Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect ScienceDirect Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2019) 000–000 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2019) 000–000 Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2019) 000–000 ScienceDirect www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia Procedia Manufacturing 35 (2019) 1190–1195 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Materials Processing and Manufacturing (SMPM 2019) 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Materials Processing and Manufacturing 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Materials Processing and Manufacturing (SMPM 2019) (SMPM 2019) Development and Optimization of a Smart System for the Development a Smart for the Productionand of Optimization Biogas using of Poultry andSystem Pig Dung Development and Optimization of a Smart System for the Production of Biogas using Poultry and Pig Dung Production of Biogas using Poultry and Pig Dung Daniyan, I. A.,*a Daniyan, O. L., b Abiona, O. H. c, Mpofu, K. a Daniyan, I. A.,*a Daniyan, O. L., b Abiona, O. H. c, Mpofu, K. a b a aDepartment Daniyan, I. A.,*aEngineering, Daniyan, O. L., Abiona, O. H. cPretoria, , Mpofu, K.Africa. of Industrial Tshwane University of Technology, South bDepartment of Instrumentation, Centre for Basic Space Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. aDepartment of Industrial Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. cDepartment of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Afe Bablola University Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. bDepartment a of Instrumentation, Centre for Basic Space Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Department of Industrial Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. bcDepartment DepartmentofofInstrumentation, Mechanical and Centre Mechatronics Engineering, Afe Bablola University Ado-Ekiti, for Basic Space Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka,Nigeria. Nigeria. cDepartment of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Afe Bablola University Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Abstract Abstract Energy is crucial to the development of any nation. In addition to the various sources being developed in the world, the interest of Abstract man is is shifting renewable energy. project entails to thethe development of a waste-to-energy system using the Energy crucialtowards to the development of anyThis nation. In addition various sources being developedconversion in the world, the interest of anaerobic digestion of blend of poultry andThis pigproject dung toentails produce biogas for cooking, generation of electrical energy organic man is shifting towards renewable energy. the development of a waste-to-energy conversion system using the Energy is crucial to the development of any nation. In addition to the various sources being developed in the world, theand interest of fertilizers for households andofagricultural purposes. materials employed include galvanized sheets which is and used for the the anaerobic digestion of blend poultry and pig project dungThe toentails produce for cooking, generation steel of electrical energy organic man is shifting towards renewable energy. This thebiogas development of a waste-to-energy conversion system using fabricationfor of households the digester andof gasometer body because ofmaterials its high resistance biological corrosion, and which fittings theorganic control fertilizers and agricultural purposes. The employed include galvanized steel sheets isfor used for the anaerobic digestion of blend poultry and pig dung to produce biogas fortocooking, generation ofpipes electrical energy and of the flowfor ofthe materials, glass for maintaining aThe constant temperature of the system, a sparkles electric is control used to fabrication of digesterfibre and gasometer body because of its high resistance to include biological corrosion, pipes andmotor fittings forused the fertilizers households agricultural purposes. materials employed galvanized steel sheets whichwhich is for the drive the mixer and a 220 V air compressor which is used for compressing the produced biogas into the gasometer. The plant is of the flow of the materials, for maintaining a constant temperature system,corrosion, a sparklespipes electric which is used to fabrication digesterfibre and glass gasometer body because of its high resistanceof tothe biological andmotor fittings for the control designed using Solidworks and a monitoring unit is incorporated into the system comprising of an Arduino Uno Microcontroller drive mixer and a 220 V air compressor which aisconstant used fortemperature compressing the gasometer. Theis plant is of thethe flow of materials, fibre glass for maintaining of the the produced system, a biogas sparklesinto electric motor which used to whichthe is using connected a pressure sensor, pHwhich sensor and temperature order tobiogas monitor thethe process of the designed Solidworks monitoring unit isisincorporated into thesensor system comprising of an Arduino Unoparameters Microcontroller drive mixer and ato220 Vand airacompressor useda for compressing theinproduced into gasometer. The plant is developed biogas plant. results obtained the direct relationship between organic loading rateprocess and Uno biogas production. which is connected to a The pressure sensor, pH validate sensor and a temperature sensor in comprising order to monitor parameters of theIt designed using Solidworks and a monitoring unit is incorporated into the system of an the Arduino Microcontroller also show the interaction between temperature and pressure, temperature andbetween pH, andtopressure. been able tooflay developed biogas plant. resultssensor, obtained the direct relationship organic loadingThe ratework and has biogas production. Ita which is connected to aThe pressure pHvalidate sensor and a temperature sensor inpH order monitor the process parameters the foundation forinteraction studies biogas production using sensors and continuous monitoring. It has also laidbeen a foundation also show the between temperature and pressure, temperature andparameter pH, pH organic and pressure. The work able to layfor a developed biogas plant.on The results obtained validate the direct relationship between loading rate andhas biogas production. It research by developing a small scale biogas for experimental purposes. foundation forinteraction studies on between biogas production using sensors and continuous parameter monitoring. haswork also has laidbeen a foundation fora also showwork the temperature andsystem pressure, temperature and pH, pH and pressure.ItThe able to lay research work developing a small scale biogas experimental foundation forby studies on biogas production usingsystem sensorsforand continuouspurposes. parameter monitoring. It has also laid a foundation for © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. system for experimental purposes. research work by developing a small scale biogas Peer-review under responsibility ofElsevier the organizing © 2019 The Authors. Published by B.V. committee of SMPM 2019. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. committee of SMPM 2019. Peer-review responsibility of Elsevier the organizing © 2019 The under Authors. Published by B.V. Peer-review under responsibility of the Digestion, organizing Energy, committee of SMPM 2019. Keywords: Anaerobic, Animal waste, Micro controller Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of SMPM 2019. Keywords: Anaerobic, Animal waste, Digestion, Energy, Micro controller Keywords: Anaerobic, Animal waste, Digestion, Energy, Micro controller 1. Introduction 1. Introduction Animal wastes are rich in methane and can be used to produce biogas through the process of anaerobic digestion of animal waste 1. Introduction and slurries in an system known a digester [l]. There are also environmental benefits of reducing greenhouse gaswaste Animal wastes areairproof rich in methane and canasbe used to produce biogas through the process of anaerobic digestion of animal emissions through the use of biogas as well as the supply of electricity in the rural areas [2-3] Anaerobic digestion is a suitable and slurries in an system known asbe a digester [l]. Therebiogas are also environmental benefits of reducing greenhouse gaswaste Animal wastes areairproof rich in methane and can used to produce through the process of anaerobic digestion of animal 2351-9789 © 2019 Published by as Elsevier emissions through theAuthors. use of biogas as well as the B.V. supply electricity inenvironmental the rural areas benefits [2-3] Anaerobic digestion is a suitable and slurries in an The airproof system known a digester [l]. of There are also of reducing greenhouse gas Peer-reviewthrough under responsibility of the organizing of of SMPM 2019. in the rural areas [2-3] Anaerobic digestion is a suitable emissions theAuthors. use of biogas as by well ascommittee theB.V. supply electricity 2351-9789 © 2019 The Published Elsevier Peer-review the organizing committee 2351-9789 ©under 2019responsibility The Authors. of Published by Elsevier B.V. of SMPM 2019. *Corresponding Author Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of SMPM 2019. Email: [email protected] *Corresponding Author Email: [email protected] *Corresponding Author Email: [email protected] 2351-9789 © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of SMPM 2019. 10.1016/j.promfg.2019.06.076 Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2016) 000–000 2 I.A. Daniyan et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 35 (2019) 1190–1195 1191 process for the conversion of animal waste to biogas and can be catalysed in specific temperatures and in a neutral environment (pH should be equal to 7). Anaerobic digestion is the controlled degradation of organic waste in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of anaerobic microorganisms [4-6]. It can be done in a mesophilic environment, corresponding to 32 -42 ° C or a thermophilic one, 50-57 ° C. Under the action of microbial populations, the organic matter undergoes successive transformations until the final transformation into methane CH4 . The resource limitations of fossil fuels and the arising problems from their combustion have led to a widespread research on the development of new and reliable renewable energy resources [9-10]. According to FAO , the drivers for increasing the use of biomass for energy include: the possibility of reduced carbon emissions and meeting climate change commitments; reduction in the consumption of fossil fuel; technological developments because bioenergy could be used to bridge the gap between the current use of fossil fuels technologies and future technologies. In many countries, sustainable waste management as well as waste prevention and reduction have become major political priorities, representing an important share of the common efforts to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and to mitigate global climate changes [12-14]. Many researchers have reported the feasibility of the conversion of animal waste to biogas [15-18] According to Brummeler-ten  and Sanders , uncontrolled waste dumping is not acceptable in the economy today and even controlled landfill disposal and incineration of organic wastes are not considered optimal practices, as environmental standards are increasingly become strict while aiming at energy recovery and recycling of nutrients and organic matter [21-23] Hence, the development of a smart biogas system using poultry waste will provide a clean method to solve the problem of energy generation in many developing countries. Anaerobic digestion is a simple and cost-effective process which can be carried out in various environment where organic wastes are generated on a regular basis. The aim of this work is to develop a smart biogas system capable of operating on animal wastes in order to generate electrical energy. The objectives are to: design a smart biogas system, fabricate the designed system and evaluate and optimize the performance of the developed biogas system. 2. Materials and Method The experimental setup includes the development of a fixed dome bio-digester with a capacity of 50 litres. A gas storage unit was also added for the collection of the biogas over the period of digestion. A stirring system comprising of an electric motor, a solid shaft and bearings is also added to the digester tank to evenly mix the substrate. A monitoring unit is adapted to the system for easy and efficient monitoring of the digestion processes. The following materials were used for the construction of the biogas system: galvanized steel sheets, valves and fittings, stirrer, sparkles electric motor, pressure sensor, arduino micro controller, pH meter kit, temperature sensor, steel shaft and compressor The materials used in the fabrication of the digester is made of galvanized steel lagged with fibre glass to retain the heat absorbed by the digester tank. The material used for the digester construction should meet the following requirements: i. Water/gas tightness: Water tightness in order to prevent seepage and the resultant threat to soil and ground water quality. Gas tightness to ensure proper containment of the entire biogas yield and prevent air entering into the digester. ii. Good tensile strength and ease of rolling by machine to required design geometry. The design for the biogas system is shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 1: 3D Design of the Biogas System I.A. Daniyan et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 35 (2019) 1190–1195 1192 The following are the design parameters for the digester: 1. Operating Volume (Vo): The operating volume of the digester is simply the volume of slurry in the digester. The operating volume of the digester (Vo) is determined on the basis of the chosen retention time is given as Equation 1. (1) Where: Qx is the feed flow rate (m3/day) and HRT is the hydraulic retention time (Days) The hydraulic retention time is the interval of time during which the biomass is allowed to decompose in the digester. The retention time, in turn, is determined by the chosen digester temperature and the amount of biomass resource available. For a plant of simple design, retention time should amount to at least 20 days, the substrate input is expressed as Equation 2. S (2) 2. Total Volume: The total volume of the digester (VT) should be greater than the operating volume. This is to give room for the biogas produced and the rise of the slurry during fermentation. The operating volume of the digester must not exceed 90% of the total volume of the digester. The total volume is thus given as Equation 3. (3) Where : VT is the total volume of digester (m3); r is the radius of digester (m); hd is the height of digester (m) Using a total volumetric capacity of 0.05m3 hd For minimal footprint and aesthetic consideration, heuristics is taken as expressed by Equation 4. (4) From Equation 3, (5) Equating equations (3) and (5) and Hence The Arduino Uno R3 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (Fig. 2). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analogue inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller. The Uno differs from all preceding boards because it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter . Fig. 2: Arduino Uno Micro-controller The performance evaluation was carried out in order to access the performance of the biogas system based on the biogas parameters and the data obtained from the monitoring system. Various data was collected from the system such as the temperature, atmospheric Author name / Procedia Manufacturing 00 (2016) 000–000 4 I.A. Daniyan et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 35 (2019) 1190–1195 1193 pressure, pH and pressure in the system and the equivalent biogas yield was evaluated daily. The animal waste was obtained from the ABUAD farm and was separated from inorganic materials. The waste was fed into the digester with water in the ratio 1:1and the mixer was engaged to ensure intimate contact between the microorganisms and to improve the fermentation efficiency. The waste was allowed to decompose in the digester for 14 days and values of the parameters were recorded over the period of digestion. 3. Results and Discussion The biogas system was tested using an input waste of 4.3 kg of a substrate mixture of which 60% composed of wood chips which was used as an additive and 40% composed of animal waste. The substrate was measured individually to determine the weight of the individual materials. Both materials were then mixed in the ratio 5:2 and fed into the digester. The measuring parameters of the system were determined and noted as the waste was undergoing fermentation and the amount of biogas produced was recorded. The result obtained from the performance evaluation carried out is presented in Table 1. Table 1: Measuring Parameters of the Biogas System S/N Time (Hours) Organic Loading Rate (Kg/VDM/m3) Temperature (˚C) pH 1. 2 0.5 23.95 7.50 0.6 2. 4 0.6 24.37 6.235 0.63 3. 6 0.8 24.95 6.523 0.68 4. 8 0.65 25.10 6.527 0.69 Pressure (N/mm2) The systems temperature, pressure and pH were measured and the biogas yield per day was obtained. A view of the developed biogas system and its evaluation is shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3: Developed small-scale biogas plant After the readings were obtained, the measurement of the total biogas yield was calculated using Equation 6. 1194 I.A. Daniyan et al. / Procedia Manufacturing 35 (2019) 1190–1195 (6) Fig. 4 shows that over time, the organic loading rate of the substrate increased as the temperature of the system increased . Fig. 4: Graph of Organic Loading Rate against Temperature From the results obtained from the evaluation, it was observed that the interaction between the temperature and pressure was observed to be inversely proportional as increase in temperature reduces the pressure and vice versa, an increase in loading rate increases the temperature and increases the yield of the biogas, an increase in loading rate increases the pH and increases the yield of the biogas. Also, an increase in loading rate increases the pressure resulting in an optimum yield of biogas. The value of pH was slightly unaffected with an increase in temperature and a further increase in temperature beyond the optimum would have killed the decomposition anaerobic bacteria which will in turn slow down the rate of decomposition resulting in decrease in the yield of the biogas. It was also observed that the interaction between the temperature and pressure was observed to be inversely proportional as increase in temperature reduced the pressure and vice versa. 4. Conclusions This project involved the design, development and evaluation of a smart biogas system using animal waste as its source of production. The design was achieved by using SOLIDWORKS design software and was analysed for stress and compatibility. The monitoring system was incorporated using and Arduino-Uno Micro-Controller, a pH sensor, temperature sensor and a pressure transducer sensor. The system was monitored using the display and the overall performance was evaluated. This work has been able to develop a biogas system for domestic and experimental use with the incorporation of an effective means of process monitoring of the system. 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