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Chapter 9
Microwave Linear-Beam
Tubes (0 Type)
9·0 INTRODUCTION
We turn now to a quantitative and qualitative analysis of several conventional vacuum tubes and microwave tubes in common use. The conventional vacuum tubes,
such as triodes, tetrodes, and pentodes, are still used as signal sources of low output
power at low microwave frequencies. The most important microwave tubes at
present are the linear-beam tubes (O type) tabulated in Table 9-0-1. The paramount
0-type tube is the two-cavity klystron, and it is followed by the reflex klystron. The
helix traveling-wave tube (TWT), the coupled-cavity TWT, the forward-wave amplifier (FWA), and the backward-wave amplifier and oscillator (BWA and BWO) are
also 0-type tubes, but they have nonresonant periodic structures for electron interactions. The Twystron is a hybrid amplifier that uses combinations of klystron and
TWT components. The switching tubes such as krytron, thyratron, and planar triode
are very useful in laser modulation. Although it is impossible to discuss all such
tubes in detail, the common operating principles of many will be described.
The advent of linear-beam tubes began with the Heil oscillators [I] in 1935
and the Varian brothers' klystron amplifier [ 1] in 1939. The work was advanced by
the space-charge-wave propagation theory of Hahn and Ramo [l] in 1939 and continued with the invention of the helix-type traveling-wave tube (TWT) by R.
Kompfner in 1944 [2]. From the early 1950s on, the low power output of linearbeam tubes made it possible to achieve high power levels, first rivaling and finally
surpassing magnetrons, the early sources of microwave high power. Subsequently,
several additional devices were developed, two of which have shown lasting importance. They are the extended interaction klystron [3] and the Twystron hybrid amplifier [4].
335
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
336
TABLE 9·0·1
Chap. 9
LINEAR BEAM TUBES (0 TYPE)
Linear-beam tubes (0-type)
I
Cavity
Slow-wave structure
I
\
Resonant
Forward-wave
Backward-wave
~
Reflex
Klystron
Twystron
Coupled-cavity
TWT
In a linear-beam tube a magnetic field whose axis coincides with that of the
electron beam is used to hold the beam together as it travels the length of the tube.
0 -type tubes derive their name from the French TPO (tubes a propagation des
ondes) or from the word original (meaning the original type of tube). In these tubes
electrons receive potential energy from the de beam voltage before they arrive in the
microwave interaction region, and this energy is converted into their kinetic energy.
In the microwave interaction region the electrons are either accelerated or decelerated by the microwave field and then bunched as they drift down the tube. The
bunched electrons, in turn, induce current in the output structure. The electrons then
give up their kinetic energy to the microwave fields and are collected by the
collector.
0-type traveling-wave tubes are suitable for amplification. At present, klystron
and TWT amplifiers can deliver a peak power output up to 30 MW (megawatts) with
a beam voltage on the order of 100 kV at the frequency of 10 GHz. The average
power outputs are up to 700 kW. The gain of these tubes is on the order of 30 to
70 dB, and the efficiency is from 15 to 60%. The bandwidth is from 1 to 8% for
klystrons and 10 to 15% for TWTs.
Since the early 1960s, predictions have continued that microwave tubes will be
displaced by microwave solid-state devices. This displacement has occurred only at
the low-power and receiving circuit level of equipment. Microwave power tubes
continue, however, as the only choice for high-power transmitter outputs and are expected to maintain this dominant role throughout the next generation and beyond.
Figure 9-0-1 and 9-0-2 show the CW power and peak power state-of-the-art performances for various tube types [5].
The numbers by the data points represent efficiency in percent; the letter in
parentheses stands for the developer of the tube. Impressive gain has been made in
bandwidth of a single TWT device by Varian. More than 50 dB of gain is available
GYROTRON (U)
3
10
15 (R) (S)
0
•
/PPM COUPLED
CAVITYTWT
TWT(R)
,_______,
TWT(V)
1--~---~
AIR COOLED PPM. HELIX TWT
•
ro
12 (H)
(W)
o
DATA FROM PUBLISHED RESULTS:
HUGHES (H)
RAYTHEON (R)
SIEMENS (S)
THOMPSON CSF (C)
USSR (U)
HDL~
VARIAN (V)
WATKINS JOHNSON (W) OROTRON
Figure 9-0-1 CW power state-of-theart performance for various microwave
tubes. (After C. Hieslmair [5 }, reprinted
by permission of Microwave Journal.)
100
10
FREQUENCY (GHz)
o CFA
e TWT
6 KLYSTRON
• GYROTRON
• 65 (U)
/GYROTRON
• 68 (U)
•
40 (H)
•
10 (U)
10•
DATA FROM PUBLISHED RESULTS:
HUGHES (H)
RAYTHEON (R)
SIEMENS (S)
THOMPSON CSF (C)
USSR (U)
VARIAN (V)
10 1..-~-'---'--''-'-...UU-l...L-~-'---''--...........................__...___._~..__~
3
1
10
FREQUENCY IGHzl
100
Figure 9-0-2 Peak power state-of-theart performance for various microwave
tubes. (After C. Hieslmair [5 ], reprinted
by permission of Microwave Journal.)
337
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
338
Chap.9
in a 93- to 95-GHz TWT at the 50-watt average level by Hughes, and 2-kW peak
power at 30-dB gain is provided by Varian. The most impressive power achievements at very good efficiencies continue to occur in the gyrotron area. The Naval
Research Laboratory (NRL) reports results of work on a 30% bandwidth gyrotron
TWT. Tube reliability continues to improve as a result of low-temperature cathode
technology, better materials, and quality control in manufacture.
9·1 CONVENTIONAL VACUUM TRIODES, TETRODES, AND
PENTODES
Conventional vacuum triodes, tetrodes, and pentodes are less useful signal sources at
frequencies above 1 GHz because of lead-inductance and interelectrode-capacitance
effects, transit-angle effects, and gain-bandwidth product limitations. These three effects are analyzed in detail in the following sections.
9·1·1 Lead-Inductance and
lnterelectrode·Capacitance Effects
At frequencies above 1 GHz conventional vacuum tubes are impaired by parasiticcircuit reactances because the circuit capacitances between tube electrodes and the
circuit inductance of the lead wire are too large for a microwave resonant circuit.
Furthermore, as the frequency is increased up to the microwave range, the real part
of the input admittance may be large enough to cause a serious overload of the input
circuit and thereby reduce the operating efficiency of the tube. In order to gain a better understanding of these effects, the triode ciruit shown in Fig. 9-1-1 should be
studied carefully.
+
Figure 9-1-1
Triode circuit (a) and its equivalent (b).
Figure 9-1-1 (b) shows the equivalent circuit of a triode circuit under the assumption that the interelectrode capacitances and cathode inductance are the only
parasitic elements. Since C8p «i C8k and wLk «i 1/(wC8k), the input voltage Vin can
be written as
(9-1-1)
Sec. 9.1
Conventional Vacuum, Triodes, Tetrodes, and Pentodes
339
and the input current as
(9-1-2)
Substitution of Eq. (9-1-2) in Eq. (9-1-1) yields
=
V
l;n(l
'"
+ }wlkgm)
jwC8 k
(9-1-3)
The input admittance of the tube is approximately
Ym.
=h =
Vin
jwCgk
_ 2
l+"L
-w~~~+~~
JW k8m
(9-1-4)
in which wlkgm ~ 1 has been replaced. The inequality is almost always true, since
the cathode lead is usually short and is quite large in diameter, and the transconductance gm is generally much less than one millimho.
The input impedance at very high frequencies is given by
1
Zin =
W
2
LkCgkgm
-
.
1
J 3L 2 C
W
2
k gkgm
(9-1-5)
The real part of the impedance is inversely proportional to the square of the frequency, and the imaginary part is inversely proportional to the third order of the
frequency. When the frequencies are above 1 GHz, the real part of the impedance
becomes small enough to nearly short the signal source. Consequently, the output
power is decreased rapidly. Similarly, the input admittance of a pentode circuit is expressed by
(9-1-6)
where Cgs is the capacitance between the grid and screen, and its input impedance is
given by
1
. C8 k + Cgs
(9-1-7)
Zin= w 2 LkC8 k8m - 1 w 3Uqkg;,,
There are several ways to minimize the inductance and capacitance effects, such as a
reduction in lead length and electrode area. This minimization, however, also limits
the power-handling capacity.
9·1·2 Transit-Angle Effects
Another limitation in the application of conventional tubes at microwave frequencies
is the electron transit angle between electrodes. The electron transit angle is defined
as
wd
() 8 o= WTg = (9-1-8)
Vo
where r8
= d/vo is the transit time across the gap
d = separation between cathode and grid
vo = 0.593 x 106
is the velocity of the electron
Vo
= de voltage
YVo
340
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
When frequencies are below microwave range, the transit angle is negligible.
At microwave frequencies, however, the transit time (or angle) is large compared to
the period of the microwave signal, and the potential between the cathode and the
grid may alternate from 10 to 100 times during the electron transit. The grid potential during the negative half cycle thus removes energy that was given to the electron
during the positive half cycle. Consequently, the electrons may oscillate back and
forth in the cathode-grid space or return to the cathode. The overall result of transitangle effects is to reduce the operating efficiency of the vacuum tube. The degenerate
effect becomes more serious when frequencies are well above 1 GHz. Once electrons
pass the grid, they are quickly accelerated to the anode by the high plate voltage.
When the frequency is below 1 GHz, the output delay is negligible in comparison with the phase of the grid voltage. This means that the transadmittance is a large
real quantity, which is the usual transconductance gm . At microwave frequencies the
transit angle is not negligible, and the transadmittance becomes a complex number
with a relatively small magnitude. This situation indicates that the output is decreased.
From the preceding analysis it is clear that the transit-angle effect can be minimized by first accelerating the electron beam with a very high de voltage and then
velocity-modulating it. This is indeed the principal operation of such microwave
tubes as klystrons and magnetrons.
9-1 ·3 Gain-Bandwidth Product Limitation
In ordinary vacuum tubes the maximum gain is generally achieved by resonating the
output circuit as shown in Fig. 9-1-2. In the equivalent circuit (see Fig. 9-1-2) it is
assumed that rp ~ wLk . The load voltage is given by
V _
c- G
where G =
rp =
R =
L, C =
+
gmV8
j[wC - 1/(wL)]
(9-1-9)
1/rp + 1/R
plate resistance
load resistance
tuning elements
The resonant frequency is expressed by
1
fr= 27TVLC
(9-1-10)
Figure 9-1-2 Output-tuned circuit of a
pentode.
Sec. 9.2
Klystrons
341
and the maximum voltage gain
Amax
at resonance by
(9-1-11)
Since the bandwidth is measured at the half-power point, the denominator of Eq.
(9-1-9) must be related by
G
1
wL
= wC - -
(9-1-12)
The roots of this quadratic equation are given by
W1
=
~
~~(--~-)-2_+_-f-_C
w2
=
~C + ~ ( ~ + L~
-
(9-1-13)
r
(9-1-14)
Then the bandwidth can be expressed by
BW =
W2 -
w,
G
= -
c
for ( -G )
2C
2
1
~-
LC
(9-1-15)
Hence the gain-bandwidth product of the circuit of Fig. 9-1-2 is
(9-1-16)
It is important to note that the gain-bandwidth product is independent of frequency.
For a given tube, a higher gain can be achieved only at the expense of a narrower
bandwidth. This restriction is applicable to a resonant circuit only. In microwave
devices either reentrant cavities or slow-wave structures are used to obtain a possible
overall high gain over a broad bandwidth.
9-2 KLYSTRONS
The two-cavity klystron is a widely used microwave amplifier operated by the principles of velocity and current modulation. All electrons injected from the cathode arrive at the first cavity with uniform velocity. Those electrons passing the first cavity
gap at zeros of the gap voltage (or signal voltage) pass through with unchanged velocity; those passing through the positive half cycles of the gap voltage undergo an
increase in velocity; those passing through the negative swings of the gap voltage undergo a decrease in velocity. As a result of these actions, the electrons gradually
bunch together as they travel down the drift space. The variation in electron velocity
in the drift space is known as velocity modulation. The density of the electrons in
the second cavity gap varies cyclically with time. The electron beam contains an ac
component and is said to be current-modulated. The maximum bunching should occur approximately midway between the second cavity grids during its retarding
342
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
phase; thus the kinetic energy is transferred from the electrons to the field of the second cavity. The electrons then emerge from the second cavity with reduced velocity
and finally terminate at the collector. The charateristics of a two-cavity klystron amplifier are as follows:
1. Efficiency: about 40%.
2. Power output: average power (CW power) is up to 500 kW and pulsed power is
up to 30 MW at 10 GHz.
3. Power gain: about 30 dB.
Figure 9-2-1 shows the present state of the art for U.S. high-power klystrons.
Figure 9-2-2 shows the schematic diagram of a two-cavity klystron amplifier. The
cavity close to the cathode is known as the buncher cavity or input cavity, which velocity-modulates the electron beam. The other cavity is called the catcher cavity or
output cavity; it catches energy from the bunched electron beam. The beam then
passes through the catcher cavity and is terminated at the collector. The quantitative
analysis of a two-cavity klystron can be described in four parts under the following
assumptions:
1. The electron beam is assumed to have a uniform density in the cross section of
the beam.
2. Space-charge effects are negligible.
3. The magnitude of the microwave signal input is assumed to be much smaller
than the de accelerating voltage.
9·2·1 Reentrant Cavities
At a frequency well below the microwave range, the cavity resonator can be represented by a lumped-constant resonant circuit. When the operating frequency is increased to several tens of megahertz, both the inductance and the capacitance must
be reduced to a minimum in order to maintain resonance at the operating frequency.
Ultimately the inductance is reduced to a minimum by short wire. Therefore the
reentrant cavities are designed for use in klystrons and microwave triodes. A
reentrant cavity is one in which the metallic boundaries extend into the interior of
the cavity. Several types of reentrant cavities are shown in Fig. 9-2-3. One of the
commonly used reentrant cavities is the coaxial cavity shown in Fig. 9-2-4.
It is clear from Fig. 9-2-4 that not only has the inductance been considerably
decreased but the resistance losses are markedly reduced as well, and the shelfshielding enclosure prevents radiation losses. It is difficult to calculate the resonant
frequency of the coaxial cavity. An approximation can be made, however, using
transmission-line theory. The characteristic impedance of the coaxial line is given
by
ohms
(9-2-1)
-
..___,
..........
'--'
20
~
-
10
.......
·- ..
~.
J
~
;::
::;:
........
,_:
:>
....
:>
.
......
........... .....
0..
0
er
,_
w
;::
~
0
0..
"'
~
~
1-J
-
....
.....
....
....
~
......
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
.......
0.2
0.05
0.4
0.2
~.1
0.6
1
10
20
FREQUENCY, GHz
Figure 9-2·1
State of the art for U.S. high-power klystrons.
i-..----L----+-i
Buncher cavity
Catcher cavity
Anode
Cathode
I Vo~I
-
I
G,,
+
Vo
0
j(tl)--+-
-
-
T
Bunched
to
Figure 9-2-2
I
I
E:3:
I
I
D
Distance scale
Time scale
I· I
(b)
-
-
z
f 2 f3
f1
Two-cavity klystron amplifier.
[[]
(a)
-
Collector
L+d L+2d
d
I, I
-
=
v(t1)
electron
beam
Vg
-11 +
.--J
Drift space
(c)
8
(d)
(e)
Figure 9-2-3 Reentrant cavities. (a) Coaxial cavity. (b) Radial cavity. (c) Tunable cavity.
(d) Toroidal cavity. (c) Butterfly cavity.
30
344
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
I.J:
I
I
........
r---r--r-
--?'\
1 \
I\
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
II
I
I
1I
I I
:
:
: \
/
I :
,'
\I
I\
I
~
\I
..,_;.,.
\I
--~
1 \
/I\
"'----;-::...!
I
I
2b
Chap. 9
d
L~___.
I
I
(a) Coaxial cavity
(b) Cross-section of
coaxial cavity
Figure 9-2-4 Coaxial cavity and its equivalent.
The coaxial cavity is similar to a coaxial line shorted at two ends and joined at the
center by a capacitor. The input impedance to each shorted coaxial line is given by
(9-2-2)
Zin = }Zo tan (f3 C)
e
where is the length of the coaxial line.
Substitution of Eq. (9-2-1) in (9-2-2) results in
1
Zin= j 211'
\j~en~
~ a tan(/3C)
(9-2-3)
The inductance of the cavity is given by
L
=
2
Xin
W
= - 111'W
v~~ en~a
tan(/3 C)
(9-2-4)
and the capacitance of the gap by
€11'02
Cg=d
(9-2-5)
At resonance the inductive reactance of the two shorted coaxial lines in series is
equal in magnitude to the capacitive reactance of the gap. That is, wL = 1/(wCg).
Thus
tan(/3C)
=
dv
wa2en(b/a)
(9-2-6)
where v = 1;vr;;; is the phase velocity in any medium.
The solution to this equation gives the resonant frequency of a coaxial cavity.
Since Eq. (9-2-6) contains the tangent function, it has an infinite number of solutions with larger values of frequency. Therefore this type of reentrant cavity can
support an infinite number of resonant frequencies or modes of oscillation. It can be
shown that a shorted coaxial-line cavity stores more magnetic energy than electric
energy. The balance of the electric stored energy appears in the gap, for at resonance the magnetic and electric stored energies are equal.
Sec. 9.2
345
Klystrons
The radial reentrant cavity shown in Fig. 9-2-5 is another commonly used
reentrant resonator. The inductance and capacitance of a radial reentrant cavity is
expressed by
L
=µfen~
21T'
C -_
[1T'a
E"o -
(9-2-7)
a
2
-
d
[)
0.765
]
4a 1-n--r========
v'f 2 + (b - a) 2
(9-2-8)
The resonant frequency [ 1] is given by
f,
r
where c
=
c
21T' ~
{ae [!:_ - ~en
2d
e v' f
o.765
+ (b - a) 2
2
Jen~}-112
a
(9-2-9)
= 3 x 108 m/s is the velocity of light in a vacuum.
Figure 9-2-5
Radial reentrant cavity.
9·2·2 Velocity-Modulation Process
When electrons are first accelerated by the high de voltage Vo before entering the
buncher grids, their velocity is uniform:
Vo
=
(2;V,,
'J-;;:
= 0.593
6
X
10
~
V
;-;:-
Vo
mis
(9-2-10)
In Eq. (9-2-10) it is assumed that electrons leave the cathode with zero velocity.
When a microwave signal is applied to the input terminal, the gap voltage between
the buncher grids appears as
Vs = Vi sin (wt)
(9-2-11)
where Vi is the amplitude of the signal and Vi ~ Vo is assumed.
In order to find the modulated velocity in the buncher cavity in terms of either
the entering time to or the exiting time t1 and the gap transit angle 88 as shown in
Fig. 9-2-2 it is necessary to determine the average microwave voltage in the buncher
gap as indicated in Fig. 9-2-6.
Since Vi ~ Vo , the average transit time through the buncher gap distance d is
T
= -Vod = t1
-
to
(9-2-12)
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
346
V.
V.
= V1 sin wt
Chap. 9
t0 t 1
: I Buncher grids
-id*
I I
I I
I
Figure 9-2-6
buncher gap.
Signal voltage in the
The average gap transit angle can be expressed as
(Jg =
WT
=
W
wd
(t1 - to) = Vo
(9-2-13)
The average microwave voltage in the buncher gap can be found in the following
way:
1
(Vs)= T
=
Ill
v
Vi sin(wt)dt = - -1 [cos(wt1) - cos(wto)]
WT
to
:~ [ cos(wto) -
cos ( wo + ::) ]
(9-2-14)
Let
wd
wto + 2vo
(Jg
2
= wto + - = A
and
wd
2vo
= Og = B
2
Then using the trigonometric identity that cos (A - B) - cos (A + B)
sin B, Eq. (9-2-14) becomes
(Vs > -_
wd) _ V sin (Og/2) . (
Og)
sm wto + 2Vo - i Og/ 2 sm wto + 2
V sin [wd/2vo)] . (
i
wd/( 2vo)
= 2 sin A
(9-2-15)
It is defined as
{3;
= sin [wd/(2v
wd/(2vo)
0 )]
= sin (Og/2)
Og/2
(9-2-16)
Note that {3; is known as the beam-coupling coefficient of the input cavity gap (see
Fig. 9-2-7).
It can be seen that increasing the gap transit angle (Jg decreases the coupling
between the electron beam and the buncher cavity; that is, the velocity modulation
Sec. 9.2
347
Klystrons
1.0
0.8
\
0.6
'
\
\
\
\
0
\ -/
-0.2
-0.4 0
""
I/
['..._ . /
71'
Figure 9-2-7
Beam-coupling coefficient versus gap transit angle.
of the beam for a given microwave signal is decreased. Immediately after velocity
modulation, the exit velocity from the buncher gap is given by
(9-2-17)
where the factor {3; Vi/Vo is called the depth of velocity modulation.
Using binomial expansion under the assumption of
(9-2-18)
Eq. (9-2-17) becomes
. (
fJg)]
v (t 1) = Vo [ 1 + {3;Vi
Vo sm wto + 2
2
(9-2-19)
Equation (9-2-19) is the equation of velocity modulation. Alternatively, the equation
of velocity modulation can be given by
v(t1 )
=
v0 [ 1
. (
+ {3;Vi
Vo sm wt1
2
-
2fJg)]
(9-2-20)
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
348
Chap. 9
9·2·3 Bunching Process
Once the electrons leave the buncher cavity, they drift with a velocity given by Eq.
(9-2-19) or (9-2-20) along in the field-free space between the two cavities. The effect of velocity modulation produces bunching of the electron beam-or current
modulation. The electrons that pass the buncher at V, = 0 travel through with unchanged velocity Vo and become the bunching center. Those electrons that pass the
buncher cavity during the positive half cycles of the microwave input voltage V,
travel faster than the electrons that passed the gap when V, = 0. Those electrons that
pass the buncher cavity during the negative half cycles of the voltage V, travel slower
than the electrons that passed the gap when V, = 0. At a distance of !:J..L along the
beam from the buncher cavity, the beam electrons have drifted into dense clusters.
Figure 9-2-8 shows the trajectories of minimum, zero, and maximum electron acceleration.
z
AL
Buncher
grid
L-----''1.---~--.~__,.__
__. - - - - ' - - - . - - - - . _
0
Figure 9-2-8 Bunching distance.
The distance from the buncher grid to the location of dense electron bunching
for the electron at th is
!:J..L =
Vo(td -
Similarly, the distances for the electrons at
!:J..L =
!:J..L
Vmin(td -
= Vmax(fd
-
ta
(9-2-21)
lb)
and
fa)
=
fc)
= Vmax(fd
tc
Vmin(td -
are
fb
+ ;:)
- fb -
;:)
(9-2-22)
(9-2-23)
From Eq. (9-2-19) or (9-2-20) the minimum and maximum velocities are
Vmin
=
vo(l - ~~1 )
(9-2-24)
Sec. 9.2
349
Klystrons
Vmax
= Vo ( l + {3;2VoVi)
(9-2-25)
Substitution of Eqs. (9-2-24) and (9-2-25) in Eqs. (9-2-22) and (9-2-23), respectively, yields the distance
!lL
= v0(td
- tb)
{3; Vi
71'
{3; Vi
71'
+ [ Vo 2w - Vo 2Vo (td - tb) - Vo 2Vo 2w
J
(9-2-26)
and
fiL = v0(td - tb)
71'
{3; Vi
{3; Vi
71' ]
+ [ -vo 2w + Vo 2Vo (td - tb) + Vo 2Vo 2w
(9-2-27)
The necessary condition for those electrons at ta , tb, and tc to meet at the same distance !lL is
(9-2-28)
and
(9-2-29)
Consequently,
(9-2-30)
and
"L -_ vo-7TVo
wf3;Vi
(9-2-31)
u
It should be noted that the mutual repulsion of the space charge is neglected,
but the qualitative results are similar to the preceding representation when the effects
of repulsion are included. Furthermore, the distance given by Eq. (9-2-31) is not the
one for a maximum degree of bunching. Figure 9-2-9 shows the distance-time plot
or Applegate diagram.
What should the spacing be between the buncher and catcher cavities in order
to achieve a maximum degree of bunching? Since the drift region is field free, the
transit time for an electron to travel a distance of L as shown in Fig. 9-2-2 is given
by
1
= To[ I sin ( wt1 (9-2-32)
T = t2 - t1 = v
ti)
i)]
~~
where the binomial expansion of (I + x)~ 1 for Ix I ~ 1 has been replaced and
To = L/vo is the de transit time. In terms of radians the preceding expression can be
written
wT
= wt2 - wt1 = Oo - X sin ( wt1 -
i)
(9-2-33)
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
350
Acceleration
Chap.9
Output-gap
~
Catcher gap
Buncher gap
Figure 9-2-9
where
Oo
Applegate diagram.
wL
= - = 21T'N
(9-2-34)
Vo
is the de transit angle between cavities, N is the number of electron transit cycles in
the drift space, and
X =
~~1 Oo
(9-2-35)
is defined as the bunching parameter of a klystron.
At the buncher gap a charge dQo passing through at a time interval dt0 is given
by
dQo = Iodto
(9-2-36)
where Io is the de current. From the principle of conservation of charges this same
amount of charge dQo also passes the catcher at a later time interval dt2 . Hence
(9-2-37)
where the absolute value signs are necessary because a negative value of the time ratio would indicate a negative current. Current i2 is the current at the catcher gap.
Rewriting Eq. (9-2-32) in terms of Eq. (9-2-19) yields
t2 = to
. (
(Jg)]
+ T + To [ 1 - {3;2VoVi sm
wto + 2
(9-2-38)
Alternatively,
wt2 -
(Jg) (
(Jg)
(Oo + 2 = wto + 2 -
. (
X sm wto
(Jg)
+2
(9-2-39)
where (wto + Og/2) is the buncher cavity departure angle and wt2 - (Oo + Og/2) is
the catcher cavity arrival angle. Figure 9-2-10 shows the curves for the catcher cav-
Sec. 9.2
351
Klystrons
+ .!':
2
.,
Oh
i::
"'
-;
>
r----.
cz:...
·~
fN
+
>·~
~
.,"'....
0
8
u
..c:
~
M
3
u"'
7r
2
-
------'-----'-----'-------l
7r
0
2
o,
wto + 2
7r
- 7r
Buncher cavity departure angle
Figure 9-2-10 Catcher arrival angle
versus buncher departure angle.
ity arrival angle as a function of the buncher cavity departure angle in terms of the
bunching parameter X.
Differentiation of Eq. (9-2-38) with respect to to results in
(9-2-40)
The current arriving at the catcher cavity is then given as
.
= - - - -lo- - - -
(9-2-41)
= - - - - -lo- - - - -
(9-2-42)
l2(to)
1 - X cos (wto + ()R/2)
In terms of tz the current is
.
l2(t2)
1- X
COS
(Wt2 - {)0 - {)R/2)
In Eq. (9-2-42) the relationsip of 12 = to + r + To is used-namely, wt2 = wt0 +
wr + wTo = wto + ()R + eo. Figure 9-2-11 shows curves of the beam current iz(t2 )
as a function of the catcher arrival angle in terms of the bunching parameter X.
352
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
X=O
-----::::::::'~
~~
/.. '/
"""--
-~~
I
~----
0
-'Ir
+'Ir
Catcher cavity arrival angles, wt 2 Figure 9-2-11
(e 0 + ~g)
Beam current i 2 versus catcher cavity arrival angle.
The beam current at the catcher cavity is a periodic waveform of period 2TT / w
about de current. Therefore the current i2 can be expanded in a Fourier series and so
i2
= ao +
L
[an cos (nwt2)
+ bn sin (nwt2)]
(9-2-43)
n=l
where n is an integer, excluding zero. The series coefficients ao, an, and bn in Eq.
(9-2-43) are given by the integrals
J"'
ao
=
an
= ;1
f"' cos (nwt2) d (wt2)
bn
= ;1
f"'
i2 d (wt2)
1TT
2 -.,,
_.,,
_.,,
(9-2-44)
i2 sin (nwt2) d(wt2)
Substitution of Eqs. (9-2-37) and (9-2-39) in Eq. (9-2-44) yields
ao =
1'TT
2
f"' lo d (wto) =
(9-2-45)
10
-.,,
an = -;
f"'_.,, lo cos [(nwto + nlJg + nOo) + nX sin ( wto + ~g)] d (wto)
(9-2-46)
= -;
f"'_.,, lo sin [ (nwto + nlJg + nOo) + nX sin ( wto + i)] d (wto)
(9-2-47)
bn
By using the trigonometric functions
cos A cos B + sin A sin B
cos (A ± B)
=
sin (A ± B)
= sin A cos B
and
± cos A sin B
Sec. 9.2
353
Klystrons
the two integrals shown in Eqs. (9-2-40) and (9-2-41) involve cosines and sines of a
sine function. Each term of the integrand contains an infinite number of terms of
Bessel functions. These are
cos [ nX sin ( wt0 +
i)] =
21o(nX) + 2[12(nX) cos
+ 2[14(nX) cos
2(wto + i)]
4(wto + i)]
+ ...
(9-2-48)
and
sin [nx sin (wto +
i)] =
i)]
3( + i)]
2[11(nX) sin (wto +
+ 2[h(nX) sin
wto
+ ...
(9-2-49)
If these series are substituted into the integrands of Eqs. (9-2-46) and (9-2-47), re-
spectively, the integrals are readily evaluated term by term and the series
coefficients are
= 2/oln(nX) cos (nlJg + nlJo)
bn = 2/oln(nX) sin (nlJg + nlJo)
(9-2-50)
an
(9-2-51)
where Jn(nX) is the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind (see Fig. 9-2-12).
0.6
0.582
0.4
><:
5 0.2
.....~
....0
.,;::s
';;;
0
>
-0.2
-0.4
0
2
3
4
5
Argument of Jn(nX)
Figure 9-2-12
Bessel functions ln(nX).
6
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
354
Chap. 9
Substitution of Eqs. (9-2-45), (9-2-50), and (9-2-51) in Eq. (9-2-43) yields
the beam current i1 as
i1 = Io
+
L
2/oln(nX) cos [nw(t2 - T - To)]
(9-2-52)
n=l
The fundamental component of the beam current at the catcher cavity has a magnitude
(9-2-53)
11 = 2/oli(X)
This fundamental component h has its maximum amplitude at
x=
1.841
(9-2-54)
The optimum distance L at which the maximum fundamental component of current
occurs is computed from Eqs. (9-2-34), (9-2-35), and (9-2-54) as
L .
optimum
=
3.682vo Vo
wf3; Vi
(9-2-55)
It is interesting to note that the distance given by Eq. (9-2-31) is approximately 15%
less than the result of Eq. (9-2-55). The discrepancy is due in part to the approximations made in deriving Eq. (9-2-3 l) and to the fact that the maximum fundamental
component of current will not coincide with the maximun electron density along the
beam because the harmonic components exist in the beam.
9·2·4 Output Power and Beam Loading
The maximum bunching should occur approximately midway between the catcher
grids. The phase of the catcher gap voltage must be maintained in such a way that
the bunched electrons, as they pass through the grids, encounter a retarding phase.
When the bunched electron beam passes through the retarding phase, its kinetic
energy is transferred to the field of the catcher cavity. When the electrons emerge
from the catcher grids, they have reduced velocity and are finally collected by the
collector.
The induced current in the catcher cavity. Since the current induced by
the electron beam in the walls of the catcher cavity is directly proportional to the
amplitude of the microwave input voltage Vi , the fundamental component of the induced microwave current in the catcher is given by
i2inct = /3oi2 = /3021011 (X) cos[w (t2 - T - To)]
(9-2-56)
where f3 0 is the beam coupling coefficient of the catcher gap. If the buncher and
catcher cavities are identical, then /3; = /30. The fundamental component of current
induced in the catcher cavity then has a magnitude
(9-2-57)
Figure 9-2-13 shows an output equivalent circuit in which Rsho represents the wall
resistance of catcher cavity, Rn the beam loading resistance, RL the external load resistance, and Rsh the effective shunt resistance.
Sec. 9.2
355
Klystrons
Figure 9-2-13
cuit.
Output equivalent cir-
The output power delivered to the catcher cavity and the load is given as
= (/3o/z) 2 R =
p
OU!
2
sh
f3ofz
2
Vi
(9-2-58)
where Rsh is the total equivalent shunt resistance of the catcher circuit, including the
load, and Vi is the fundamental component of the catcher gap voltage.
Efficiency of klystron. The electronic efficiency of the klystron amplifier is
defined as the ratio of the output power to the input power:
.
Pout
Effic1ency = Pin
{30 /z Vz
=--
2/o Vo
(9-2-59)
in which the power losses to the beam loading and cavity walls are included.
If the coupling is perfect, {30 = I, the maximum beam current approaches
I2max = 2/o(0.582), and the voltage Vi is equal to Vo. Then the maximum electronic
efficiency is about 58%. In practice, the electronic efficiency of a klystron amplifier
is in the range of 15 to 30%. Since the efficiency is a function of the catcher gap
transit angle (JR, Fig. 9-2-14 shows the maximum efficiency of a klystron as a function of catcher transit angle.
60
~
50
~
40
c.,
u
.,....
;>,
u
.,:::
'.,
·u
30
i;:
E
::I
E
·;;:
:::;:"'
20
10
'Tr
'Tr
2
Catcher gap transit angle
(Jg
Figure 9-2-14 Maximum efficiency of
klystron versus transit angle.
356
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
Mutual conductance of a klystron amplifier. The equivalent mutual conductance of the klystron amplifier can be defined as the ratio of the induced output
current to input voltage. That is
IGm I ==
= 2{3ofoli(X)
izind
Vi
Vi
(9-2-60)
From Eq. (9-2-35) the input voltage Vi can be expressed in terms of the bunching
parameter X as
Vi
= 2Vo X
/30 Oo
(9-2-61)
/30 = {3;. Substitution of Eq. (9-2-61) in Eq.
(9-2-60) yields the normalized mutual conductance as
In Eq. (9-2-61) it is assumed that
/Gm/
=
{36 Oo li(X)
Go
X
(9-2-62)
where Go = Io/Vo is the de beam conductance. The mutual conductance is not a
constant but decreases as the bunching parameter X increases. Figure 9-2-15 shows
the curves of normalized transconductance as a function of X.
g
~
.,u
10
...'"
""
"'
.......'"
i::
u
;::l
i::
0
u
i::
"".,
~
e....
5
0
z
'3080 V1
Bunching parameter X = - 2V0
Figure 9-2-15 Normalized transconductance versus bunching parameter.
Sec. 9.2
Klystrons
357
It can be seen from the curves that, for a small signal, the normalized
transconductance is maximum. That is,
IGml = {35Uo
Go
For a maximum output at X
(9-2-63)
2
= 1.841, the normalized mutual conductance is
IGm I= 0.3l6{350o
(9-2-64)
Go
The voltage gain of a klystron amplifier is defined as
A =
v -
IVz I _ {30/zRsh = {35 Oo li(X) R
IVi I - Vi
Ro
X
sh
(9-2-65)
where Ro = Vo/ lo is the de beam resistance. Substitution of Eqs. (9-2-57) and
(9-2-61) in Eq. (9-2-65) results in
(9-2-66)
Power required to bunch the electron beam. As described earlier, the
bunching action takes place in the buncher cavity. When the buncher gap transit angle is small, the average energy of electrons leaving the buncher cavity over a cycle
is nearly equal to the energy with which they enter. When the buncher gap transit
angle is large, however, the electrons that leave the buncher gap have greater average energy than when they enter. The difference between the average exit energy
and the entrance energy must be supplied by the buncher cavity to bunch the electron beam. It is difficult to calculate the power required to produce the bunching action. Feenberg did some extensive work on beam loading [6]. The ratio of the power
required to produce bunching action over the de power required to perform the electron beam is given by Feenberg as
(9-2-67)
where
The de power is
(9-2-68)
where Go = lo/Vo is the equivalent electron beam conductance. The power given by
the buncher cavity to produce beam bunching is
(9-2-69)
Chap. 9
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
358
where Gs is the equivalent bunching conductance. Substitution of Eqs. (9-2-68) and
(9-2-69) in Eq. (9-2-67) yields the normalized electronic conductance as
Gs
Go
= Ro = F (8 )
Rs
(9-2- 70)
g
Figure 9-2-16 shows the normalized electronic conductance as a function of the
buncher gap transit angle. It can be seen that there is a critical buncher gap transit
angle for a minimum equivalent bunching resistance. When the transit angle 88 is
3.5 rad, the equivalent bunching resistance is about five times the electron beam resistance. The power delivered by the electron beam to the catcher cavity can be expressed as
v2
v2
v2 +-2
v2
_2_=_2_+_2
2Rsh
2Rsho
2Rs
(9-2- 71)
2RL
As a result, the effective impedance of the catcher cavity is
I
l
l
l
Rsh
Rsho
Rs
RL
-=-+-+-
(9-2-72)
Finally, the loaded quality factor of the catcher cavity circuit at the resonant frequency can be written
l
I
l
I
(9-2-73)
-=-+-+QL
where QL
Qo
Qs
Qext
= loaded quality factor of the whole catcher circuit
Qo = quality factor of the catcher walls
Qs = quality factor of the beam loading
Qext
= quality factor of the external load
0.24
cf
--
r..:i""
"
=
g
"O
0=
0.21
0.20
f- -
-
--- --- ---
--- ---
u
~
u
u
·2
0.16
0.12
0
!::
~
v
0.08
"O
"
.~
'"ECi
z
0.04
0
/
0
--: /
0.4
0.8
/
v
/
/
/v
v ""
~
I
...............
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
Buncher gap transit angle
Figure 9-2-16
angle.
- - - ---
2.8
3.2
: 3.6
3.5
e,.. radians
Normalized electronic conductance versus buncher gap transit
4.0
Sec. 9.2
359
Klystrons
Example 9-2-1:
Klystron Amplifier
A two-cavity klystron amplifier has the following parameters:
Vo= 1000 V
Ro= 40 kfl
f
lo= 25 mA
= 3 GHz
d = 1 mm
Gap spacing in either cavity:
Spacing between the two cavities:
Effective shunt impedance, excluding beam loading:
a.
b.
c.
d.
l = 4cm
Rsh
= 30 kfl
Find the input gap voltage to give maximum voltage Vi .
Find the voltage gain, neglecting the beam loading in the output cavity.
Find the efficiency of the amplifier, neglecting beam loading.
Calculate the beam loading conductance and show that neglecting it was justified
in the preceding calculations.
Solution
a. For maximum Vi, J 1(X) must be maximum. This means l1(X) = 0.582 at
X = 1.841. The electron velocity just leaving the cathode is
v0
=
(0.593 x l06
)VVo = (0.593
X
106)Vi03
=
1.88
=
1 rad
X
107 mis
The gap transit angle is
08
d
= w- =
21T(3 x 109 )
Vo
10- 3
1.88 X 101
The beam-coupling coefficient is
a
=a =
sin (08 /2)
/JI
fJO
Og/2
=
sin (1/2)
1/2
=
0. 952
The de transit angle between the cavities is
Oo
L
= wT0 = w- =
21T(3 X 109 )
Vo
4 x 10- 2
01
1.8Xl
8
=
40 rad
The maximum input voltage Vi is then given by
_ 2VoX _ 2(103)(1.841) _
V
96 5
(0.952)(40) '
Vimax - {3;0o b. The voltage gain is found as
= {36 00 J 1(X) R =
A
v
Ro
X
sh
(0.952) 2 (40)(0.582)(30 x 103)
4 X 104 X 1.841
=
8 595
·
c. The efficiency can be found as follows:
/z = 2Io1 1(X) = 2 x 25 x 10- 3 x 0.582 = 29.1 x 10- 3 A
Vz
= f3ofzRsh = (0.952)(29.1 X 10- 3 )(30 X 103 ) = 831 V
. n
Effi cte cy
= {30 12 Vi =
2/o V0
(0.952)(29.1 X 10- 3)(831)
2(25 X 10- 3)(103)
=
m
46 · 2 -io
360
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
d. Calculate the beam loading conductance (refer to Fig. 9-2-13). The beam loading conductance GB is
GB =
2Go ({36 - /30 cos
=
8.8 x 10- 1 mho
8)
;
6
=
25 x 102
[(0.952) 2 - (0.952) cos (28.6°)]
Then the beam loading resistance RB is
1
RB = GB = 1.14
x 106 n
In comparison with RL and Rsho or the effective shunt resistance R,h , the beam
loading resistance is like an open circuit and thus can be neglected in the preceding calculations.
9.a.5 State of the Art
Extended Interaction. The most common form of extended interaction has
been attained recently by coupling two or more adjacent klystron cavities. Figure
9-2-17 shows schematically a five-section extended-interaction cavity as compared
to a single-gap klystron cavity.
(a)
(b)
Figure 9·2-17 Comparison of a fivegap extended interaction' cavity with a
single-gap klystron cavity. (a) Five-gap
coupled cavity resonator. (b)Single-gap
klystron cavity. (After A. Staprans et al.
[7]; reprinted by permission of IEEE.)
High efficiency and large power. In the 1960s much effort was devoted to
improving the efficiency of klystrons. For instance, a 50-kW experimental tube has
demonstrated 75% efficiency in the industrial heating band [8]. The VA-8840
klystron is a five-cavity amplifier whose operating characteristics are listed in Table
9-2-1.
One of the better-known high-peak-power klystrons is the tube developed
specifically for use in the 2-mile Stanford Linear Accelerator [9] at Palo Alto, California. A cutaway view of the tube is shown in Fig. 9-2-18. The operating characteristics of this tube are listed in Table 9-2-2.
The Varian CW superpower klystron amplifier VKC-8269A as shown in Fig.
9-2-19 has an output power of 500 kW (CW) at frequency of 2.114 GHz. Its power
Sec. 9.2
Klystrons
TABLE 9·2·1
361
VA-8840 OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
Frequency
Power output
Gain
Efficiency
Electronic bandwidth (I dB)
Beam voltage
Beam current
5.9-6.45 GHz
14kW
52 dB
36%
75 MHz
16.5 kV
2.4 A
Figure 9-2-18 Cutaway of 24-MW
S-band permanent-magnet-focused
klystron. (Courtesy of Stanford Linear
Accelerator Center.)
TABLE 9·2·2 OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER HIGH-POWER
KLYSTRON [9)
Frequency
RF pulse width
Pulse repetition rate
Peak power output
Beam voltage
Beam current
Gain
Efficiency
Weight of permanent (focusing) magnet
Electronic bandwidth (I dB)
2.856
2.5
60 to 360
24
250
250
50 to 55
about 36
363
20
GHz
µs
pps
MW
kV
A
dB
%
kg
MHz
362
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
Figure 9-2-19 Photograph of Varian
VKC-8269A CW super-power klystron
amplifier. (Courtesy of Varian Associates, Inc.)
gain is 56 dB and efficiency is 50 percent. The beam voltage is 62 V (de) and the
beam current is 16.50 A (de).
Long-life improvement. A new long-life klystron amplifier tube ~ith a design life in excess of ten years, three times the current design life, has been developed by the Electron Dynamics Division of the Hughes Aircraft Company. Key to
the long-life klystron was the development of a method of reducing the operating
temperature of the tube's cathode. The cathode is made of porous tungsten impregnated with barium, calcium, and aluminum oxides. The new cathode is coated with
a layer of osmium ruthenium alloy that lowers its work function, which is the temperature necessary for electrons to be emitted. This temperature reduction cuts evaporation of barium 10-fold and extends the life of the cathode.
9·3 NIUL TICAVITY KLYSTRON AMPLIFIERS
The typical power gain of a two-cavity klystron amplifier is about 30 dB. In order to
achieve higher overall gain, one way is to connect several two-cavity tubes in cascade, feeding the output of each of the tubes to the input of the following one. Be-
Multicavity Klystron Amplifiers
Sec. 9.3
363
RF Output
RF Input
Intermediate cavities
Heater
Electron
beam
Magnet
coils
Figure 9-3-1 Schematic diagram of a four-cavity klystron amplifier. (Courtesy of
Varian Associates. Inc.)
sides using the multistage techniques, the tube manufacturers have designed and produced multicavity klystron to serve the high-gain requirement as shown in Fig.
9-3-1.
In a multicavity klystron each of the intermediate cavities, placed at a distance
of the bunching parameter X of 1.841 away from the previous cavity, acts as a
buncher with the passing electron beam inducing a more enhanced RF voltage than
the previous cavity, which in turn sets up an increased velocity modulation. The
spacing between the consecutive cavities would therefore diminish because of the requirement of X being 1.841 and an increasing velocity modulating RF voltage as the
beam progresses through the various cavities. Keeping the intercavity distance constant, an increasing beam voltage Vo could be used in the subsequent cavities. Figure
9-3-2 shows the photograph of a four-cavity klystron amplifier.
9·3·1 Beam-Current Density
When the two-cavity klystron amplifier was discussed in Section 9-2, it was assumed that the space-charge effect was negligible, and it was not considered because
of the assumed small density of electrons in the beam for low-power amplifier. However, when high-power klystron tubes are analyzed the electron density of the beam
is large and the forces of mutual repulsion of the electrons must be considered.
When the elecrons perturbate in the electron beam, the electron density consists of a
de part plus an RF perturbation caused by the electron bunches. The space-charge
forces within electron bunches vary with the size and shape of an electron beam. In
364
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
Figure 9-3-2 Photograph of a fourcavity klystron amplifier VA-890H.
(Courtesy of Varian Associates, Inc.)
an infinitely wide beam, the electric fields (and, thus, the space-charge forces) are
constrained to act only in the axial direction. In a finite beam, the electric fields are
radial as well as axial with the result that the axial component is reduced in comparison to the infinite beam. With reduced axial space-charge force, the plasma frequency is reduced and the plasma wavelength is increased.
Mathematically, let the charge-density and velocity perturbations be simple sinusoidal variations in both time and position. They are
Charge density:
p = B cos (13,z) cos (wqt + O)
Velocity perturbation:
"V
= -C sin (13,z) sin (wqt + O)
(9-3-1)
(9-3-2)
where B = constant of charge-density perturbation
C = constant of velocity perturbation
is the de phase constant of the electron beam
(3, = ;
0
= Rwp is the pertubation frequency or reduced plasma frequency
R = wq/ wp is the space-charge reduction factor and varies from 0 to 1
Wq
wp
= '-Vrep;;
mE;; is the plasma frequency and is a function of the electron-beam
(J =
density
phase angle of oscillation
Sec. 9.3
365
Multicavity Klystron Amplifiers
The electron plasma frequency is the frequency at which the electrons will oscillate in the electron beam. This plasma frequency applies only to a beam of infinite
diameter. Practical beams of finite diameter are characterized by plasma frequency
that is less than wp . This lower plasma frequency is called the reduced plasma frequency and is designated Wq • The space-charge reduction factor R is a function of
the beam radius r and the ratio n of the beam-tunnel radius to the beam radius as
shown in Fig. 9-3-3 [IO].
1.0
0.6
0.4
0.2
"-
l_
3""
0.1
II
Q:;
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.01
0.1
0.2
0.5
1.0
2.0
5.0
10.0
{3,r = wr/u0
Figure 9-3-3
Plasma-frequency reduction factor R [IO] (Reprinted by permission
of Pergamon Press.)
As an example of the effect of the reduced space-charge forces, if f3,r =
wr/'Vo = 0.85 and n = 2, the reduced factor is R = 0.5. Therefore, Wq = 2wp,
which means that in a klystron the cavities would be placed twice as far apart as
would be indicated by infinite-beam calculation. The total charge density and electron velocity are given by
Ptot
°lf101
= -po+ P
= °Ifo + °If
where po = de electron charge density
p = instantaneous RF charge density
°Vo = de electron velocity
°If = instantaneous electron velocity perturbation
(9-3-3)
(9-3-4)
Chap. 9
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
366
The total electron beam-current density can be written as
1101
= - lo+ l
(9-3-5)
where lo = de beam-current density
l = instantaneous RF beam-current perturbation
The instantaneous convection beam-current density at any point in the beam is
expressed as
1101
= Ptot "lftot = (-po + p)("Vo + "V)
= -po "Vo - Po "V + p"Vo + p"V
= -Jo+ l
(9-3-6)
where J = p "Vo - Po "V
lo = Po "Vo is replaced
p "V = very small is ignored
(9-3-7)
In accordance with the law of conservation of electric charge, the continuity
equation can be written as
V·J
where J = p"V0
-
= - op
-
(9-3-8)
ot
po "Vis in positive z direction only. From
ol
oz
-wB sin (/3,z - wt) cos (wqt + 8)
(9-3-9)
+ {3.po C cos (/3,z - wt) sin (wqt + 8)
and
- op
ot
= -wB sin (/3,z - wt) cos (wqt + 8)
(9-3-10)
+ wqB cos (/3,z - wt) sin (wqt + 8)
then we have
(9-3-11)
The beam-current density and the modulated velocity are expressed as [10]
J = "VoB cos (/3,z - wt) cos (wqt
+ 8)
(9-3-12)
+ Wq"V 0 B sin (/3,z - wt) sin (wqt + 8)
w
and
"V
= - "V0 {3 ;Vi cos (/3qz) sin (/3,z - wt)
2Vo
(9-3-13)
Sec. 9.3
367
Multicavity Klystron Amplifiers
In practical microwave tubes, the ratio of wq/w is much smaller than unity and the
second term in Eq. (9-3-12) may be neglected in comparison with the first. Then we
obtain
J = °V 0 B cos (j3,z - wt) cos (wqt + O)
(9-3-14)
Example 9-3-1:
Four-Cavity Klystron
A four-cavity klystron VA-828 has the following parameters:
Vo= 14.5 kV
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Operating frequency:
de electron charge density:
RF charge density:
Velocity perturbation:
lo
=
1.4 A
f = JO GHz
6
3
Po= 10- C/m
8
p= 10- C/m 3
'V
=
105 mis
Compute:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
The
The
The
The
The
The
de electron velocity
de phase constant
plasma frequency
reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.4
de beam current density
instantaneous beam current density
Solution
a. The de electron velocity is
'V0
=
0.593 X 106 Yl4.5 x 103 = 0.714 x 108 mis
b. The de phase constant is
21T
(3, = 0.
x JOJO
714
x 108 = 8.80 x 102 rads/m
c. The plasma frequency is
10-6
wp = ( l.759 x 10 11 x .
x
_
10 12
8 854
)1/2
=
l.41 x 108 rad/s
d. The reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.4 is
8
8
Wq = 0.4 x l.41 x 10 = 0.564 x 10 rad/s
e. The de beam current density is
lo= 10- 6 X 0.714 X 108 = 71.4 A/m 2
f. The instantaneous beam current density is
J = 10- 8 x 0.714 X 108
-
10- 6 x 105 = 0.614 A/m 2
368
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
The electrons leaving the input gap of a klystron amplifier have a velocity
given by Eq. (9-2-17) at the exit grid as
°lf(t1)
T
=
=
d
= gap distance
where Vi
=
vo[1
+~~I Sin (wr)]
(9-3-15)
magnitude of the input signal voltage
d
. h
..
°Vo = ti - to IS t e transit time
Since the electrons under the influence of the space-charge forces exhibit simple harmonic motion, the velocity at a later time tis given by
°lftoC
= °Vo[ 1 +
~~I Sin (wr) COS (wpt
- WpT)]
(9-3-16)
where wp = plasma frequency. The current-density equation may be obtained from
Eq. (9-3-14) as
J
where f3q
= ;: is the
Example 9-3-2:
1 low
.
~ f3; Vi sm {f3qz) cos (13,z - wt)
2 voWq
=--
plasma phase constant.
Operation of a Four-Cavity Klystron
A four-cavity CW klystron amplifier VA-864 has the following parameters:
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Gap distance:
Operating frequency:
Signal voltage:
Beam coupling coefficient:
de electron beam current density:
Vo= 18 kV
Io= 2.25 A
d = 1 cm
f
= 10 GHz
Vi = 10 V (rms)
/30 = {3; =
1
Po = 10-s C/m 3
Determine:
a. The de electron velocity
b. The de electron phase constant
c. The plasma frequency
d. The reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.5
e. The reduced plasma phase constant
f. The transit time across the input gap
g. The electron velocity leaving the input gap
(9-3-17)
Sec. 9.3
369
Multicavity Klystron Amplifiers
Solution
a. The de electron velocity is
'V0 = 0.593 x l06 Yl8 x 103 = 0.796 x 108 m/s
b. The de electron phase constant is
f3, = 27T x 10 10 /(0.796 x 108) = 7.89 x 102 rad/m
c. The plasma frequency is
wp
=
[1.759 x 10 11 x 10- 8 /(8.854 x 10- 12 )] 1! 2
=
1.41 x 107 rad/s
d. The reduced plasma frequency is
Wq =
0.5 x 1.41 x 107 = 0.705 x 107 rad/s
e. The reduced plasma phase constant is
f3q = 0.705 x 107 /(0.796 x 108) = 0.088 rad/m
f. The transit time across the gap is
T
=
10- 2/(0.796 x 108) = 0.1256ns
g. The electron velocity leaving the input gap is
'V(t 1)
=
0.796 x 108 [1 + I x 10/(2 x 18 x 103) sin (27T x 10 10 x 1.256
x 10- 10n
=
0.796 x 108 + 2.21 x 104 mis
9·3·2 Output Current and Output Power
of Two-Cavity Klystron
If the two cavities of a two-cavity klystron amplifier are assumed to be identical and
are placed at the point where the RF current modulation is a maximum, the magnitude of the RF convection current at the output cavity for a two-cavity klystron can
be written from Eq. (9-3-17) as
low IV1 I
Iz2. I = -21 --{3;
VoWq
(9-3-18)
where V1 = magnitude of the input signal voltage. Then the magnitudes of the induced current and voltage in the output cavity are equal to
(9-3-19)
and
(9-3-20)
370
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
where f3o
Rsht
=
Chap. 9
{3; is the beam coupling coefficient
shunt resistance of the output cavity in a two-cavity klystron
amplifier including the external load
= total
The output power delivered to the load in a two-cavity klystron amplifier is
given by
2
1 (low
Pout -_ I12 1 Rshl -_ 4
VoWq )
2
/304 IVi 12 Rshl
(9-3-21)
The power gain of a two-cavity klystron amplifier is then expressed by
. _ Pout _
Power gam - Pin -
2
Pout
_ 1 ( low ) 4
IV, l 2/Rsh - 4 VoWq f3oRsh
· Rsht
(9-3-22)
where Rsh = total shunt resistance of the input cavity. The electronic efficiency of a
two-cavity klystron amplifier is
T/
= Pout = Pout = !
Pin
Example 9-3-3:
lo Vo
(lo) (I Vi lw)
4 Vo
2
{3gRshl
VoWq
(9 _3_23 )
Characteristics of Two-Cavity Klystron
A two-cavity klystron has the following parameters:
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Operating frequency:
Beam coupling coefficient:
de electron beam current density:
Signal voltage:
Shunt resistance of the cavity:
Total shunt resistance including load:
Vo= 20 kV
lo= 2 A
f
= 8 GHz
f3, = f3o = 1
Po = 10- 6 C/m 3
Vi = 10 V (rms)
R,h = 10 kO
R = 30 kO
Calculate:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The plasma frequency
The reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.5
The induced current in the output cavity
The induced voltage in the output cavity
The output power delivered to the load
f. The power gain
g. The electronic efficiency
Solution
a. The plasma frequency is
wp =
[1.759 x 10 11 x 10- 6 /(8.854 x 10- 12)) 112 = 1.41 x 108 rad/s
Sec. 9.3
371
Multicavity Klystron Amplifiers
b. The reduced plasma frequency is
Wq
= 0.5 x 1.41x108 = 0.705 x 108 rad/s
w/wq = 27T x 8 x 109 /(0.705 x 108 ) = 713
c. The induced current in the output cavity is
1
I/z I = 2 20
2
x 103 x 713 x I2 x 110 I = 0.3565 A
d. The induced voltage in the output cavity is
IVzl
=
= 0.357 X 30 X 103 = 10.71 kV
II2IRshl
e. The output power delivered to the load is
2
2
Pout = I /21 Rshl = 0.357 X 30
X
103 = 3.82 kW
f. The power gain is
Gain = l/4[2/(20 x 103 ) x 713]2 x 14 x 10 x 103 x 30 x 103
= 3.83 x 105 = 55.8 dB
g. The electronic efficiency is
Pout
T/ =
Pin
3.82 X 103
= 2 x 20 x 103 = 9 ·6 %
9.3.3 Output Power of Four-Cavity Klystron
High power may be obtained by adding additional intermediate cavities in a twocavity klystron. Multicavity klystrons with as many as seven cavities are commercially available, although the most frequently used number of cavities is four. Each
of the intermediate cavities functions in the same manner as in the two-cavity
klystron amplifier.
Let us carry out a simplified analysis of the four-cavity klystron amplifier. The
four cavities are assumed to be identical and they have same unloaded Q and beam
coupling coefficient {3; = {30 . The two intermediate cavities are not externally
loaded, but the input and output cavities are matched to their transmission lines. If V1
is the magnitude of the input cavity-gap voltage, the magnitude of the RF convection
current density injected into the first intermediate cavity gap is given by Eq. (9-317). The induced current and voltage in the first intermediate cavity are given by
Eqs. (9-3-19) and (9-3-20). This gap voltage of the first intermediate cavity produces a velocity modulation on the beam in the second intermediate cavity. The RF
convection current in the second intermediate cavity can be written with IV1 I replaced by IVi I. That is,
low {30 IVi I
I!3. I = -21 -v.
oWq
= _!_ (low
4
v.oWq
)zf331 V IR
Olsh
(9-3-24)
372
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
The output voltage of the second intermediate cavity is then given by
IVi I = /3ol i3 IRsh
=
(9-3-25)
.!. ( low )2/341Olsh
V IR2
4 v.oWq
This voltage produces a velocity modulation again and is converted into an RF convection current at the output cavity for four-cavity klystron as
low {3; IVi I
I14. I = -21 -v.
oWq
3
_ 1 (low )
-S
Vowq
and
Ih I = /3ol i4 I = ~ (
(9-3-26)
/30IVi IRsh
2
5
:::J
3
/381 Vi IR;h
(9-3-27)
The output voltage is then
IVi I = I14 IRshl = ~ (
:::JJ
/381 Vi IR;hRshl
(9-3-28)
The output power from the output cavity in a four-cavity klystron amplifier can be
expressed as
6
Pout
_ Il4 12 Rshl -_ 64
1 (low
4 2
VoWq ) /30121 Vi 12 RshRshl
(9-3-29)
where Rsht = total shunt resistance of the output cavity including the external load.
The multicavity klystrons are often operated with their cavities stagger-tuned
so as to obtain a greater bandwidth at some reduction in gain. In high-power
klystrons, the cavity grids are omitted, because they would burn up during beam interception. High-power klystron amplifiers with a power gain of 40 to 50 dB and a
bandwidth of several percent are commercially available.
Example 9-3-4:
Output Power of Four-Cavity Klystron
A four-cavity klystron has the following parameters:
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Operating frequency:
Beam coupling coefficient:
de electron beam current density:
Signal voltage:
Shunt resistance of cavity:
Total shunt resistance including load:
Vo= lO kV
lo= 0.7 A
f = 4 GHz
{3; = /30 = l
Po = 5 X 10-s C/m3
Vi = 2 V (rms)
Rsh = 10 k!l
Rsh1 = 5 k!l
373
Reflex Klystrons
Sec. 9.4
Determine:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The
The
The
The
The
plasma frequency
reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.6
induced current in the output cavity
induced voltage in the output cavity
output power delivered to the load
Solution
a. The plasma frequency is
Wp
= [ l.759
X
10 11
X
5 x 10-5 ]1/2
_
X
_
= 0.997
8 854
10 12
X
109 rad/s
b. The reduced plasma frequency is
wq = 0.6 x 0.997 x 109 = 0.598 x 109 rad/s
w/wq
= 27T
X
4 x 109/(0.598 x 109 )
= 42.03
c. The induced current in the output cavity is
1(0~7x 42.03) x 1
8 10
3
1141
6
= -
x 121x(IOx103) 2
= 0.6365 A
d. The induced voltage in the output cavity is
IV41=114IR,h1 = I0.63651x5x103
= 3.18 kV
e. The output power is
Pout
= I141 2 Rshl = I0.63651 2
X
5
X
103
= 2.03 kW
9.4 REFLEX KLYSTRONS
If a fraction of the output power is fed back to the input cavity and if the loop gain
has a magnitude of unity with a phase shift of multiple 27T, the klystron will oscillate. However, a two-cavity klystron oscillator is usually not constructed because,
when the oscillation frequency is varied, the resonant frequency of each cavity and
the feedback path phase shift must be readjusted for a positive feedback. The reflex
klystron is a single-cavity klystron that overcomes the disadvantages of the twocavity klystron oscillator. It is a low-power generator of IO to 500-mW output at a
frequency range of I to 25 GHz. The efficiency is about 20 to 30%. This type is
widely used in the laboratory for microwave measurements and in microwave receivers as local oscillators in commercial, military, and airborne Doppler radars as well
as missiles. The theory of the two-cavity klystron can be applied to the analysis of
374
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
the reflex klystron with slight modification. A schematic diagram of the reflex
klystron is shown in Fig. 9-4-1.
The electron beam injected from the cathode is first velocity-modulated by the
cavity-gap voltage. Some electrons accelerated by the accelerating field enter the repeller space with greater velocity than those with unchanged velocity. Some electrons decelerated by the retarding field enter the repeller region with less velocity.
All electrons turned around by the repeller voltage then pass through the cavity gap
in bunches that occur once per cycle. On their return journey the bunched electrons
pass through the gap during the retarding phase of the alternating field and give up
their kinetic energy to the electromagnetic energy of the field in the cavity. Oscillator output energy is then taken from the cavity. The electrons are finally collected by
the walls of the cavity or other grounded metal parts of the tube. Figure 9-4-2 shows
an Applegate diagram for the 1~ mode of a reflex klystron.
9·4·1 Velocity Modulation
The analysis of a reflex klystron is similar to that of a two-cavity klystron. For simplicity, the effect of space-charge forces on the electron motion will again be neglected. The electron entering the cavity gap from the cathode at z = 0 and time to
is assumed to have uniform velocity
Vo= 0.593 X 106
The same electron leaves the cavity gap at z
v ( t 1)
=
v0 [ 1
+
vVo
(9-4-1)
= d at time ti with velocity
8
.
(
Vo sm
wti - 0 ) ]
2
/31V1
2
(9-4-2)
This expression is identical to Eq. (9-2-17), for the problems up to this point are
identical to those of a two-cavity klystron amplifier. The same electron is forced
back to the cavity z = d and time tz by the retarding electric field E, which is given
by
E=
Vr
+
Vo
+ Vi sin
(wt)
(9-4-3)
~~~~~~~~
L
This retarding field E is assumed to be constant in the z direction. The force equation for one electron in the repeller region is
2
m d z
dt 2
=
-eE
=
-e Vr
+
Vo
(9-4-4)
L
where E = -VV is used in the z direction only, Vr is the magnitude of the repeller
voltage, and IV1 sin wt I ~ (Vr + Vo) is assumed.
Integration of Eq. (9-4-4) twice yields
dz_ -e(Vr +Vo)
dt
mL
-
f' dt -_
11
-e(Vr +Vo)( _
mL
t
ti
)
+
K
l
(9-4-5)
Sec. 9.4
Reflex Klystrons
375
l---...-.
Repeller
Vs= V 1 sin wt
v,
+ tot1,t2
11-1---ld----I-·
2
l +d
t0
t1
time for electron entering cavity gap at z = 0
time for same electron leaving cavity gap at z = d
time for same electron returned by retarding field
z = d and collected on walls of cavity
Electron beam is
accelerated during
this half cycle.
Figure 9-4-2
Figure 9-4-1 Schematic diagram of a
reflex klystron.
Electron beam is
decelerated during
this half cycle.
Applegate diagram with gap voltage for a reflex klystron.
376
at t
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
= ti, dz/dt = v(t,) = K1; then
z=
f' (t-t,)dt+v(t,) f' dt
-e(V, + Vo)
mL
t1
at t
Chap. 9
=
ti, z
=
d
t1
= K1; then
(9-4-6)
On the assumption that the electron leaves the cavity gap at z = d and time t 1 with a
velocity of v(t,) and returns to the gap at z = d and time tz, then, at t = t2 , z = d,
0
+ Vo) (t1 - t, )2 + v ( t1) ( t2
= -e (V,
mL
2
)
-
t1
The round-trip transit time in the repeller region is given by
T
,
. (
(Jg)]
= tz - t, = e(V,2mL
+ Vo) v (t, ) = To'[ 1 + f3;V1
2Vo sm wt, - 2
(9-4-7)
where
T' _
0
-
2mLvo
e(V, + Vo)
(9-4-8)
is the round-trip de transit time of the center-of-the-bunch electron.
Multiplication of Eq. (9-4-7) through by a radian frequency results in
w(t2
-
t1) =Ob+ X' sin (wt1 -
i)
(9-4-9)
where
Ob= wTb
(9-4-10)
is the round-trip de transit angle of the center-of-the-bunch electron and
X' = {3; V, ()'0
2Vo
(9-4-11)
is the bunching parameter of the reflex klystron oscillator.
9·4·2 Power Output and Efficiency
In order for the electron beam to generate a maximum amount of energy to the oscillation, the returning electron beam must cross the cavity gap when the gap field is
maximum retarding. In this way, a maximum amount of kinetic energy can be transferred from the returning electrons to the cavity walls. It can be seen from Fig.
Sec. 9.4
Reflex Klystrons
377
9-4-2 that for a maximum energy transfer, the round-trip transit angle, referring to
the center of the bunch, must be given by
(n - ~)27T = N 27T = 27Tn -
w (t2 - ti) = wTO =
~
(9-4-12)
where Vi ~ Vo is assumed, n = any positive integer for cycle number, and N =
is the number of modes.
The current modulation of the electron beam as it reenters the cavity from the
repeller region can be determined in the same manner as in Section 9- 2 for a twocavity klystron amplifier. It can be seen from Eqs. (9-2-30) and (9-4-9) that the
bunching parameter X' of a reflex klystron oscillator has a negative sign with respect
to the bunching parameter X of a two-cavity klystron amplifier. Furthermore, the
beam current injected into the cavity gap from the repeller region flows in the negative z direction. Consequently, the beam current of a reflex klystron oscillator can be
written
n-
i
iz, = -Io -
L
2/oln(nX ') cos [n (wt2 - Oh - Og)]
(9-4-13)
n=l
The fundamental component of the current induced in the cavity by the modulated
electron beam is given by
iz
= - {3;/2 =
2/of3J1(X ') cos (wt2 - Oh)
(9-4-14)
in which ()11 has been neglected as a small quantity compared with Oh. The magnitude of the fundamental component is
/z
= 2/of3J1(X ')
(9-4-15)
The de power supplied by the beam voltage Vo is
Pde
= Volo
(9-4-16)
and the ac power delivered to the load is given by
Pac=
2Vi /z
I
= Vilof3J,(X)
(9-4-17)
From Eqs.(9-4-10), (9-4-11), and (9-4-12) the ratio of V1 over Vo is expressed by
V,
Vo
2X'
{3;(27Tn - 7T /2)
(9-4-18)
Substitution of Eq. (9-4-18) in Eq. (9-4-17) yields the power output as
= 2VofoX' J,(X')
p
ac
27Tn - 7T /2
(9-4-19)
Therefore the electronic efficiency of a reflex klystron oscillator is defined as
=Pac
'Effi .
c1ency - p
de
=
2X' J,(X')
27Tll - 7T 12
(9-4-20)
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
378
Chap. 9
The factor X 'J,(X ') reaches a maximum value of 1.25 at X' = 2.408 and J,(X ') =
0.52. In practice, the mode of n = 2 has the most power output. If n = 2 or 1 ~
mode, the maximum electronic efficiency becomes
.
- 2(2.408)1,(2.408) - 22 701.
Effic1encymax 27T (2) - 7T /2 . -10
(9-4-21)
The maximum theoretical efficiency of a reflex klystron oscillator ranges from 20 to
30%. Figure 9-4-3 shows a curve of X 'J,(X ') versus X'.
1.4
1.25
1.2
1.0
~
~
0.8
~
~
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.5
2.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
2.408
X'
Figure 9-4-3
X 'J 1(X ') versus X '.
For a given beam voltage Vo , the relationship between the repeller voltage and
cycle number n required for oscillation is found by inserting Eqs. (9-4-12) and
(9-4-1) into Eq. (9-4-8):
Vo
(27Tn - 7T /2) 2 e
8w 2 L2
m
(9-4-22)
The power output can be expressed in terms of the repeller voltage Vr. That is,
p
le
_ VoloX 'J,(X ')(Vr + Vo)
wL ·
'J~
ac -
(9 _4 _23 )
It can be seen from Eq. (9-4-22) that, for a given beam voltage Vo and cycle number
n or mode number N, the center repeller voltage Vr can be determined in terms of
the center frequency. Then the power output at the center frequency can be calculated from Eq. (9-4-23). When the frequency varies from the center frequency and
the repeller voltage about the center voltage, the power output will vary accordingly,
assuming a bell shape (see Fig. 9-4-4).
Sec. 9.4
379
Reflex Klystrons
10.04
I
:I:
".5G
I
)
.,c: lo.oo
I
::I
O'
~
I
10.02
9.98
.v
v
I
I
9.96
400
~
E
300
.5
;;
214
mode
mode
0.
200
....
~
100
g
314
I~'
I'
(\
\
I \
r\
mode/
J
'
/
I
0
11.
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Repeller voltage in volts
Figure 9-4-4
'
700
800
900
1000
Power output and frequency characteristics of a reflex klystron.
9.4.3 Electronic Admittance
From Eq. (9-4-14) the induced current can be written in phasor form as
i2
= 2lof3J1 (X ')e-j80
The voltage across the gap at time
t2
(9-4-24)
can also be written in phasor form:
(9-4-25)
The ratio of i2 to Vz is defined as the electronic admittance of the reflex klystron.
That is,
_ lo {3T ()b 211 (X ') .(,,/z-o'>
Y.---e'
o
e
Vo 2
X'
(9-4-26)
The amplitude of the phasor admittance indicates that the electronic admittance is a
function of the de beam admittance, the de transit angle, and the second transit of
the electron beam through the cavity gap. It is evident that the electronic admittance
is nonlinear, since it is proportional to the factor 211(X ')/X ', and X' is proportional
to the signal voltage. This factor of proportionality is shown in Fig. 9-4-5. When
the signal voltage goes to zero, the factor approaches unity.
380
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
1.0
~
~
......
N
-
....
--.........
0.8
0.6
(.)
c:
0.4
0
·a
e:s
....
~
~ '-
""'
~i".
2
~
Chap. 9
0.2
0
0
2
"'
'-
3
~
~
4
Bunching parameter X'
Figure 9-4-5
factor.
Reflex klystron saturation
The equivalent ciruit of a reflex klystron is shown in Fig. 9-4-6. In this circuit
L and C are the energy storage elements of the cavity; Ge represents the copper
losses of the cavity, Gb the beam loading conductance, and Ge the load conductance.
The necessary condition for oscillations is that the magnitude of the negative
real part of the electronic admittance as given by Eq. (9-4-26) not be less than the
total conductance of the cavity circuit. That is,
I-Gel~ G
where G
(9-4-27)
= Ge + Gb + Ge = l/Rsh and Rsh is the effective shunt resistance.
Figure 9-4-6 Equivalent circuit of a
reflex klystron.
Equation (9-4-26) can be rewritten in rectangular form:
Ye= Ge+ jBe
(9-4-28)
Since the electronic admittance shown in Eq. (9-4-26) is in exponential form, its
phase is 7T /2 when
is zero. The rectangular plot of the electron admittance Ye is a
spiral (see Fig. 9-4-7). Any value of for which the spiral lies in the area to the left
of line (-G - jB) will yield oscillation. That is,
eo
eo
~=G-0~=N~
~4m
where N is the mode number as indicated in the plot, the phenomenon verifies the
early analysis.
Oscillation region -
Nonoscillation region
/-
I
+jB,
I
I
;so
I
-c,
60
-80
80
+G,
Conductance
µmhos
-;so
-G -jB /..- G
I
-;B,
Figure 9.4.7 Electronic admittance spiral of a reflex klystron.
Example 9-4· 1:
Reflex Klystron
A reflex klystron operates under the following conditions:
L =I mm
Vo=600V
R,h = l5kfl
e
-
m
= l.759 x 10 11 (MKS system)
fr= 9 GHz
The tube is oscillating at fr at the peak of then = 2 mode or I~ mode. Assume that the
transit time through the gap and beam loading can be neglected.
a. Find the value of the repeller voltage V, .
b. Find the direct current necessary to give a microwave gap voltage of 200 V.
c. What is the electronic efficiency under this condition?
Solution
a. From Eq. (9-4-22) we obtain
Vo
(V,
+
=
Vo)
2
(!...) (21Tn m
=
1T /2)
2
2
8w L2
II
(21T2 - 1T/2)2
X 10-3
(I. 759 x IO ) S( 21T x 9 x l09)2(I0_ 3) 2 - 0.832
381
382
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
(V,
+
Vo) 2
600
x _3
0 832
10
= _
v,
=
b. Assume that f3o
=
250
Chap. 9
= 0.721 x 106
v
1. Since
Vi= /zRsh
= 2/of1(X')Rsh
the direct current Io is
I _
0
-
Vi
_
200
_
21,(X')R,h - 2(0.582)(15 x 103) - lI. 45 mA
c. From Eqs. (9-4-11), (9-4-12), and (9-4-20) the electronic efficiency is
Effi .
- 2X I J,(X ') - 2(1.841)(0.582) c1ency - 27rn _ 11"/ 2 - 211"(2 ) _ 11"/ 2 - 19.49%
9·5 HELIX TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES (TWTs}
Since Kompfner invented the helix traveling-wave tube (TWT) in 1944 [11], its basic
circuit has changed little. For broadband applications, the helix TWTs are almost exclusively used, whereas for high-average-power purposes, such as radar transmitters,
the coupled-cavity TWTs are commonly used.
In previous sections klystrons and reflex klystrons were analyzed in some detail. Before starting to describe the TWT, it seems appropriate to compare the basic
operating principles of both the TWT and the klystron. In the case of the TWT, the
microwave circuit is nonresonant and the wave propagates with the same speed as
the electrons in the beam. The initial effect on the beam is a small amount of velocity modulation caused by the weak electric fields associated with the traveling wave.
Just as in the klystron, this velocity modulation later translates to current modulation, which then induces an RF current in the circuit, causing amplification. However, there are some major differences between the TWT and the klystron:
1. The interaction of electron beam and RF field in the TWT is continuous over
the entire length of the circuit, but the interaction in the klystron occurs only
at the gaps of a few resonant cavities.
2. The wave in the TWT is a propagating wave; the wave in the klystron is not.
3. In the coupled-cavity TWT there is a coupling effect between the cavities,
whereas each cavity in the klystron operates independently.
A helix traveling-wave tube consists of an electron beam and a slow-wave structure. The electron beam is focused by a constant magnetic field along the electron
beam and the slow-wave structure. This is termed an 0-type traveling-wave tube.
The slow-wave structure is either the helical type or folded-back line. The applied
signal propagates around the turns of the helix and produces an electric field at the
Sec. 9.5
Helix Traveling-Wave Tubes (TWTs)
383
center of the helix, directed along the helix axis. The axial electric field progresses
with a velocity that is very close to the velocity of light multiplied by the ratio of helix pitch to helix circumference. When the electrons enter the helix tube, an interaction takes place between the moving axial electric field and the moving electrons.
On the average, the electrons transfer energy to the wave on the helix. This interaction causes the signal wave on the helix to become larger. The electrons entering the
helix at zero field are not affected by the signal wave; those electrons entering the
helix at the accelerating field are accelerated, and those at the retarding field are decelerated. As the electrons travel further along the helix, they bunch at the collector
end. The bunching shifts the phase by 1T /2. Each electron in the bunch encounters a
stronger retarding field. Then the microwave energy of the electrons is delivered by
the electron bunch to the wave on the helix. The amplification of the signal wave is
accomplished. The characteristics of the traveling-wave tube are:
Frequency range:
3 GHz and higher
Bandwidth:
about 0.8 GHz
Efficiency:
20 to 40%
up to 10 kW average
Power output:
Power gain:
up to 60 dB
The present state of the art for U.S. high-power TWTs is shown in Fig. 9-5-1.
0.6
1-------C----t-4---+---+-+--------t------r--+-+-------<-r-<
0•1------+--r-+---+-->-+---+---l~j----+--+-+------+---t-~
021----t---l--+--+-+-+----l·-'--'-!--+-+-+--f--+--l
I
i
0·10·':-1--:"':0.2,....-;:'o.J=--'"-o"".•~~~,~~~;~.~,.,.,o_-,20~.___.,o
FREQUENCY, GHz
Figure 9-5-1 State of the art for U.S.
high-power TWTs.
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
384
Chap. 9
9·5·1 Slow-Wave Structures
As the operating frequency is increased, both the inductance and capacitance of the
resonant circuit must be decreased in order to maintain resonance at the operating
frequency. Because the gain-bandwidth product is limited by the resonant circuit,
the ordinary resonator cannot generate a large output. Several nonresonant periodic
circuits or slow-wave structures (see Fig. 9-5-2) are designed for producing large
gain over a wide bandwidth.
(a)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(c)
Figure 9-5-2 Slow-wave structures. (a) Helical line. (b) Folded-back line. (c)
Zigzag line. (d) Interdigital line. (e) Corrugated waveguide.
Slow-wave structures are special circuits that are used in microwave tubes to
reduce the wave velocity in a certain direction so that the electron beam and the signal wave can interact. The phase velocity of a wave in ordinary waveguides is
greater than the velocity of light in a vacuum. In the operation of traveling-wave and
magnetron-type devices, the electron beam must keep in step with the microwave
signal. Since the electron beam can be accelerated only to velocities that are about a
fraction of the velocity of light, a slow-wave structure must be incorporated in the
microwave devices so that the phase velocity of the microwave signal can keep pace
with that of the electron beam for effective interactions. Several types of slow-wave
structures are shown in Fig. 9-5-2.
The commonly used slow-wave structure is a helical coil with a concentric conducting cylinder (see Fig. 9-5-3).
It can be shown that the ratio of the phase velocity Vp along the pitch to the
phase velocity along the coil is given by
Vp
c
=
p
Yp2 + (1Td)2
= sin I/I
(9-5-1)
Sec. 9.5
Helix Traveling-Wave Tubes (TWTs)
Figure 9-5-3
where c
385
Helical slow-wave structure. (a) Helical coil. (b) One turn of helix.
= 3 x 108 mis is the velocity of light in free space
p = helix pitch
d = diameter of the helix
I/! = pitch angle
In general, the helical coil may be within a dielectric-filled cylinder. The phase
velocity in the axial direction is expressed as
Vp< -
Yµ,E[p
p
2
+ (rrd)2]
(9-5-2)
If the dielectric constant is too large, however, the slow-wave structure may intro-
duce considerable loss to the microwave devices, thereby reducing their efficiency.
For a very small pitch angle, the phase velocity along the coil in free space is approximately represented by
v =pc = ~
(9-5-3)
f3
1Td
p
Figure 9-5-4 shows the w-{3 (or Brillouin) diagram for a helical slow-wave
structure. The helix w-/3 diagram is very useful in designing a helix slow-wave structure. Once f3 is found, Vp can be computed from Eq. (9-5-3) for a given dimension
of the helix. Furthermore, the group velocity of the wave is merely the slope of the
curve as given by
aw
Vgr
w
(9-5-4)
= a{3
I ~=c
I (3
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I-~-
f3
Figure 9-5-4
structure.
w-{3 diagram for a helical
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
386
Chap. 9
In order for a circuit to be a slow-wave structure, it must have the property of
periodicity in the axial direction. The phase velocity of some of the spatial harmonics in the axial direction obtained by Fourier analysis of the waveguide field may be
smaller than the velocity of light. In the helical slow-wave structure a translation
back or forth through a distance of one pitch length results in identically the same
structure again. Thus the period of a helical slow-wave structure is its pitch.
In general, the field of the slow-wave structure must be distributed according to
Floquet's theorem for periodic boundaries. Floquet's periodicity theorem states that:
The steady-state solutions for the electromagnetic fields of a single propagating mode in
a periodic structure have the property that fields in adjacent cells are related by a complex constant.
Mathematically, the theorem can be stated
E(x, y, z - L)
= E(x,
y, z)eH3oL
(9-5-5)
where E(x, y, z) is a periodic function of z with periodL. Since /30 is the phase constant in the axial direction, in a slow-wave structure /30 is the phase constant of average electron velocity.
It is postulated that the solution to Maxwell's equations in a periodic structure
can be written
E(x, y, z)
= f(x,
y, z)e-jf3oZ
(9-5-6)
where f (x, y, z) is a periodic function of z with period L that is the period of the
slow-wave structure.
For a periodic structure, Eq. (9-5-6) can be rewritten with z replaced by
z - L:
E(x, y, z - L) = f(x, y, z - L)e-jf3o(z-L)
(9-5-7)
Sincef(x, y, z - L) is a periodic function with period L, then
f(x, y, z - L)
= f(x,
y, z)
(9-5-8)
y, z)e-jf3ozejf3oL
(9-5-9)
Substitution of Eq. (9-5-8) in (9-5-7) results in
E(x, y, z - L)
= f(x,
and substitution of Eq. (9-5-6) in (9-5-9) gives
E(x, y, z - L)
= E(x, y,
z)ejf3oL
(9-5-10)
This expression is the mathematical statement of Floquet's theorem, Eq. (9-5-5).
Therefore Eq. (9-5-6) does indeed satisfy Floquet's theorem.
From the theory of Fourier series, any function that is periodic, single-valued,
finite, and continuous may be represented by a Fourier series. Hence the field distribution function E(x, y, z) may be expanded into a Fourier series of fundamental period Las
(9-5-11)
n=-oo
n= -oo
Sec. 9.5
387
Helix Traveling-Wave Tubes (TWTs)
where
1
En(X, y) = L
IL E(x, y, z)ej(Z7Tn/L)Z dz
(9-5-12)
0
are the amplitudes of n harmonics and
{3n =Bo+
27Tn
L
is the phase constant of the nth modes, where n
=
(4-5-13)
-00
'.
'-2, -1, 0, l, 2, 3,
00
The quantities En(x, y)e-jf3.z are known as spatial harmonics by analogy with
time-domain Fourier series. The question is whether Eq. (9-5-11) can satisfy the
electric wave equation, Eq. (2-1-20). Substitution of Eq. (9-5-11) into the wave
equation results in
v2[n~oo En(X, y)e-jf3nZ]
-
,,2[n~oo En(X, y)e-j/3.Z]
=0
(9-5-14)
Since the wave equation is linear, Eq. (9-5-14) can be rewritten as
(9-5-15)
n=-oo
It is evident from the preceding equation that if each spatial harmonic is itself a solution of the wave equation for each value of n, the summation of space harmonics also
satisfies the wave equation of Eq. (9-5-14). This means that only the complete solution of Eq. (9-5-14) can satisfy the boundary conditions of a periodic structure.
Furthermore, Eq. (9-5-1 l) shows that the field in a periodic structure can be
expanded as an infinite series of waves, all at the same frequency but with different
phase velocities Vpn • That is
v
The group velocity
Vgr '
w
pn
w
defined by
f3n
Vgr
{30
+ (27Tn/ L)
= aw I a{3 ' is then given as
= [d({3o +
Vgr
(9-5-16)
=-=-----
27rn/L)]-I
dw
=~
a{3o
(9-5-17)
which is independent of n.
It is important to note that the phase velocity Vpn in the axial direction decreases for higher values of positive n and f3o . So it appears possible for a microwave
of suitable n to have a phase velocity less than the velocity of light. It follows that
interactions between the electron beam and microwave signal are possible and thus
the amplification of active microwave devices can be achieved.
Figure 9-5-5 shows the w-{3 (or Brillouin) diagram for a helix with several
spatial harmonics. This w-{3 diagram demonstrates some important properties needing more explanation. First, the second quadrant of the w-{3 diagram indicates the
negative phase velocity that corresponds to the negative n. This means that the electron beam moves in the positive z direction while the beam velocity coincides with
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
388
w
Chap. 9
w
If= c
Forbidden region
0
4ir
6ir (3
T
T
Figure 9-5-5 w-{3 diagram of spatial
harmonics for helical structure.
the negative spatial harmonic's phase velocity. This type of tube is called a
backward-wave oscillator. Second, the shaded areas are the forbidden regions for
propagation. This situation occurs because if the axial phase velocity of any spatial
harmonic exceeds the velocity of light, the structure radiates energy. This property
has been verified by experiments [10].
9·5·2 Amplification Process
A schematic diagram of a helix-type traveling-wave tube is shown in Fig. 9-5-6.
The slow-wave structure of the helix is characterized by the Brillouin diagram
shown in Fig. 9-5-5. The phase shift per period of the fundamental wave on the
structure is given by
(9-5-18)
where /30 = w/vo is the phase constant of the average beam velocity and Lis the period or pitch.
Since the de transit time of an electron is given by
L
(9-5-19)
To= -
Vo
the phase constant of the nth space harmonic is
/3n = w =
Vo
01
+ 2'1Tn = /3o + 2'1Tn
L
Vo To
(9-5-20)
In Eq. (9-5-20) the axial space-harmonic phase velocity is assumed to be synchronized with the beam velocity for possible interactions between the electron beam
and electric field. That is,
(9-5-21)
Vnp = Vo
Equation (9-5-20) is identical to Eq. (9-5-13). In practice, the de velocity of the
electrons is adjusted to be slightly greater than the axial velocity of the electromagnetic wave for energy transfer. When a signal voltage is coupled into the helix, the
axial electric field exerts a force on the electrons as a result of the following relationships:
F
= - eE
and
E =
- VV
(9-5-22)
Sec. 9.5
Helix Traveling-Wave Tubes (TWTs)
Control anode
Cathode
Heater
r-~H~e-at-er
__, ___..,...._,
389
Electron beam
focusing magnet
rCollector
supply
Helix
RF input
RF output
Gain or modulation
control voltage
Regulated
beam supply
+
Collector
supply
+
(a)
RF input
Anode
RF output
-----~
Cathode
Gun
assembly
Collector
Heater
(b)
Figure 9-5-6 Diagram of helix traveling-wave tube: (a) schematic diagram of helix
traveling-wave tube; (b) simplified circuit.
The electrons entering the retarding field are decelerated and those in the accelerating field are accelerated. They begin forming a bunch centered about those electrons
that enter the helix during the zero field. This process is shown in Fig. 9-5-7.
Since the de velocity of the electrons is slightly greater than the axial wave velocity, more electrons are in the retarding field than in the accelerating field, and a
great amount of energy is transferred from the beam to the electromagnetic field.
The microwave signal voltage is, in turn, amplified by the amplified field. The
bunch continues to become more compact, and a larger amplification of the signal
voltage occurs at the end of the helix. The magnet produces an axial magnetic field
to prevent spreading of the electron beam as it travels down the tube. An attenuator
placed near the center of the helix reduces all the waves traveling along the helix to
nearly zero so that the reflected waves from the mismatched loads can be prevented
from reaching the input and causing oscillation. The bunched electrons emerging
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
390
Chap. 9
_
.....u
·c""'
u"'
<J t;:;
[jj
Accelerating force
Figure 9-5-7
Interactions between electron beam and electric field.
from the attenuator induce a new electric field with the same frequency. This field,
in turn, induces a new amplified microwave signal on the helix.
The motion of electrons in the helix-type traveling-wave tube can be quantitatively analyzed in terms of the axial electric field. If the traveling wave is propagating in the z direction, the z component of the electric field can be expressed as
Ez
= E1 sin
(wt - {3pz)
(9-5-23)
where E1 is the magnitude of the electric field in the z direction. If t = to at z = 0,
the electric field is assumed maximum. Note that {3p = w/vP is the axial phase constant of the microwave, and Vp is the axial phase velocity of the wave.
The equation of motion of the electron is given by
m
~~ =
-eE1 sin (wt - {3pz)
(9-5-24)
Assume that the velocity of the electron is
V
=
(wet + Oe)
(9-5-25)
-veWe sin (wet + Oe)
(9-5-26)
Vo
+ Ve
COS
Then
dv
dt
where
Vo = de electron velocity
Ve = magnitude of velocity fluctuation in the velocity-modulated electron
beam
we = angular frequency of velocity fluctuation
Oe = phase angle of the fluctuation
Substitution of Eq. (9-5-26) in Eq. (9-5-24) yields
mVeWe sin (wet + We)
= eE1 sin (wt - {3pz)
(9-5-27)
For interactions between the electrons and the electric field, the velocity of the
velocity-modulated electron beam must be approximately equal to the de electron
velocity. This is
V =Vo
(9-5-28)
Helix Traveling-Wave Tubes (TWTs)
Sec. 9.5
391
Hence the distance z traveled by the electrons is
z
=
(9-5-29)
Vo(t - to)
and
mVeWe sin (wet
+ Oe) = eEi sin
[wt - {3pvo(t - to)]
(9-5-30)
Comparison of the left and right-hand sides of Eq. (9-5-30) shows that
eEi
Ve= - -
(9-5-31)
mw,
We
Oe
= {3p(Vp = {3p Volo
Vo)
It can be seen that the magnitude of the velocity fluctuation of the electron beam is
directly proportional to the magnitude of the axial electric field.
9.5.3 Convection Current
In order to determine the relationship between the circuit and electron beam quantities, the convection current induced in the electron beam by the axial electric field
and the microwave axial field produced by the beam must first be developed. When
the space-charge effect is considered, the electron velocity, the charge density, the
current density, and the axial electric field will perturbate about their averages or de
values. Mathematically, these quantities can be expressed as
V
p
1
= Vo + Vi ejwt-yz
= Po + Pi ejw1-yz
= - lo + li ejwt-yz
(9-5-32)
(9-5-33)
(9-5-34)
(9-5-35)
where y = a, + jf3, is the propagation constant of the axial waves. The minus sign
is attached to lo so that lo may be a positive in the negative z direction. For a small
signal, the electron beam-current density can be written
(9-5-36)
where - lo = povo, li = Pi Vo + po vi , and Pi Vi = 0 have been replaced. If an axial electric field exists in the structure, it will perturbate the electron velocity according to the force equation. Hence the force equation can be written
-dv =
dt
e
1.wt-yz
--E,e
m
dz a)V =
= ( -a + at
dt az
( JW
. - ')'Vo)Vie 1.wt-yz
(9-5-37)
where dz/ dt has been replaced by Vo . Thus
Vi
.
-e/m
Ei
')'Vo
)W -
(9-5-38)
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
392
Chap. 9
In accordance with the law of conservation of electric charge, the continuity equation can be written
(9-5-39)
It follows that
(9-5-40)
w
Substitution Eqs. (9-5-38) and (9-5-40) in
11
=
PiVo
+
povi
(9-5-44)
gives
w e
lo
li=J-Ei
Vo m (jw - yv0 ) 2
(9-5-42)
where - lo = povo has been replaced. If the magnitude of the axial electric field is
uniform over the cross-sectional area of the electron beam, the spatial ac current i
will be proportional to the de current lo with the same proportionality constant for 11
and lo. Therefore the convection current in the electron beam is given by
.
I
.
(3,lo
E
- y)z t
= } 2Vo(}f3,
(9-5-43)
where (3, ""' w/vo is defined as the phase constant of the velocity-modulated electron
beam and vo = V(2e/m)Vo has been used. This equation is called the electronic
equation, for it determines the convection current induced by the axial electric field.
If the axial field and all parameters are known, the convection current can be found
by means of Eq. (9-5-43).
9.5.4 Axial Electric Field
The convection current in the electron beam induces an electric field in the slowwave circuit. This induced field adds to the field already present in the circuit and
causes the circuit power to increase with distance. The coupling relationship between the electron beam and the slow-wave helix is shown in Fig. 9-5-8.
ili
~I + iJ: <f:
{--____..
_
=:=
Lkctron heam
' - ()id-
t
il: -
Figure 9-5-8 Electron beam coupled to
equivalent circuit of a slow-wave helix.
Sec. 9.5
393
Helix Traveling-Wave Tubes (TWTs)
For simplicity, the slow-wave helix is represented by a distributed lossless
transmission line. The parameters are defined as follows:
L = inductance per unit length
C = capacitance per unit length
I = alternating current in transmission line
V = alternating voltage in transmission line
i = convection current
Since the transmission line is coupled to a convection-electron beam current, a
current is then induced in the line. The current flowing into the left-end portion of
the line of length dz is i, and the current flowing out of the right end of dz is
[i + (ai/az) dz]. Since the net change of current in the length dz must be zero, however, the current flowing out of the electron beam into the line must be
[-(ai/az) dz]. Application of transmission-line theory and Kirchhoff's current law
to the electron beam results, after simplification, in
a1 _
az
---
cav
ai
--at
az
(9-5-44)
Then
-yl
= - jwCV + yi
(9-5-45)
in which a/az = -y and a/at = jw are replaced.
From Kirchhoff's voltage law the voltage equation, after simplification, is
av= -L a1
az
at
(9-5-46)
=-
(9-5-47)
Similarly,
-yV
jwL/
Elimination of the circuit current I from Eqs. (9-5-45) and (9-5-46) yields
(9-5-48)
If the convection-elecron beam current is not present, Eq. (9-5-48) reduces to a typical wave equation of a transmission line. When i = 0, the propagation constant is
defined from Eq. (9-5-48) as
Yo= jwvLC
(9-5-49)
and the characteristic impedance of the line can be determined from Eqs. (9-5-45)
and (9-5-47):
Zo=
~
(9-5-50)
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
394
Chap. 9
When the electron beam current is present, Eq. (9-5-48) can be written in terms of
Eqs. (9-5-49) and (9-5-50):
=
V
Since Ez =
- VV =
YYoZo i
y2 - y5
(9-5-51)
- (av/ az) = yV, the axial electric field is given by
__ Y2 YoZo .
2
21
Y - Yo
EI
-
(9-5-52)
This equation is called the circuit equation because it determines how the axial electric field of the slow-wave helix is affected by the spatial ac electron beam current.
9.5.5 Wave Modes
The wave modes of a helix-type traveling-wave tube can be determined by solving
the electronic and circuit equations simultaneously for the propagation constants.
Each solution for the propagation constants represents a mode of traveling wave in
the tube. It can be seen from Eqs. (9-5-43) and (9-5-52) that there are four distinct
solutions for the propagation constants. This means that there are four modes of traveling wave in the 0-type traveling-wave tube. Substitution of Eq. (9-5-43) in Eq.
(9-5-52) yields
2
,a _ )2 __ . Y YoZo (3,lo
(Y 2 _ Yo2)( ],...,,
(9-5-53)
Y J
2Vo
Equation (9-5-53) is of fourth order in y and thus has four roots. Its exact solutions
can be obtained with numerical methods and a digital computer. However, the approximate solutions may be found by equating the de electron beam velocity to the
axial phase velocity of the traveling wave, which is equivalent to setting
Yo
= jf3,
(9-5-54)
Then Eq. (9-5-53) reduces to
(y - jf3,)3(y + jf3,) = 2c313;y2
(9-5-55)
where C is the traveling-wave tube gain parameter and is defined as
C
= (/oZo)I/3
(9-5-56)
4Vo
It can be seen from Eq. (9-5-55) that there are three forward traveling waves corresponding to e - jf3,z and one backward traveling wave corresponding to e+jf3,z. Let the
propagation constant of the three forward traveling waves be
y
=
jf3, - (3, cs
(9-5-57)
where it is assumed that CS <{ I.
Substitution of Eq. (9-5-57) in Eq. (9-5-55) results in
(-f3,CS)3(j2f3, - 13,cs)
=
2c 313;(-13; -
2j13;cs + 13;c 2s 2)
(9-5-58)
Sec. 9.5
Since Cl>
395
Helix Traveling-Wave Tubes (TWTs)
~
1, Eq. (9-5-58) is reduced to
= (- j)l/3
8
(9-5-59)
From the theory of complex variables the three roots of (- j) can be plotted in Fig.
9-5-9.
J
-I
---+--->1<,..-----1-.--- Real
Srr
6
- ! n =O
6'
n =I
-J
Three roots of ( - j).
Figure 9-5-9
Equation (9-5-59) can be written in exponential form as
8 = (- j)l/3 =
(n
e-j((7T/2+2mr)/3)
= 0,
1, 2)
(9-5-60)
The first root 81 at n = 0 is
(9-5-61)
The second root 82 at n
=
1 is
82
= e-j57T16 = - V3 - I!
2
2
(9-5-62)
The third root 83 at n = 2 is
(9-5-63)
The fourth root 84 corresponding to the backward traveling wave can be obtained by
setting
(9-5-64)
Similarly,
c2
84 = - j -
(9-5-65)
4
Thus the values of the four propagation constants I' are given by
v; }{3.(1 ~)
v; }{3.(1 ~)
+
1'1 = -(3,C
1'2 = (3,C
1'3
= }(3,(1
+
+
+
- C)
(9-5-66)
(9-5-67)
(9-5-68)
3
1'4
=-
j(3,( 1 -
~)
(9-5-69)
396
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
These four propagation constants represent four different modes of wave propagation
in the 0-type helical traveling-wave tube. It is concluded that the wave corresponding to '}'1 is a forward wave and that its amplitude grows exponentially with distance;
the wave corresponding to '}'2 is also a forward wave, but its amplitude decays exponentially with distance; the wave corresponding to '}'3 is also a forward wave, but its
amplitude remains constant; the fourth wave corresponding to '}'4 is a backward
wave, and there is no change in amplitude. The growing wave propagates at a phase
velocity slightly lower than the electron beam velocity, and the energy flows from
the electron beam to the wave. The decaying wave propagates at the same velocity as
that of the growing wave, but the energy flows from the wave to the electron beam.
The constant-amplitude wave travels at a velocity slightly higher than the electron
beam velocity, but no net energy exchange occurs between the wave and the electron
beam. The backward wave progresses in the negative z direction with a velocity
slightly higher than the velocity of the electron beam inasmuch as the typical value
of C is about 0.02.
9·5·6 Gain Consideration
For simplicity, it is assumed that the structure is perfectly matched so that there is no
backward traveling wave. Such is usually the case. Even though there is a reflected
wave from the output end of the tube traveling backward toward the input end, the
attenuator placed around the center of the tube subdues the reflected wave to a minimum or zero level. Thus the total circuit voltage is the sum of three forward
voltages corresponding to the three forward traveling waves. This is equivalent to
3
V(z)
= Vie-y 1z + V2e-yzz + V3e-'>' 31 =
L
Vne-ynz
(9-5-70)
n=l
The input current can be found from Eq. (9-5-43) as
3
•
1(z)
=
lo Vn
-2: - -e-'>'n 1
2VoC 8~
2
n=I
(9-5-71)
in which C8 ~ 1, £1 = yV, and y = jf3,(1 - C8) have been used.
The input fluctuating component of velocity of the total wave may be found
from Eq. (9-5-38) as
3
Vi ()
Z =
"'.VoVn_
L,, 1 - - -e '>'n
n=l
2VoC 8n
1
(9-5-72)
where £ 1 = yV, C8 ~ 1, f3,vo = w, and Vo= V(2e/m)Vo have been used.
To determine the amplification of the growing wave, the input reference point
is set at z = 0 and the output reference point is taken at z = e. It follows that at
z = 0 the voltage, current, and velocity at the input point are given by
V (O)
.
=
Vi
+ Vi + Vi
lo
(Vi
z(O) = - 2VoC 2 8r
(9-5-73)
Vi
Vi)
+ 8~ + 8j
(9-5-74)
Sec. 9.5
397
Helix Traveling-Wave Tubes (TWTs)
. vo= -1
v,(O)
(v, + -Vi + -03Vi)
-
2VoC 81
(9-5-75)
82
The simultaneous solution of Eqs. (9-5- 73), (9-5-74), and (9-5-75) with i(O)
and v,(O) = 0 is
=
0
(9-5- 76)
Since the growing wave is increasing exponentially with distance, it will predominate over the total voltage along the circuit. When the length C of the slow-wave
structure is sufficiently large, the output voltage will be almost equal to the voltage
of the growing wave. Substitution of Eqs. (9-5-66) and (9-5-76) in Eq. (9-5- 70)
yields the output voltage as
- exp
V(C) = -V (O)
3
(v3
) [ jf3,. ( + 2C) C]
2 13,CC
exp -
1
(9-5-77)
The factor 13,C is conventionally written 2TTN, where N is the circuit length in electronic wavelength-that is,
a.
,._,,
and
=
21T
A,
(9-5-78)
The amplitude of the output voltage is then given by
V (C)
~
V(O)
3
r:
= - - exp ( v 3 TTNC)
(9-5- 79)
The output power gain in decibels is defined as
(C)
Ap == 10 log V
V(O)
2
1
=
-9.54
+ 47.3NC
dB
(9-5-80)
I
where NC is a numerical number.
The output power gain shown in Eq. (9-5-80) indicates an initial loss at the circuit input of 9.54 dB. This loss results from the fact that the input voltage splits into
three waves of equal magnitude and the growing wave voltage is only one-third the
total input voltage. It can also be seen that the power gain is proportional to the
length N in electronic wavelength of the slow-wave structure and the gain parameter
C of the circuit.
Example 9-5-1:
Operation of Traveling-Wave Tube (TWT)
A traveling-wave tube (TWT) operates under the following parameters:
Vo= 3 kV
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
lo = 30 mA
Characteristic impedance of helix:
Circuit length:
N = 50
Frequency:
f = 10 GHz
Zo=lOO
398
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
Determine: (a) the gain parameter C; (b) the output power gain Ar in decibels; and
(c) all four propagation constants.
Solution
a. From Eq. (9-5-56) the gain parameter is
3
13
13
_ (loZo)' _ (30 x 10- X 10)' _ 2 92
_2
·
C 4Vo
4 x 3 x 103
x 10
b. From Eq. (9-5-80) the output power gain is
Ar
= -9.54 + 4.73 NC = -9.54 + 47.3 x 50 x 2.92 x 10- 2 = 59.52 dB
c. The four propagation constants are
f3, =
W
Vo
/11 = -{3,C
=
27T X } 0!0
(
v:
/13
+ jf3,(l +
~)
2 92 x 10- 2)
-1.93 x 103 x 2.92 x 10- 2 x 0.87 + j 1.93 x 103( 1 + . 2
= -49.03
Y2 =
)
= 0.593 x 106v'3Xlo = 1.93 x 103 rad/m
f3,C
v:
+ j 1952
+ jf3,(l +
~) =
49.03 + }1952
= jf3,(I - C) = j 1.93 x 103(1 - 2.92 x 10- 2)
= j 1872.25
. (
y 4 = - jf3, I -
3
C )
4
.
= - J 1. 93
2
x 103 [ I - (2. 92 x 10-
)3]
4
= - j 1930
9·6 COUPLED-CAVITY TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES
Helix traveling-wave tubes (TWTs) produce at most up to several kilowatts of average power output. Here we describe coupled-cavity traveling-wave tubes, which are
used for high-power applications.
9·6· 1 Physical Description
The term coupled cavity means that a coupling is provided by a long slot that
strongly couples the magnetic component of the field in adjacent cavities in such a
manner that the passband of the circuit is mainly a function of this one variable. Figure 9-6-1 shows two coupled-cavity circuits that are principally used in travelingwave tubes.
Sec. 9.6
Coupled-Cavity Traveling-Wave Tubes
Cavity
399
Electron
beam
Drift
tube
Coupling hole
(a)
Magnet
Iron
pole piece
(b)
Figure 9-6-1 Coupled-cavity circuits in the TWTs. (a) Basic coupled-cavity circuit. (b) Coupled-cavity circuit with integral periodic-permanent-magnet (PPM) focusing. (After J. T. Mendel [ 15 ]; reprinted by permission of JEEE.)
As far as the coupling effect is concerned, there are two types of coupledcavity circuits in traveling-wave tubes. The first type consists of the fundamentally
forward-wave circuits that are normally used for pulse applications requiring at least
half a megawatt of peak power. These coupled-cavity circuits exhibit negative mutual inductive coupling between the cavities and operate with the fundamental space
harmonic. The cloverleaf [12] and centipede circuits [13] (see Fig. 9-6-2) belong to
this type. The second type is the first space-harmonic circuit, which has positive mutual coupling between the cavities. These circuits operate with the first spatial harmonic and are commonly used for pulse or continuous wave (CW) applications from
one to several hundred kilowatts of power output [14]. In addition, the long-slot circuit of the positive mutual coupling-cavity circuit operates at the fundamental spatial
400
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
...
""
' ,..
. .t
• ..
'
.-. ,,,;"
..-; ...
~
Figure 9-6-2 Centipede and cloverleaf coupled-cavity circuits. (After A. Staprans
et al. [7]; reprinted by permission of IEEE.)
Figure 9-6-3 Space-harmonic coupledcavity circuits. (After A. Staprans et al.
[7}; reprinted by permission of IEEE,
Inc.)
harmonic with a higher frequency mode. This circuit is suitable for megawatt power
output. Figure 9-6-3 shows several space-harmonic coupled-cavity circuits.
9·6·2 Principles of Operation
Any repetitive series of lumped LC elements constitute a propagating filter-type circuit. The coupled cavities in the traveling-wave tube are usually highly over-coupled,
resulting in a bandpass-filter-type characteristic. When the slot angle (O) as shown in
Fig. 9-6-l(a) is larger than 180°, the passband is close to its practical limits. The
drift tube is formed by the reentrant part of the cavity, just as in the case of a
klystron. During the interaction of the RF field and the electron beam in the
traveling-wave tube a phase change occurs between the cavities as a function of frequency. A decreasing phase characteristic is reached if the mutual inductance of the
coupling slot is positive, whereas an increasing phase characteristic is obtained if the
mutual inductive coupling of the slot is negative [ 12].
The amplification of the traveling-wave tube interaction requires that the electron beam interact with a component of the circuit field that has an increasing phase
characteristic with frequency. The circuit periodicity can give rise to field components that have phase characteristics [16] as shown in Fig. 9-6-4. In Fig. 9-6-4 the
angular frequency (w) is plotted as a function of the phase shift (/3 C) per cavity. The
ratio of w to /3 is equal to the phase velocity. For a circuit having positive mutual in-
Sec. 9.6
Coupled-Cavity Traveling-Wave Tubes
401
TWT OPERATION
BEAM CHARACTERISTIC
-4r
-3w
-2w -w
0
.8L(o)
2..
3..
4,,
TWT
OPERATION
IS WITH THIS
BRANCH OF
BEAM CHARACTERISTIC
Figure 9-6-4 w-{3 diagrams for
coupled-cavity circuits. (a) Fundamental
forward-wave circuit (negative mutual
inductance coupling between cavities).
(b) Fundamental backward-wave circuit
(positive mutual inductive coupling between cavities). (After A. Staprans et al.
[7]; reprinted by permission of IEEE,
Inc.)
I
I
I
-4 ..
-3 ..
-2 ..
-..
0
.8L(b)
ductive coupling between the cavities, the electron beam velocity is adjusted to be
approximately equal to the phase velocity of the first forward-wave spatial harmonic.
For the circuits with negative mutual inductive coupling, the fundamental branch
component of the circuit wave is suitable for synchronism with the electron beam
and is normally used by the traveling-wave tube. The coupled-cavity equivalent circuit has been developed by Curnow [17] as shown in Fig. 9-6-5.
/c::::,
to
I
\
'
Figure 9-6-5 Equivalent circuits for a
slot-coupled cavity. (After A. Staprans et
al. [7]; reprinted by permission of IEEE,
Inc.)
402
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
In Fig. 9-6-5 inductances are used to represent current flow and capacitors to
represent the electric fields of the cavities. The circuit can be evolved into a fairly
simple configuration. Loss in the cavities can be approximately calculated by adding
resistance in series with the circuit inductance.
9·6·3 Microwave Characteristics
When discussing the power capability of traveling-wave tubes, it is important to
make a clear distinction between the average and the peak power because these two
figures are limited by totally different factors. The average power at a given frequency is almost always limited by thermal considerations relative to the RF propagating circuit. However, the peak RF power capability depends on the voltage for
which the tube can be designed. The beam current varies as the three-half power of
600
400
200
100
80
60
PEAK POWER
40
;;;
I=
<
~
g
!5
!50
..
0:
w
...~
20
10
8
6
4
0:
2
AVERAGE
POWER
1
.8
.6
.4
V • 25 kV
.2
•1
1
2
3
4
5 & 1
a
10
20
FREQUENCY (GHz)
30 40
60
eo
100
Figure 9-6-6 Peak and average power
capability of typical TWTs in field use .
(After J. T. Mendel [ I5 ]; reprinted by
permission of IEEE .. Inc.)
Coupled-Cavity Traveling-Wave Tubes
Sec. 9.6
403
the voltage, and the product of the beam current and the voltage determines the total beam power. That is,
/beam
=
KVcJ 12
(9-6-1)
Pbeam
=
KV5 12
(9-6-2)
where Vo is the beam voltage and K is the electron-gun perveance.
For a solid-beam electron gun with good optics, the perveance is generally
considered to be between I to 2 x 10- 6 • Once the perveance is fixed, the required
voltage for a given peak beam power is then uniquely determined. Figures 9-6-6 and
9-6-7 demonstrate the difference between peak and average power capability and the
difference between periodic-permanent-magnet (PPM) and solenoid-focused designs
[ 15].
Coupled-cavity traveling-wave tubes are constructed with a limited amount of
gain per section of cavities to ensure stability. Each cavity section is terminated by
100
80
60
SOLE NOi 0 FOCUSED COUPLED
CAVITY TUBES
40
20
10
~
~
-'
8
6
g
~
4
~
::>
0
CZ:
w
~
...~CZ:
2
jlj
V •20kV
.a
.8
...
•2
.1
1.0
3
4
5
6 7 8 910
FREQUENCY (GHzl
20
40
eo
eo
100
Figure 9-6-7 CW power capability of
TWTs operating at nearly 20 kV. (After
J. T. Mendel [15 ]; reprinted by permission of IEEE., Inc.)
404
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
either a matched load or an input or output line in order to reduce gain variations
with frequency. Cavity sections are cascaded to achieve higher tube gain than can be
tolerated in one section of cavities. Stable gain greater than 60 dB can be obtained
over about 30% bandwidth by this method.
The overall efficiency of coupled-cavity traveling-wave tubes is determined by
the amount of energy converted to RF energy and the energy dissipated by the collector. Interaction efficiencies from lO to 40% have been achieved from coupledcavity traveling-wave tubes. Overall efficiencies of 20 to 55% have been obtained
[7].
9.7 HIGH·POWER AND GRIDDED·CONTROL
TRAVELING-WAVE TUBES
Coupled-cavity traveling-wave tubes are the most versatile devices used for amplification at microwave frequencies with high gain, high power, high efficiency, and
wide bandwidth. The present state of the art for U.S. high-power gridded tubes is
shown in Fig. 9-7-l. High-power TWTs have four main sections: electron gun for
electron emission, slow-wave structure for effective beam interaction, magnetic circuit for beam focusing, and collector structure for collecting electron beams and dissipating heat energy. Specifically, the physical components of a coupled-cavity
traveling-wave tube consist of an electron emitter, a shadow grid, a control grid, a
modulating anode, a coupled-cavity circuit, a solenoid magnetic circuit, and a collector depression structure (see Fig. 9-7-2).
10 L-L---l_j__ __J__---l--l-'"Ll-_J_--1---l---1-----l---l--+--l---+-1----+--
~
.::>.-
~
4
3
::>
0
"'
~
l?
"~
L
1
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.05
0.1
0.2
Figure 9-7-1
0.4
0.6
1
2
FREQUENCY, GHz
10
State of the art for U.S. high-power gridded tubes.
20
30
Figure 9-7-2 Cutaway of a coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube. (Courtesy of Hughes Aircraft
Company, Electron Dynamics Division.)
~
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
406
Chap. 9
After electrons are emitted from the cathode, the electron beam has a tendency
to spread out because of the electron-repelling force. On the other hand, the electron
beam must be small enough for effective interaction with the slow-wave circuit. Usually the diameter of the electron beam is smaller than one-tenth wavelength of the
signal. Coupled-cavity traveling-wave high-power tubes utilize a shadow-grid technique to control the electron beam; so the device is called a gridded traveling-wave
tube (GTWT). As shown in Fig. 9-7-3 [18], the electron emitter of a gridded
traveling-wave tube has two control electrodes: one shadow grid near the cathode
and one control grid slightly away from the cathode. The shadow grid, which is at
cathode potential and interposed between the cathode and the control grid, suppresses electron emission from those portions of the cathode that would give rise to
interception at the control grid. The control grid, which is at a positive potential,
controls the electron beam. These grids can control far greater beam power than
would otherwise be possible.
Figure 9-7-3
TWT.
Electron emitter with control electrodes for gridded high-power
In general, an anode modulation technique is frequently used in traveling-wave
tubes to eliminate voltage pulsing through the lower unstable beam voltage and to
reduce modulator power requirements for high-power pulse output. In gridded
traveling-wave tubes the modulator applies a highly regulated positive grid drive
voltage with respect to the cathode to turn the electron beam on for RF amplification. An unregulated negative grid bias voltage with respect to the cathode is
used to cut the electron beam off. Thus the anode modulator acts as a pulse switch
for the electron beam of the gridded traveling-wave tube.
The anode of the electron gun is operated at a voltage higher than that of the
slow-wave structure to prevent positive ions, formed by the electron beam in the region of the slow-wave structure, from draining toward the cathode and bombarding it.
9·7·1 High Efficiency and Collector Voltage
Depression
After passing through the output cavity, the electron beam strikes a collector electrode. The function of the collector electrode could be performed by replacing the
second grid of the output cavity with a solid piece of metal. However, using a sepa-
Sec. 9.7
High-Power and Gridded-Control Traveling-Wave Tubes
407
rate electrode may have two advantages. First, the collector can be made as large as
desired in order to collect the electron beam at a lower density, thus minimizing localized heating. If the collector were part of the slow-wave circuit, its size would be
limited by the maximum gap capacitance consistent with good high-frequency performance. Second, using a separate collector can reduce its potential considerably
below the beam voltage in the RF interaction region, thereby reducing the power
dissipated in the collector and increasing the overall efficiency of the device. Gridded traveling-wave high-power tubes have a separate collector that dissipates the
electrons in the form of heat. A cooling mechanism absorbs the heat by thermal conduction to a cooler surface.
The efficiency of a gridded traveling-wave high-power tube is the ratio of the
RF power output to the product of cathode voltage (beam voltage) and cathode current (beam current). It may be expressed in terms of the product of the electronic
efficiency and the circuit efficiency. The electronic efficiency expresses the percentage of the de or pulsed input power that is converted into RF power on the slowwave structure. The circuit efficiency, on the other hand, determines the percentage
of de input power that is delivered to the load exterior to the tube. The electron
beam does not extract energy from any de power supply unless the electrons are actually collected by an electrode connected to that power supply. If a separate power
supply is connected between cathode and collector and if the cavity grids intercept a
negligible part of the electron beam, the power supply between the cathode and collector will be the only one supplying power to the tube. For a gridded traveling-wave
tube, the collector voltage is normally operated at about 40% of the cathode voltage.
Thus the overall efficiency of conversion of de to RF power is almost twice the electronic efficiency. Under this condition the tube is operating with collector voltage
depression.
9· 7·2 Normal Depression and Overdepression
of Collector Voltage
Most gridded traveling-wave tubes are very sensitive to variations of collector depression voltages below normal depression level, since the tubes operate close to the
knee of the electron spent beam curves. Figure 9-7-4 [18] shows the spent beam
curves for a typical gridded traveling-wave tube.
Under normal collector depression voltage Ve at -7 .5 kV with full saturated
power output, the spent beam electrons are collected by the collector and returned to
the cathode. Thus the collector current le is about 2.09 A. A small amount of electrons intercepted by the beam scraper or slow-wave circuit contribute the tube body
current for about 0.178 A. Very few electrons with lower kinetic energy reverse the
direction of their velocity inside the collector and fall back onto the output pole
piece. These returning electrons yield a current l, of 0.041 A, which is only a small
fraction of the body current lb. These values are shown in Fig. 9-7-4.
When the collector voltage is overdepressed from the normal level of -7.5 kV
to the worst case of about -11.5 kV, a greater number of the spent electrons inside
the collector reverse the direction of their velocity by a highly negative collector
voltage and fall back onto the grounded output pole piece because the potential of
the pole piece is 11.5 kV higher than the collector voltage. It can be seen from Fig.
A
.
.,"'
\
1.2
.,
c.
!
E
"'
·=c.,
..
1.0
I
..
. I
::>
/
/~X°
• I
l)
lo'
0
II
//
0.8
0.6
0.4
I
JII
~/I
I
·-·-·-·-·---------·-·Current I, caused by returned electrons /
""°7 8
o
2
3
4
5
6
0.2
/
A\
Body current lb
-r
O._.°'""'~:a-ii-i;1""'511""5!!!!!Sl~-~-=:!!:-o=:!!:=i:::::...--L~....L~....L~.J-~.J..._~L-~L-__J
9
10
11
12
13
14
Collector voltage -Ve in kilovolts
Figure 9-7-4
Spent beam curves for a typical gridded TWT.
9-7 -4 that when the collector voltage is overdepressed from - 7. 5 to - 11. 5 kV, the
collector current is decreased sharply from 2.01 to 1.14 A and the body current is
increased rapidly from 0.237 to 1.110 A. The body current consists of two parts:
One part is the current caused by the electrons intercepted by the circuit or the beam
scrapers; another part is the current caused by the electrons returned by the overdepressed collector voltage. Figure 9-7-5 [18] shows the impact probability of returned electrons by certain overdepressed collector voltage.
Sec. 9.7
409
High-Power and Gridded-Control Traveling-Wave Tubes
Output pole piece
5.29
mm
Collector snout
Collector snout
indicates that most electrons arc returned
hy low overdcpression voltage
indicates that most electrons arc returned
by high overdepression voltage
indicates that most electrons are returned
by higher overdepression voltage
Figure 9-7-5
voltage.
Example 9-7-1:
Impact probability of returned electrons by overdepressed collector
Gridded Traveling-Wave Tube (GTWT)
A gridded traveling-wave tube is operated with overdepression of collector voltage as
follows:
Overdepression collector voltage:
Ve= -11 kV
Returned current:
I,= 0.85 A
Mass of heated iron pole piece:
mass= 250 mg
Specific heat H of iron at 20°C:
H = 0 .108 calories/g-°C
Determine:
a. The number of electrons returned per second
b. The energy (in eV) associated with these returning electrons in 20 ms
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
410
Chap. 9
c. The power in watts for the returning electrons
d. The heat in calories associated with the returning electrons (a factor for converting joules to calories is 0.238)
e. The temperature T in degrees Celsius for the output iron pole piece [Hint:
T = 0.238Vlt/(mass x specific heat)]
f. Whether the output iron pole piece is melted
Solution
a. The number of electrons returned per second is
I,= 1.
6
0.85
8
_ = 5.31 x 10 1 electrons per second
x
10 19
b. The energy is
W =Pt = Vl,t = 11 x 103 x 5.31 x 10 18 x 20 x 10- 3
1.168 x 1021 eV
c. The power is
P
=
VI,
= 11 x 103 x 0.85 = 9.35 kW
d. The created heat is
H (heat) = 0.238Pt = 0.238V/,t
= o.238
x ll x 103 x o.85 x 20 x 10- 3
= 44.51 calories
e. The temperature is
0.238Vl,t
mass x specific heat
T=-------
44.51
250 x 10- 3 x 0. 108
l648.52°C
f. The output iron pole piece is melted.
9.7.3 Two-Stage Collector Voltage Depression
Technique
When the spent electron beam arrives in the collector, the kinetic energies of each
electron are different. Under the normal operation at a collector voltage of about
40% of the cathode voltage, very few electrons will be returned by the negative collector voltage. Consequently, the tube body current is very small and negligible because the returned electrons are the only ones intercepted by the cavity grids and the
slow-wave circuit. When the collector is more negative, however, more electrons
with lower energy will reverse their direction of velocity and fall onto the output
Sec. 9.7
High-Power and Gridded-Control Traveling-Wave Tubes
411
pole piece. Thus the tube body current will increase sharply. Since electrons of various energy classes exist inside the collector, two-stage collector voltage depression
may be utilized. Each stage is biased at a different voltage. Specifically, the main
collector may be biased at 40% depression of the cathode voltage for normal operation, but the collector snout may be grounded to the output pole piece for overdepression operation. As a result, the returned electrons will be collected by the collector snout and returned to the cathode even though the collector voltage is
overdepressed to be more negative. Since the collector is cooled by a cooling mechanism, the overheating problem for overdepression is eased. Figure 9-7-6 shows a
structure of two-stage collector voltage depression, and Fig. 9-7-7 depicts a basic
interconnection of a gridded traveling-wave tube with its power supplies [18].
Collector snout
Collector
Output pole piece
----------- _.= ==.= -= _--.,
~ Returned
E_l_ec_tr_o_n_b_e_am_h_ol_e_ __,-,.,-,..-~ ~ ~~ =-=:_~> electrons
Figure 9-7-6 Diagram for two-stage
collector depression.
Solenoid
supply
Cathode
power
supply
+
Modulator
Collector
Vk
+
Cathode -Vk
--
GTWT
Body current lb
Collector
power
supply
+
Collector current
Figure 9-7-7 Basic interconnection of a gridded traveling-wave tube with its
power supplies.
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
412
Chap. 9
9· 7·4 Stabilization of Cathode and Collector
Voltages
The cathode voltage of a gridded traveling-wave tube is negative with respect to
ground so that the electrons can be emitted from the cathode. In order to maintain a
constant beam power for a uniform gain, the cathode voltage must be constant. In
addition, the phase shift through the tube is directly related to the beam velocity;
thus high resolution and low ripple are required in the cathode voltage power supply
to avoid undesirable phase-shift variations. Consequently, the cathode power supply
of the gridded traveling-wave high-power tube is usually regulated for better than 1%
over line and load changes and is also well filtered because of the critical requirements on the cathode voltage with respect to ground. The cathode power supply provides the tube body current. Under normal operation the body current is very small
in comparison with the collector current. Figure 9-7-8 shows a basic interconnection for a gridded traveling-wave tube with two regulated power supplies.
Regulated
cathode
power +
supply
-:-
j
lb
-vk
Cathode
GTWT
Regulated
_collector+
power
supply VP
Figure 9-7-8
Collector
t
le
-~
Interconnections for a gridded traveling-wave high-power tube.
Figure 9-7-9 illustrates a voltage-regulator circuit for a cathode power supply.
The voltage regulator indicated in the circuit consists of two devices: one differential
amplifier and one tetrode tube. The solid-state differential amplifier amplifies the
difference between the preset reference voltage and the voltage that is onethousandth of the output voltage. The reference voltage is adjustable to a preset
level. The output voltage of the differential amplifier drives the control grid of the
regulator tube between cutoff and saturation in order to nullify the difference
voltage.
As shown in Fig. 9-7-8 the negative terminal of the collector power supply is
connected to the cathode and the positive terminal to the collector electrode. The
1
~-----Rectifier
Transformer -
Filter
Voltage regulator
4
5
6
I
r-~-1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
! vk
I
I
>
-IO
3
I
I
I
I
l __ , __ _JI
I
'--1'
~~-10-3vk
I
I
8
r--.L--,
I
+ I
9
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
! vk
I
I
I
I
L__,__ I
.J
I
-vk
Negative to cathode
....
~
Co)
Figure 9-7-9
-::-
Vk
I
I
7
I
+
Reference
Voltage-regulator circuit for cathode power supply .
414
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
collector depression voltage is the difference of the two regulated supply voltages.
The cathode supply provides the tube body current and the collector supply yields
the collector current. The ratio of the collector current over the body current is
about 10 for an operation of 40% voltage depression. Thus the power delivered to
the tube by the collector supply is about four times larger than the power furnished
by the cathode supply. An electrical transient may occur in the circuit when power
supplies are just being switched on or off. The reasons for an electrical transient may
be caused by two factors:
1. Load changes: When the load of a generator is suddenly increased, a larger
current is needed. Since the generator cannot meet the demand instantaneously, the output voltage of the generator drops momentarily. Conversely,
when the load of a generator is suddenly decreased, the output voltage drops
accordingly.
2. Switching on or off: When the switch of a generator is just turned on or off, the
armature current in the armature conductors produces armature reaction. The
nature of armature reaction reduces the terminal voltage for lagging loads.
When an electrical transient is created in the circuit, the collector voltage is
overdepressed. As a result, the spent electrons inside the collector reverse the direction of their velocity by the highly negative collector voltage and fall back onto the
grounded output pole piece. The tube body current is sharply increased and the collector current is greatly decreased. When the returned electrons impact the output
pole piece, the pole piece will be damaged by high heat. The damage of the output
pole piece creates a mismatch in the interaction circuit and degrades the performance
of the tube. In particular, the tube gain, efficiency, bandwidth, and power output are
affected accordingly by the circuit mismatch when the collector voltage is overdepressed below the normal depression level. Furthermore, the large body current may
burnout the solid-state differential amplifier of the cathode voltage regulator and
vary the electron beam of the gridded tube. If the damage is beyond the tolerance of
the gridded traveling-wave high-power tube, the tube may cease to function.
In order to maintain a constant collector depression voltage, the collector
voltage must be regulated. There are three possible ways to do so [18]:
1. Regulator in series with the collector power supply: In this method a voltage
regulator is incorporated in series with the collector supply as shown in Fig.
9-7 -10 so that the output voltage of the collector supply may be regulated at a
certain level with respect to ground. Since the output voltage of the cathode
supply is highly regulated at a certain level, the difference between the two
regulated voltages will produce a well-regulated voltage with respect to ground
at the collector electrode.
2. Regulator in parallel with the collector supply: In this method a voltage regulator is inserted in parallel with the collector supply as shown in Fig. 9-7-11 so
that a regulated voltage with respect to ground at normal depression may be
achieved at the collector terminal.
\•
-I
Transformer
Rectifier
Voltage regulator-------1~
Filter
4
6
5
I
I
I
+
I
l VP
I
I
I
I
I
2
I
I
I
I
I
I
ill
Sl=
ill
I
I
I
7
+
.L---,
Differential
a"mplifier
~---- -10-3 VP
:
I
I
I
_J
L_T_
"'~
..i::
I
Q,
,:,
I
I
~
..i::
_ _L_1
r
"'"'
I
+
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
~VP I
I
I
I
-10-3 VP
Reference
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
L_....,.... _
I
_J
-VP
Negative to cathode
....
Cl'I
~
Figure 9-7-10
Regulator in series with collector supply.
I-Transformer
...""'
Rectifier
I•
Filter
Voltage regulator
4
0)
-Vi,
5
6
1--::--1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Q)
(.)
3
0
"'~
"'
'?e
..c
Collector
I
7
I
I
2VP
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
L __ , __ J
..C~llll
Q)
I
.....
r-- _i_ __ 1
I
I
I
I
9
+
I
I
I
I
.
I
1
I 2 VP
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
-10-J
Vo
Ref
-::-
I
L--~--J
I
-vk
Cathode
Figure 9-7-11
Regulator in parallel with collector supply.
Chap. 9
417
References
3. Regulator between the cathode voltage and the collector voltage: In this
method the collector depression voltage is regulated with respect to the
cathode voltage as shown in Fig. 9-7-12. If the collector voltage is overdepressed above the normal depression value (absolute value), differential amplifier 2 tends to adjust the cathode voltage below its fixed level (absolute
value). When the cathode voltage is dropped, the collector voltage is readjusted to its normal depression level with respect to ground.
+
Reference
-10- 3 vk
~-
+ -,
I
I
I
Differential
amplifier 2
I
I
I
lI
Differential
amplifier I
I
Vk
_21
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1- + -,
I
I
I
I
2VP
I
I
I
I
I
L-..,--...J
!0 3 R 1
I
I
I
I
I
L-,---l
I
r-...L-,
,---L---,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
+
P'k
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
l _
I
I
I
I
+
I
I
I
I
: t VP
:
:
I
I
I
I
I
L-1-_J
L-,--...J
I
I
Negative of cathode supply
Figure 9-7-12
Negative of collector supply
Regulator between cathode voltage and collector voltage.
REFERENCES
[l] WARNECKE, R.R., et al., Velocity modulated tubes. In Advances in Electronics, Vol. 3.
Academic Press, New York, 1951.
[2] CHODOROW, M., and C. SussKIND, Fundamentals of Microwave Electronics. McGrawHill Book Company, New York, 1964.
[3] CHODOROW, M., and T. WESSEL-BERG, A high-efficiency klystron with distributed interaction. IRE Trans. Electron Devices, ED-8, 44-55, January 1961.
[4] LARUE, A. D., and R.R. RuBERf, Multi-Megawatt Hybrid TWT's at S-band and Chand. Presented to the IEEE Electron Devices Meeting, Washington, D.C., October
1964.
418
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
[5] HIESLMAIR, H., et al., State of the art of solid-state and tube transmitters. Microwave J.,
26, No. 10, 46-48, October 1983.
[6) FEENBERG, E., Notes on velocity modulation. Sperry Gyroscope Laboratories Report.
5521-1043, Chapter I, 4I-44.
[7] STAPRANS, A., et al., High-power linear beam tubes. Proc. IEEE, 61, No. 3, 299-330.
March I973.
[8] LIEN, E. L., High efficiency klystron amplifier. In Conv. Rec. MOGA 70 (8th Int. Conf.,
Amsterdam, September I970).
[9] MERDINIAN, G., and J. V. LEBACQZ, High power, permanent magnet focused, S-band
klystron for linear accelerator use. Proc. 5th int. Conj. of Hyper-frequency Tubes (Paris,
September I 964).
[10] BECK, A. H. W., Space charge wave and slow electromagnetic waves. p. 106, Pergamon
Press, New York, 1985.
[I I] KoMPFNER, R., The traveling-wave tube as amplifier at microwaves. Proc. IRE, 35,
124- I 27, February I 947.
[I2] CHODOROW, M., and R. A. CRAIG, Some new circuits for high-power traveling-wave
tubes. Proc. IRE, 45, Il06-II18, August I957.
[13] RouMBANIS, T., et al., A megawatt X-band TWT amplifier with I8% bandwidth. Proc.
High-Power Microwave Tubes Symp., Vol. 1 (The Hexagon, Fort Monmouth, N.J.,
September 25-26, I962).
[I4] RuETZ, A. J., and W. H. YocoM, High-power traveling-wave tubes for radar systems.
IRE Trans. Mil. Electron., MIL-5, 39-45, April I96l.
[15] MENDEL, J. T., Helix and coupled-cavity traveling-wave tubes. Proc. IEEE, 61, No. 3,
280-298, March 1973.
[16] BRILLOUIN, L., Wave Propagation in Periodic Structures, 2nd ed. Dover, New York,
1953.
[17] CURNOW, H.J., A general equivalent circuit for coupled-cavity slow-wave structures.
IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Tech., MTT-13, 671-675, September I965.
[ 18] LIAO, S. Y., The effect of collector voltage overdepression on tube performance of the
gridded traveling-wave tubes. Report for Hughes Aircraft Company, El Segundo, Calif.,
August 1977.
SUGGESTED READINGS
COLLIN, R. E., Foundations for Microwave Engineering, Chapter 9. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1966.
GANDHI, 0. P., Microwave Engineering and Applications, Chapters 9, 10, and I I. Pergamon
Press, New York, 1981.
GEWARTOWSKI, J. W., and H. A. WATSON, Principles of Electron Tubes, Chapters 5, 6, and 10
to I3. D. Van Nostrand Company, Princeton, N.J., I965.
GILMOUR, A. S., JR., Microwave Tubes. Artech House, Dedham, Mass., I986.
IEEE Proceedings, 61, No. 3, March I973. Special issue on high-power microwave tubes.
LIAO, S. Y., Microwave Electron Tubes. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., I988.
Chap. 9
Problems
419
PROBLEMS
Vacuum Tubes
9-1. A vacuum pentode tube has five grids: a cathode, a control grid, a screen grid, a suppressor grid, and an anode plate as shown in Fig. P9- J.
a. Sketch the equivalent circuit.
b. Derive an expression for the input impedance Zin in terms of the angular frequency
w and the circuit parameters.
c. Determine the transit-angle effect.
g
+
Figure P9-l
Klystrons
9-2. The parameters of a two-cavity amplifier klystron are as follows:
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Frequency:
Gap spacing in either cavity:
Spacing between the two cavities:
Effective shunt resistance:
Vo= 1200 V
lo= 28 mA
J = 8 GHz
d =I mm
l = 4cm
R,h = 40 kfl (excluding beam loading)
a. Find the input microwave voltage Vi in order to generate a maximum output voltage
V2 (including the finite transit-time effect through the cavities).
b. Determine the voltage gain (neglecting the beam loading in the output cavity).
c. Calculate the efficiency of the amplifier (neglecting the beam loading}.
d. Compute the beam loading conductance and show that one may neglect it in the
preceding calculations.
9-3. A two-cavity amplifier klystron has the following characteristics:
Voltage gain:
15 dB
Input power:
5mW
Total shunt impedance of input cavity R,h:
30kfl
Total shunt impedance of output cavity R,h:
40 kfl
Load impedance at output cavity Re:
40 kfl
420
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Determine:
a. The input voltage (rms)
b. The output voltage (rms)
c. The power delivered to the load in watts
9-4. A two-cavity amplifier klystron has the following parameters:
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Frequency:
Gap spacing in either cavity:
Spacing between centers of cavities:
Effective shunt impedance:
Vo=900V
lo= 30 mA
f = 8 GHz
d = 1 mm
l = 4cm
R,h = 40 kfl
Determine:
a. The electron velocity
b. The de electron transit time
c. The input voltage for maximum output voltage
d. The voltage gain in decibels
9-5. Derive Eq. (9-2-49).
Multicavity Klystrons
9-6. A four-cavity klystron amplifier has the following parameters:
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Operating frequency:
de charge density:
RF charge density:
Velocity perturbation:
Vo= 20 kV
lo= 2 A
f = 9 GHz
Po = 10- 6 C/m 3
p = 10- 8 C/m 3
"V
= 105 m/s
Determine:
a. The de electron velocity
b. The de phase constant
c. The plasma frequency
d. The reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.5
e. The beam current density
f. The instantaneous beam current density
9-7. A four-cavity CW klystron amplifier has the following parameters:
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Gap distance:
Operating frequency:
Signal voltage:
Beam coupling coefficient:
de electron charge density:
Vo= 30 kV
lo= 3 A
d = 1 cm
f
Vi
= 8 GHz
= 15 V(rms)
{3; = {30 = l
Po = 10- 7 C/m 3
Chap. 9
Chap. 9
Problems
421
Compute:
a. The de electron velocity
b. The de electron phase constant
c. The plasma frequency
d. The reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.4
e. The reduced plasma phase constant
f. The transit time across the input gap
g. The modulated electron velocity leaving the input gap
9-8. A two-cavity klystron amplifier has the following parameters:
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Operating frequency:
Beam coupling coefficient:
de electron charge density:
Signal voltage:
Cavity shunt resistance:
Total shunt resistance including load:
Vo= 30 kV
lo= 3 A
f
=
f3; =
10 GHz
= 1
/30
1
Po= 10- C!m 3
Vi
15 V(rms)
lkfi
= 10 kfi
=
Rsh =
Rshr
Calculate:
a. The plasma frequency
b. The reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.4
c. The induced current in the output cavity
d. The induced voltage in the output cavity
e. The output power delivered to the load
f. The power gain
g. The electronic efficiency
9-9. A four-cavity klystron amplifier has the following parameters:
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Operating frequency:
Beam coupling coefficient:
de electron charge density:
Signal voltage:
Cavity shunt resistance:
Total shunt resistance including load:
Determine:
a. The plasma frequency
b. The reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.4
c. The induced current in the output cavity
d. The induced voltage in the output cavity
e. The output power delivered to the load
f. The electronic efficiency
Vo=
lo=
f =
f3; =
Po =
Vi
1.5 A
2 GHz
/30
= 1
1o- 6 Clm 3
= 2 V(rms)
Rsh =
Rshr
20 kV
2 kfi
= 1 kfi
422
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
Reflex Klystrons
9-10. A reflex klystron operates at the peak mode of n = 2 with
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Signal voltage:
Vo = 300 Y
lo= 20 mA
Vi = 40 v
Determine:
a. The input power in watts
b. The output power in watts
c. The effficiency
9-11. A reflex klystron operates under the following conditions:
Vo= 500 V
R,h
= 20 kfl
f,
= 8 GHz
L = I mm is the spacing between repeller and cavity
The tube is oscillating atf, at the peak of then = 2 mode or I~ mode. Assume that the
transit time through the gap and the beam loading effect can be neglected.
a. Find the value of repeller voltage V, .
b. Find the direct current necessary to give microwave gap voltage of 200 V.
c. Calculate the electronic efficiency.
9-12. A reflex klystron operates at the peak of the n = 2 mode. The de power input is
40 mW and Vi/Vo = 0.278. If 20% of the power delivered by the beam is dissipated in
the cavity walls, find the power delivered to the load.
9-13. A reflex klystron operates at the peak of the n = I or~ mode. The de power input is
40 mW and the ratio of Vi over Vo is 0.278.
a. Determine the efficiency of the reflex klystron.
b. Find the total output power in milliwatts.
c. If 20% of the power delivered by the electron beam is dissipated in the cavity walls,
find the power delivered to the load.
Traveling-Wave Tubes (TWTs)
9-14. A traveling-wave tube (TWT) has the following characteristics:
Beam voltage:
Beam current:
Frequency:
Circuit length:
Characteristic impedance:
Determine:
a. The gain parameter C
b. The power gain in decibels
Vo= 2 kV
lo= 4 mA
f = 8 GHz
N = 50
Zo = 200
Chap. 9
423
Problems
9-15. A TWT operates under the following parameters:
Beam current:
Beam voltage:
Characteristic impedance of helix:
Circuit length:
Frequency:
9-16.
9-17.
9-18.
9-19.
9-20.
lo= 50 mA
Vo= 2.5 kV
Zo = 6.75 fl
N = 45
f
= 8 GHz
Determine:
a. The gain parameter C
b. The output power gain AP in decibels
c. All four propagation constants
d. The wave equations for all four modes in exponential form
An 0 -type traveling-wave tube operates at 2 GHz. The slow-wave structure has a pitch
angle of 5. 7°. Determine the propagation constant of the traveling wave in the tube. It
is assumed that the tube is lossless.
An 0-type helix traveling-wave tube operates at 8 GHz. The slow-wave structure has a
pitch angle of 4.4° and an attenuation constant of 2 Np/m. Determine the propagation
constant 'Y of the traveling wave in the tube.
In an 0-type traveling-wave tube, the acceleration voltage (beam voltage) is 3000 V.
The characteristic impedance is 10 fl. The operating frequency is 10 GHz and the
beam current is 20 mA. Determine the propagation constants of the four modes of the
traveling waves.
Describe the structure of an 0-type traveling-wave tube and its characteristics; then explain how it works.
In an 0-type traveling-wave tube, the acceleration voltage is 4000 V and the magnitude
of the axial electric field is 4 V/m. The phase velocity on the slow-wave structure is
1.10 times the average electron beam velocity. The operating frequency is 2 GHz. Determine the magnitude of velocity fluctuation.
Gridded Traveling-Wave Tubes (GTWTs)
9-21. The current /, caused by the returning electrons at an overdepression voltage of
-11.5 kV in a GfWT is about 0.973 A as shown by the spent beam curve in Fig.
9-7-4.
a. Calculate the number of electrons returned per second.
b. Determine the energy in electron volts associated with these returning electrons in
1 ms for part (a).
c. Find the power in watts for the returning electrons.
9-22. The output iron pole piece of a GfWT has the following characteristics:
I. The specific heat Hat 20°C is 0.108 cal/g 0 C.
2. A factor for converting joules to calories is 0.238.
3. The mass of the heated iron pole piece is assumed to be 203.05 mg.
4. The duration time t of the collector depression transient voltage of
11.5 kV is
15 ms.
5. The melting point of iron is 1535°C.
424
Microwave Linear-Beam Tubes (0 Type)
Chap. 9
Using these characteristics,
a. Calculate the heat in calories associated with the returning electrons at an overdepression voltage of -11.5 kV.
b. Compute the temperature Tin degrees Celsius for the output iron pole piece. [Hint:
T = 0.238Vlt/(mass x specific heat).]
c. Determine whether the output iron pole piece is melted.
9-23. The efficiency of a GfWT is expressed as
RFPac
RFPac
Pdc
Volo
11=--=--
If the cathode voltage is -18 kV and the collector voltage is depressed to - 7 .5 kV determine the efficiency of the Gf WT.
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