Subido por Roque Jose Medina

El Arte de la Fermentacion

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2. See my discussion of vegetable-nut pâtés in The Revolution Will Not Be Microwaved, 183.
3. “Make cashew milk by grinding up about 1 cup of cashew pieces into a powder. Add 3–4 dates and enough water to
make 4 cups of liquid. Blend on high until completely blended.”
4. Suellen Ocean, Acorns and Eat ’Em (Oakland: California Oak Foundation, 2006), online at, accessed November 16, 2009.
5., accessed January 5, 2010.
6. Pederson, 340.
7. Mollison, 214.
8. Farrell, 82.
9. Pederson, 342.
10. Farrell, 84–85.
11. Battcock and Azam-Ali, 79.
12. Pederson, 337–338.
13. Ibid., 343.
14. Wilfred F. M. Röling et al., “Microorganisms with a Taste for Vanilla: Microbial Ecology of Traditional Indonesian
Vanilla Curing,” Applied Environmental Microbiology 67(5):1995 (2001).
15. Pederson, 345.
16. Keith Steinkraus, “Lactic Acid Fermentation in the Production of Foods from Vegetables, Cereals and Legumes,”
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 49:341 (1983).
17. Steinkraus (1996), 149.
18. McGee, 101–102.
19. “West African Cuisine in the New World,” online at, accessed March 20,
20. Edamame—Japanese steamed green soybeans—are an exception to this, but they are particular varieties, harvested
before full maturity, and not dried for storage.
21. Albala, 221.
22. Sidney Mintz et al., “The Significance of Soy,” in Du Bois, 5.
23. Christine M. Du Bois, “Social Context and Diet: Changing Soy Production and Consumption in the United States,”
in Du Bois, 210–213.
24. Benson Ford Research Center, “Soybean car,” online at, accessed
January 11, 2011.
25. Du Bois, 5.
26. Ibid., 218.
27. John Harvey Kellogg, New Dietetics: A Guide to Scientific Feeding in Health and Disease (1921), cited in Albala,
28. Belasco, 189.
29. Daniel.
30. Susun S. Weed, 163.
31. Shurtleff and Aoyagi (2009), 7.
33. Shurtleff and Aoyagi (1976), 100.
34. Sidney Mintz, “Fermented Beans and Western Taste,” in Du Bois, 60.
35. For historical perspectives on soy sauce, miso, and similar foods, I recommend two excellent sources: Huang, and
Shurtleff and Aoyagi (2009).
36. D. Fukushima, “Soy Sauce and Other Fermented Foods of Japan,” in Hesseltine and Wang, 122.
37. Deshpande, 83.
38. B. S. Luh, “Industrial Production of Soy Sauce,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology 14:469 (1995).
39. Shurtleff and Aoyagi (2007).
40. A. K. Smith, US Department of Agriculture, ARS-71-1 (1958), cited in C. W. Hesseltine, “A Millennium of Fungi,
Food, and Fermentation,” Mycologia 57(2):187 (1965).
41. Hui (2006), 19-11 to 19-12.
42. Q. Wei et al., “Natto Characteristics as Affected by Steaming Time, Bacillus Strain, and Fermentation Time,”
Journal of Food Science 66(1):172 (2001).
43. Shurtleff and Aoyagi (2007).
44. Hui (2004), 616.
45. Shurtleff and Aoyagi (2007).
46. H. Sumi et al., “A Novel Fibrinolytic Enzyme (Nattokinase) in the Vegetable Cheese Natto; A Typical and Popular
Soybean Food in the Japanese Diet,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 43(10):1110 (1987).
47. Martin Milner and Kouhei Makise, “Natto and Its Active Ingredient Nattokinase: A Potent and Safe Thrombolytic
Agent,” Alternative and Complementary Therapies 8(3):163 (2002).
48. Ruei-Lin Hsu et al., “Amyloid-Degrading Ability of Nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis Natto,” Journal of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57:503 (2009).
49. Charles Parkouda et al., “The Microbiology of Alkaline-Fermentation of Indigenous Seeds Used as Food
Condiments in Africa and Asia,” Critical Reviews in Microbiology 35(2):140 (2009); O. B. Oyewole, “Fermentation
of Grain Legumes, Seeds, and Nuts in Africa” (chapter 2), in Deshpande.
50. O. K. Achi, “Traditional Fermented Protein Condiments in Nigeria,” African Journal of Biotechnology 4(13):1614
51. Food and Nutrition Library, “Netetou—A Typical African Condiment,” online at;jsessionid=2818D949147C6837BD89B5344237C2F7?
accessed January 30, 2011.
52. Achi, 1616–1617.
53. Cornell University Plants Poisonous to Livestock Database, “Castor Bean Poisoning,” online at, accessed August 24, 2011.
54. Parkouda, 144.
55. Achi, 1616.
56. Rama, “Okra Soup,” Okra & Cocoa blog (June 24, 2007), online at, accessed October 13, 2011.
57. Huang, 325.
58. Cited in Steinkraus, 633.
59. Steinkraus, 634.
60. Fuchsia Dunlop, “Rotten Vegetable Stalks, Stinking Beancurd and Other Shaoxing Delicacies,” paper delivered at
2010 Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery.
61. Huang, 326.
62. C. W. Hesseltine, “A Millennium of Fungi, Food, and Fermentation,” Mycologia 57(2):164 (1965).
63. Shurtleff and Aoyagi (1998), 255.
64. Steinkraus, 634.
66. Dunlop.
Chapter 12
1. Stephen S. Arnon et al., “Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon,” Journal of the American Medical Association
285(8):1059 (2001).
2. Riddervold (1990), 12.
3. Ana Andrés et al., “Principles of Drying and Smoking,” in Toldrá (2007), 40.
4. McGee, 448.
5. McGee, 449; Karl O. Honikel, “Principles of Curing,” in Toldrá (2007), 17
6. John N. Sofos, “Antimicrobial Effects of Sodium and Other Ions in Foods: A Review,” Journal of Food Safety 6:54
7. Eeva-Liisa Ryhänen, “Plant-Derived Biomolecules in Fermented Cabbage,” Journal of Agricultural and Food
Chemistry 50:6798 (2002).
8. McGee, 125.
9. Fearnley-Whittingstall (2007), 414–416.
10. Peter Zeuthen, “A Historical Perspective of Meat Fermentation,” in Toldrá (2007), 3.
11. G. Giolitti et al., “Microbiology and Chemical Changes in Raw Hams of Italian Type,” Journal of Applied
Microbiology 34:51 (1971).
12. I. Vilar et al., “A Survey on the Microbiological Changes During the Manufacture of Dry-Cured Lacón, a Spanish
Traditional Meat Product,” Journal of Applied Microbiology 89:1018 (2000).
13. Lars L. Hinrichsen and Susanne B. Pedersen, “Relationship Among Flavor, Volatile Compounds, Chemical Changes,
and Microflora in Italian-Type Dry-Cured Ham During Processing,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
43(11):2939 (1995).
14. Ruhlman, 153.
15. Máirtín Mac Con Iomaire and Pádric Ôg Gallagher, “Corned Beef: An Enigmatic Irish Dish,” paper delivered at
2010 Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery.
16. Rombauer and Becker (1975), 507.
17. Toldrá (2002), 89; Marianski and Marianski, 20–25.
18. Fearnley-Whittingstall (2007), 418.
19. Toldrá (2002), 91.
20. Albala and Nafziger, 120.
21. Marianski and Marianski, 28.
22. Friedrich-Karl Lücke, “Fermented Meat Products,” Food Research International 27:299 (1994).
23. Herbert W. Ockerman and Lopa Basu, “Production and Consumption of Fermented Meat Products,” in Toldrá
(2007), 12.
24. Ken Albala, “Bacterial Fermentation and the Missing Terroir Factor in Historic Cookery,” paper delivered at 2010
Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery.
25. Albala and Nafziger, 121.
26. Marc Buzzio, quoted in Sarah diGregorio, “The Salami Maker Who Fought the Law,” Gastronomica 7(4):54 (2007).
27. diGregorio, 57.
28. Toldrá (2002), 89.
29. Ruhlman and Polcyn, 176.
30. Ibid., 175.
31. Marianski and Marianski, 77.
32. Margarita Garriga and Teresa Aymerich, “The Microbiology of Fermentation and Ripening,” in Toldrá (2007), 130.
33. Toldrá (2002), 106.
34. Fearnley-Whittingstall (2001), 162.
35. Piccetti and Vecchio, 24.
36. Huang, 396.
37. Steinkraus, 590.
38. Robert C. McIver, “Flavor of Fermented Fish Sauce,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 30:1017 (1982).
39. Sally Grainger, “Roman Fish Sauce: Part 2, an Experiment in Archaeology,” paper delivered at 2010 Oxford
Symposium on Food and Cookery.
40. Giovanna Franciosa et al., “Clostridium botulinum,” in Miliotis and Bier, 81.
41. Steinkraus, 586.
42. Ibid., 565.
43. Ibid., 573.
44. Christianne Muusers, “Roman Fish Sauce—Garum or Liquamen,” Coquinaria (April 24, 2005), online at, accessed April 17, 2011.
45. Mollison, 127–159.
46. McGee, 232.
47. Belitz, 636.
48. Ulrike Lyhs, “Microbiological Methods,” chapter 15 in Rehbein and Oehlenschläger, 318.
49. Renée Valeri, “A Preserve Gone Bad or Just Another Beloved Delicacy? Surströmming and Gravlax—the Good and
the Bad Ways of Preserving Fish,” paper delivered at 2010 Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery.
50. McGee, 236.
51., accessed March 20, 2011.
52. Valeri, 4.
53. Riddervold, 63.
54. Huang, 384–386.
55. Sanchez, 264; R. C. Mabesa and J. S. Babaan, “Fish Fermentation Technology in the Philippines,” in Lee, 87–88.
56. Lee, 88.
57. Minerva S. D. Olympia, “Fermented Fish Products in the Philippines,” in Gaden, 131.
58. Naomichi Ishige, “Cultural Aspects of Fermented Fish Products in Asia,” in Lee, 15.
59. Chieko Fujita, “Funa Zushi,” Rediscovering the Treasures of Food Volume 13, The Tokyo Foundation website,
published February 16, 2009, online at, accessed February 5, 2011.
60. Kimiko Barber, “Hishio—Tastes of Japan in Humble Microbes,” paper delivered at 2010 Oxford Symposium on
Food and Cookery.
61. Chieko Fujita, “Koji, an Aspergillus,” Rediscovering the Treasures of Food Volume 10, The Tokyo Foundation
website, published December 16, 2008, online at, accessed April 1, 2010.
62. Huang, 391.
63. Huang, 381–382.
64. Personal correspondence, February 11, 2011
65. Fallon, 241.
66. Anna Kowalska-Lewicka, “The Pickling of Vegetables in Traditional Polish Peasant Culture,” in Riddervold and
Ropeid, 35.
67. Dunlop (2003), 153.
68. Katharine L Giery, Basque Fishing blog (April 30, 2011), online at, accessed August 4, 2011.
69. Huang, 413.
70. Shurtleff and Aoyagi (1976), 159.
71. David Wetzel, “Update on Cod Liver Oil Manufacture,” April 2009, online at, accessed May 7, 2011.
72. David Wetzel, “Cod Liver Oil Manufacturing,” Wise Traditions (fall 2005), online at, accessed May 7, 2011.
73. David Wetzel, “Update on Cod Liver Oil Manufacture,” April 2009, online at, accessed May 7, 2011.
74. Shephard, 131.
75. Andrew B. Smith et al., “Marine Mammal Storage: Analysis of Buried Seal Meat at the Cape, South Africa,”
Journal of Archaeological Science 19:171 (1992).
76. Charles Perry, “Dried, Frozen, and Rotted: Food Preservation in Central Asia and Siberia,” paper delivered at 2010
Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery.
77. Yann_Chef, Food Lorists blog (December 2008), online at,
accessed November 29, 2009.
78. Jones, 86, online at, accessed February 8, 2011.
79. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Botulism in the United States, 1899–1996: Handbook for
Epidemiologists, Clinicians, and Laboratory Workers (Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1998), 7.
80. Jones, 284.
81. Jones, 146–148.
Chapter 13
1. US Food and Drug Administration, “Questions and Answers on the Food Safety Modernization Act,” March 4, 2011,
online at, accessed March 8, 2011.
2. US Food and Drug Administration, “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles and Application
Guidelines,” adopted August 14, 1997, by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods,
online at
accessed March 8, 2011.
3. William Neuman, “Raw Milk Cheesemakers Fret Over Possible New Rules,” New York Times (February 4, 2011),
online at, accessed June 11, 2011.
4. American Raw Milk Cheese Presidium, “Presidium Mission and Protocol for Presidium Members,” July 2006,
appendix A, online at, accessed June
11, 2011.
Chapter 14
1. See, accessed June 10, 2011.
2. Helen Jensen et al., Nature Farming Manual (Batong Malake, Los Baños Laguna, Philippines: National Initiative on
Seed and Sustainable Agriculture in the Philippines and REAP-Canada, 2006), online at, accessed February 24, 2011.
3. Hoon Park and Michael W. DuPonte, “How to Cultivate Indigenous Microorganisms,” published by the Cooperative
Extension Service of the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai’i–Mãnoa
(August 2008), online at, accessed June 27, 2010.
4. Veranus A. Moore, “The Ammoniacal Fermentation of Urine,” Proceedings of the American Society of Microscopists
12:97 (1890). Published by Blackwell Publishing on behalf of American Microscopical Society, online at, accessed March 2, 2011.
5. “Pee Ponics,” posting on Aquaponic Gardening: A Community and Forum for Aquaponic Gardeners by TCLynx
(June 6, 2010), online at, accessed February 3, 2011.
6. Joseph Mazige, “Farmers Use Human Urine as Fertilizers, Pesticide,” Monitor (Kampala) (August 19, 2007), online at, accessed February 3, 2011.
7. George Chan, “Livestock in South-Eastern China,” Second FAO Electronic Conference on Tropical Feeds: Livestock
Feed Resources Within Integrated Farming Systems (1996), 148, online at, accessed March 28, 2011.
8. Y. L. Nene, “Kunapajala—A Liquid Organic Manure of Antiquity,” Asian Agri-History Foundation, online at, accessed March 28, 2011.
9. J. W. Schroeder, “Silage Fermentation and Preservation,” North Dakota State University Agriculture and University
Extension publication AS-1254 (June 2004), online at, accessed
March 27, 2011.
10. Anna Kowalska-Lewicka, “The Pickling of Vegetables in Traditional Polish Peasant Culture,” in Riddervold and
Ropeid, 37fn.
11. Michel and Jude Fanton, The Seed Savers’ Handbook (Byron Bay, NSW, Australia: Seed Savers’ Network, 1993),
12. Ibid., 90.
13. Barbara Larson, “Saving Seed from the Garden,” Home Hort Hints (August–September 2000), University of Illinois
Extension, online at, accessed March 27, 2011.
14. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, “A Citizen’s Guide to
Bioremediation,” EPA 542-F-01-001 (April 2001), online at,
accessed March 29, 2011.
15. David Biello, “Slick Solution: How Microbes Will Clean Up the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill,” Scientific American
(May 25, 2010), online at, accessed
March 29, 2011.
16. American Academy of Microbiology, Microbes and Oil Spills FAQ (2011), 1, online at, accessed March 29, 2011.
17. American Academy of Microbiology, 8.
18. Cited in Biello.
19. Stamets (2005), 82.
20. Ibid., 85.
21. Ibid., 86.
22. Common Ground Collective Meg Perry Health Soil Project, The New Orleans Residents’ Guide to Do It Yourself Soil
Clean Up Using Natural Processes (March 2006), online at
23. Joseph Jenkins, The Humanure Handbook: A Guide to Composting Human Manure, 3rd edition (Grove City, PA:
Joseph Jenkins, Inc., 2005).
24. Farrell, 126–127.
25. Jenkins, 151–152.
26. “The Fundamental Microbiology of Sewage,” On-Site Wastewater Demonstration Program, Northern Arizona
University, online at, accessed March 30,
27. Jenkins, 227.
28. Kurlansky, 43.
29. The Green Burial Council, “Who We Are,” online at, accessed March 31,
30. Dr. S. Sekar, “Fermented Dyes,” in Database on Microbial Traditional Knowledge of India, online at, accessed December 5, 2010.
31. Carole Crews, Clay Culture: Plasters, Paints, and Preservation (Rancho de Taos, NM: Gourmet Adobe Press, 2009),
32. Ibid., 98–99.
33. Ibid., 103.
34. Ibid., 104.
35. Jeremy Hsu, “Invention Awards: Eco-Friendly Insulation Made from Mushrooms,” Popular Science (May 2009),
online at, accessed June 10, 2011.
37. Congressional Budget Office, The Impact of Ethanol Use on Food Prices and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions (April
2009), vii, online at
38. Tom Philpott, “The Trouble with Brazil’s Much-Celebrated Ethanol ‘Miracle,’” April 13, 2010, online at, accessed April
3, 2011.
39. Dhruti Shah, “Will We Switch to Gas Made from Human Waste?” BBC News Magazine (April 19, 2010), online at, accessed April 5, 2011.
40. Greg Votava and Rich Webster, “Methane to Energy: Improving an Ancient Idea,” Nebraska Department of
Environmental Quality Environmental Update (spring 2002), online at
OpenDocument, accessed April 5, 2011.
41. Li Kangmin and Mae-Wan Ho, “Biogas China,” Institute of Science in Society (February 10, 2006), online at, accessed April 5, 2011.
42. Dr. S. Sekar, Database on Microbial Traditional Knowledge of India, online at, accessed April 6, 2011.
43. Paul Stamets, “Novel Antimicrobials from Mushrooms,” Herbalgram 54:29 (2002), online at, accessed April 6, 2011.
44. Kenneth Todar, Todar’s Online Textbook of Bacteriology, online at, accessed April 5, 2011.
45., accessed November 19, 2010.
46. “Principles of the Cedar Enzyme Bath Treatment,” Osmosis Day Spa, online at, accessed April 9, 2011.
48. Arlene Correll, “How to Make Your Own Liquid Potpourri and Other Good Stuff!,” online at, accessed July 28, 2011.
49. Jenifer Wightman, “Winogradsky Rothko: Bacterial Ecosystem as Pastoral Landscape,” Journal of Visual Culture
7:309 (2008), online at, accessed February 4, 2011.
Scanning electron microscope image of Clostridium botulinum. © Photo Researchers, Inc.
Onggi crocks filled with kimchi in Seoul, Korea. Photo by Jessieca Leo
Handmade crock by Jeremy Ogusky, of Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts.
Handmade crocks by Sarah Kersten, of Berleley, California, in the style of the famous
German Harsch crocks with moats that fill with water to create a water lock and prevent
fresh air from entering the fermentation chamber, and semi-circular weights to keep
contents submerged.
Scanning electron microscope image of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © Photo Researchers,
Vigorously bubbly pear mead. Photo by Alison LePage
Frequently the yeast “blooms” on grapes and other fruits are visible as a white chalky film
on the skins of the fruits. Photo by Timothy Bartling
Freshly crushed grapes beginning to foam after just a few hours.
Wine fermenting in an air-locked barrel.
Country wines from blueberries (left) and peaches (right); ferments from different fruits
yield a gorgeous rainbow of hues. Photo by Sean Minteh
Scanning electron microscope image of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Photo by USDA/ARS
Food Science Research Unit at NC State University, Raleigh, NC
Stuffing shredded and salted vegetables into a jar. Keep stuffing until vegetables are
submerged. Photo by Devitree
Keep pressing hard until the vegetables are submerged. Photo by Debbie Palmer
Kahm yeast.
Umeboshi plums. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
Surface mold developing on the surface of fermenting vegetables. Photo by Anoop Kapur
Whole cabbages fermented in brine, from a market in Romania. Photo by Luke Regalbuto
and Maggie Levinger
Different styles of fermented vegetables on display at a Japanese pickle market. Photo by
Eric Haas
Nuka-pickled vegetables in a Japanese market. Photo by Eric Haas
Jars of mixed vegetable kraut-chis produced by students at one of the author’s workshops.
Lots of bubbles after opening a highly carbonated bottle of kvass. Photo by Timothy
My friend Ellery, pictured at right, at a kvass wagon in Lithuania. “The cart was busy as
hell, and people were filling up empty soda bottles, glass jars, and thin plastic cups. It was
about five cents a cup.”
A mauby maker at a St. Croix (US Virgin Islands) market. The home-brewed ferment was
sold in recycled juice and liquor bottles.
Tibicos (upper) and ginger beer plant (lower) side by side. Photo by Yemoos Nourishing
Smreka. Photo by Luke Regalbuto and Maggie Levinger
Kombucha mother floating in fermenting kombucha. Photo by Billy Kaufman
Candied kombucha mothers. Photo by Billy Kaufman
Scanning electron micrograph of bacteria (colored) among the milk solids from yogurt.
The long rod-shaped bacteria are Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus; the shorter,
rounder bacteria are Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus. Photo by Power &
Kefir grown by vintner Lou Preston in California. Photo by Lou Preston
Scanning electron micrograph of kefir; note the large budding yeasts and various rod
bacteria. Photo by Milos Kalab
Viili. Photo by Rebekah Wilce
Brie cheese fungal hyphae (Penicillium spp.). Photo by Power & Syred
Cassava roots. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
Taro corms. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
Woklike hopper pan, called a “China chatty.” Photo by Jennifer Moragoda
Hopper. Photo by Jennifer Moragoda
Freshly baked loaves of bread ready to come out of baker Brian Thomas’s handbuilt
wood-fired oven.
The coolship at Brewery Cantillon in Brussels, where the wort cools and collects wild
yeast and bacteria from the air via its broad exposed surface.
Sorghum beer (pito) fermenting in a gourd in Ghana. Photo courtesy of Fran Osseo-Asare,
Sorghum beer from a Malawi brewery, sold in waxed paper cartons, like milk. The name
—Shake, Shake—is what you do to the beer before opening the carton to reintegrate
starch that settles. Photo by Glenn Austerfield
Aceda, Sudanese-style sorghum porridge.
Chinese “yeast” balls, widely available in Asian markets.
An improvised still constructed by Bhutanese and Nepali immigrants in Oakland,
California, to make raksi.
Sporulating soy koji (Aspergillus oryzae), with its “yellow robe.” Photo by Lawrence
Sporulating tempeh (Rhizopus oligosporus), with its “white robe.” Photo by Lawrence
My incubator is a defunct commercial refrigerator, with an incandescent lightbulb as the
source of heat. The light is under a pot of water, to diffuse heat and maintain humidity.
The light is plugged into the temperature controller at lower left, which turns the light on
when the temperature goes below 87°F/30°C and off when it goes above that. When the
mold begins to generate heat and the temperature increases during the second half of a
large batch, I prop the door open to release heat.
Making tempeh in banana leaves.
Making tempeh using a basket as a form in a high-humidity incubator. Photo by Caylan
Tempeh made in a perforated plastic bag, beginning to sporulate; the dark spots, indicating
sporulation, correspond with the airholes.
Mycelium of Rhizopus oligosporus on fresh tempeh. Photo courtesy of Erik Augustijns,
An R. oligosporus sporangium, ready to burst. Photo courtesy of Erik Augustijns,
Spores release in sporulation. Photo courtesy of Erik Augustijns,
Steamed barley, in bamboo steamers, cooling. Photo by Timothy Bartling
Soybean koji. Photo by Timothy Bartling
A sunflower seed cheese. Photo by Michelle Dick
Idli batter rising out of a jar.
Natto is characterized by a stringy, mucilaginous coating on the beans.
Wara natto is made and sold wrapped in straw. Photo by Sam Bett
Bright-colored molds growing on tofu. Into the compost—a failed experiment.
White, fluffy Actinomucor elegans growing on tofu.
The author’s first dry-curing experiment, a deer leg cured in the style of prosciutto. Photo
by Timothy Bartling
Violina di capra.
The author’s salami-curing chamber, a refrigerator with an overriding temperature
controller set for 57°F/14°C.
Rinsing casings prior to stuffing them.
Molds on the author’s salami.
Bulging can of surströmming. Photo by Steffen Ramsaier
Stainless-steel fermentation vats at Cultured Pickle Shop in Berkeley, California. Photo by
Cultured Pickle Shop
Tempeh drying device at The Tempeh Shop in Gainesville, Florida, created by the
company’s founder, Jose Caraballo.
The hole punch that Jose designed to perforate plastic bags for tempeh making.
Inoculated soybeans in perforated bags, on racks, ready to incubate into tempeh.
Steam rising from a compost pile.
Aerated compost tea bubbling away.
An indigo vat that has developed a coppery sheen following fermentation.
Kombucha fiber biker jacket designed by Suzanne Lee. Photo by BioCouture © 2011
Penicillium mold. © Photo Researchers, Inc.
Culture, a papercut by Nikki McClure.
Compost woodblock print by David Bailey.
Roguszys: Lithuanian God of Pickled Foods, a silk-screen print by Caroline Paquita.
Radical Cheese Against the Asphaltization of Small Planets Festival, a print by Bread and
Puppet Press.
Artisanal label for artisanal kraut in Madison, Wisconsin. Print by Andy Hans
I Will Ferment Myself, a print by Modern Times Theater.
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