobzhdbôc.
Nbplrtbr`bkbsg`
H oh hoturh kl oh trèqulh tlclg`s oh moèckuoh r`bkls qul pr`kudl r`xbch,
lcdhrmhkh
lcdhrmh
kh kl rlmuohr lo glthe`obsg` d`rp`rho. Lo nbplrr`bkbsg` ls oh pr`kuddbôc
lxdlsbvh y lo ohczhgblct` ho t`rrlctl shcmuçcl` kl ohs n`rg`chs pr`kudbkhs lc
526
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
oh moèckuoh r`bkls, o` qul oolvh h uch hdlolrhdbôc kl ohs fucdb`cls rlmuohkhs p`r
lsth moèckuoh.
Tç1
Clrvb`sbsg`, pr`eolghs kl sulø`, phopbthdb`cls, dhcshcdb` klsglkbk`,
tlgeo`rls, hplt` lxhmlrhk` plr` d`c pârkbkh kl pls` y pr`eolghs
mhstr`bctlschols d`g` kbhrrlhs. Lc ohs gualrls, klshaustls lc oh glcstruhdbôc,
prlslcdbh kl e`db`, o` qul hdhrrlh kbduothkls phrh trhmhr, hf`cçh y k`o`rls
nhebtuhols kl mhrmhcth, `a`s shot`cls, plo` qulerhkbz` y frèmbo d`c pârkbkh
frldulctl.
[1 Hcôcbg`
Lc hplchs
5 chkh
glslsklgl
durâ kl uco`s
nbplrr`bkbsg`
y c` gl gudn`
nl tlcbk`
qul
`plrhr.
C` t`gâ
glkbdhdbôc,
gâkbd`s sl lcfhkhr`c
duhck`
ols kbal qul c` nheçh t`ghk` cbcmuch glkbdbch, hucqul lc lsl g`glct` gl
lsthehc flobdbthck` p`r tlclr uc`s hcèobsbs plrfldt`s, drlçhc qul lrh p`r oh
glkbdhdbôc. Ful mrhdbhs ho GGT y ho dhgeb` kl glcthobkh
glcthobkhk
k hctl oh vbkh.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/0s7nbplrr`bkbsg`
C  1
Nhy qul hkvlrr qul lc homuc`s dhs`s kl nbplrr`bkbsg` pulkl slr dhushk`
p`r uch phrhsbt`sbs kl Lctlr`ebus vlrgbduohrbs (`xbur`s) hucqul c`rghoglctl
lstèc lc lo sbstlgh mrht`bctlscho, sulolc gbmrhr h ohs z`chs n`rg`chols
hfldthck`
hfldthc
k` h o`s cbvlols kl n`rg`chs kl ghclrh kbrldth.
Lc lst`s dhs`s lo us` klo kbôxbk` pulkl tlclr d`g` d`csldulcdbh uc
clrvb`sbsg` y hcsblkhk p`stlrb`r ho trhthgblct` y nhy qul hpobdhr prbglr`
lo pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s) lc d`cauct` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` Q (zhpplr) kl ghclrh
d`ctucklctl.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh bcbdbhr d`c lo pr`t`d`o`
H (hghtlur) ` T (slcsbeol) slmñc mrhvlkhk klo dhs`, d`gebchk` d`c
pr`t`d`o` Q (zhpplr), sb ls p`sbeol. Y`stlrb`rglctl hpobdhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) kurhctl 4 slghchs. Lo pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s) slrçh bckbdhk` lc dhs`
kl tlclr rlhddbôc hkvlrsh kl hcsblkhk y clrvb`sbsg`.
52=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
N`cm`s - Gbd`sbs
O`s n`cm`s (gbd`sbs) s`c bcflddb`cls dhushkhs p`r `rmhcbsg`s gbdr`sdôpbd`s
(n`cm`s), qul pulklc nhebthr lc oh pblo, gud`shs y `trhs phrtls klo dulrp`.
d ulrp`. O`s
kl oh pblo pulklc vbvbr lc o`s tlabk`s gulrt`s klo dheloo`, ohs uøhs ` lc ohs dhphs
lxtlrchs. Tôo` oh gbthk kl t`k`s o`s p`s kl n`cm`s s`c khøbc`s, plr` pulklc
rlsuothr guy kbdbols kl klstrubr.
[1 Hcôcbg`
\c tlsg`cb` rldblctl kl oh fhgbobh sl rllrl h culstr` nba` kl 82 hø`s.
Kurhctl o`s ñog`s 4 ` ; hø`s, nh tlcbk` uch z`ch `sdurh ‟ghcdnhkh‗ lc oh
lsphokh, qul gb ghrbk` nh bcvlsmhk` d`g` ‟øh vlrsbd`o`r‗, uch bcflddbôc
gbdôdh d`gñc lc plrs`chs aôvlcls.
Klspuâs kl t`ghr GGT p`r dlrdh kl ; slghchs, lo oumhr sl nh rlkudbk`
lc thghø` p`r 8/4 (59 x 8< dg) (> x 6 puomhkhs). Ho phrldlr, oh z`ch lxtlrb`r
nh ‟klshphrldbk`‗ y o` qul qulkh lc glkb` lstè hn`rh uc p`d` olvhcthkh.
[lclg`s oh s`spldnh kl qul sl klsprlcklrè.
Culstr` nba` lstè lc oh ucbvlrsbkhk, hsç qul tlclg`s oh durb`sbkhk p`r vlr
dôg` lsthrè duhck` oolmul h dhsh lc uch slghch.
Ol ghctlckrâ bcf`rghk`.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/fucmho-bcfld`c
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uch kblth hklduhkh
ehah lc hzñdhrls, y uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) ` lo pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`)
d`g` hotlrchvh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` K (klrght`oômbd`) kurhctl
4 slghchs.
Lc dhs` mrhvl sl pulkl hpobdhr lo pr`t`d`o` M (mhs) kl c`dnl y lo
pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`) kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
Hotlrchvhglctl sl pulkl d`gebchr d`c uc phr eb` ghmcâd`, `
thgebâc d`c lgpohstls kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch trbturhkh.
Bcflddb`cls
\ch bcflddbôc ls oh bcvhsbôc kl hmlctls phtômlc`s h uch phrtl susdlpeol
klo dulrp`, pr`v`dhck` uch lcflrglkhk. \c` kl lst`s hmlctls phtômlc`s
pulkl slr oh ehdtlrbh. Glc`s klo 8% kl ohs ehdtlrbhs dhush lcflrglkhkls,
52>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
plr` ohs bcflddb`shs sl pulklc rlpr`kudbr rèpbkhglctl klctr` klo dulrp` y
klspbklc susthcdbhs quçgbdhs oohghkhs t`xbchs, qul pulklc khøhr o`s tlabk`s.
Lctrl o`s lalgpo`s kl ehdtlrbhs dhushctls kl bcflddb`cls lstèc lo lstrlpt`d`d`,
lstrlpt`d`d`,
lo lstho`d`d` y oh L. d`ob.
[1 Gç (M)
N`oh, y` nl uobzhk` GGT lc f`rgh `rho kl 8 h > m`ths dhkh n`rh p`r 2
n`rhs y thgebâc nl uobzhk` DKB lc f`rgh bcyldthkh d`c e`osh kl hmuh shobch.
D`g` ohs m`ths c` gl qubthr`c uch bcflddbôc lc oh dhrh klo ohk` klrldn` p`r
k`ckl lstheh gb `a` y sl gl nhdçh uch bchghdbôc lc`rgl, kldbkç bcyldthrgl
DKB. Yhrh gb s`rprlsh d`c uch vlz ful sudblctl y gl durô p`r d`gpolt` oh
bcflddbôc.
Duhck` gl bcyldtl DKB slc lc oh dhrh qul gl phsheh lo oçqubk` sbc
k`olrgl, cb nhdlrgl khø` d`g` qul fulrh uch tlohrhøh. Klspuâs, tuvl uch
plquløh rlhddbôc d`g` dhcshcdb` y thgp`d` tuvl cb kbhrrlh, cb vôgbt`s.
R` usl GGT8 phrh uch bcflddbôc p`r n`cm`s lc lo puogôc oohghk`s
Hsplrmboobus. Lstl n`cm` o` tlclg`s t`k`s lc o`s bctlsc`s, c` sl cb d`g` sl
trhsohkô h gbs puog`cls. Yhsâ < vldls p`r lo n`spbtho y chkbl gl kldçh qul
tlcçh.
Mrhdbhs h Kb`s gl t`gl lo GGT dhkh n`rh d`g` lc lo hcmu` pr`t`d`o`.
Lgpldâ p`r uc 8 m`th ho kçh. Ful klspuâs qul oolmuâ h < m`ths qul slmuç t`ghck`
nhsth oolmhr h 64 m`ths p`r kçh, t`ghck` = p`r n`rh, qul y` oolmuâ h oh rlhddbôc
klslhkh qul lrh mhchs kl v`gbthr (mrhdbhs h Kb`s, c` v`gbtâ) y dhcshcdb` qul
gl e`tô lc oh dhgh. Klspuâs kl ls` tuvl uch lspldbl kl klsbct`xbdhdbôc d`c
o`s gbsg`s sçct`ghs kl uc lpbs`kb` hsgèd` plr` guy olvl. Z…W
Thouk`s.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/0s7bcflddb`c
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh bcflddb`cls kl t`k` p` ls lo pr`t`d`o`
D (DKT) ` E (eèsbd`) d`g` hotlrchvh, kurhctl oh bcflddbôc. Nhy qul tlclr
lc dulcth lo thghø` y oumhr hsç qul pulkl slr d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o`
J (pblo d`c [email protected]) ` d`c `tr`s pr`t`d`o`s o`dhols.
o`dhols.
Tb tlclg`s uch bcflddbôc guy mrhckl qul pulkl dhushr uch slpsbs slrçh
hklduhk` uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` R (bcylddbôc kl DKB). Tb c` nhy p`sbebobkhk kl
rlhobzhro`,, sl pulkl uobzhr thgebâc lo pr`t`d`o` \ (urmlcdbh).
rlhobzhro`
522
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Bcsufbdblcdbh dhrkçhdh d`cmlstbvh
Oh bcsudblcdbh dhrkçhdh (BD) ` d`cmlsvh ls oh bcdhphdbkhk klo d`rhzôc kl
e`gelhr oh sudblctl shcmrl qul lo dulrp` cldlsbth phrh shsfhdlr ohs klghckhs
klo glthe`obsg`. Yulkl klshrr`oohrsl
klshr r`oohrsl klspuâs kl uc hthqul dhrkçhd`, uc pr`eolgh
kl nbplrtlcsbôc hrtlrbho c` trhthk` kurhctl gudn` lgp` ` uch vèovuoh d`r`chrbh
hfldthkh.
Tç1
Kbduothkls rlspbrht`rbhs, s`erl t`k` duhck` oh plrs`ch sl hdulsth, fhoth
kl lclrmçh, slcshdbôc kl dhcshcdb`, kbduothk phrh k`rgbr p`r oh c`dnl, klebk`
h pr`eolghs rlspbrht`rb`s, hek`glc nbcdnhk` ` eohck`, pârkbkh kl hplt`,
t`s d`c lghs ` g`d`s lspug`s`s, huglct` kl pls` klebk` h oh rltlcdbôc,
d`cfusbôc ` fhoth kl dohrbkhk glctho.
[1 Ce Uajv (Dè) — 52/6/85
Tôo` tuvl qul kldbrol ho guck`…
R` sufrçh kl oh lcflrglkhk kl ohs hrtlrbhs d`r`chrbhs klskl 8226 klspuâs
kl nhelr tlcbk` hthquls dhrkçhd`s kl 5-6 glsls kl kbflrlcdbh. O`s gâkbd`s
lsthehc `frldblck` uch dbrumçh kl eyphss phrdbho plr` c` gl d`cvlcdçh p`ro`
qul lstheh eusdhck` lc t`k` p` kl pr`dlkbgblct`s y trhthgblct`s c`
d`cvlcdb`chols. Chkh rlhoglctl gl nbz` slcrgl eblc y t`khvçh tlcçh qul
t`ghr gbs glkbdhglct`s y gb Cbtr` Yhtdn kbhrbh.
Nhdl p`d` gl lcd`ctrâ d`c su s`oudbôc (GGT). Lstheh hrrlmohck` uc
`rklchk`r phrh uc n`gerl ghy`r y glcdb`cô lo GGT. Oolmhg`s h nheohr y
gl kbô uch e`tlooh kl Do`rbt` y uch e`tlooh kl Dçtrbd` y ol pr`gl qul gl khrçh
uch `p`rtucbkhk. Lst`y guy flobz kl nhelro` nldn`. [lcm` qul kldbr, qul pulkl
slr uc p`d` prlghtur` phrh kldbr dblrths d`shs, plr` o` qul sblct` y` c` p`kçh
ghctlclro` dhoohk` p`r ghs lgp`.
[lcçh gblk` ‛phrh slr n`clst`‛, hsç qul lgpldâ d`c gudn` dubkhk`, d`c
sôo` uch m`th dhkh n`rh, plr` c` gès kl > vldls ho kçh. Lct`cdls lgpldâ h t`ghr
5 m`ths dhkh 5 n`rhs gès nhsth > m`ths. Lstheh h puct` kl lgplzhr h t`ghr
gès (klspuâs kl 5 slghchs) duhck` gl lgpldâ h lcd`ctrhr lxdlpdb`choglctl
lxdlpdb`choglctl
gla`r.
Nhy qul lctlcklr qul y` vbvçh d`c uch k`sbs kbhrbh kl hcmbch y k`o`rls
kurhctl hø`s. Y`r ohs c`dnls tlcçh qul lsplrhr h qul gb d`rhzôc sl dhoghrh
o` sudblctl phrh c` qul nbdblrh ld` lc gbs `çk`s y rlkudbr oh vlo`dbkhk phrh
p`klr k`rgbr.
k`rgbr. C` p`kçh dhgbchr gès kl uch duhkrh y glkbh sbc tlclr qul phrhr
y lsplrhr h qul lo k`o`r sl phshrh.
499
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Ylr` hn`rh, klspuâs kl sôo` 5 slghchs, gl lgpldâ h slcr t`thoglctl
kbflrlctl. Rh c` tlcçh cbcmñc p` kl k`o`r. Ho prbcdbpb` c` gl o` p`kçh drllr,
plr` oulm` lgpldâ h p`clrgl h pruleh. Gl musthrçh dhgbchr gès rèpbk` y…
chkh. Gl musthrçh suebr ohs lsdholrhs y… chkh. Lct`cdls d`rrlr lsdholrhs hrrbeh y
CHKH! Tbc k`o`r. R` sheçh qul tlcçh qul p`clrgl lc f`rgh p`rqul gl dhcsheh,
plr` c` nheçh k`o`r. Tôo` nheçh uch mrhc slcshdbôc kl flobdbkhk y gl slch
d`g` duhck` lrh gès a`vlc.
R` sâ qul GGT nbz` lst`. C` nhy chkh gès qul p`krçh nhelr lsthk`
nhdblck` lstl dhgeb` lc gb shouk. Xublr` mrbthrol h t`k` lo guck`. Xublr`
kldbrol h oh mlctl qul gl drlhc y drl` qul c` lst`y trhthck`
trhthck` kl vlcklr chkh.
Kl duhoqublr ghclrh, hmrhklzd` h oh plrs`ch kl oh d`gputhk`rh qul hrrlmoâ
y qul gl kbô oh s`oudbôc gbohmr`sh y ol k`y ohs mrhdbhs h Abg p`r khr d`c lsth
s`oudbôc erboohctl y p`r khroh ho guck` klsbctlrl
klsbctlrlshkhglctl.
shkhglctl.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/dnk-d`r`chry-nlhrt-kbslhsl
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` H
(hghtlur) ` T (slcsbeol) slmñc mrhvlkhk. Tb c` nhy lfldt`s hkvlrs`s pulkl
dhgebhr ho pr`t`d`o` D y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) lc
lo pldn` kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
Bcsufbdblcdbh rlcho (d`cs. ‟Clfrbs‗ y ‟Mo`glruo`clfrbs p`slstrlpt`dôdbdh‗)
Oh bcsudblcdbh rlcho, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh
glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho,
d`cvlcdb`cho, ls oh bcdhphdbkhk kl o`s rbø`cls kl otrhr hklduhkhglctl
ohs t`xbchs y `trhs susthcdbhs kl klsldn` kl oh shcmrl. Duhck` lo otrhk`
mo`glruohr ‛lo otrhk` kl oh shcmrl lc lo rbøôc‛ dhl p`r kleha` klo 5< ho 4<%,
lgpblzhc h huglcthr oh urlh y oh drlhcbch. Duhck` lo otrhk` dhl p`r kleha`
klo 8<% lgpblzhc h hphrldlr o`s sbmc`s klo sçckr`gl urâgbd`.
Tç1
Nbplrtlcsbôc hrtlrbho, pârkbkh kl hplt`, cèuslhs y vôgbt`s, `o`r hg`cbhdho
pr`kudbk` p`r o`s glthe`obt`s cbtr`mlchk`s kl oh shobvh, hclgbh, p`r kâdbt kl
lrbtr`p`ylch, hotlrhdb`cls d`mcbvhs d`g` oh kbduothk phrh d`cdlctrhrsl,
k`o`rls ôsl`s, d`o`r phabz` kl oh pblo, prurbt`s y lc lo n`gerl pr`v`dh
fuckhglcthoglctl bgp`tlcdbh y `obm`splrgbh (kbsgbcudbôc lc pr`kuddbôc kl
lsplrght`z`bkls
lsplrght`z
`bkls y lc oh gualr hotlrhdb`cls lc lo ua` glcstruho d`c frldulctl
hglc`rrlh.
498
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[1 Me N (Y) — 5>/2/8<
Kbèobsbs kurhctl gudn`s hø`s. Nheçh plrkbk` oh lsplrhczh kl rlduplrhdbôc.
Lc < glsls kl trhthgblc
trhthgblct`
t` klaô oh kbèobsbs y ol kblr`c lo hoth.
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/<vN9N]a`CmR
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` H
(hghtlur) y lc huslcdbh kl lfldt`s hkvlrs`s
hkvlrs`s dhgebhr h D (DKT) ` E (eèsbd`)
y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) lc oh z`ch hfldthkh y lo
pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb` kl rlduplrhdbôc.
Bsqulgbh rlplrfusbôc rlcho
Oh bsqulgbh rlplrfusbôc rlcho ls dhush kl bcsudblcdbh rlcho hmukh, qul
ls uch lcflrglkhk kl o`s rbø`cls, glkbhctl oh duho pblrkl rèpbkhglctl su
dhphdbkhk phrh lobgbchr o`s rlsbku`s y hyukhr d`c lo lquboberb` kl o`s oçqubk`s
y loldtr`obt`s lc lo dulrp`. Yulklc `eslrvhrsl gñopols pht`o`mçhs lc ohs qul
lxbsth d`gpr`gbs` klo rblm` shcmuçcl` kl oh hrtlrbh rlcho. Lc oh hdtuhobkhk o`s
trhthgblct`s kl oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho lclc uc rlsuothk` prèddhglctl
cuo`.
Tç1
Nldls d`c shcmrl, gho hoblct`, tlcklcdbh h oh f`rghdbôc kl nlght`ghs,
dhgeb`s lc lo lsthk` glctho ` lc lo lsthk` kl ècbg`, bchpltlcdbh,
bchpltlcdbh, kbsgbcudbôc
lc oh slcsbebobkhk, lspldbhoglctl lc ohs ghc`s ` lc o`s pbls, fhmh, k`o`r kl
d`sthk` (lctrl ohs d`soohs y ohs dhklrhs), tlgeo`r lc oh ghc`, nbplrtlcsbôc
hrtlrbho, she`r gltèobd` lc oh e`dh, cèuslhs ` vôgbt`s qul pulklc kurhr kçhs,
nlg`rrhmbh chsho, nbp` plrsbstlctl.
[1 K. Aâ O Fèz Vèzqz (Gâx) — 55/2/84
‟Yhdblctl d`c pht`o`mçh bsqulgbh rlplrfusbôc rlcho, rlsuotô d`c
hklc`dhrdbc`gh, nlghturbh bctlcsh, k`o`r d`csthctl l bctlcs`, hsç d`g`
puph y dlfholh plrsbtlctl.
Lo trhthgblct` ful1 Yr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 Yr`t`d`o` E): Yr`t`d`o` 4999 lc o`s
rbø`cls (7 Yr`t`d`o` J): < lclghs d`c 49 m`ths hdvhkhs kl GGT lc dhkh
lclgh.
495
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Ulgbsbôc kl oh pht`o`mçh h ohs k`s slghchs y glkbh. Yuk` lvbthr kbèobsbs y/`
`plrhdbôc.
Côtlsl ohs kbglcsb`cls rlchols ho bcbdb` y ho târgbc`, kh uch dohrh pruleh
kl oh dhphdbkhk klo [email protected] lc ohs fucdb`cls rlchols.
Fulctl1 np1//f`rug.ggspr.clt/bcklx.pnp0t7gsm&tn7>5>&m`t`7884>6&
np1//f`rug.ggspr.clt/bcklx.pnp0t7gsm&tn7>5>&m`t`7884>6& #gsmP884>6
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` H
(Hghtlur) y lc huslcdbh kl lfldt`s hkvlrs`s dhgebhr h D (DKT) ` E (eèsbd`)
y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) lc oh z`ch hfldthkh y lo
pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb` kl rlduplrhdbôc.
Olbsnghcbhsbs dutèclh
Oh olbsnghcbhsbs ls uch lcflrglkhk bcflddb`sh dhushkh p`r phrèsbt`s
pr`t`z`hrb`s
pr`t`z
`hrb`s hmlohk`s klo mâclr` Olbsnghcbh qul hfldth h oh pblo y ohs gud`shs,
ho nçmhk` y ho ehz` y h ôrmhc`s nlght`p`yâd`s. Ohs ghcbflsthdb`cls doçcbdhs
kl oh lcflrglkhk vhc klskl ñodlrhs dutèclhs qul dbdhtrbzhc lsp`ctèclhglctl,
nhsth f`rghs fhthols lc ohs duhols sl prlslcth bchghdbôc mrhvl klo nçmhk`
y klo ehz`. Oh lcflrglkhk ls uch z``c`sbs qul hfldth thct` h plrr`s d`g` h
nughc`s.
Tç1
Tl klsdrbelc dbcd` p`s kl olbsnghcbhsbs1
8. Dutèclh doèsbdh1
doèsbd h1 bcbdbhoglctl sl f`rgh uch pèpuoh qul lckl h drldlr,
qul kh oumhr lc k`s h duhtr` slghchs h uc côkuo` bck`o`r` d`c d`strh.
Tb sl bcfldth sl vulovl puruolcth y k`o`r`sh. D`c frldulcdbh sl vlc
hfldthk`s o`s mhcmob`s obcfèd`s.
5. Gbd`dutèclh ` lspuckbh1 Tl prlslcth glsls ` hø`s klspuâs kl qul
oh plrs`ch nhyh phkldbk` oh f`rgh dutèclh doèsbdh, p`r kbslgbchdbôc
kl o`s phrèsbt`s p`r vçh obcfèdh y shcmuçclh, bcvhkblck` ohs gud`shs
kl oh rlmbôc chsho y `r`fhrçcmlh. Cucdh durh lsp`ctèclhglctl y uch
vlz durhkh oh bcflddbôc, lo hfldthk` rlqublrl p`r o` mlclrho kl dbrumçh
rld`cstrudvh.
Ohs klgès f`rghs s`c1
s`c1
4. Dutèclh kbfush, ;. Vbsdlrho y <. Hpbdh dutèclh.
dutèclh.
494
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[1 G Oz E (Yñ)
Elckbdb`cls. Gb c`gerl ls Ghrdlo` O`zhkh Ehrshc. T`y hrmlcc` plr`
rlsbk` lc lo Ylrñ. Hquç lc oh Hghz`cçh y lc o`s tlrrbt`rb`s kl dobgh dèobk` s`c
guy heuckhctls o`s dhs`s kl ‟uth‗1 OLBTNGHCBHTBT D\[ÈCLH, hquç lo slrvbdb`
kl shouk pñeobdh kh o`s glkbdhglct`s phrh trhthr kbdnh pht`o`mçh1 Moudhccl,
uc vlclc` phrh lo sbstlgh lc mlclrho, thct` qul oh mlctl ol lcl tlrr`r h kbdnh
lcflrglkhk, pulst` qul duhck` sl trhth d`c o`s fèrghd`s glcdb`chk`s oh
plrs`ch sl lcvlaldl p`r d`gpolt`, su sbstlgh qulkh t`thoglctl bct`xbdhk`,
sblck` guy heuckhctls o`s dhs`s kl gulrtl klspuâs klo us` kl kbdnh glkbdbch
y lc ohs slovhs kl oh Hghz`cçh ol oohghc1 ‟lo lcvlaldlk`r‗.
R` hkqubrç lsth lcflrglkhk oulm` kl lsthr duovhck` lc oh z`ch kl
Ybood`phth, Yhrqul Chdb`cho Chturho lo Ghcu. Klebk` ho d`c`dbgblct` p`puohr
qul p`sll oh mlctl kl oh rlmbôc lct`rc` ho Moudhccl, kldbkç [email protected] `pthr p`r kbdn`
trhthgblct` d`cvlcdb`cho.
Gl trhtâ d`c GGT — DKT — [email protected], do`rur` kl ghmclsb`1 t`ghs `rhols,
pr`t`d`o` pblo (4.999) (7Yr`t`d`o` J) y ehø`s klt`x lc oh z`ch hfldthkh
høhkblck` sho kl Ghrhs (ghrbch) y nhdblck` oh kblth oberl kl hc`xbkhctls y
pbdhctls, pr`pbh phrh o`s trhthgblct`s d`c [email protected]
Klspuâs kl uc bctlcs` trhthgblct` kl t`ghr dhkh n`rh duhck` lrh GGT
y nhsth dhkh 8< gbcut`s DKT, t`k` lo kçh, hd`gphøhk`s klo [email protected], vb vblck`
uc pr`mrls` olct` qul oulm` sl kbsphrô duhck` nbdl eblc o` kl oh kblth (klaâ
kl d`csugbr vlmlthols frlsd`s, tl, pbdhctls y dñrdugh qul lsthehc bcvhobkhck`
bcvhobkhck`
uc p`d` lo trhthgblct`). H o`s 4 glsls y glkb` kl gb trhthgblct` bctlcs`, GL
D\UÂ [email protected] [email protected][@… Lo phrèsbt` gurbô y Hckrlhs Jhodjlr tuv` oh hghebobkhk
dblcdh kl hd`gphøhr t`kh gb lxplrblcdbh, pulst` qul nhdl phrtl kl lsth
ghrhvboo`sh bcvlsmhdbôc.
Fbm. ;81 Klthools kl oh pblrch
pb lrch kl uc phdblctl, lv`oudbôc kl oh lcflrglkhk y pblrch klo
gbsg` phdblctl trâs glsls klspuâs klo trhthgblct` d`c DKT y [email protected]
49;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Hn`rh fherbd` GGT y d`gphrt` lsth vlrkhk p`r k`qublr hquç lc lo Ylrñ
auct` d`c gb d`gphølrh D`rho, o` ushg`s phrh t`k` lc culstrhs vbkhs y nlg`s
dhgebhk` oh vbkh kl gudnhs plrs`chs qul nhc t`ghk` lo gbsg` dhgbc` phrh
su shchdbôc, phrh oh shchdbôc klskl uch mrbpl sbgpol, nhsth uch lcflrglkhk thc
d`gpolah d`g` oh ‟uth‗.
Lsthg`s hmrhkldbk`s y kbdn`s`s, y kbdnh lcflrglkhk sl d`cvbrô lc o`
qul klel slr t`kh lcflrglkhk1 uch `p`rtucbkhk phrh hprlcklr h shchrc`s h
c`s`tr`s gbsg`s.
[L [email protected] HCKULHT, mrhdbhs p`r nhdlr kl lstl pohclth uc oumhr kl ghy`r
d`cdblcdbh y hg`r, tu bcvlsmhdbôc ls uc olmhk` phrh culstrh lrrh.
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct`
bckbdhk`
lstl dhs`
slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o`
Dd`o`
(DKT)
` E (eèsbd`),
d`gebchro`
d`c lophrh
pr`t`d`o`
K (klrght`oômbd`)
y/` pr`t`d`o`
pr`t`
J
(pblo d`c [email protected]) lc oh z`ch hfldthkh kurhctl
kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
Oludlgbh
Oh oludlgbh lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh
ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho. Lo târgbc` oludlgbh sbmcbdh ‟shcmrl
eohcdh‗. Lc oh oludlgbh, oh shcmrl pr`kudl moôeuo`s eohcd`s hc`rghols, qul sl
kbvbklc rlpr`kudbâck`sl h sç gbsghs, o` qul mlclrh uch pr`obflrhdbôc kl dâouohs
hotlrhkhs qul c` gulrlc duhck` lcvlaldlc ` sl khøhc, p`r o` qul sl hduguohc
y vhc klspohzhck` h ohs dâouohs c`rghols. Lsth kbsgbcudbôc kl dâouohs c`rghols
`dhsb`ch kbduothkls lc lo trhcsp`rtl klo `xçmlc` h o`s tlabk`s, lc oh durhdbôc kl
ohs bcflddb`cls ` lc lo d`ctr`o kl ohs nlg`rrhmbhs.
Tç1
Nhy vhrb`s p`s1
8. Oludlgbh gblo`bkl hmukh1 dhcshcdb`, pârkbkh kl hplt` y kl pls`,
5.
lerl y suk`rls c`dturc`s.
Oludlgbh obcf`dçdh hmukh1 slcshdbôc kl ghrl` ` hturkbgblct`, klebobkhk
y dhcshcdb`, kbduothkls rlspbrht`rbhs,
rlspbrht`rbhs, bcflddb`cls rldurrlctls, f`rghdbôc
kl g`rht`cls fèdboglctl, lerl y shcmrhk` frldulctl ` mrhvl lc chrbz
y lcdçhs. Hklgès kl t`k`s o`s sçct`ghs klsdrbpt`s hctlrb`rglctl, lstl
p` kl oludlgbh pr`v`dh lo hmrhckhgblct` kl o`s mhcmob`s obcfèd`s y
k`o`r ` slcshdbôc kl nbcdnhzôc lst`ghdho.
49<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
@tr`s sçct`ghs1 K`o`r lc o`s nuls`s, hclgbh, phobklz y p`dh t`olrhcdbh
ho lalrdbdb`. Oh rlkuddbôc klo cñglr` kl pohqulths pulklc trhlr
d`csldulcdbhs gès ` glc`s mrhvls d`g` nlg`rrhmbhs lsp`rèkbdhs kl
chrbz, e`dh ` rldt` ` ohs pr`kudbkhs lc lo dlrler`.
[1 Hô (D)
Tl gl kltldth oh lcflrglkhk lc cbvlo ; H (tlrgbcho) lc Kbdblgerl kl 5988.
D`glcdâ d`c lstl trhthgblct` gès ` glc`s lc Herbo kl 5985 (lc oh gbthk klo
trhthgblct` kl qubgb`). D`glcdâ
D`gl cdâ d`c lo GGT y gb dècdlr d`glczô
d`gl czô h klshphrldlr.
klshphrldlr.
Nbdl lo pr`t`d`o` 5999 (7 Yr`t`d`o` E h 89 t`ghs) qul ls t`ghr 89 vldls ho kçh,
o`mrâ t`ghr uc frhsd` d`gpolt` kl GGT y su hdvhk`r. [lcm` lo hoth klo dècdlr
lc Auob` kl 5985.
Gl hdhe` kl nhdlr lxèglcls lc ghrz` 59841 ‟R RH [email protected] [[email protected] CHKH‗…
Fulctl1 np1//ggsdnbol.cbcm.d`g
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct`
trhthgblct` bckbdhk` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) ` [ (tlrgbcho) duhck`
lstè guy mrhvl. Lc cbø`s ohs dhckhkls klelc slr glc`rls y hkhpthkhs h
oh lkhk.
Obqulc lsdolr`s` htrôfbd`
Lo obqulc lsdolr`s` htrôd`, lcflrglkhk
lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho ls uch lcflrglkhk bchght`rbh
drôcbdh kl oh pblo (klrghs) y qul sl dhrhdtlrbzh p`r oh prlslcdbh kl pohdhs
eohckhs htrôdhs, qul hfldth fuckhglcthoglctl
fuckhglcthoglctl h gualrls p`stglc`pèusbdhs.
Yulklc lxbsr olsb`cls lxtrhmlcbthols, plr` oh ghy`rçh hphrldlc lc oh z`ch
mlcbtho.
Tç1
Ho d`gblcz` kl oh lcflrglkhk hphrldlc plquløhs ghcdnhs eohcdhs lc oh
pblo, qul sulolc slr obshs y erboo`shs, oulm` oh pblo hfldthkh sl hrrumh y sl vulovl
ch, phrh hmrblthrsl d`c fhdbobkhk, y ls d`gñc qul shomhc g`rlt`cls r`a`s `
g`rhk`s. Homuchs vldls hphrldlc dbdhtrbdls lc oh pblo. @tr`s sçct`ghs s`c1
pbdhzôc, g`olsh ` k`o`r, shcmrhk` y hgp`oohs.
496
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1 H [a (De) — 6/6/8<
Eulc`s kçhs, Hckrlhs, d`g` tl kbal lc uc d`rrl` hctlrb`r lstheh lsplrhck`
oh d`crghdbôc klo gâkbd` uc mbcldôo`m` `cdôo`m`, s`erl gb durhdbôc klo
OBX\LC [email protected] [email protected]@ R H[UÔ[email protected], qublc gl o` kba` hylr. Lcflrglkhk qul
phkldç kurhctl 8< hø`s, ‟bcdurheol‗ phrh o`s < mbcldôo`m`s y 4 klrghtôo`m`s
qul gl trhthr`c, hklgès kl lsthr 5 hø`s s`glkh h tlrhpbh clurho dhkh 8<
kçhs, sbc rlsuothk`s.
Klslsplrhkh d`c oh lcflrglkhk p`rqul o`s sçct`ghs s`c guy g`olst`s1
lsd`z`r lc o`s mlcbthols, kl tho ghmcbtuk, qul c` p`kçh ushr lc oh c`dnl, cb
sbqublrh oh r`ph bctlrb`r. Bcvlsmuâ lc bctlrclt d`c lo gbsg` pr`côsd`1
‟BCD\UHEOL‗,, nhsth qul gl lcd`ctrâ d`c lo GGT y HCKULHT
‟BCD\UHEOL‗
H CKULHT JHODJLU y kldbkç
lcshyhr. Tl o` kbal ho gâkbd` y nhsth sl g`olstô, plr` slmuç hklohctl d`c t`khs
ohs rld`glckhdb`cls, klsphrhsbthdbôc
klsphrhsbthdbôc y t`gh klo GGT, qul sl gl nh kbduothk`
p`r su she`r.
Gl shcâ d`c lo GGT bcdouylck` oh klsphrhsbthdbôc (Yhg`ht` kl Ybrhctlo,
Glelckhz`o y hdlbtl kl Ubdbc`, gès 4 lclghs, rlpblck` ho gls y h o`s 5 glsls
Glelckhz`o
lc oh âp`dh kl ouch oolch).
Lgpldâ h ushr lo GGT lc aucb` klo 598;, 4 m`ths 4 vldls p`r kçh kurhctl 8
gls. Oulm` rlpl h o`s 4 glsls y h o`s < glsls, plr`, klskl lo prbglr kçh lgpldâ
h ushr lo TYUHR (< m`ths lc 59 dgs kl hmuh, gès 8 pbzdh kl ebdhre`cht`) t`k`s
o`s kçhs, klspuâs kl shobr klo ehø` y hñc o` us` hsç lc t`k` lo dulrp` nhdblck`
âcfhsbs lc lo `geobm`. Hklgès ls gb lcauhmul eudho klspuâs klo dlpboohk`.
Lcauhmul qul kl vlz lc duhck` gl t`g`, p`rqul rlpbt` sl gl kbduoth p`r lo
she`r.
Hckrlhs h , h Abg y h t`k`s o`s kl Mâclsbs BB Dnurdn, gbo mrhdbhs. Lsplr` qul
sbmhc hklohctl
hklohctl h plshr kl t`khs ohs plrsldudb`cls.
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
C  1
Hucqul lo ebdhre`cht` bcdrlglcth lo pN lc lo DK (GGT), rlkudl lfldvbkhk
y ls prlfl
prlflrbeol
rbeol uobzhr DKT kl ghclrh kbrldth.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o`
D (DKT) ` E (eèsbd`) y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` K (klrght`oômbd`) lc
oh z`ch hfldthkh kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`. Klspuâs sl klel hpobdhr lo
pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s).
49=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Obcf`gh
Lo obcf`gh ls uch pr`obflrhdbôc kl obcf`dbt`s (dâouohs klflcsbvhs klo sbstlgh
bcguthrb`) p`r o` mlclrho klctr` kl o`s côkuo`s ` mhcmob`s obcfèd`s, plr` qul
h vldls hfldth thgebâc h ôrmhc`s d`g` lo tlabk` ` lo ehz`. Ls uc dècdlr qul sl
`rbmbch lc lo tlabk` obcfèd`. Kurhctl oh lcflrglkhk, lo sbstlgh bcgucbthrb` kl
oh plrs`ch hfldthkh sl klebobth.
Tç1
Tl prlslcthc d`g` mhcmob`s obcfèd`s huglcthk`s qul s`c phopheols
duhck` hphrldlc lc z`chs hddlsbeols d`g` lo duloo`, ohs hxbohs ` ohs bcmols. O`s
euot`s p`krçhc c` slr k`o`r`s`s y phshr klshplrdbebk`s sb hphrldlc lc z`chs
glc`s hddlsbeols d`g` hek`glc, glkbhsc`, ltd.
@tr`s sçct`ghs s`c1 lerl suplrb`r h 4> ±D, suk`rhdbôc c`dturch pr`fush
nhsth oolmhr h lgphphr oh r`ph y pârkbkh bclxpobdheol kl pls`. Tb sl nh vbst`
hfldthkhh oh gâkuoh ôslh, pulkl pr`kudbr hclgbh.
hfldthk
[1 Ue Hv (H)
N`oh gb c`gerl ls U`e. Fub kbhmc`sdhk` d`c obcf`gh f`obduohr c` N`kmjbc
nhdl duhtr` hø`s, y gl hdhe` kl lctlrhr klo GGT y ol lst`y khck` uch
`p`rtucbkhk.
O`s rlsuothk`s hñc c` lstèc, plr` s`y guy p`sbv`: sbc lgehrm` nl tlcbk`
uc pr`eolgh drôcbd` lc lo n`ger` / lsphokh lc o`s ñog`s trlbcth hø`s, tlcm`
;2 p`r dblrt`. Kl t`k`s g`k`s nl lsthk` d`c GGT kurhctl uch slghch y lo
k`o`r
gb èrlh
klo n`ger`/lsphokh
Tb ls lo
lfldt`lc
pohdle`
c` lst`y
slmur`, plr` gb nh
Kb`skbsgbcubk`
ls eulc` yc`theolglctl.
yh c` tlcm` k`o`r.
Fulctl1 ggsgbclrhogbrhdol.eo`msp`t.d`g.ls/5988/9</tlsg`cbhos.ntgo
[rhthgblct`1
Lo trhthgblct` bckbdhk` slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` D(DKT) ` [ (tlrgbcho) duhck`
lstè guy mrhvl, y d`gebchro` d`c J (pblo d`c [email protected]) lc oh z`ch hfldthkh y lo
pr`t`d`o` L (lclgh) kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb` kl rlduplrhdbôc.
49>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Oupus (lrbtlght
(lr btlght`s`)
`s`)
Lo oupus ls uch lcflrglkhk ‟supulsthglctl‗ hut`bcgucl kl dhush
klsd`c`dbkh p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho lc oh qul lo sbstlgh bcgucbthrb` sl
hfldth y hthdh h ohs dâouohs kl tlabk`s shc`s, pukblck` khøhr phrtls klo dulrp`
d`g`1 hrduohdb`cls, pblo, rbø`cls, puog`cls, vhs`s shcmuçcl`s ` dlrler`.
Tç1
Tlmñc lo ôrmhc` qul hfldtlc pulklc prlslcthr uch vhrblkhk kl sçct`ghs1
k`o`r l bchghdbôc kl ohs hrduohdb`cls, k`o`r gusduohr, lerl bclxpobdheol,
shrpuoobk` lcr`aldbk` (h glcuk` lc oh dhrh), k`o`r kl pldn` ho rlspbrhr
pr`fuckhglctl, pârkbkh kl dheloo`, klk`s kl ohs ghc`s ` kl o`s pbls pèobk`s
` g`rhk`s, slcsbebobkhk ho s`o, nbcdnhzôc lc ohs pblrchs ` horlklk`r kl o`s
`a`s, ñodlrhs lc oh e`dh, nbcdnhzôc kl ohs moèckuohs, dhcshcdb`. [hgebâc pulkl
pr`v`dhr hclgbh, d`cfusbôc y/` d`cvuosb`cls.
[1 M V Uçz (Lø) — 89/;/86
Kbhmc`sdhk` y d`ctr`ohk` klskl o`s 85 hø`s d`g` lcflrg` drôcbd`
hfldthk` p`r O.L.T. (Oupus Lrbtlght`s` Tbstâgbd`), slmubk` y d`ctr`ohk` klskl
lo kbhmcôsd` lc lo lqubp` gâkbd` (slrvbdb`s kl Ulught`o`mçh, Clfr`o`mçh y
Nlght`o`mçh) klo N`spbtho \cbvlrsbthrb` 85 kl @dtuerl kl Ghkrbk.
H phrr kl 82>>, lo d`ctr`o phsh ho N`spbtho Mlclrho \cbvlrsbthrb` kl
Hobdhctl y o`s klphrthglct
klphrthglct`s
`s d`rrlsp`ckblctls. Tlmñc gbs bcf`rgls nbstôrbd`s,
gb lcflrglkhk ls nlrlkhkh kl gb ghkrl y, hphrtl kl gç, oh phkldlc gbs trls
nlrghchs. T`o` sl nh oberhk` gb nlrghc`.
Lc gb dhs` d`cdrlt`, prlk`gbchc o`s lpbs`kb`s kl hclgbh nlg`oçdh
hut`bcgucl, d`c uch bcsudblcdbh ` olsbôc rlcho pr`kudbkh p`r oh lcflrglkh
lcflrglkhk.
k.
Lc prbcdbpb` lo trhthgblct` ful h ehsl kl d`rd`bkls (kurhctl t`k`s o`s hø`s
y lc kbflrlctls k`sbdhdb`cls nhsth lo 5996), d`gpolglcthk` d`c kburâd`s
(bs`kbur <), d`ctr`ohk`rls kl oh tlcsbôc hrtlrbho (hpr`vlo 8<9), bcguc`suprls`rls
(Dloo Dlpt <99), dhodb` d`c vbthgbch K (Bkl`s), pr`tldt`rls mèstrbd`s (`glprhz`o)
(`glprhz`o)
y hcphoñkbd`s (K`oqubcl 599).
Lc o`s ñog`s hø`s d`gblczhc h hphrldlr sçct`ghs kl plquløhs drçsbs
lpboâpdhs (huslcdbhs) ho phrldlr pr`kudbkhs p`r o`s hcdulrp`shcf
hcdulrp`shcf`sf`oçpb
`sf`oçpbk`s
k`s
qul mlclrh gb lcflrglkhk y qul s`c d`ctrhrrlsthkhs d`c hcd`hmuohdbôc
(TBC[[email protected]) y hclpboâpd`
hclpboâpd`ss (Jlpprh 8999).
Gl phshc h d`ctr`ohr o`s klphrthglct`s kl d`ctr`o kl d`hmuohdbôc y
clur`o`mçh.
Hphrâctlglctl lst`y ‟Eblc Ghctlcbk`‗.
492
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
H phrr kl d`gblcz`s klo 598;, lgpblz` h eusdhr homuch s`oudbôc kbscth phrh
trhthr gbs ghols sbc thct`s lfldt`s slduckhrb`s y thct` d`ckbdb`chgblct` lc gb vbkh
kbhrbh.
D`c`zd` lo GGT y su klrbvhdbôc DKT. Eèsbdhglctl1 Kbôxbk` kl do`r` lc
kbflrlctls
kbflrlc
tls k`sbdhdb`cls.
[rhs uc`s glsls kl ‟rldhphdbthr‗, y d`bcdbkblck` d`c oh ñogh rlvbsbôc
slglstrho kl UL\GH[@[email protected] kl 598; (prbcdbpb` kl Kbdblgerl), kldbk`
d`glczhr h rlstrbcmbr ohs k`sbdhdb`cls kl t`kh gb glkbdhdbôc y d`gblcz` gb
prbglr dbdo` kl trls slghchs d`c DKT pr`t`d`o` 898) + uch slghch kl klsdhcs`
+ trls slghchs gès.
Yr`sbm` d`c gbshchoçdhs ‟c`rghols‗. Kla` kl d`ctr`ohrgl oh d`hmuohdbôc
(d`g` ls `evb`) y kldbk` c` nhdlr gès dbdo`s kl DKT hctl o`s p`sbeols lfldt`s
kl ‟lfldt`
‟lfldt` rle`tl‗ qul p`krçhc `dhsb`chr `tr`s dbdo`s d`cslduv`s.
Lc Aucb` kl 598< phs` gb rlvbsbôc slglstrho kl rlught`o`mçh sbc glkbdhdbôc
d`c kht`s hchoçd`s sbgbohrls h o`s hctlrb`rls. Oh rlvbsbôc kl kbdblgerl kl
598< vulovl h phshr o` gbsg`. Ulsuothk`s kl gbs hchoçdhs sbgbohrls h o`s hø`s
hctlrb`rls. Tl kltldth oh fhoth kl us` kl oh thralth shcbthrbh lc oh hkqubsbdbôc kl
ohs glkbdhdb`cls prlsdrbths p`r phrtl klo rlughtôo`m`.
Lc lst`s g`glct`s oolv` 86 glsls sbc glkbdhdbôc hucqul sbm` homuc`s
trhthgblct`s
trhthgblc
t`s hotlrchv`s qul d`csbklr` nhc sustubk` h o`s fèrghd`s.
O` qul gès gl dulsth ls d`ctr`ohr oh tlcsbôc hrtlrbho hucqul oh lst`y
ghctlcblck` ehsthctl eblc h ehsl kl t`tlrhpbh y uchs dubkhkhs phuths
hobglcdbhs.
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` H
(hghtlur) kurhctl
kurhctl 8 slghch y slmubr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) ` E (eèsbd`),
d`g` hotlrchvh, kurhctl 4 slghchs y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` L
(lclgh) dhkh 4 kçhs. Nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o` K (klrght`oômbd`), lc dhs` kl
pr`eolghs kl pblo, y thgebâc lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
Ghohrbh
Oh ghohrbh
` phoukbsg`,
lcflrglkhk
sbcpr`kudbkh
s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh
ldhz
p`r oh
glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho,
ls uch
lcflrglkhk
p`r lo phrèsbt`
ucbdlouohr
Yohsg`kbug, qul sl trhcsgbtl h trhvâs
trhvâs kl oh pbdhkurh kl g`squbt`s nlgerh klo
mâclr` Hc`pnlols, Lo phtômlc` sl guopobdh lc lo nçmhk` l bcfldth o`s moôeuo`s
489
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
r`a`s kl oh plrs`ch. Tb c` sl trhth, lo phoukbsg` p`cl lc plobmr` oh vbkh klo
phdblctl rèpbkhglctl
rèpbkhglctl puls hotlrh lo hp`rtl kl shcmrl h o`s ôrmhc`s vbthols.
Ls oh prbglrh lcflrglkhk kl bgp`rthcdbh lctrl ohs lcflrglkhkls
klebobthctls.
klebobthct
ls. Lctrl =99.999 y 5,= gboo`cls kl plrs`chs gulrlc ho hø` p`r dhush
kl oh ghohrbh, kl o`s duhols gès klo =< % s`c cbø`s lc z`chs lckâgbdhs kl
Èfrbdh. Hsbgbsg`, dhush uc`s ;99-299 gboo`cls kl dhs`s kl lerl hmukh ho hø`
lc oh p`eohdbôc bcfhco (glc`rls kl dbcd` hø`s) lc kbdnhs z`chs y ls uch kl ohs
lcflrglkhkls
lcflrglkhk
ls gès hcmuhs.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs s`c1 lerl, lsdho`frç`s, suk`rhdbôc y k`o`r kl dhelzh
dhelzh.. Hklgès
sl pulklc prlslcthr cèuslhs, vôgbt`s, sçct`ghs mrbphols, t`s, nldls d`c shcmrl,
k`o`rls gusduohrls, bdtlrbdbh, klfldt`s kl oh d`hmuohdbôc shcmuçclh, sn`dj,
bcsudblcdbh rlcho ` nlpèdh, trhst`rc`s klo sbstlgh clrvb`s` dlctrho y d`gh.
[1 K. A E (B) — 4/88/85
T`y gâkbd` y kldbkç br h Mhgebh phrh hyukhr h o`s p`erls d`c lo pr`eolgh
kl oh ghohrbh qul lstè ghthck` h 8 cbø` dhkh gbcut`.
Nl lcd`ctrhk` uc rlglkb` guy sbgpol qul hyukh y c` ls chkh gès qul
uch sho d`c aum` kl obgôc. Oh sho lcl uc rhkbdho kl `xçmlc` lxtrh y sl oohgh
[email protected]
Fub shcdb`chk` p`r lo m`eblrc` kl Mhgebh duhck` lstheh hyukhck` h o`s
p`erls p`rqul sheçhc qul fucdb`cheh. [rhehaâ d`c uc gâkbd` brohckâs qul trhth
oh
d ulsth
dulsth
lo lqubvholctl
lqubvholc
kl 8looberh
p`r trhthgbl
trhthgblct`.
ct`. Âohoo`s
lcvçh h dhsh
sbcghohrbh,
lerl hols
phshr
oh c`dnl.
Hrghtlqul
trhthgblct`
trhthgblc
t` ls ldhz
899%.
[rhcsdrbpdbôc klo vbkl`1
Johhs Yr`lsghcs (Kbrldt`r
(Kb rldt`r ]htlr Ulflrlcdl
Ulflrlcdl Dlctlr, Druz U`ah bctlrchdb`cho).
bctlrchdb`c ho).
‟C`s oolmhr`c uc cñglr` kl culvhs tldc`o`mçhs guy bctlrlshc
bctlrlshctls,
tls, sblgprl
klctr` klo dhgp` klo hmuh, shouk, lclrmçh, c`s nlg`s druzhk` d`c uc sbstlgh
kl purbdhdbôc kl hmuh qul lxbstl yh p`r gès kl 899 hø`s ehshk` lc lo do`rbt`
kl s`kb` (GGT).
Ohs prbglrhs rlflrlcdbhs klo us` klo doôrbt` kl s`kb` ful lc Fohckls qubzès
hehø`
59 jg
kl gbhctls
dbukhk
lc @stlck,
k`ckl
nhy uc`s
ehø`s tlrghols.
Lc lstl
tlrgho
klchtho
oh Yrbglrh
Mulrrh
Guckbho
(828;-828>)
fulr`c dhphdls
kl hyukhr mlctl d`c pr`eolghs kl pblo y lc bcflddb`cls glc`rls sblgprl d`c oh
hyukh klo do`rbt` kl s`kb`. Tl nh kbdn` y lsdrbt` qul ushck` do`rbt` kl s`kb` sl
488
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
obgpbh lo dulrp` klo phrèsbt` kl oh ghohrbh lctrl uch h duhtr` n`rhs. Lst` phrldl
klghsbhk` e`cbt` phrh slr dblrt`,
d blrt`, sbc lgehrm` vhg`s h bcvlsmhro`.
H trhvâs kl culstrh rlk (yh qul s`g`s uch obho kl oh Druz U`ah Bctlrchdb`cho),
d`cthdthg`s d`c cñglr`s kl s`dblkhkls chdb`chols k`ckl nhy prlslcdbh kl
ghohrbh. \ch kl loohs lrh \mhckh. Nlg`s d`cthdthk` d`c lo sldrlthrb` mlclrho
kl oh s`dblkhk chdb`cho ol nlg`s lxpobdhk` duhols nhc sbk` ohs bctlcdb`cls y
nlg`s vlcbk` hquç phrh hvlrbmuhr lc klthool d`g` nhdlr lcshy`s doçcbd`s kl
dhgp` y kl quâ ghclrh kleçhg`s pr`dlklr.
Nlg`s vbsbthk` oh hmlcdbh chdb`cho kl glkbdhglct`s, lo gbcbstr` kl shouk,
y t`kh oh mlctl qul lstè bcv`oudrhkh lc oh shouk pñeobdh y oh purbdhdbôc kl
hmuh. Nlg`s p`kbk` bklcdhr uc puleo`, kl nldn` ls oh s`dblkhk chdb`cho
qul nh bklcdhk` lo puleo`, c` tlclg`s chkh qul vlr d`c lo y loo`s lobmblr`c
\mhckh. Ful lolmbk` p`r oh T`dblkhk Druz U`ah p`r k`s rhz`cls1 uc` p`rqul
ohs hut`rbkhkls chdb`chols uobzhc lo do`rbt` kl s`kb` phrh p`thebobzhr lo hmuh,
qul ls lxhdthglctl o` gbsg` qul uobzhrh lo ]UD, oh slmuckh rhzôc ls p`rqul
nhy pr`mrhghs d`csthctls kl p`thebobzhdbôc klo hmuh lc lstl èrlh qul ls guy
d`cvlcblctl phrh ]UD, p`rqul hdtuhoglctl o` qul qulrlg`s d`cslmubr lstl
gls kl kbdblgerl ls hvlrbmuhr lo lfldt` qul lcl lo do`rbt` kl s`kb` lc lo
dulrp` nughc` klspuâs kl nhelr `frldbk` uc vhs` d`c hmuh.
Nlg`s lgplzhck` g`vbobzhck` oh p`eohdbôc uobzhck` oh d``plrhdbôc kl
oh s`dblkhk chdb`cho, gudn`s v`oucthrb`s fulr`c d`c sus ebdbdolths, g`t`s `
d`dnls, duhoqublr glkb` p`sbeol, t`k`s lsthehc lc oh dhool. Lo prbglr kçh kl oh
`plrhdbôc nlg`s tlcbk` 865 phdblctls kl t`k`s o`s puleo`s kl horlklk`r y s`o`
nlg`s p`kbk` bklcdhr dbcd` plrs`chs d`c ghohrbh.
Nhdlg`s uc plqulø` tlst kl shcmrl d`c uc plqulø` pbcdnhz`, sl p`cl
lcdbgh uch rh kl uc tlst rèpbk` kl ghohrbh.
O`s qul s`c p`sbv`s o`s ghckhg`s ho ohe`rht`rb` phrh nhdlr uc hcèobsbs h
f`ck` d`c lo gbdr`sd`pb`.
H hquloo`s ols `frldlg`s uc vhs` klo hmuh purbdhk` kl oh gbsgh ghclrh
d`g` o` nhdlc ohs hut`rbkhkls chdb`chols y ols plkbg`s qul vulovhc lo kçh
sbmublctl phrh nhdlr uc `tr` dnlqul`.
Lo kçh sbmublctl kl pr`ct` p`r oh ghøhch nheçhc oolmhk` ho n`spbtho yh 599
phdblctls culv`s auct` d`c o`s dbcd` klo kçh hctlrb`r. Kl o`s < klo kçh hctlrb`r,
; fulr`c bklcdhk`s clmhv`s kl ghohrbh, uc` t`khvçh tlcbh lo phrèsbt` kl oh
ghohrbh y lstl sualt`, sl oohgheh Bshhd, lstheh lc thc ghohs d`ckbdb`cls qul y`
kldbkç khrol s`o` oh gbthk kl oh k`sbs. y lct`cdls ol kbg`s uch k`sbs d`gpolth,
lo kçh sbmublctl duhck` v`ovbô lo 8= kl kbdblgerl thgebâc Bshhd lstheh oberl kl
ghohrbh.
Dhkh kçh tlcçhg`s lctrl 8<9 y 599 plrs`chs kçh trhs kçh, lc t`tho nlg`s
bklcdhk` 8<; phdblctls p`sbv`s kl ghohrbh lc d`cauct` d`c ohs hut`rbkhkls
485
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
o`dhols kl shouk y o`s k`dt`rls, t`k`s loo`s fulr`c trhthk`s, t`k`s loo`s lsthehc
lctrl 5; y ;> n`rhs clmhv`s kl ghohrbh, ¡sbc cbcmñc lfldt` slduckhrb`!
Nlg`s dlrrhk` oh `plrhdbôc ehsthctl eblc y phrh rlp`rthr ho sldrlthrb`
mlclrho hquç lc oh s`dblkhk kl oh druz r`ah lc \mhckh y rlp`rthr thgebâc ho ]UD
s`erl lo rlsuothk` kl lsth pruleh doçcbdh bc sbtu. V`ovlg`s lc lclr` phrh p`klr
hslmurhr oh d`ccubkhk.
Hn`rh lc t`tho nhy uc 899% kl ohs plrs`chs durhkhs lc dbcd` kçhs t`k`
lctrl 5; y ;> n`rhs, lst` pbkl qul nhyh ghs bcvlsmhdbôc.
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/f9u>qdnMXdw
[rhthgblct`1
H) Ghohrbh pr`t`d`o` rèpbk`
Tb
lo phdblctl
c` lstèslphrhkhs
guy gho1p`r 4 n`rhs.
[`ghr
5 k`sbshkuot`
kl 8< m`ths,
Lst` klelrçh slr sudblctl. Tb c`, ho `tr` kçh t`ghr 8 k`sbs gès kl 8<
m`ths.
E) Ghohrbh pr`t`d`o` suhvl
Tb lo phdblctl hkuot` lstè guy klebobthk`1
• > m`ths kl DK lc oh 8ª t`gh
• < m`ths kl DK lc oh 5ª n`rh (klskl oh 8ª t`gh)
• < m`ths kl DK lc oh ;ª n`rh (klskl oh 8ªt`gh)
• 6 m`ths kl DK lc oh 6ª n`rh (klskl oh 8ªt`gh)
• > m`ths kl DK lc oh >ª n`rh (klskl oh 8ªt`gh)
• > m`ths kl DK … Ho k`rgbr
[`tho klo kçh1 ;9 m`ths
Oh ghohrbh klel klshphrldlr.
Lc dhs`s lxdlpdb`chols,
lxdlpdb`chols, t`ghr 8 t`gh gès kl 89 m`ths.
Yhrh eleâs1 ; t`ghs kbhrbhs kl 8 m`th dhkh 4 n`rhs. Huglcthr h 5 m`ths sb
ls cldlshrb`.
Yhrh cbø`s1 < t`ghs kbhrbhs kl 8 m`th dhkh 5 n`rhs. Y`r dhkh 88 jm kl pls`.
Hkgbcbstrhr
Hkgbcbstr
hr p`r 5 kçhs.
(Uld`mbk`
(Uld`mb
k` klo bcf`rgl kl Hofrlk`)
484
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
C  1
Lxbstl uch `pbcbôc qul lo DKT c` fucdb`ch phrh ghohrbh, d`sh qul c` ls
dblrth. Kl nldn` Gutur`u Bsnbb (Ahp`c) nh p`kbk` d`gpr`ehr lc Hfrbdh qul uc
pr`t`d`o` kl 59   DKT  499 go kl hmuh dhkh n`rh kurhctl 4  (4
1 8  )   .
. Tl pulkl rlplr ho kçh sbmublctl.
Oh vlcthah klo DKT ls qul sl pulklc t`ghr k`sbs ghs hoths sbc lfldt`s
slduckhrb`s cb kbhrrlh. Oh klsvlcthah ls qul ls slcsbeol ho s`o y ho dho`r uch vlz
heblrth oh e`tlooh.
Glcbcmbtbs
Oh glcbcmbs pulkl slr vbrho ` ehdtlrbhch.
Glcbcmbs vbrho1 uch bcflddbôc klo sbstlgh clrvb`s` dlctrho, dhrhdtlrbzhkh
p`r oh bchghdbôc kl ohs glgerhchs qul duerlc lo dlrler` y oh gâkuoh lspbcho.
Lo >9% kl ohs glcbcmbs lstèc dhushkhs p`r vbrus, lctrl lo 8< y lo 59% p`r
ehdtlrbhs, lo rlst` lstè `rbmbchkh p`r bct`xbdhdb`cls, n`cm`s, glkbdhglct`s
y `trhs lcflrglkhkls. Oh glcbcmbs ls p`d` frldulctl plr` p`tlcdbhoglctl
oltho. Tb sl d`gpobdh, pulkl hfldthr ho dlrler` `dhsb`chck` bcd`csdblcdbh, olsbôc
dlrlerho y kl `tr`s ôrmhc`s. Yr`mrlsh d`c gudnh rhpbklz, p`r o` qul lo kbhmcôsd`
y trhthgblct` prld`z ls bgp`rthctl phrh prlvlcbr sldulohs slvlrhs y oh gulrtl.
Ls uch lcflrglkhk sbc trhthgblct` p`r phrtl kl oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho.
Glcbcmbs ehdtlrbhch1 oh glcbcmbs ehdtlrbhch ls uch lglrmlcdbh y sl
rlqublrl trhthgblct` urmlctl lc lo n`spbtho. O`s sçct`ghs s`c, p`r o` mlclrho,
lerl y lsdho`frç`s, dhgeb`s lc lo lsthk` glctho,
glctho, cèuslhs y vôgbt`s, slcsbebobkhk
hf`cthclohs
oh ouz, k`o`r
kl dhelzh
bctlcs`
y duloo`
rçmbk`.rèpbkh
Yulklc
s`erlvlcbr lc
hmbthdbôc,
heuothkhs
lc o`s
eleâs,
rlspbrhdbôc
l brrbthebobkhk
cbø`s y
p`sturh bcusuho d`c oh dhelzh y lo duloo` hrqulhk`s nhdbh htrès.
Oh glcbcmbs vbrho prlslcth uch doçcbdh gès olvl qul oh ehdtlrbhch, dursh
c`rghoglctl d`c k`o`r kl dhelzh, plr` s`c pr`dls`s elcbmc`s sbc d`gpobdhdb`cls y
lo trhthgblct` sl obgbth h hobvbhr o`s sçct`ghs klo phdblctl. Tbc lgehrm` oh glcbcmbs
dhushkh p`r lo vbrus klo nlrpls sbgpol klel rldbebr uch htlcdbôc lspldbho, pulst`
qul sb sl d`gpobdh d`c lcdlfhobs, pulkl pr`v`dhr hotlrhdb`cls clur`oômbdhs
bgp`rthctls l brrlvlrsbeols.
[1 H U (LL. \\.) — 2/6/85
2/6/85
N`oh Tr. Nugeol,
Lgpldâ d`c GGT nhdl < kçhs. Nheçh d`ctrhçk` glcbcmbs vbrho, qul c` sl
pulkl trhthr p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho.
48;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[uvl uc p`d` kl cèuslh lo prbglr kçh y d`c uc t`qul kl kbhrrlh. Y`r lo
tlrdlr kçh t`k`s gbs sçct`ghs nheçhc klshphrldbk` y c` nhc rlmrlshk`.
C` phrldl nhelr uc lfldt` slduckhrb` hkbdb`cho. Nl sufrbk` d`c ps`rbhsbs lc
ohs r`kboohs y o`s d`k`s kurhctl trlbcth hø`s. [`khvçh nhy hom` kl lcr`aldbgblct`,
plr` t`khs ohs lsdhrhs sl nhc bk`. Mrhdbhs.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/vbrho-bcfld`c0sthrt789
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lsth lcflrglkhk slrçh lo pr`t`d`o` \
(urmlcdbh) slmubk` p`r lo pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`) ` D (DKT) d`g` hotlrchvh lc
d`cauct` d`c lo pr`t`d`o`
pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]) lc oh z`ch kl oh cudh.
Lc dhs` guy mrhvl sl pulkl d`csbklrhr lo pr`t`d`o` R (bcylddbôc
bctrhvlc`sh)
bctrhv
lc`sh) rlhobzhk` p`r uc pr`flsb`cho kl glkbdbch.
Glthols
Glt
hols plshk`s
Ohs fulctls prbcdbphols kl glthols plshk`s ohs lcd`ctrhg`s prbcdbphoglctl
prbcdbphoglctl
lc o`s lgphstls klcthols hcmu`s kl hghomhgh, o`s bcslddbkhs (qul d`clclc
c`rghoglctl uc` ` k`s glthols plshk`s, uobzhk`s lc o`s dhgp`s kl
duov`), lc o`s pr`kudt`s hc g`n` qul d`clclc glr`sho, glkbdhglct`s
(lspldbhoglctl o`s qul rlmuohc oh hoth prlsbôc shcmuçclh y s`erl t`k` lc ohs
vhduch d`g` oh trbpol vçrbdh, p`obvholctl y tâthc`s, y lo hbrl d`cthgbchk` p`r oh
bckustrbh.
[hgebâc ls p`sbeol oh d`cthgbchdbôc klo eleâ h trhvâs kl oh oldnl ghtlrch.
Glkbhctl lstl pr`dls` oh ghkrl pulkl trhsphshr uc hot` p`rdlcthal kl su dhrmh
ho cbø`.
Lo glrdurb` ls uc` kl o`s glthols qul dhush ghy`rls pr`eolghs kl
bct`xbdhdbôc
bct`xb
dhdbôc klebk` h sus dhrhdtlrçsdh
dhrhdtlrçsdhs.
s. Ohs prbcdbphols vçhs kl hes`rdbôc kl o`s
d`gpulst`s glrdurbhols s`c oh rlspbrht`rbh, kbmlsvh, dutèclh y trhcspohdlct
trhcspohdlcthrbh.
hrbh.
O`s vhp`rls kl glrdurb` htrhvblshc fèdboglctl ohs glgerhchs dlouohrls,
hodhczhck` d`c rhpbklz lo t`rrlctl dbrduoht`rb` y lo sbstlgh clrvb`s` k`ckl
htrhl lc lo M[Y (Muhc`sçc trbf`sfht`) kl o`s hx`cls klaèck`ohs klsgblobcbzhkhs
(d`g` uc dheol plohk` klo hbsohgblct`).
Durb`shglctl ho d`ctrhrb` qul gudnh mlctl pblcsh lo glrdurb` gltèobd`
prèddhglctl c` sl hes`rel p`r vçh kbmlsvh gblctrhs qul `tr`s d`gpulst`s
glrdurbhols sç sl hes`relc p`r vçh `rho. Lo pr`eolgh prbcdbpho s`c o`s
d`gpulst`s glrdurbhols qul htrhvblshc oh ehrrlrh pohdlcthrbh, lcd`ctrèck`sl
d`cdlctrhdb`cls sbgbohrls kl glrdurb` lc shcmrl ghtlrch y lc lo d`rkôc
48<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
ugebobdho. Ho gbsg` lgp` sl nhc klsdrbt` dhs`s kl hes`rdbôc kl glrdurb`
p`r vçh phrlctlrho, bcdous` d`c rlflrlcdbhs kl dhs`s g`rthols, klebk` h uc
lge`obsg` puog`chr. Yrbcdbphoglctl sl hoghdlch lc lo nçmhk`, o`s rbø`cls
y ohs lstrudturhs clrvb`shs klebk` h qul ls uc p`tlctl dhôc. Tl nh p`kbk`
`eslrvhr qul bcdous` lc dhckhkls gçcbghs d`g` lo 9,99999998%, hfldth ho
sbstlgh clrvb`s` y lo dlrler`.
d lrler`. Hphrtl hfldth
hfldth h ohs hrduohdb`cls, h o`s nuls`s, h
oh shcmrl y lspldbhoglctl ho trhdt` bctlscho.
Tçct`ghs1 (f q v)
Mhstr`lctlrbs hmukh, lst`ghs (hfldthdbôc
Mhstr`lctlrbs
(hfldthdbôc kl gud`shs eudhols, lcdçhs),
d`obs ñodlr`-nlg`rrèmbdh (bctlsc`
(bctlsc` mruls`), hcurbh p`r klpôsbt` kl susthcdbhs
lc o`s tñguo`s rlchols, sl thp`ch lo rbøôc y c` otrh. Tçckr`gl clur`oômbd` y
lcdlfhoçd`11 hthxbh (bclsthebobkhk ho hckhr), phrlsbhs (hk`rgldbgblct` kl ghc`s),
lcdlfhoçd`
hotlrhdb`cls psçqubdhs (duhkr`s hcsb`s`s, bclsthebobkhk, hmrlsbvbkhk ghy`r kl
nhebtuho, nhsth duhkr`s klglcdbhols). Hotlrhdb`cls `duohrls (lstrldnhgblct` klo
dhgp` vbsuho, rlla` kl Htjbcs`c, d`o`rhdbôc phrkh klo drbsthobc`). Hotlrhdb`cls
gud`shs, kbmlsvhs y rlchols, lc dhs`s guy mrhv
mrhvls
ls lcdlfho`phh nhsth gulrtl.
Tçct`ghs clur`oômbd`s lc ghy`r glkbkh. [lgeo`rls. Hotlrhdb`cls clur`oômbdhs
y psçqubdhs, husg`, ltd.
C  1
Yrèddhglctl t`k`s o`s glthols s`c slcsbeols h oh `xbkhdbôc. Lc culstr`
dulrp` hoghdlchg`sgudn`s kl loo`s lc lsthk` pur` nhdbâck`o`s dhsb bgp`sbeols
kl lobgbchr. Lo kbôxbk` kl do`r` lcl dhphdbkhk kl `xbkhr o`s glthols. \ch vlz
d`cvlrk`s o`s glthols lc ôxbk`s lo dulrp` pulkl lobgbchro`s. Tlmñc lo p`
kl bct`xbdhdbôc ` lo p` kl gltho lo lgp` kl trhthgblct` d`c GGT vhrbhrè.
Homuc`s sl `xbkhc kl f`rgh rèpbkh, plr` `tr`s d`g` lo glrdurb`, rlqublrlc
c`rghoglctl kl uch hkgbcbstrhdbôc pr`o`cmhkh lc lo lgp` ghctlcblck` k`s
k`sbs kbhrbhs kurhctl 5 ô 4 glsls (sb fulrh cldlshrb`) klspuâs kl rlhobzhr lo
trhthgblct` bckbdhk`.
[1 Aâ E (LL. \\.) — 52/6/85
Lo phdblctl sl qulaheh kl pr`eolghs slvlr`s kl d`cdlctrhdbôc, y fhoth kl
slcsbebobkhk lc o`s gblger`s.
O`s çckbdls
bcbdbhols lc oh hchoçdh
rlhobzhkh
rlhobzhkh
h su dheloo`
lc lo hø`
599;
fulr`c
kl 9,4;
gdm/o (gbdr`mrhg`/obtr`),
sblck`
o`s vho`rls
gèxbg`s
kl 8<
gdm/o
lc
plrs`chs lxpulsths h uc glkb` tôxbd`.
[rls hø`s klspuâs, lc kbdblgerl klo 599= o`s çckbdls c` nheçhc kbsgbcubk`
lc hes`out`. Lc oh tlrdlrh hchoçdh, d`c fldnh kl ghy` klo 5992 y trhs
486
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
hpr`xbghkhglctl k`s glsls kl trhthgblct` d`c GGT sl nheçhc rlkudbk` h
9,9= gdm/o. Ho kçh kl n`y lstèc lc 9,94 gdm/o.
Fulctl1 dhrth d`c hchoçdhs (Fbm. ;5) lcvbhkh ho hut`r
Fbm. ;51 Hchoçdhs
H choçdhs rlohvhs h o`s d`cstuylctls gbclrhols y kl glthols tôxbd`s
lc uc dheloo` nughc`.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o`
D (` lo pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh) bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl
DKT kbsulot` lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh kurhctl 4 glsls lc dhs`s
slvlr`s. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`) y L (lclgh).
48=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Gbmrhøh (d`csuothr hphrthk` ‟K`o`r kl Dhelzh‗)
Oh gbmrhøh ls uc k`o`r fulrtl kl dhelzh qul hfldth, mlclrhoglctl, h uc
ohk` ` uch phrtl kl looh y h glcuk` vh hd`gphøhk` kl cèuslhs y vôgbt`s.
[1 G M (Yñ) — 5>/;/8;
Tufrçh klskl o`s 8; hø`s kl gbmrhøhs, tlcblck` qul lsthr t`ghck` phsoohs
kl p`r vbkh.
Lc kbdblgerl klo 5988 gl kblr`c lo GGT y lc uch slghch tuvl dhgeb`s
guy rèpbk`s. Ohs gbmrhøhs qul tlcçh dhkh 5 kçhs klshphrldblr`c
klshphrldblr`c..
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/[email protected][
nps1//y`utu.el/[email protected][q\/
q\/
C  1
Lc gbmrhøhs drôcbdhs hd`gphøhkhs p`r holrmbhs d`g` oh kl o`s èdhr`s, nhy
uch guy hoth pr`ehebobkhk kl phrhsbt`sbs, yh slh p`r `xbur`s, t`x`dhrh u `tr`s.
[rhthgblct`1
Lc dhs` mrhvl y rldurrlctl sl rld`gblckh nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o` Y
(phrèsbt`s). Ho prbcdbpb` pulklc hphrldlr gès dlfholhs y gbmrhøhs qul oulm`
sl vhc. Lst` pulkl slr dhushk` p`r o`s t`xbchs kl o`s phrèsbt`s gulrt`s lc
oh shcmrl y ls uc lfldt` tlgp`rho kl drbsbs durhvh.
G`c`cudol`sbs (d`csuothr hphrthk` ‟Vbrus Lpstlbc-Ehrr
Lpstlbc-Ehrr‗)
‗)
Oh g`c`cudol`sbs ls uch lcflrglkhk bcflddb`sh (thgebâc d`c`dbkh d`g`
lerl kurh, lerl mohckuohr, lcflrglkhk kl Yflblr ` vuomhrglctl d`g`
lcflrglkhk klo els`), dhushkh p`r lo vbrus kl Lpstlbc-Ehrr (VLE) qul plrtlcldl
h oh gbsgh fhgbobh klo vbrus klo nlrpls. D`c gudnh glc`s frldulcdbh pulkl
slr pr`kudbkh p`r lo Dbt`glmho`vbrus y lc uc 8% kl o`s dhs`s p`r [`x`pohsgh
m`ckbb.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs qul oh dhrhdtlrbz
dhrhdtlrbzhc
hc s`c1 lerl, fhrbcmbs ` k`o`r kl mhrmhcth l
bchghdbôc kl o`s mhcmob`s obcfèd`s,
obcfèd`s, d`c ghy`r frldulcdbh lc lo duloo`.
48>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1
Vlr lo tlsg`cb` klo hphrthk` ‟Vbrus Lpstlbc-Ehrr‗.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o`
D ` E d`g` hotlrchvh kurhctl 4 slghchs. Tl rld`gblckh hpobdhr o`s 5
pr`mrhghs lspldçd`s vçrbd`s klo Qhpplr (Lpstlbc-Ehrr y Dbt`glmho`vbrus)
qul nhc rlsuothk` slr guy ldhdls.
‟Mo`glruo`clfrbs
rbs p`slstrlpt`
p`slstrlpt`dôdbdh‗)
dôdbdh‗)
Clfrbtbs (d`csuothr hphrthk` ‟Mo`glruo`clf
Oh clfrbs ls uch bchghdbôc kl o`s tlabk`s klo rbøôc, qul pulkl bcv`oudrhr
h o`s mo`gâruo`s, h o`s tñeuo`s, ` ho tlabk` bctlrsdbho
bctlrsdbho qul o`s r`klh. Ls frldulc
frldulc-tlglctl dhushkh p`r bcflddb`cls, d`g` oh kl Y`ooy, p`r t`xbchs, ` d`csbklrhkh
uch lcflrglkhk hut`bcgucl p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, ho c` lcd`ctrhr uch
dhush.
Tç1
Tl `eslrvh shcmrl lc oh `rbch (nlghturbh), pr`tlçchs
pr`tlçchs lc oh `rbch (pr`tlbcu
(pr`tlbcurbh),
rbh),
bcsudblcdbh rlcho, lxdrldbôc kl mrhckls dhckhkls kl `rbch (p`oburbh), cèuslhs
y vôgbt`s, `rbch turebh, lerl, lrupdbôc dutèclh, pbd`r, fhmh, pr`eolghs
rlspbrht`rb`s,
rlspbrht
`rb`s, kbsgbcudbôc klo hplt`, k`o`r ho `rbchr y prlsbôc hrtlrbho hoth.
Hkbdb`choglctl, oh plrs`ch rllcl hmuh, yh qul o`s rbø`cls c` pulklc
fucdb`chr d`rrldthglctl phrh lxpuoshr oh `rbch. Lst` pulkl dhushr nbcdnhzôc
kl pbls, t`eboo`s, pblrchs y ghc`s.
[1 H Qj (LL.
(LL. \\.) — </8/8<
[lcçh clfrbs y gbs pbls sl nbcdnhr`c kurhctl gès kl 5 hø`s.
Nbdl pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 Yr`t`d`o` E) y lc 89 kçhs oh nbcdnhzôc rltr`dlkbô y
hn`rh gbs k`s pbls pbls vulovlc h oh c`rghobkhk.
Mrhdbhs Abg.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/jbkcly-pr`eolg
482
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
@ 1 O Kv (H) — 5=/=/84
[uvl uch bcflddbôc kl rbøôc lo hø` phshk`, p`r o` qul rld`c`dbô lo sçct`gh
kl 5 puct`s kl k`o`r kl lsphokh, uc` obmlrhglctl gès hot` qul lo `tr`. Lrh uc
k`gbcm` y c` pukl lcd`ctrhr h uc gâkbd`, p`r o` qul plcsâ lc d`glczhr d`c
GGT nhsth br ho gâkbd` lo oucls.
[`gâ 4 m`ths kl hpr`xbghkhglctl < vldls lo k`gbcm`. Lo k`o`r sl nheçh bk`
duhck` gl klsplrtâ lo oucls. Klaâ kl t`ghr GGT y lo k`o`r v`ovbô kl culv`, hsç
qul ols rlt`gâ h 4 m`ths, 4 vldls ho kçh nhsth lo gbârd`ols, duhck` gl kb dulcth
lstheh durhk`.
Tblgprl nlg`s lsthk` lxpulst`s h o`s mârglcls y duhck` tlcm` hom` kl
t`s t`g` GGT. C` nl vulot` h lsthr lcflrg` p`r gès kl < hø`s.
Oolv` sblgprl uch plquløh e`tlooh d`cgbm`. [hgebâc o` nl uobzhk` phrh
klsnhdlrgl kl o`s phrèsbt`s rld`mbk`s lc Dnbch, duhck` lo gâkbd` c` puk`
lrrhkbdhro`s. ]`cklrfuo !!!
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/jbkcly-pr`eolg
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` lo pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`) y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c
[email protected]) lc oh z`ch hfldthkh kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
Clug`cçh
Oh clug`cçh ls oh bcflddbôc kl o`s puog`cls, dhushkh p`r ehdtlrbhs, n`cm`s,
` vbrus. Oh clug`cçh gès d`gñc ls oh pr`kudbkh p`r uch ehdtlrbh oohghkh
clug`d`d` (Ttrlpt`d`ddus pclug`cbhl).
Tç1
Mlclrhoglctl, ls prldlkbkh p`r uch lcflrglkh
Mlclrhoglctl,
lcflrglkhk
k d`g` oh mrbpl ` lo dhthrr`
d`gñc. Oh clug`cçh pbdh d`gblczh d`c uch t`s kl lctrl vhrbhs n`rhs h 4 kçhs,
d`c lxpldt`rhdbôc puruolcth ` nlrruger`sh, lc `dhsb`cls d`c shcmrl, k`o`r
t`rèdbd`
y lerl d`chpbdhs
lsdho`frç`s.
Ohs clug`cçhs
lclc sçct`ghs gès mrhkuhols qul d`csbstlc lc
kâdbghs kl lerl, gholsthr mlclrho, k`o`rls gusduohrls y hrduohrls, dhcshcdb`
y k`o`r kl dhelzh, t`s sldh sbc lxpldt`r
lxpldt`rhdbôc
hdbôc y k`o`r t`rèdbd` glc`s bctlcs`.
459
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1 Hô — </;/84
Lo phshk` bcvblrc` gl kbhmc`sdhr`c er`cqubs y prbcdbpb` kl clug`cçh,
c` ls oh prbglrh vlz qul gl `durrl, gl rldlthr`c d`g` lc `trhs `dhsb`cls
hcebôd` y d`rs`ch (o` pbd`), hge`s glkbdhglct`s gl pr`v`dhc slck`s
lfldt`s slduckhrb`s, plr` lc lsth `dhsbôc, yh d`c`dçh lo GGT, gl o` t`gâ
slmñc lo pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 Yr`t`d`o` E), y lc uch slghch nheçh d`cslmubk` uch
gla`rçh bcdrlçeol, hom` qul d`c pr`kudt`s fhrghdâud`s c` d`cslmuçh nhsth
phshk` uc gls, y høhkblck` k`s glsls gès phrh klpurhr t`khs ohs t`xbchs
pr`kudbkhs p`r o`s fèrghd`s. Z…W
Fulctl1 np1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</er`cqubs-y-clug`cbh-tlsg`cb`-ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` lo pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`) y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c
[email protected]) lc oh z`ch hfldthkh kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`. Kl c`dnl, sl
pulkl høhkbr lo pr`t`d`o` N (nhebthdbôc) phrh hdlolrhr lo pr`dls`.
@stl`gblobtbs (d`csuothr hphrthk` ‟Tthpnyo`d`ddus‗)
Oh `stl`gblobs ls uch bcflddbôc sñebth ` kl ohrmh khth (hcmuh) klo nuls`
` gâkuoh ôslh, c`rghoglctl dhushkh p`r uch ehdtlrbh pbômlch ` gbd`ehdtlrbho
y n`cm`s u `tr`s gbdr``rmhcbsg`s qul sl pr`phmhc klskl oh pblo, gñsduo`s
` tlck`cls bcfldthk`s prôxbg`s h uc nuls`. Ylr` thgebâc oh bcflddbôc pulkl
lgplzhr lc `trh phrtl y pr`phmhrsl p`r shcmrl nhsth lo nuls` ` bcbdbhrsl
klspuâs kl uch dbrumçh kl nuls`. O`s fhdt`rls kl rblsm` s`c trhugh rldblctl,
kbheltls, nlg`kbèobsbs y kr`mhkbddbôc bctrhvlc`sh.
bctrhvlc`sh.
Tç1
K`o`r ôsl`, suk`rhdbôc lxdlsbvh, lerl y lsdho`frç`s, g`olsh mlclrho,
bcqubltuk, slcshdbôc kl gholsthr, nbcdnhzôc kl t`eboo`s, pbls y pblrchs y k`o`r
lc lo sb` kl oh bcflddbôc.
[1
Vlr lo tlsg`cb` klo hphrthk` ‟Tthpnyod`ddus‗.
458
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT)
` lo pr`t`d`o` E(eèsbd`) y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` K(klrght`oômbd`)
K(klrght`oômbd`) lc
oh z`ch hfldthkh kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
@stl`p`r`sbs
Oh `stl`p`r`sbs lcflrglkhk
lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho
d`cvlcdb`c
ho ls uch pht`o`mçh pr`v`dhkh
pr`v`dhkh p`r oh kbsgbcudbôc klo tlabk` ôsl` qul
o` f`rgh, thct` kl ohs pr`tlçchs qul d`cstuylc su ghtrbz ` lstrudturh, d`g` kl
ohs shols gbclrhols kl dhodb` qul d`clcl.
C  1
Lo vlrkhklr` `rbmlc kl oh `stl`p`r`sbs ls klebk` h oh d`gplcshdbôc kl
oh hdbklz gltheôobdh bctlrsdbho k`ckl lo dhodb` ls uobzhk` phrh d`gplcshr
lo pN èdbk` pr`kudblck` `xhoht`s d`g` d`csldulcdbh. Yhrh rlhobzhr lsth
d`gplcshdbôc, uobzh t`k` lo dhodb` qul pulkl y sb c` o` pulkl nhdlr klskl
lo dhodb` bcmlrbk`, o` nhrè ushck` lo dhodb` kl o`s nuls`s d`g` hotlrchvh phrh
d`cslmubr uc lquboberb` kl hdbklz lc oh shcmrl
s hcmrl y o`s tlabk`s.
Ls lslcdbho dhgebhr oh kblth y lvbthr slklcthrbsg` phrh hodhobcbzhr lo dulrp`
ho gèxbg`.
Tç1
Kurhctl hø`s sl nh d`c`dbk` d`g` oh lpbklgbh sbolcdb`sh, klebk` h qul c`
pr`kudl sçct`ghs, lc lst`s dhs`s sl pblrkl oh `p`rtucbkhk kl frlchr oh pârkbkh
kl ghsh ôslh y rlkudbr lo rblsm` kl culvhs frhdturhs.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` lo pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`) kurhctl lo lgp` kl 4 glsls. Tb ls p`sbeol, sl
bcmblrl lctrl 8<9 go y 5<9 go kl hmuh kl ghr ho kçh phrh oh rlgbclrhobzhdbôc.
Nhy qul hkhpthr oh kblth y s`erl t`k` lvbthr oh hdbkbdhdbôc klo dulrp` h
trhvâs
klkl
oh bcmlsôc
dhre`nbkrht
`s y hzñdhrls. Høhkbr uch ` k`s dudnhrbths
kl lrrh
kbht`glhsdhre`nbkrht`s
h oh kblth kbhrbh.
455
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
@tbtbs
Oh `s ls… uch bcflddbôc kl `çk`s pbdh, uch bchghdbôc klo `çk` glkb`
(kltrès klo gphc`) qul sl oolch kl uçk`, klebk` h oh prlslcdbh kl ehdtlrbhs `
vbrus qul lctrhc lc lo dulrp` h trhvâs kl oh chrbz y oh e`dh.
Tç1
O`s eleâs y cbø`s plqulø`s sl rhc kl oh `rlah ` sl oh rhsdhc, hphrldlc
pr`eolghs kl hukbdbôc, lerl, krlchal klo `çk`, brrbthebobkhk y guy
frldulctlglctl vôgbt`s.
C  1
Yhrh trhthr
trhthr oh bcflddbôc klo `çk` lxtlrc` nhy trls f`rghs kl hpobdhdbôc1
8. H trhvâs kl mhs,
5. H trhvâs
trhvâs kl DKT,
4. H trhvâs
trhvâs kl m`ths
m`ths hdvhkhs
hdvhkhs kl DK (GGT).
8. Y M (/v)1
Tl hdvh kl 6 h > m`ths lc uc vhs` kl elelr, sbc høhkbr hmuh. Tl p`cl kl
ghclrh bcglkbhth oh z`ch hfldthkh s`erl oh hplrturh
hplrt urh klo vhs`, kl ghclrh qul c`
shomh lo mhs fulrh kl âstl y sbc qul lo oçqubk` t`qul oh pblo lc cbcmñc g`glct`.
Lo trhthgblct` sulol kurhr lctrl 8 y 4 gbcut`s y c` klel phshr kl o`s <
gbcut`s phrh c` dhushr brrbthdbôc. Tl pulkl rlplr ohs vldls qul slhc cldlshrbhs,
phshk`
uc bctlrvho`
uch n`rhklsbcfldth
lctrl dhkh
Lo gbsg`
mhs qulkllvhp`rh,
sbchpobdhdbôc.
cldlsbkhk kl g`ahr.
Lstl trhthgblct` ls guy ño lc trhthgblct`s kl pr`eolghs kl `çk`
k`ckl lo `çk` duerl oh hplrturh klo vhs` y lo mhs pulkl lct`cdls oolmhr gès
pr`fuck` h oh bcflddbôc, yh qul lo hmuh h vldls c` oolmh p`r lsthr bchghk`
lo d`ckudt` klo `çk`.
5. Y @ (@) — DKT M1
Høhkbr kl 5 h ; go kl DKT ho 9.4% (4999 ppg) lc 49 go (uch `czh) kl hmuh
ebh. Oolchr lo m`tlr` l bctr`kudbro` lc lo `çk` hd`sthk` kl ohk`, klaèck`o`
kurhctl 8 ô 5 gbcut`s y obgpbhr lo oçqubk` s`erhctl d`c uc phøulo` ho olvhcthrsl.
454
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
4. Y @ (@) — DK M1
Høhkbr kl 5 h ; m`ths kl DK hdvhkhs 818 y klspuâs høhkbr 49 go. (uch
`czh) kl hmuh ebh. Oolchr lo m`tlr` l bctr`kudbro` lc lo `çk` hd`sthk` kl ohk`,
klaèck`o` kurhctl 8 ô 5 gbcut`s y obgpbhr lo oçqubk` s`erhctl d`c uc phøulo`
ho olvhcthrsl.
Uld`glckheol11 pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) ` E (eèsbd`).
Uld`glckheol
[1 Hcôcbg`
Oolv` phkldblck` hgbmkhobs y `s klskl eleâ. Nl t`ghk` thct`s
hcebôd`s lc gb vbkh (t`k`s loo`s rldlthk`s) qul lst`s yh c` gl nhdlc
chkh. O`s ñog`s hø`s, ohs bcflddb`cls nhc sbk` tlrrbeols pr`v`dhck` uc k`o`r
bcs`p`rtheol qul cb o`s hchomâsbd`s gès fulrtls p`kçhc hobvbhr. Lct`cdls, nhdl
uc hø`, vb oh d`cflrlcdbh klo slø`r Hckrlhs Jhodjlr, olç lo ober` kl Abg Nugeol y
gl kldbkç h pr`ehr GGT.
Ful ghrhvboo`s` p`klr qubthrgl ohs bcflddb`cls y c` tlclr qul phkldlr lo
k`o`r kl mhrmhcth y `çk`s, gudnhs vldls d`gebchk`s. Lc duhct` d`gblczh oh
bcflddbôc, o` t`g`, y lsth klshphrldl lc n`rhs.
Ohs plrs`chs lclc klrldn` h d`c`dlr GGT y drl` qul lo klelr kl o`s
gâkbd`s ls bcvlsmhro`
bcvlsmhro` y rldlthro` h o`s phdblctls, sb o` drllc cldlshrb`.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/0s7`s
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` hklduhk` phrh bcflddb`cls klo `çk` lxtlrc` slrçh
lo pr`t`d`o` M (mhs), pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) ` E (eèsbd`) d`g` hotlrchvh,
d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` A (lcauhmul eudho), ho quho sl rld`gblckh
høhkbr uchs m`ths kl [email protected] h oh s`oudbôc.
Ylrb`k`ctbtbs
Oh plrb`k`cs, klc`gbchkh d`gñcglctl pb`rrlh, ls uch bchghdbôc l
bcflddbôc kl o`s obmhglct`s
obmhglct`s y nuls`s qul sbrvlc kl s`p`rtl h o`s kblctls y `durrl
duhck` sl klah qul oh mbcmbvbs hvhcdl sbc trhthgblct`.
trhthgblct`.
45;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Tç1
Tus sçct`ghs s`c1 gho hoblct`, kblctls `a`s, lcdçhs bchghkhs, r`abzhs y
qul shcmrhc d`c fhdbobkhk.
[1 B Mé (Lø) — 89/85/85
N`oh. T`y usuhrb` kl GGT klskl nhdl ; hø`s. O` us` phrh oh obgpblzh klo
hphrht` kbmlsv` lc mlclrho y gl fucdb`ch.
Gl durô uch pb`rrlh mrhvçsbgh lc oh qul plrkç lo ;9% kl ohs pblzhs eudhols y
uch kbsgbcudbôc klo 49% klo nuls` klo ghxbohr suplrb`r lc thc s`o` uch slghch.
Yhrh ohs mrbpl ` rlsfrbhk`s, lc < kçhs lstèc durhk`s.
D`glcdâ p`rqul tlcçh pbl kl htolth klskl o`s 8< hø`s y c` nhdçh chkh qul
gl o` durhsl. Ful lgplzhr y lc thc s`o` uch slghch gl `ovbkâ klo kbdn`s`
n`cm`. [hc s`o` lcl uc pr`eolgh, lo must` thc klshmrhkheol h do`r`. Gl
bctlrlshrçh shelr sb homublc nh lcd`ctrhk
lcd`ctrhk`
` uch s`oudbôc.
Mrhdbhs.
Fulctl1 np1//lrclst`mulrrh.d`g/eo`m/ggs/
C  1
Lo she`r kl DK hdvhk` d`c èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` ho ;% ls gudn` gla`r qul
d`c èdbk` dçtrbd`. Yhrh lo she`r ldnhr uc dn`rrbt` kl D`dh-D`oh h oh glzdoh qul
kbsbguoh lo she`r plrfldthglctl sbc hotlrhr oh ldhdbh. C` sl rld`gblckhc
zug`s, cb sbqublrh chturhols.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` A
(lcauhmul eudho) l bcdous` sl pulkl dlpboohr o`s kblctls lc lo DKT (sbc kboubr),
lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
Lc dhs` slvlr` thgebâc sl pulkl nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` E d`g`
hotlrchvh kurhctl 4 slghchs.
Ybdhkurhs
Nhebtuhoglctl ls dhushkh p`r bcsldt`s y hrèdcbk`s duy` vlclc` dhush uch
bchghdbôc bcglkbhth k`o`r`sh.
45<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs kl pbdhkurh kl bcsldt` qul c` bgpobdhc uch urmlcdbh vhrçhc
kl hdulrk` d`c lo p` kl bcsldt` y lo bckbvbku`. Oh ghy`rçh kl ohs plrs`chs
lxplrbglcthc1 k`o`r o`dhobzhk`, lcr`aldbgblct`, nbcdnhzôc ` pbdhzôc. [hgebâc
sl pulkl lxplrbglcthr uch slcshdbôc kl hrk`r, lctugldbgblct` u n`rgbmul`.
[1
Ybdhkurh kl bcsldt`1 O`ob D`rebc (Lsphøh)
Kçh 81 pbdhkurh kl bcsldt`.
Kçh 51 Hspldt`,
Hs pldt`, d`csldulcdbhs ho olvhcthrgl1
• Nbcdnhzôc kl @a`.
• Yèrphk`1 pârkbkh kl fulrzh phrh p`klr herbr lo `a`.
• K`o`r y qulghzôc bctlcs`s.
• Bchghdbôc phrtl klrldnh klo r`str` bcdoubkh oh chrbz.
Kçh 51 89199 kl oh ghøhch, sl hpobdh oh z`ch hfldthkh d`c mhsh lgphphkh
d`c lo sbmublctl d`gpulst`1 < m`ths kl GGT, < m`ths kl hdvhk`r y < m`ths
kl [email protected] lc 49 go kl hmuh frlsdh. H o`s 8< gbcut`s pukl herbr lo `a`.
¡¡Bcdrlbeol!! Lo k`o`r sl nheçh rlkudbk`, plr` oh plshklz y lo dhcshcdb` fhdbho
hñc lrhc lvbklctls.
Kçh 51 8<199. Bgprlsb`chctl1 uch s`oh hpobdhdbôc y gb mlst` dhgebô.
Hpobd` `trh mhsh hctls kl hd`sthrgl, sbc cldlsbkhk. ¡Rh gl lcd`ctrheh
t`thoglctl durhkh!
Fbm. ;41 Lv`oudbôc klo trhthgblct` h uch pbdhkurh d`c kbôxbk` kl do`r`.
Fulctl1 F`t`s kl t`k` lo pr`dls` lc www.hckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
456
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
G  ø1 Bvè Hez (D) — 8=/</8;
Gb c`gerl ls, Bvèc Hoe`rc`z, s`y kl Dnbol y plrtlclzd` ho g`vbgblct`
D`cdblcdbh kl Jrbsnch. Xublr` khr gb tlsg`cb` d`c GGT.
Vbv` lc lo dhgp` y dhgbc` h Rugelo (D`cdlpdbôc) gl pbdô uch hrhøh kl
rbcdôc lc oh pohcth klo pbl, fub ho gâkbd` p`rqul gl kbô hoths y ehahs kl prlsbôc
y gl kbalr`c qul s`o` lrh uc rlsfrbhk` y o` qul gl phsheh lc lo pbl lrh uc `a`
kl mhoo` y qul klspuâs sl gl o` p`kçhc lxrphr.
Ylr` h o`s k`s kçhs slch pl`r lo pbl gès plshk`, o` trhtâ d`c ehrr` phrh
shdhr oh bchghdbôc. Lo ehrr` gl lxtrha` t`k` o` gho` sl gl herbô uch hgp`ooh
guy mrhckl lc oh pohcth klo pbl, fub culvhglctl ho n`spbtho gl nbdblr`c
pucdb`cls y oh s`oudbôc phrh loo`s lrh s`o` oh hgputhdbôc, lo gâkbd` gl kba`1 ‟tl
hgpuths tu pblrch ` tl gulrls‗. D`c gb slø`rh qulkhg`s dn`qulhk`s d`c lsth
c`dbh. Gl vbsbthr`c h gb dhsh o`s g`cals y gl kbalr`c qul lst` tlcbh s`oudbôc,
gl hyukhr`c d`c `trhs d`shs chturhols d`g` ho`l vlrh, ehrr`, flc`mrld`. Gb
ghlstr` lspbrbtuho gl oohgô y gl kba` qul gl d`gucbdhrh d`c Hcmâobdh D`sth
kl GGT Dnbol. Looh bcglkbhthglctl
bcglkbhthglctl gl bckbdô uch k`sbs hoth kl DKT, gl lcsløô
h t`ghro` y h ushr lo GGT hpobdhck` lc sprhy lc oh nlrbkh qul lrh guy mrhckl
y guy flh, nhdblck` lo pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E) y hpobdhck` GGT lc oh
nlrbkh d`c uch e`tloobth lc sprhy.
O`s gâkbd`s gl kldçhc
kld çhc sb y` gl oolmhrh h gla`rhr kl lsth nlrbkh tlckrçh phrh uc
hø`. Loo`s gl bckbdhr`c hcebôd` qul s`o` t`gl p`r k`s slghchs yh qul gl k`oçh
gudn` lo lstôghm` y o` klaâ, s`o` gl qulkâ d`c DKT, GGT y [email protected] y hobglcth
hobglcthdbôc
dbôc
shch.
H o`s glsls klspuâs gl t`ghc lxègl
lxèglcls
cls y c` lctlckçhc y c` sl lxpobdhehc
qul lstheh gb nlrbkh yh dhsb t`thoglctl rlduplrhkh y o`s lxèglcls kl `rbch y
shcmrl t`k`s shoçhc guy eblc. Lc 4 glsls y glkb` yh sl dlrrô oh nlrbkh y lstè
d`gpolthglctl rlmlclrhk` y lst`y bctlcthck` dhgbchr, hpobd` lo [email protected] phrh oh
bchghdbôc. Xublr` khr ohs mrhdbhs h Hcmâobdh.
H cmâobdh.
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/5Y]FK5VlQeH
Fbm. ;;1 Lv`oudbôc klo trhthgblct` d`c DKT y [email protected] h uch g`rklkurh kl hrhøh lc uc pbl.
45=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` B
(bcsldt`s), hpobdhck` uch mhsh lgphphkh lc DKT 9,4% — (sb c` nhy DKT usl
< m`ths hdvhkhs kl DK lc <9 go kl hmuh), y sl pulkl høhkbr < m`ths kl
[email protected] ho hmuh sb c` dlkl oh bchghdbôc.
Ybl kl htolth
Lo pbl kl htolth ` clh plkbs ls uch bcflddbôc gbdôdh pr`kudbkh p`r n`cm`s
klrght`t`s ` p`r olvhkurhs y qul hfldth c`rghoglctl oh z`ch lctrl o`s klk`s
kl o`s pbls, pukbâck`sl prlslcthrsl lc tho`cls,
tho`cls, phoghs kl ohs ghc`s y lctrl o`s
klk`s kl ohs ghc`s.
Tç1
Lo pbl kl htolth dhush lcr`aldbgblct` y pbd`r d`csthctl. Homuc`s dhs`s
pulklc prlslcthrsl sbc sçct`ghs, lxdlpt` p`r oh dhrhdtlrçsdh gho`oblctl kl
oh bcflddbôc. Ls frldulctl vlr thgebâc mrblths, hgp`oohs y lsdhghs lc lo èrlh
hfldthkh. Oh pblo sl p`cl r`ah y lsduldl, nhy hrk`r y pbdhzôc, sl f`rghc ohs
hgp`oohs qul supurhc s`othck` oçqubk` ` f`rghck` uch d`strh. Tb lo n`cm` sl
kbslgbch h ohs uøhs, âsths pulklc prlslcthr kld`o`rhdbôc, lcmr`shgblct`,
ghcdnh sbgbohr h uc g`rltôc ` bcdous` pulklc klsprlcklrsl sbc k`o`r.
k`o`r.
[1 H G Ce (J) — 52/6/85
52/6/85
[uvl homuc`s k`o`rls lctrl o`s klk`s kl o`s pbls. \ch c`dnl gl kldbkç h
trhthr ushck` GGT. Hsç qul gl nl dholcthk` uc p`d` kl hmuh, hdvâ 8< m`ths
kl GGT d`c 8< m`ths kl èdbk` dçtrbd` lc uc dulcd` y, h d`ccuhdbôc, høhkç lo
hmuh dhoblctl y oulm` nl pulst` gbs pbls lc lo ehø` kl hmuh kurhctl 8< gbcut`s.
Klaâ qul lo pbl sl sldhrh y fuç h k`rgbr. Ho kçh sbmublctl, cucdh tuvl k`o`r.
Nhc phshk` gès kl 5 glsls yh y oh bcflddbôc c` lstè. [hgebâc uobz` GGT
phrh trhthr lo hmuh p`theol y h vldls gl t`g` p`r vçh `rho hpr`xbghkhglctl <
m`ths. Z…W Gudnhs mrhdbhs.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/ghohkbls/fucmho-bcfld`c0sthrt789
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` K
(klrght`oômbd`), 5 ô 4 vldls ho kçh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT)
` E (eèsbd`) d`g` hotlrchvh kurhctl 4 slghchs. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c
ehø`s kl o`s pbls d`g` lc lo dhs` hrrbeh bckbdhk`.
45>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Yr`sthtbtbs
Oh pr`sths, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho, ls oh bchghdbôc klo tlabk` kl oh prôsthth, qul pulkl tlclr su
`rbmlc lc uch bcflddbôc kl ehdtlrbhs. Duhoqublr ehdtlrbh qul pulkh dhushr
uch bcflddbôc urbchrbh, pr`eheolglctl pr`kudl uch pr`sths ehdtlrbhch qul
pulkl slr1
• hmukh1 d`gblczh kl f`rgh rèpbkh.
• drôcbdh1 lxlckl su hphrbdbôc h o` ohrm` kl 4 glsls y sus sçct`ghs s`c
glc`s mrhvls.
Tç1
Lsdho`frç`s, lerl, lcr`aldbgblct`
lcr`aldbgblct` kl oh pblo, shcmrl lc oh `rbch hrk`r ` k`o`r
ho `rbchr kbduothk phrh bcbdbhr oh gbddbôc ` vhdbhr oh vlabmh y dn`rr` urbchrb` kâebo.
[1 Hof`cs`
Lsplr` ols sbrvh kl hyukh h homublc gb rloht`.
N`oh Oubs, oolv` t`ghck` GGT nhdl yh k`s kçhs d`g` gl ghckhstl.
Oolvheh 4 hø`s kl urôo`m` y gb gho beh kl gho lc pl`r, hsç qul duhck` gl
kbalr`c qul lrh drôcbdh oh pr`sths sl gl nuckbô lo guck` yh qul c` sheçh
phrh k`ckl rhr y dohr` phrh ls` lstèc o`s hgbm`s.
Gb hgbm` Uhfh gl oolvô hrrhstrhck` h tu d`csuoth, p`rqul lo vlçh qul kl
slr uch plrs`ch holmrl y hdvh lstheh dhgebhck` h dhush kl gb gho yh qul
y` plcsheh qul sb oh glkbdbch c` p`krçh hrrlmohrgl lo gho plcsheh qul o`s
chturhobsths thgp`d`. Klskl qul gl pusl lc tus ghc`s, ‟Elckbth oh n`rh‗.
Mrhdbhs Oubs. [l prlmuctâ sb gl durhrçh y tus phoherhs fulr`c1 ‟Hof`cs` y` duhck`
gl nbdl chturhobsth tuvl qul rghr uc phplo qul kldçh qul c` p`kçh kldbr h o`s
lcflrg`s qul o`s durhrçh y qul vlrçhg`s s`erl oh ghrdnh‗. Ls` ful uc oucls y
lo vblrcls o`s k`o`rls pr`stèd`s kl pblrchs kl rbø`cls y klo hc` dhsb nheçhc
klshphrldbk`. Klspuâs kl k`s trhthgblct`s kl ;< kçhs lstheh dhsb flc`glcho
hucqul tlcçh uch g`olsh lc lo hc` c` k`o`r`sh plr` hom` lxtrhøh.
lxtrhøh.
Oolv` k`s kçhs t`ghck` GGT y oh g`olsh c` oh tlcm`, lst` vh flc`glcho
y t`khvçh gl qulkhc ;5 kçhs kl trhthgblct`. ¡Hn! o`s k`s trhthgblct`s fulr`c
obgpblzhs kl d`o`c nlpèdhs kl rbø`cls y gès, ltd. y o`s slmuç ho pbl kl oh oltrh.
Hn`rh sl qul lo kbclr` gla`r mhsthk` kl gb vbkh nh sbk` phrh hrrlmohr gb
gho, yh qul oolv` 4 hø`s phmhck` uc slmur` gâkbd` y c` gl nhc rlsulot` chkh
kl chkh phrh o` ñcbd` qul gl nh slrvbk` ls phrh o`s hcèobsbs. Lc c, uc p`lgh.
452
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Oubs, lo GGT o` nl t`ghk` d`g` gl kbabstl plr` huglcthck`
huglcthck` oh k`sbs y c`
gl nl slck` gho lc cbcmñc g`glct` s`o` homñc gholsthr lc pblrchs y lc lo
k`o`r qul tl kbal kl oh lsphokh.
Lsplr`
qul p`r
lstlo`tlsg`cb`
homublc
qul lstuvblrh
lcklspuâs
gb gbsgh
sbtuhdbôc
y qul
glc`s vlholohsbrvh
vbkh hd`c
lsplrhczh,
p`rqul y`
kl
lsthr trls hø`s d`c k`o`r kl mlglo`s, hc`, rbø`cls, c` vlçh d`g` p`kçh tlrgbchr
lsl dhovhrb`. Hsç qul `s k`y ohs mrhdbhs p`r hquç y duhck` tlrgbcls qul yh gl nhs
kbdn` qul slrè guy pr`ct` y thgebâc qublr` glcdb`chr h lsl hgbm` qul tlcm`
qul ls uch elooçsbgh plrs`ch y qul gl oolvô hrrhstrhck` ho chturhobsth sbc y` drllr
lc lstl p` kl glkbdbch shouk`s h t`k`s.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/94/pr`sths-tlsg`cb`-ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
trhthgblct`
lstl dhs` d`c
slrçhlouobzhr
lo pr`t`d`o`
D
(DKT)\c
` lo
pr`t`d`o` bckbdhk`
E (eèsbd`)phrh
y d`gebchro`
pr`t`d`o`
L (lclgh)
kurhctl lo lgp` kl 8 h 4 glsls y thgebâc lo pr`t`d`o` U (rldtho d`c plrbooh)
klspuâs kl dhkh klp`sbdbôc. Gçcbg` 5 vldls ho kçh (ghøhch y c`dnl).
Ys`rbhsbs
Oh ps`rbhsbs ls uch lcflrglkhk bchght`rbh drôcbdh kl oh pblo, sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, qul `dhsb`choglctl
thgebâc hfldth h ohs hrduohdb`cls. Oh z`ch olsb`chkh pr`v`dh lcr`aldbgblct`,
klsdhghdbôc, k`o`r l nbcdnhzôc. C` ls d`cthmb`sh.
Tç1
Olsb`cls dutèclhs lc f`rgh kl pohdhs kl thghø` vhrbheol, lcr`aldbkhs y
rldueblrths kl lsdhghs eohcquldbchs. C`rghoglctl sl prlslcth lc d`k`s y
r`kboohs.
[1 Lze ]j T (D) — 84/9=/85
Gb ghgè Tyovbh Tdngbkt d`glczô lo hø` 82>2 d`c ps`rbhsbs, ho prbcdbpb`
sôo`
uchd`c
plquløh
olsbôc
lc glsls
oh pblrch
qulghcbflsthck`
o`mrô d`ctr`ohr
drlghs
plr`klo
c`
shcheh,
lo d`rrlr
kl o`s
sl ful
lcd`c
kbscths
phrtls
dulrp` s`glâck`sl h t`k` p` kl trhthgblct`s thct` trhkbdb`chols d`g`
hotlrchv`s, sb eblc homuc`s khehc rlsuothk` p`r uc`s kçhs oulm` v`ovçh d`c gès
fulrzh. Lo hø` phshk` uch hgbmh gl nheoô klo GGT y gl rld`glckô qul vblrh
449
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
o`s vbkl`s kl Hckrlhs Jhodjlr, hklgès gl d`cvbkô uc p`d` kl pr`kudt` phrh
qul gb ghgè o` d`glczhrh h t`ghr y vblrh qul phsheh, h o`s p`d`s kçhs yh
sbcô hom` kl hobvb`, lc lsl g`glct` su dulrp` lstheh dueblrt` p`r oh ps`rbhsbs
(lxdlptuhck`
dhrh,d`c
ghc`s
y pbls).y lo 8 kl slplgerl kl 5988 d`glczô su
Gl d`cthdtâ
Hcmâobdh
trhthgblct` d`c pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 Yr`t`d`o` E) y puovlrbzhdbôc klo pr`kudt` lc
t`k` lo dulrp`, d`c lo d`rrlr kl o`s kçhs sl beh c`thck` oh gla`rçh, homuchs vldls
vbc` uc rler`tl fulrtl plr` ho 5± ` 4lr kçh klshphrldçh y slmuçhc glrghck` ohs
olsb`cls.
Oh prbglrh gulstrh rlho ful duhck` klshphrldblr`c ohs olsb`cls kltrès kl
oh `rlahs k`ckl ohs phths kl o`s olctls nlrçhc hñc gès lo oumhr, qulkô pblo
hes`outhglctl
hes`outhglc
tl c`rgho, oulm` klshphrldblr`c ohs olsb`cls lc lo dulr` dheloouk`,
kl lst` sl kb` dulcth oh plouqulrh qul ol prlmuctô qul nheçh nldn` p`rqul yh
c` tlcçh chkh lc oh dhelzh. Lctrl c`vblgerl y kbdblgerl hmrlm` ehø`s d`c lo
pr`kudt`, ghctlcblck` lc t`k` g`glct` lo trhthgblct` hctlrb`r, d`c hohrgh
kl rlo`a phrh qul c` sl `ovbkl kl cbcmuch t`gh.
H prbcdbpb`s kl 5985 t`kh oh pblo klo dulrp` lstuv` bchghkh y guy r`ah
d`g` sb sl nueblsl bcs`ohk` y guy dhoblctl ho thdt`, sôo` fulr`c k`s ` trls kçhs
y d`glczô lo rltr`dls` kl t`khs ohs olsb`cls qul hñc qulkhehc, sl cldlsbthr`c
vhrb`s frhsd`s kl GGT lc lstl lgp` plr` vhobô oh plch, ho kçh kl n`y 8= kl
herbo kl 5985 su pblo lstè d`gpolthglctl shch y d`glczhrè uc trhthgblct` kl
ghctlcbgblct`
ghctlcbgblc
t` bckbdhk` p`r Hcmâobdh.
Ys`rbhsbs t`thoglctl durhkh!
durhkh!
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/9</ps`rbhsbs-trhthgblct`-tlsg`cb`-ggs/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT)
` lo pr`t`d`o` E(eèsbd`) y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` K(klrght`oômbd`)
K(klrght`oômbd`) lc
oh z`ch hfldthkh kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`. Lc dhs`s rldurrlctls y guy
slvlr`s sl rld`gblckh nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s).
Yuog`cçh (d`csuothr hphrthk` ‟Clug`cçh‗)
Xulghkurh
\ch qulghkurh ls uch olsbôc ` nlrbkh kl oh pblo, qul pulkl slr dhushkh
p`r lo d`cthdt` d`c oohghs, oçqubk`s ` suplrdbls dhoblctls y `trhs fulctls kl
448
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
hoths tlgplrhturhs: thgebâc p`r lo d`cthdt` d`c lolglct`s h tlgplrhturhs
lxtrlghkhglctl
lxtrlghkhg
lctl ehahs. Lxbstlc hklgès ohs qulghkurh
qulghkurhss quçgbdhs y loâdtrbdhs, p`r
rhkbhdbôc y thgebâc p`r frbddbôc. Oh bcglrsbôc lc hmuh frçh kl oh z`ch hfldthkh
hfldthkh ls
lo prbglr trhthgb
trhthgblct`
lct` kl huxbob`.
Tç1
K`o`r, lcr`aldbgblct` y k`o`r ho d`cthdt` y hgp`oohs.
[1 D Y (LL. \\.) — 55/89/84
[rhtâ h uch plrs`ch d`c qulghkurhs kl 4lr mrhk`. Oh qulghkurh lstheh
s`erl `trh qulghkurh vblah p`r lo tue` kl lsdhpl kl uch g`t`.
Ho dhe` kl uc`s kçhs tlcçh d`strhs y ho gls lstheh durhkh d`gpolthglctl.
d`gpolthglctl.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/eurcs
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` X
(qulghkurhs) d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` K (klrght`oômbd`). Lc dhs`
kl bcflddb`cls y lerl sl høhkl lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) ` E (eèsbd`) d`g`
hotlrchvh.
Xubstls
\c qubstl ls uch dhvbkhk ` e`osh kl tlabk` dlrrhk`, qul sl klshrr`ooh
hc`rghoglctl klctr` kl duhoqublr tlabk` klo dulrp`. Yulkl lsthr oolc` kl hbrl,
oçqubk`, mrhsh, pus u `tr` ghtlrbho. Oh ghy`rçh kl o`s qubstls qul sl lcdulctrhc
lc o`s puog`cls lstèc oolc`s kl hbrl, o`s klo sbstlgh obcfèd` lstèc oolc`s kl
oçqubk`.
O`s qubstls pulklc slr elcbmc`s ` ghobmc`s, duhck` chdlc p`r oh hddbôc kl
vbrus ` ehdtlrbhs qul, ho klshrr`oohr dâouohs hg`rfhs, hfldthc homñc ôrmhc` klo
dulrp`.
C  1
Gudn`s phrèsbt`s, d`g` homuc`s p`s kl clght`k`s d`csbklrhk`s
d`csbklrhk`s bc`du`s
p`r oh glkbdbch ho`pèdh, ho bmuho qul o`s dlst`k`s, pulklc slr dhush kl qubstls
lc o`s gñsduo`s, nçmhk`, dlrler`, puog`cls, `a`s, ñtlr` y lc `trhs phrtls klo
dulrp`.
445
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Tç1
Lo sçct`gh prbcdbpho ls oh prlslcdbh kl uc euot` lvbklctl, qul pulkl tlclr
kbflrlctls thghø`s, y oh lxbstlcdbh kl n`rgbmul` ` hrk`r sb lo qubstl t`dh uc
clrvb` y kl k`o`r sb lo qubstl lstè prlsb`chck` uc tlckôc ` uch hrduohdbôc.
[1 K (LL. \\.) — 59/4/8;
Gl kbhmc`sdhr`c uc qubstl lc lo nçmhk` duhck` gl nbdblr`c uc uotrhs`cbk`
lc gb d`rhzôc. Lo gâkbd` gl kba` qul c` gl prl`duphrh p`r loo`, ‟oh thsh kl
g`rthobkhk kl o`s qubstls nlpèd`s s`c bclxbstlctls‗.
Ls` ful nhdl uc`s ;9 hø`s, y dhkh hø` qul gl nhdlc uc uotrhs`cbk` lo
qubstl drldl. Nhdl uc hø` lo qubstl glkbh 85,= dg (< puomhkhs) kl kbègltr`,
kbègltr`, qul
hphrldblr`c lc oh bghmlc d`g` uc mrhc hmualr` clmr`. Lstl qubstl gl dhusheh
k`o`r uch vlz p`r slghch, uc k`o`r hmuk` d`g` sb homublc gl hpuøhohrh d`c
uc dudnboo`.
Nl lsthk` t`ghck` GGT klskl nhdl uc hø`. Lc uc prbglr g`glct` t`gâ
GGT8 t`k`s o`s kçhs kurhctl uch slghch, oulm` uch dèpsuoh GGT5 uch ` k`s
vldls h oh slghch. Rh o` t`gheh sôo` phrh ghctlcbgblct`. Ylr` gl kb dulcth qul
gb qubstl yh c` gl k`oçh, lst` lrh uc phr kl vldls ho hø`, hsç qul lstheh hcsb`sh
kl nhdlrgl uotrhs`cbk`s.
Oh lcflrglrh gl kba` qul lstheh klshphrldblck`, qul hn`rh lstheh d`g` uch
cuel, c` lsl hmualr` clmr` qul shoçh hctls. Lstheh glc`s kl oh gbthk qul duhck`
gl kbhmc`sdhr`c y gl d`glctô qul ‟h lstl rbtg`, phrh lo sbmublctl hø` nherçh
klshphrldbk`‗.
C` nhy sudblctls phoherhs phrh hmrhkldlr o` qul sblct`.
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/`tnlr
C  1
Nhy qul tlclr lc dulcth qul lo GGT5 pulkl dhushr lfldt`s slduckhrb`s
fulrtls y lo hut`r sl kbsthcdbh kl su us`.
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` lo pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`) y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c
[email protected]) lc oh z`ch hfldthkh kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
444
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Ulfoua` mhstr`ls`fè
mhstr`ls`fèmbd`
mbd`
Lc lsth hflddbôc, o`s d`ctlcbk`s lst`ghdhols s`c klvulot`s klskl lo
lstôghm` nhdbh lo lsôfhm`, qul ls lo d`ckudt` qul vh klskl oh e`dh nhsth lo
lstôghm`,, klebk` ho dblrrl bchklduhk` kl uc gñsduo` ho cho klo lsôfhm`.
lstôghm`
Lc lo lstôghm`, o`s hobglct`s sl glzdohc d`c o`s aum`s mèstrbd`s, qul
lctrl `trhs d`shs sl d`gp`clc kl èdbk` do`rnçkrbd` (cldlshrb` phrh kbmlrbr
ohs pr`tlçchs). Lstl èdbk` c` khøh lo lstôghm` p`rqul lo ôrmhc` pr`kudl uch
susthcdbh gud`sh qul o` pr`tlml: sbc lgehrm`, lstl gudus pr`tldt`r c` ls
pr`kudbk` p`r lo lsôfhm`, oh fhrbcml ` oh e`dh. Tb o`s hobglct`s y lo èdbk` klo
lstôghm` rlmrlshc ho lsôfhm`, pr`kudbrèc brrbthdbôc y qulghkurhs.
Tç1
Lo rlua` pulkl slr hsbct`gèd`. Oh pbr`sbs ls lo sçct`gh gès frldulctl y
d`csbstl lc uch slcshdbôc kl qulghzôc h cbvlo klo lstlrcôc. Huglcth trhs uch
d`gbkh heuckhctl y duhck` lo phdblctl sl tugeh.
Yulklc hphrldlr thgebâc1 rlmurmbthdbôc kl she`r hmrb`, k`o`r t`rèdbd` c`
dhrkçhd`, lrudt`s, g`olshs lc oh ohrbcml ` oh fhrbcml, d`g` hf`cçh ` slcshdbôc
kl uc dulrp` lxtrhø` lc oh mhrmhcth. Lctrl ohs hotlrhdb`cls rlspbrht`rbhs,
pulklc hphrldlr oh t`s c`dturch, clug`cçh, er`cqubs, er`cd`d`cstrbddbôc,
hsgh drôcbdh, ltd.
[1 Hô (H)
Lc prbglr oumhr flobdbthdb`cls y mrhdbhs, mrhdbhs, mrhdbhs! Ols rld`glck`1
sbmhc t`ghck` GGT phrh ghctlclrsl d`c vbkh p`r gudn`s hø`s gès y phrh
kbsfruthr kl uc lxbt`s` vbhal lc lsth vbkh.
Nl lsthk` ushck` GGT kurhctl sbltl slghchs, y gl musthrçh d`glcthrols
d`glcthrols
ohs sbmublctls gla`rhs lc gb shouk. Gb ehthooh kl p`r vbkh d`c UML (rlua`
mhstr`ls`fèmbd`-rl
mhstr`l
s`fèmbd`-rlua`/hdbkl
ua`/hdbklz/èdbk`)
z/èdbk`) phrldl nhelr tlrgbchk`. Klshphrldblr`c
klspuâs kl duhtr` kçhs y c` nhc rlmrlshk`. Gb sbstlgh sudugebô h oh dlrvlzh y
phthths frbths y `tr`s surk`s oh ehsurh kbhrbh, plr` uch k`sbs kbhrbh kl GGT o`
hobvbô h o`s p`d`s gbcut`s.
Gb klebobkhk kl t`kh oh vbkh lrh klghsbhkh gud`sbkhk lc oh chrbz y oh
mhrmhcth. Lc oh ghy`rçh kl ohs vldls sl nh rlkudbk` c`theolglctl h uc ‟c`
pr`eolgh‗ kl cbvlo.
Hn`rh d`csbm` k`rgbr t`kh oh c`dnl, y gb lsp`sh kbdl qul gb r`cqubk` ls
glc`r.. Z…W
glc`r
Z…W
Fulctl1 nps1//ggs;obfl.w`rkprlss.d`g/ggs-tlsg`cbhos/
44;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) qul sl pulkl d`gebchr d`c oh bcmlsôc kl 8<9 go h 599 go kl hmuh
kl ghr ho kçh lc vhrbhs t`ghs ` høhkbkh kbrldthglctl ho DKT.
Ulsfrbhk` d`gñc
Lo rlsfrbhk` d`gñc ls uch lcflrglkhk bcflddb`sh vbrho olvl klo sbstlgh
rlspbrht`rb` suplrb`r qul lc oh ghy`rçh kl o`s dhs`s dhush ua` heuckhctl kl
gud`sbkhk p`r oh chrbz, d`cmlsôc chsho y lst`rcuk`.
Tç1
D`cmlsôc chsho, rbc`rrlh (ua` heuckhctl kl gud`sbkhk p`r oh chrbz),
dhrrhsplrh, lst`rcuk`. [hgebâc pulkl prlslcthr1 t`s, kbsgbcudbôc klo hplt`,
k`o`r kl dhelzh y gusduohrls, bchghdbôc y k`o`r kl mhrmhcth.
mhrmhcth.
[1 Uj (Lø) — 58/88/85
Klskl qul o` t`gâ p`r prbglrh vlz c` nl d`mbk` `tr` rlsfrbhk`.
Duhck` c`t` qul lst`y bcduehck` uc rlsfrbhk` ` kl lsthr d`c homublc qul
lstè d`c lst`rcuk`s, t`s, lerl, ltd, t`g` lo lqubvholctl h lctrl < y 8< m`ths ho
kçh, dohr`, kbsulot` lc hmuh, lc vhrbhs t`ghs d`c uch n`rh kl bctlrvho`.
Rh kbm`, dhsb sblgprl, uchs < m`ths ho kçh, puls oh glzdoh gl kurh lc oh
clvlrh uc`s 4 kçhs. Z…W
Fulctl1 nps1//a`slpphgbls.w`rkprlss.d`g/5985/88/8</y`-thgeblc-us`ggs-kb`xbk`-kl-do`r`-y-kbvuom`-sus-pr`pblkhkls-glkbdbchols/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` F
(frldulctl) y, lc dhs`s slvlr`s, sl pulkl slmubr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT)
`
E (eèsbd`)
d`g` hotlrchvh,Lo d`gebchk`
dhs` klnhcldlsbkhk
d`c lo
pr`t`d`o`
@ (`t`rrbc`-chsho).
pr`t`d`o` Qlc
(zhpplr)
khk` rlsuothk`s
lxdlolctls
lxdlolc
tls ho d`gebchro` d`c o`s pr`t`d`o`s hctlrb`rls.
hctlrb`rls.
44<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Ubcbtbs hoârmbdh
Oh rbcbs hoârmbdh ` lerl klo nlc` ls uch lcflrglkhk bchght`rbh drôcbdh
kl oh gud`sh chsho, qul pulkl lsthr dhushkh p`r uch rlhddbôc hoârmbdh ` p`r
èdhr`s, n`cm`s ` lpbtlob`s kl hcbghols.
Tç1
O`s sçct`ghs gès frldulctls s`c1 pbd`r,
pbd`r, `estruddbôc, sldrldb`cls chshols y
lc `dhsb`cls, fhoth kl `ofht`.
[1 U G. (De) — 58/6/88
Nhdl hpr`xbghkhglctl 59 kçhs qul dhyô lc gbs ghc`s oh bcf`rghdbôc klo
GGT, d`g` s`y bcmlcblrh quçgbdh gl bctlrlsâ.
R` nl sufrbk` t`kh gb vbkh kl hflddb`cls kl mhrmhcth y rbcbs hoârmbdh. Cucdh
gl qubsl klahr lxtrhlr ohs hgçmkhohs y p`r d`csbmublctl d`g` ohs tlcm` mrhckls,
sl gl bchghc y plrghcldlc d`c uchs e`obths kl ghtlrbh qul gl pr`kudlc k`o`r,
gholsthr, gho hoblct` y dhrrhsplrh ho puct` kl qul dhsb c` gl musth nheohr p`rqul
d`gblcz` h t`slr y h dhrrhsplhr.
D`glcdâ d`c 5 m`ths lo prbglr kçh lc n`rhs kl oh thrkl y `trhs k`s m`ths h oh
sbmublctl n`rh hctls kl hd`sthrgl. O` prbglr` qul c`tâ ls qul sl gl klsplaô oh
chrbz, y oh mhrmhcth gl hghcldbô sbc oh shobvh lsplsh qul sblgprl tlcçh ho olvhcthrgl,
pukl k`rgbr poèdbkhglctl t`kh oh c`dnl y d`ccuâ ho kçh sbmublctl d`c trls m`ths
dhkh n`rh p`r > n`rhs.
Lo
rlsuothk`
qulqulrblck`
gb mhrmhcth
lstègès
lstè
obgpbh,
y gb
Gudnh
mlctllslstè
qulrblc
k` shelr
s`erl
lo chrbz
GGTklsplahkh.
y y` ols nl Z…W
erbckhk`
oh bcf`rghdbôc qul d`c`zd`. Hpr`xbghkhglctl 89 plrs`chs lstèc hn`rh
d`csugblck` lstl pr`kudt`, homuchs p`rqul lstèc lcflrghs y `trhs p`rqul
qublrlc t`ghroh phrh ghctlcbgblct`.
Lsplr` p`klr d`gphrrols t`k`s o`s tlsg`cb`s kl durhdbôc qul nhyhc
tlcbk` ohs plrs`chs h qublcls ols nl d`gphrk` y qul lstèc t`ghck` lo GGT.
Tl gl `ovbkheh qul prlphrâ lo GGT phrh us` tôpbd` y nl rlhobzhk` mhrmhrbsg`s
mhrmhrbsg`s
y o` lst`y uobzhck` d`g` drlgh klctho, klah o`s kblctls obgpb`s y sbc shrr`.
shr r`.
Fulctl1 nps1//ggsohc`hglrbdh.w`rkprlss.d`g/tlsg`cb`s/
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`) d`gebchk` d`c pr`t`d`o` @ (`t`rrbc`-chsho).
446
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
Thrd`bk`sbs
Oh shrd`bk`sbs ls oh bchghdbôc ‛sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz‛ kl
o`s mhcmob`s obcfèd`s, o`s puog`cls, lo nçmhk`, o`s `a`s, oh pblo y `tr`s tlabk`s,
klebk` h uch hmruphdbôc kl dâouohs
d âouohs klo sbstlgh bcgucbthrb`, qul f`rghc ghshs
kl tlabk` hc`rgho, oohghkhs mrhcuo`ghs, lc kbsct`s ôrmhc`s klo dulrp`.
Duhck` lo sbstlgh bcgucbthrb` kllckl culstr` dulrp` kl susthcdbhs
lxtrhøhs, lcvçh dâouohs lspldbhols qul slmrlmhc eb`quçgbd`s pr`v`dhck` uch
bchghdbôc lc lo dulrp`. Lstl lfldt` slduckhrb` klsphrldl lc ohs plrs`chs
c`rghols, plr` d`ccñh lc ohs plrs`chs hfldthkhs
hfldthkhs kl shrd`bk`sbs.
Tç1
Dhsb t`k`s o`s phdblctls prlslcthc sçct`ghs lc lo puogôc ` lo tôrhx qul
klrbvhc lc1 fhmh, lerl, fhoth kl lclrmçh, pârkbkh kl pls`, k`o`rls hrduohrls,
slqulkhk `duohr, k`o`r t`rèdbd`, t`s sldh, kbduothk phrh rlspbrhr, t`s d`c
shcmrl, vbsbôc e`rr`sh, fhoth kl hoblct`, olsb`cls dutèclhs, qul vhrçhc klskl
lcr`aldbgblct`s
lcr`aldbgblct
`s y plqulø`s côkuo`s nhsth lrbtlgh c`k`s` ` oupus.
[1 H (Lø) — 89/85/88
Kbhmcôsd` doçcbd`1 Thrd`bk`sbs. D`gblczh trhthgblct` d`c GGT
5=/85/5989. H kçh 89/85/5988, d`gucbdh qul trhs phshr ohs prulehs kl d`ctr`o
gâkbd` kl su lcflrglkhk, rldbel lo d`glcthrb` kl su gâkbd`1 ‟Tb c` supbârhg`s
qul uk. phkldl Thrd`bk`sbs, kbrçhg`s qul uk. c` phkldl lsth lcflrglkhk puls
lstè d`gpolthglctl obgpbh kl looh‗.
looh‗.
Hch o`mrô t`ghr kbhrbhglctl 89 m`ths hdvhkhs kl GGT (trls vldls ho kçh):
t`gô trls glsls GGT ho 5>% y p`r g`v`s kl hdlpthdbôc, dhgebô h GGT ho 5<%
p`r lo rlst` klo lgp`, nhdblck` dhkh 8< kçhs uch phrhkh kl 4 kçhs phrh t`ghr
8999 gm kl vbthgbch D y gbclrhols c` p`cklrheols (shols h 8 ppg `etlcbkhs p`r
g`oturhdbôc: prbcdbphoglctl dhodb`s. Lst`s bcdous` kurhctl oh t`gh klo GGT). Tu
hobglcthdbôc,, ful oh nhebtuho, lvbthck`
hobglcthdbôc
lvbthck` lc o` p`sbeol ohs dhrcls. Tbmul uc pr`t`d`o`
kl ghctlcbgblct` y prlvlcdbôc kl 6 m`ths hdvhkhs kl GGT ho 5<% k`s vldls
p`r slghch (ghrtls y aulvls.)
Lsplr` qul slh kl uobkhk, phrh qublc o` cldlsbtl. Mrhdbhs h Gr.Nugeol y h
t`k`s o`s qul nhc nldn` p`sbeol lst`.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/5984/9;/94/shrd`bk`sbs-tlsg`cb`-ggs/
44=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT)
` lo pr`t`d`o` E(eèsbd`) y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` K(klrght`oômbd`)
K(klrght`oômbd`) lc
ohs z`chs hfldthkhs kurhctl lo lgp` cldlshrb`.
THUG (Tt
(Tthpnyo`d`ddus
hpnyo`d`ddus Hurlus
Hurlu s)(d`csuothr hphrthk` ‟Tthpnyo`d`ddus‗)
Thrch
Oh shrch ls uch lcflrglkhk kl oh pblo dhushkh p`r lo èdhr` phrèsbt`
Thrd`ptls sdheblb. Tl trhcsgbtl p`r d`cthdt` kbrldt` d`c hcbghols y plrs`chs
bcfldthkhs. C` ls uch bcflddbôc kl rblsm` y ls ehsthctl d`gñc lc duhoqublr
phrtl klo guck`, lc t`khs ohs lkhkls.
Tç1
Ybd`r, d`glzôc, f`rghdbôc kl plqulø`s mrhc`s,
hgp`oohs y r`cdnhs ` plquløhs ñodlrhs d`c d`strhs lc
oh pblo.
[1 Af GJ (LL. \\.)
\\.)
¡Klspuâs kl 4 8/5 glsls kl v`ovlrsl o`dh klebk` h
oh pbdhzôc bctlcsh kl shrch y trhthr uch hgpobh vhrblkhk
Fbm. ;=1 [lrlsh.
kl trhthgblct`s choglctl pr`eâ lo pr`t`d`o` kl ehø`
GGT (7 Yr`t`d`o` O), y klspuâs kl sôo` k`s ehø`s (!!!)
gl slc hobvbhkh. ¡Klspuâs kl dbcd` ehø`s lrh uch gualr culvh!
[hgebâc d`ccuâ nhdblck` ohs d`shs sumlrbkhs lc uch vhrblkhk kl sb`s
wle phrh lvbthr oh rlbcflsthdbôc (o` gès bgp`rthctl ohvhr y/` sldhr t`kh oh r`ph
y oh r`ph kl dhgh klspuâs kl uc s`o` us`).
Hgbm`s, gl lstheh v`ovblck` o`dh y d`glczhr h slcrgl klslsplrhkh.
[lcçh shrch lc dhsb t`k` gb dulrp`. Klskl gb lxplrblcdbh y` kbrçh qul c` tl
g`olstls d`c duhoqublr `trh d`sh. C` pblrkh lo lgp`, oh lclrmçh ` lo kbclr` lc
`trh d`sh. GGT ls oh rlspulsth. ¡Elckbt` slhs, Abg Nugeol!
Fulctl1 np1//ggstlsg`cbhos.bs/sdhebls
44>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` O
(ehø`) ` thgebâc d`g` hotlrchvh lo pr`t`d`o` M (mhs lc e`osh mrhckl).
[hgebâc sl pulkl hpobdhr dlcbzh kl phrrh kl vbc` glzdohk` d`c hdlbtl
lc o`s oumhrls gès hfldthk`s.
Tçckr`gl kl Taömrlc
Lo sçckr`gl kl Taömrlc, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`c
d`cvlcdb`cho,
ho, ls uc trhst`rc` qul klstruyl
ohs moèckuohs lx`drbchs, lcdhrmhkhs kl pr`kudbr oçqubk`s d`g` oh shobvh, ohs
oèmrbghs, ohs sldrldb`cls gud`shs kl oh ohrbcml y kl oh trèqulh y ohs sldrldb`cls
vhmbchols, qul suhvbzhc ohs phrtls klo `rmhcbsg` qul lstèc lc d`cthdt` d`c lo
lxtlrb`r, ` gud`shs.
Ls thgebâc uch lcflrglkhk rlugèdh, qul pr`kudl k`o`r l nbcdnhzôc lc
ohs hrduohdb`cls.
Lstl sçckr`gl `durrl sôo` d`c `tr` trhst`rc` hut`bcgucbthrb` d`g`1
hrtrbsrlught`bklh,, oupus lrbtlght`s` sbstâgbd`,
hrtrbsrlught`bklh
sbstâgbd`, lsdolr`klrgbh ` p`ob`gb`sbs.
Uldbel su c`gerl lc n`c`r ho dblcd` suld` Nlcrbj Taömrlc.
Tç1
Tlqulkhk y hrk`r lc o`s `a`s, slcshdbôc kl qul nhy hom` lc lo `a`, kbduothk
phrh
d`glrlsplsh
hobglct`s
pârkbkh
kl slck`
klo must`,
pr`eolghs
phrh trhmhr
nheohr,`shobvh
` lc sld`s,
nbo`s, k`o`r
` ñodlrhs
eudhols,
kltlrb`r`
kl o`s
kblctls l bchghdbôc kl ohs lcdçhs, r`cqulrh, fhmh, lerl, dhgeb` kl d`o`r lc
ohs ghc`s ` lc o`s pbls, k`o`r hrduohr y mhcmob`s bchghk`s.
bchghk`s.
[1 Hcôcbg`
H gb sulmr` ol rld`glckô lstl pr`kudt` su chturôphth.
chturôphth. Âo ful kbhmc`sdhk`
d`c oh lcflrglkhk kl Ta`mrlc nhdl hpr`xbghkhglctl
hpr`xbghkhglctl uc hø` y tlcçh t`k`s o`s
sçct`ghs klebobthctls1
klebobthctls1 `a`s sld`s (m`ths cldlshrbhs dhkh p`dhs n`rhs), e`dh sldh
(cldlshrb` elelr hmuh d`c ohs d`gbkhs / hobglct`s), y lo cbvlo kl lclrmçh gudn`
glc`r.
Klskl qul t`gô lo GGT lc lo ñog` gls y glkb`, nh tlcbk` uch
rlduplrhdbôc bcdrlçeol1 yh c` cldlsbth m`ths phrh o`s `a`s lc hes`out`, kulrgl
d`g` uc eleâ p`r oh c`dnl, y c` lcl oh e`dh sldh lc hes`out`. Hklgès, nh
rlhcukhk` su phsbôc, lo tlcbs (h o`s =8 hø`s kl lkhk!)
442
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Âo lstè t`ghck` hpr`xbghkhglctl 59 m`ths ho kçh, plr` d`glczô olcthglctl
d`c sôo` 5-; m`ths ho kçh. Nh lxplrbglcthk` uc p`d` kl cèuslh ho prbcdbpb`, plr`
h glkbkh qul ohs t`xbchs shoçhc kl su sbstlgh, o`s sçct`ghs thgebâc sl fulr`c y
âo slGb
sblctl
gla`r
kl o`
sl nhlsthk`
slck`t`ghck`
lc hø`s.thgebâc, hsç d`g` phrh ohs
ghrbk`
y y`
o` qul
nlg`s
ñoghs slghchs, y kl culv`, nh nhebk` homuc`s mrhckls hd`ctldbgblct`s.
O`s pr`eolghs `duohrls drôcbdhs kl gb ghrbk` (lcr`aldbgblct`, pbd`r)
prèddhglctl nhc klshphrldbk`, y âo lstè kurgblck` gès trhcqubohglctl. Âo
thgebâc lxplrbglctô
lxplrbglctô dblrth cèuslh y kbhrrlh olvls ho bcbdb`.
Fulctl1 np1//www.durlz`cl.`rm/f`rugs/hg.hsp0b785;5482
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` @
(`hog`oômbd`) lc d`cauct` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) `, d`g` hotlrchvh, lo
pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`).
Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`).
Tbcusbtbs
Oh sbcusbs ls uch rlspulsth bchght`rbh kl oh gud`sh kl oh chrbz y kl o`s
slc`s phrhchshols, hctl uch bcflddbôc ehdtlrbhch, vbrho ` kl n`cm`s. Lc uch
plrs`ch shch o`s slc`s phrhchshols uebdhk`s kltrès kl oh frlctl, kl o`s nuls`s kl
oh chrbz y kl ohs glaboohs y `a`s, c` d`clclc ehdtlrbhs u `tr`s gbdr``rmhcbsg`s,
lo g`d` pulkl shobr y lo hbrl pulkl dbrduohr h trhvâs kl loo`s.
Tç1
Yârkbkh klo slck` klo `ofht` y gho hoblct`, t`s qul mlclrhoglctl lgpl`rh
p`r oh c`dnl, fhmh y slcshdbôc kl gholsthr mlclrho, lerl, k`o`r kl dhelzh,
d`cmlsôc y sldrldbôc chsho, k`o`r kl mhrmhcth
mhrmhcth y m`tl` rltr`chsho, k`o`r sbgbohr
h prlsbôc kltrès kl o`s `a`s, k`o`r kl guloh ` slcsbebobkhk fhdbho.
[1 H @ (Lø)
Gb c`gerl ls Hct`cb` @dn`h y tlcm` 6> hø`s.
Klskl guy a`vlc nl tlcbk` pr`eolghs chshols rlspbrht`rb`s, uchs vldls
olvls y `trhs fulrtls. D`c `cdl hø`s phkldç uch er`cqubs hmukh qul lstuv`
4;9
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
h puct` kl d`sthrgl oh vbkh. Oh hphrbdbôc kl oh plcbdbobch uchs kâdhkhs hctls,
y uc gâkbd` kl o`s kl hctls, (bcdous` hklohctô lo bgp`rtl klo glkbdhglct`
pr`nbebv` phrh gbs phkrls,) gl shovô. Yulkl qul hnç lstuvblsl lo `rçmlc kl gbs
pr`eolghs,
` c`…
D`c trldl
hø`s rldulrk` gb prbglrh plrf`rhdbôc chturho kl gphc` qul
dursô sbc bctlrvlcdbôc gâkbdh. Lc looh, d`g` lc ohs klgès, slc d`g` uc
pbcdnhz` guy fulrtl duhck` sl plrf`rô.
H o` ohrm` kl gb vbkh nl tlcbk` dbcd` plrf`rhdb`cls kl gphc`. Oh ñogh
nhdl slbs hø`s qul gl oh `dhsb`cô gb `t`rrbc` d`c uch alrbcmubooh phrh shdhr oh
mrhc dhckhk kl g`d` qul nheçh lc lo `çk`, d`o`dèck`gl uc kbgbcut` kbèe`o`
qul kleçh dhlrsl ho p`d` lgp` y dlrrhrsl lo gphc`. Ylr` phshr`c dbcd` hø`s
nhsth qul, trhs vlr uc vçkl` kl ‟ghlvhrbp`sh‗ lc R`utuel s`erl dôg` ohvhrsl
o`s slc`s phrhchshols, nhooâ lo rlglkb` klcbv`, nhsth hn`rh, phrh obgpbhr gbs
slc`s phrhchshols, y hyukhk` p`r uc trhthgbl
trhthgblct`
ct` chturbsth, gb gphc` sl dlrrô.
Mrhdbhs h ‟ghlvhrbp`sh‗ hut`rh klo vçkl`, p`r su hp`rthdbôc. Lst` ls lo
trhthgblct` qul nbdl1
[
[
   1
1 Ohvhk` kl slc`s phrhchshols. Yrlphrhdbôc
Yrlphrhdbôc11
• 4> go kl hmuh sbc do`r`
do`r` (`sg`sbs bcvlrsh,
bcvlrsh, lge`tloohkh,
lge`tloohkh, klsohkh…)
tlgpohkh. (Horlklk`r kl 4<-4> mrhk`s).
• \ch pbzdh kl sho. Tb sl lcl hmuh kl ghr,
ghr, 6 go kl hmuh kl ghr y 49 go kl
hmuh sbc do`r`.
• 5 go kl DKT.
• 8 m`th
m`th kl [email protected] ho =9%
=9% (sb sl lcl).
lcl).
• \ch alrbcmubooh kl 59 go.
Yrhddhr obgpblzh tho y d`g` sl lxpobdh lc lo vçkl` rlflrlcdbhk`1
nps1//y`utu.el/`rpf64wsOy`
Fulctl1 dhrth lcvbhkh ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` @
(`t`rrbc`-chsho) y lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) ` E (eèsbd`) d`g` hotlrchvh.
Tthpnyo`d`ddus
Tthpnyo`d`ddus ls uc mâclr` kl ehdtlrbhs lstho`d`dèdlhs kl oh dohsl Ehdboob.
Lsths ehdtlrbhs pulklc vbvbr sbc `dhsb`chr khø` lc gudnhs suplrdbls kl oh pblo,
lspldbhoglctl dlrdh kl oh chrbz, oh e`dh, o`s mlcbthols y lo hc`. Ylr` ho ohsghrsl
4;8
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
oh pblo ` sufrbr uch pucdbôc, ohs ehdtlrbhs lstho`dôdbdhs pulklc lctrhr lc oh nlrbkh
pr`v`dhck` uch bcflddbôc.
Tl d`c`dlc gès kl 49 lspldbls lc oh fhgbobh lstho`dôdbdh, qul pr`kudlc
kbscths
lcflrglkhkls
d`g` p`rp`r
lalgpo`
oh bcflddbôc
ohs vçhsohurbchrbhs,
plr` oh ghy`rçh
kl bcflddb`cls
lstho`d`d`bhs,
ohsklpr`v`dh
lspldbl
Tthpnyo`d`ddus hurlus.
Tç1
Bcflddb`cls lc oh pblo d`g` f`obduobs, f`rñcduo`s, bgpâm` y dlouobs.
Oh ehdtlrbh thgebâc pulkl pr`v`dhr lcflrglkhkls d`g` bct`xbdhdbôc p`r
hobglct`s ` sçckr`gl kl sn`dj tôxbd`.
[1 A (De) — =/6/85
‟A`l, sl lcflrgô d`c lstho`d`d`s nhdçh < hø`s. Ol shoçhc er`tls guy
fulrtls qul d`glc oh dhrcl. [`gô lo GGT nhdl 4 hø`s.
Kurhctl 5 glsls nbz` lo trhthgblct` kl 8< m`ths, 4 vldls ho
h o kçh (guy fulrtl).
fulrtl) .
Hn`rh d`c DKT ls ghs suhvl sbc lfldt`s slduckhrb`s.‗
slduckhrb`s.‗
Fulctl1 nps1//y`utu.el/6C^[email protected]
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`).
dhs`s slvlr`s
rldurrlctls,
pr`t`d`o`
ldhzYhrh
y thgebâc
lo pr`t`d`o`
M (mhs), lo
sb ls
lxtlrc`.Q (zhpplr) nh p`kbk` slr
[rhst`rc` Ebp`ohr (y Hcsblkhk Mlclrhobzhkh)
Lo trhst`rc` ebp`ohr, lcflrglkhk kl dhush klsd`c`dbkh y sbc s`oudbôc
fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch d`cvlcdb`cho, thgebâc ls d`c`dbk` d`g`
trhst`rc` hfldv` ebp`ohr ([HE) y hcmuhglctl d`g` psbd`sbs ghcçhd`klprlsbvh (YGK), ls lo kbhmcôsd` psbqubètrbd` qul klsdrbel uc trhst`rc` klo
lsthk` kl ècbg` dhrhdtlrbzhk` p`r dhgeb`s bcusuhols.
Tç1
Ghcçhd`s1 slcrsl guy holmrls ` hcbghk`s, guy clrvb`s`s ` hotlrhk`s,
nheohr guy rèpbk` kl gudnhs d`shs kbscths, lsthr bcqublt`s, brrbthk`s y
4;5
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
slcsbeols, d`c pr`eolghs phrh k`rgbr ` rlohahrsl, drllrsl dhphz kl nhdlr
gudnhs d`shs h oh vlz y lsthr gès hdv`s kl o` d`gñc y o`s sçct`ghs klprlsbv`s
s`c1 slcrsl guy klprbgbk`s ` trbstls, prl`duphk`s y vhdç`s, d`c pr`eolghs kl
d`cdlctrhdbôc,
kl ohs d`shs
ho tlclr
oh gulrtl
glctl lcf`dhkh
lc kl
su
pr`pbh trbstlzh, `ovbkhrsl
bcs`gcb` gudn`
y plcshgblct`s
subdbkhs
` kl
y slcshdbôc
qul c` nhy shobkh.
C  1
T`spldn` qul oh dhush kl lstl trhst`rc` lc gudn`s dhs`s lc rlhobkhk ls
uch phrhsbt`sbs bctlscho k`ckl o`s phrèsbt`s obelrhc t`xbchs lc lo bctlsc` qul
dhushc hotlrhdb`cls lc lo dlrler`.
Nl p`kbk` vlr gudnhs rlgbsb`cls t`thols klspuâs kl rlhobzhk` lo
trhthgblct` hcphrhsbthrb`.
[1 A D  He (L) — 5/85/8<
5/85/8<
O` prbglr` ful hpobdhr lo pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E) p`d` h p`d` nhsth
hodhczhr ohs 5; m`ths p`r kçh p`r trls slghchs, gl kurô slbs glsls lo trhthgblc
trhthgblct`
t`
d`c GGT, d`c suebkhs y ehahkhs kl k`sbs, nhsth qul p`r c fub lobgbchck` uch
kr`mh qul d`csugç p`r dhsb sbltl hø`s phrh trhthr gb trhst`rc` kl pècbd` ` kl
hcsblkhk.
Rh c` sufr` o`s 8= sçct`ghs kl o`s hthquls
hthqul s kl pècbd` y klskl oulm` hmrhklzd`
oh vholch kl Abg Nugeol p`r p`clro` ho hodhcdl kl qublc qublrh nhdlr us` klo
ggs phrh trhthr su lcflrglkhk.
Fulctl1 nps1//tlsg`cb`sggs.d`g/0s7hcsblkhk
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) `
pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`) d`gebchk` d`c pr`t`d`o` L (lclghs). Y`stlrb`rglctl,
sl rld`gblckh nhdlr lo pr`t`d`o` Y (phrèsbt`s) qul nh rlsuothk` guy ldhz
lc gudn`s dhs`s slvlr`s.
[r`ge`sbs vlc`sh
Oh tr`ge`sbs vlc`sh ls oh f`rghdbôc kl uch ghsh nlgèdh ` tr`ge`,
klctr` kl uch vlch phrh kltlclr oh nlg`rrhmbh dhushkh p`r oh rupturh kl uc
vhs` shcmuçcl`. Tb ls mrhckl, sl hsblcth lc ohs vlchs pr`fuckhs kl ohs pblrchs
(tr`ge`sbs vlc`sh pr`fuckh) y sb sl klsprlcklc frhmglct`s plqulø`s klo
4;4
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
tr`ge` y `estruylc lo ua` shcmuçcl` lc o`s puog`cls, ho hsdlcklr,
hsdlcklr, sl klc`gbch
lge`obh kl puogôc.
Tç1
Lc o`s dhs`s kl tr`ge`sbs vlc`sh pr`fuckh, k`o`r p`d` prldbs` y kl
bctlcsbkhk vhrbheol. Lo lcr`aldbgblct` y lo bcdrlglct` klo thghø` lc oh pblrch
` lo guso`. Oh lge`obh puog`chr lstè dhrhdtlrbzhkh p`r lo k`o`r kl pldn`, t`s h
vldls d`c shcmrl y slcshdbôc sñebth kl kbduothk phrh rlspbrhr.
[1 C K (Gâx) — 48/4/84
Gb phkrl, oohghk` Auhc Dhro`s Kupuy, kl <2 hø`s, sufrbô uch tr`ge`sbs lc
oh rhgh vlc`sh tlgp`rho, suplrb`r rlcho, lc lo `a` klrldn`, o` qul lc phoherhs
sbgpols slrçh uc klrrhgl lc oh rlch, plrkblck` oh vbsbôc p`r d`gpolt` kl lsl
`a`. Lst` ol `durrbô lo 599>, y lc lsl lgp` c` sl trhtô cb chkh, nhsth qul lo
5984 c`s d`gucbdô h oh fhgbobh o` qul ol nheçh phshk`, plr` yh lrh brrlvlrsbeol
oh sbtuhdbôc, p`r o` qul o`s k`dt`rls c` ol kblr`c cbcmuch lsplrhczh kl v`ovlr h
rlduplrhr oh vbsbôc kl su `a` klrldn`.
Tlmñc su `hogôo`m` kl oh HDNT, Dhro`s Hrhyh Guø`z, c` lxbsh cbcmuch
`plrhdbôc, pr`dlkbgblct`
pr`dlkbgblct` ` rlglkb` qul pukblsl rlduplrhr oh vbsbôc, cb sbqublrh
lc uc p`rdlcthal glc`r, ls kldbr, tlcçhg`s qul hdlpthr oh bklh kl qul c`
v`ovlrçh h vlr cucdh gès p`r su `a` klrldn`, rlsbmchrc`s y trhthr kl lvbthr qul
ol phshrh lc lo `a` bzqublrk`.
Gb phkrl d`glczô lo Yr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E), lo kçh 2 kl flerlr`
nhsth lo 8< kl ghrz` 5984, y oulm` kl 5 slghchs kl trhthgblct`, ho lsthr
gbrhck` lo ph` d`c uc`s ebc`duohrls, c`s kbdl uc thct` lg`db`chk`, qul
p`kçh vlr uch plquløh ouz p`r lo d`sthk` kl su `a`. Ful uch slcshdbôc bcdrlçeol,
lc k`ckl t`k`s qulkhg`s sbc phoherhs p`r oh lg`dbôc. Hsç phshr`c 5 slghchs
gès y c`s kldçh qul p`r homuc`s sldt`rls klo `a`, tlcçh oh vbsbôc d`g` oh kl uc
vbkrb` g`ahk`: ls kldbr
kldbr,, lo d`èmuo` kl shcmrl sl lstheh kbs`ovblck` olcthglctl.
olcthglctl.
Oulm` kl d`gpolthr lo gls klo Yr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 Yr`t`d`o` E), ful h d`ctr`o
d`c lo `hogôo`m` y âstl ol kbdl, uc thct` s`rprlckbk`, qul nheçh rlduplrhk` oh
vbsbôc lc uc 59%, t`k` lst` lc ehsl h lxèglc
lxèglcls
ls vbsuhols qul ol prhddhr`c. Gb
phkrl, h oh fldnh (ghy` 5984), hñc sbmul t`ghck` lo GGT phrh o`mrhr rlduplrhr
o` gèxbg` p`sbeol kl oh vbsbôc. Tb eblc, ls dblrt`, qul h vldls lo trhthgblct`
d`csugl
mrhc phrtl
kl culstr`
klkbdhdbôc,
rlhoglctlck`.
vhol oh plch
slcr o`s dhgeb`s
y gla`rçhs
qullgp`
culstr`ydulrp`
vh lxplrbglcthck`.
lxplrbglcth
Fulctl1 nps1//www.fhdle``j.d`g/ggsgx/p`sts/898<8<446=69<26>
nps1//www.fhdle``j.d`g/ggsgx/p`sts/898<8<446=69<26>5
5
4;;
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` @ (`hog`oômbd`).
[uelrduo`sbs
Oh tuelrduo`sbs (herlvbhkh [ED ` [E) ls uch bcflddbôc ehdtlrbhch d`cthmb`sh,
d`cthmb`sh,
qul sl pr`phmh p`r lo hbrl, kl uch plrs`ch h `trh duhck` oh plrs`ch bcfldthkh
t`sl, lst`rcukh, nheoh ` dhcth. Oh ehdtlrbh pulkl vbvbr lc culstr` dulrp` sbc
lcflrghrc`s, lc lsthk` ohtlctl, c` prlslcth sçct`ghs y c` ls susdlpeol kl
d`cthmbhr h `trhs plrs`chs p`rqul lo dulrp` d`gehtl ohs ehdtlrbhs bgpbkblck`
qul sl guopobqulc y klslcdhklclc oh lcflrglkhk.
lcflrglkhk. Tbc lgehrm`
lgehrm`,, ohs plrs`chs
lcflrghs kl tuelrduo`sbs sç prlslcthc sçct`ghs y pulklc d`cthmbhr h `trhs
plrs`chs. D`c frldulcdbh ohs ehdtlrbhs sl guopobdhc lc o`s puog`cls dhushck`
o`s sbmublctls sçct`ghs.
Tç1
[`s bctlcsh qul kurh 4 slghchs ` gès, k`o`r lc lo pldn`, t`s d`c shcmrl
` lsput`, klebobkhk, dhcshcdb`, pârkbkh kl pls`, fhoth kl hplt`, lsdho`frç`s,
lerl y suk`r c`dturc`.
[1 H U Yz (Gâx)
(Gâx) — 48/4/84
‟Kl o`s rlsuothk`s gès rlolvhctls qul tuvbg`s lc lo lstukb` kl uch prbsbôc
kl Gâxbd`1 lc lstl lstukb` tlcçhg`s > plrs`chs qul lstuvblr`c t`ghck` lo
GGT kl o`s hcèobsbs quçgbd`s (tlst) qul nbdbg`s ful phrh ohs plrs`chs qul
tlcçhc tuelrduo`sbs, y lo kht` bgp`rthctl qul `etuvbg`s ful lo kl uch plrs`ch
d`c tuelrduo`sbs rlsbstlctl h t`k`s o`s hcebôd`s y sl durô h o`s 8< kçhs kl
lsthr t`ghck` lsl trhthgblct`. H o`s ñcbd`s qul sl ols prhddhr`c o`s hcèobsbs
fulr`c h o`s kl tuelrduo`sbs. Lst` ful p`rqul c` tlcçhg`s chcdbhgblct` phrh
o`s klgès hcèobsbs.
Lo dhs` kl tuelrduo`sbs ful trhthk` d`c 8< m`ths kl GGT rlplk` k`s vldls
ho kçh kurhctl qubcdl kçhs bmuho qul o`s kl nlphs, sblgprl lgplzhk`
lgplzhk` p`r uch
` k`s m`ths ho bcbdb` phrh qul c` nhyh rldnhz` ` qul lo dulrp` c` o` rldnhdl.‗
Fulctl1 np1//ggs8.glxbd`-f
np1//ggs8 .glxbd`-f`r`.d`g/t=4-supolglt`-gbclrho-ggs
`r`.d`g/t=4-supolglt`-gbclrho-ggs
4;<
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D
(DKT) ` pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`) y d`gebchro` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` N (nhebthdbôc)
kl c`dnl. Tl pulkl hpobdhr
h pobdhr thgebâc lo pr`t`d`o` J (pblo d`c [email protected]).
[ug`r
\c tug`r, lcflrglkhk sbc s`oudbôc fhrghdâudh ldhz p`r oh glkbdbch
d`cvlcdb`cho, lstè khk` p`r uch ghsh hc`rgho kl tlabk` d`rp`rho, qul pulkl
slr elcbmch ` ghobmch. Tl pr`kudl duhck` ohs dâouohs sl kbvbklc y guopobdhc
klsd`ctr`ohkhglctl lc lo dulrp`. D`ccuhglctl drlhg`s dâouohs culvhs qul
rllgpohzhc h ohs vblahs y gblctrhs o` nhmhg`s kl f`rgh lquboberhkh c` nhy tug`r,
sç o` nhy duhck` sl hotlrh lo lquboberb` kl kbvbsbôc y gulrtl dlouohr.
Tç1
Lsdho`frç`s, fhmh, lerl, bchpltlcdbh, gholsthr mlclrho, suk`rls frç`s y
pârkbkh kl pls`. Klplckblck` klo p` y o`dhobzhdbôc klo tug`r, lc lo puogôc
pulkl `dhsb`chr t`s, kbduothk rlspbrht`rbh ` k`o`r t`rèdbd` y lc lo d`o`c pulkl
dhushr pârkbkh kl pls`, kbhrrlh, lstrløbgblc
lstrløbgblct`,
t`, hclgbh flrr`pâcbdh y shcmrl lc
ohs nldls.
[1 H @øz D (Gâx)
(Gâx) — 5</=/84
Xul tho guy eulchs thrkls, shouk`s klskl Gâxbd` slø`r Hckrlhs, hctls qul
chkh kâalgl flobdbthrol p`r oh f`rgbkheol ohe`r qul lstè nhdblck` d`c lo GGT,
y p`r herbrc`s o`s `a`s h gudn`s, drâhgl qul y` nl hprlckbk` ehsthctl d`c sus
d`cflrlcdbhs
d`cflr
lcdbhs lc vbkl`, y d`c o`s tlsg`cb`s s`erl lo GGT.
R` p`r gb phrtl nl d`gphrk` l bctlct` khr h d`c`dlr o` qul y` nl vbst`,
nhsth n`y nhdl yh dhsb gls y glkb` qul lgpldâ h khr lo trhthgblct`,
trhthgblct`, lc prbglr
oumhr h uc cbø` d`c uc tug`r lc uc `a` qul lstuvblr`c h puct`
puct` kl `plrhrol y ho
dhe` kl uc gls kl trhthgblct` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E), nhdl uc`s
kçhs o`s k`dt`rls c` sl lxpobdhc qul ful o` qul phs`, puls lo cbø` kl 84 hø`s yh
trhthk` d`c qubgb`s, lstuvblr`c h puct` kl herbrol oh dhelzh phrh lxtrhlr phrtl
kl lstl tug`r y klsdhrthr qul lrh ghobmc`, hn`rh su phkrl gès trhcqubo` y su
fhgbobh puls yh ol kblr`c p`r lsdrbt` qul lo tug`r klshphrldbô y qul s`o` nhy
uch sbgpol gud`sbkhk kl o` qul loo`s vlçhc d`g` uc tug`r dhcdlrçmlc`…
Kl phrtl kl su hgbm` Hrtur` @rk`ølz - Dhstlohc Glxbd` D.Y. ;4269
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
4;6
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, bcdrlglcthck`
bcdrlglcthck` oh t`gh h 4 go kl DKT kbsulot`
lc 899 go kl hmuh 89 vldls ho kçh. Tl pulkl d`gebchr d`c lo pr`t`d`o` J
(pblo d`c [email protected]) hpobdhk` lc oh z`ch kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls. Kl c`dnl sl
hpobdh lo pr`t`d`o` O (ehø`), sb ls p`sbeol.
Lc lo dhs` kl qul slh uc tug`r ghobmc`, y tho d`g` t`k`s o`s pr`t`d`o`s
kl dècdlr, pulkl slr hd`gphøhk` p`r bcfusb`cls kl hrtlgbsbh (Hrtlgbsbh
hccuh) ‛< m ho kçh‛ y oh bcmlsth kl 8< m kl Jhohcdn`l khbmrlg`chch
frlsdh.
Ls lslcdbho slmubr uch kblth hklduhkh hcdhcdlrçmlch, ehah lc hzñdhrls
y `trhs susthcdbhs qul hdbkbdhc lo dulrp`, y qul klel slr hkhpthkh, slmñc
ohs dbrducsthcdbhs, h dhkh phdblctl.
Ñodlrhs pâptbdhs (Nlobd`ehdtlr pyo`rb)
\ch ñodlrh pâpdh ls uch olsbôc ` oohmh lc oh gud`sh qul rlduerl lo
lstôghm` ` lo ku`klc`, qul ls oh prbglrh phrtl klo bctlsc` klomhk`.
Oh dhush kl oh ñodlrh ls uc klslquboberb` lctrl o`s fhdt`rls hmrlsbv`s phrh
oh gud`sh mhstr`ku`klcho y o`s klflcsbv`s, y lc homuc`s dhs`s klebk` h uch
bcflddbôc dhushkh p`r oh ehdtlrbh Nlobd`ehdtlr pyo`rb.
Tç1
K`o`r hek`gbcho (hrk`r, k`o`r ohdlrhctl ` slcshdbôc kl nhgerl k`o`r`sh).
K`o`r c`dturc` lctrl ohs 85 y ohs 4 kl oh ghøhch.
[1 F (H) — 82/89/85
N`oh Hckrlhs,
[l dulct`1 lo gâkbd` qul c`s nbz` ohs hchoçdhs ls hgbm` gç` y c`s bcf`rgô
hdlrdh kl o`s trhthgblct`s qul nheçh d`c hcebôd`s, âo gbsg` dhsuhoglctl
thgebâc lcl Nlobd`ehdtlr pyo`rb y sl nh nldn` k`s kbflrlctls trhthgblct`s kl
hcebôd`s.
Lc hge`s dhs`s gl d`glctô qul nheçh qul lsplrhr uc gçcbg` kl = h 85
glsls phrh shelr o`s rlsuothk`s y qul c` nhy mhrhchs. Klspuâs kl yh k`s
trhthgblct`s
trhthgblc
t`s y hchoçdhs y gès kl k`s hø`s âo t`khvçh lstè p`sbv`.
p`sbv`.
Lstuvbg`s vho`rhck` qul nhdlr y kldbkbg`s, thct` gb nlrghc` d`g` y`,
eha` culstrh rlsp`cshebobkhk,
rlsp`cshebobkhk, nhdlr lo Yr`t`d`o` 8999 (7 pr`t`d`o` E) kl GGT.
4;=
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Thouk Yr`nbebkh
Lo trhthgblct`
trhthgblct` o` lgplzhg`s h nhdlr aust` duhck` c`s kblr`c o`s rlsuothk`s
(8;-96-85). C`s v`ovbg`s h nhdlr ohs prulehs ho shelr qul vlcçhs phrh khr oh
d`cflrlcdbh,
d`cflr
lcdbh, y lo rlsuothk` ful o` gla`r1
¡¡¡‟CLMH[[email protected]‗
¡¡¡‟CLMH
[[email protected]‗ klspuâs kl thc s`o` ; glsls!!!
Fulctl1 l-ghbo lcvbhk` ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` D ` lo
pr`t`d`o` E d`g` hotlrchvh, kurhctl 4 h 6 glsls.
Ñodlrhs vhsduohrls
\odlrh vhsduohr ls uc p` kl ñodlrh pr`kudbkh p`r uc kldblctl
fucdb`chgblct` klo sbstlgh vlc`s`, mlclrhoglctl lc ohs pblrchs. T`c oh
prbglrh dhush kl olsbôc drôcbdh, rlprlslcthck` lctrl lo =9 y lo 29% kl âsths.
Tulolc klshrr`oohrsl fuckhglcthoglctl
fuckhglcthoglctl h o` ohrm` kl oh z`ch kbstho y glkbho kl
oh pblrch.
Nhy vhrb`s p`s kl ñodlrhs vhsduohrls (hrtlrbhols y vlc`shs). Klctr` kl ohs
ñodlrhs vlc`shs lstèc ohs pr`kudbkhs p`r oh kbheltls y d`g` d`csldulcdbh lstè
lo oohghk` ‟pbl/pblrch kbheâd`‗.
Lo khø` lc o`s vhs`s shcmuçcl`s sbmcbdh thgebâc qul o`s pbls c` rldbelc
sudblctl shcmrl y `xçmlc`, v`ovblck` gès kbdbo oh durhdbôc kl oohmhs l
bcflddb`cls.
Tç1
Fhoth kl rblm` shcmuçcl`, fhoth kl slcsbebobkhk, pblo sldh y hmrblthkh, hphrbdbôc
kl hgp`oohs, bcflddbôc. pblo lckurldbkh y kl d`o`r r`a` `sdur`, g`rhk`, ghrrôc
(lsth ls uch sløho kl qul oh shcmrl sl lstè rlprlshck`), pbdhzôc y n`rgbmul`.
Fbm. ;<1 Lv`oudbôc klo trhthgblct` kl uc pbl kbheâd` d`c cldr`sbs.
4;>
[`k`s o`s klrldn`s rlslrvhk`s. Cbcmuch phrtl kl lsth pueobdhdbôc pulkl slr rlpr`kudbkh, hoghdlchkh lc uc sbstlgh kl rlduplrhdbôc kl kht`s
` trhcsgbtbkh kl cbcmuch f`rgh ` p`r cbcmñc glkb` sbc lo plrgbs` prlvb` klo pr`pblthrb` klo d`pyrbmnt. Lghbo1 bcf`Ihckrlhsjhodjlr.d`g
Dhpçtuo` ;
[1 Gç
Dhs` kl pbl kbheâd` d`c cldr`sbs phrh slr hgputhk`, d`c f`t`s. Oh gla`rçh
ls hs`ger`sh y c` ful cldlshrb` hgputhr. \c shouk` y culvhglctl mrhdbhs.
Fbm. ;61 Yrbglr pohc` kl uc pbl kbheâd` d`c cldr`sbs, hctls y klspuâs klo trhthgblct`.
Fulctl1 f`t`s lcvbhkhs ho hut`r
[rhthgblct`1
\c trhthgblct` bckbdhk` phrh lstl dhs` slrçh uobzhr lo pr`t`d`o` K
(klrght`oômbd`) 5 ô 4 vldls ho kçh, d`gebchk` d`c lo pr`t`d`o` D (DKT) `
pr`t`d`o` E (eèsbd`) kurhctl 4 glsls. Lc dhs`s mrhvls, sl rlqublrl nhdlr oh
obgpblzh kl ohs nlrbkhs hklduhkhglctl.
\vlçtbs
Oh uvlçs ls oh bchghdbôc kl oh ñvlh, oègbch bctlrglkbh klo `a` sbtuhkh
lctrl oh lsdolrôdh p`r fulrh y oh rlch p`r klctr`. Oh ñvlh hp`rth oh ghy`r
ph