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# Solucionario

Anuncio ```INSTRUCTOR'S SOLUTIONS MANUAL
TO ACCOMPANY
POWER SYSTEM
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
FIFTH EDITION
J. DUNCAN GLOVER
MULUKUTLA S. SARMA
THOMAS J. OVERBYE
Contents
Chapter 2
1
Chapter 3
27
Chapter 4
71
Chapter 5
95
Chapter 6
137
Chapter 7
175
Chapter 8
195
Chapter 9
231
Chapter 10
303
Chapter 11
323
Chapter 12
339
Chapter 13
353
Chapter 14
379
Chapter 2
Fundamentals
2.1
b
2.19 a
2.2
a
2.20 A. c
2.3
c
B. a
2.4
a
C. b
2.5
b
2.21 a
2.6
c
2.22 a
2.7
a
2.23 b
2.8
c
2.24 a
2.9
a
2.25 a
2.10 c
2.26 b
2.11 a
2.27 a
2.12 b
2.28 b
2.13 b
2.29 a
2.14 c
2.30 (i) c
(ii) b
2.15 a
(iii) a
2.16 b
(iv)
d
2.17 A. a
2.31 a
B. b
2.32 a
C. a
2.18 c
1
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2.1
(a) A1 = 5∠30&deg; = 5 [ cos30&deg; + j sin 30&deg;] = 4.33 + j 2.5
4
= 5 ∠126.87&deg; = 5e j126.87&deg;
−3
(c) A3 = ( 4.33 + j 2.5 ) + ( −3 + j 4 ) = 1.33 + j 6.5 = 6.635∠78.44&deg;
(b) A2 = −3 + j 4 = 9 + 16 ∠ tan −1
(d) A4 = ( 5∠30&deg; )( 5 ∠126.87&deg; ) = 25 ∠156.87&deg; = −22.99 + j 9.821
(e) A5 = ( 5∠30&deg; ) / ( 5∠ − 126.87&deg; ) = 1∠156.87&deg; = 1 e j156.87&deg;
2.2
(a) I = 400∠ − 30&deg; = 346.4 − j 200
(b) i(t ) = 5sin (ω t + 15&deg; ) = 5cos (ω t + 15&deg; − 90&deg; ) = 5cos (ω t − 75&deg; )
( 2 ) ∠ − 75&deg; = 3.536∠ − 75&deg; = 0.9151− j3.415
(c) I = ( 4 2 ) ∠ − 30&deg; + 5∠ − 75&deg; = ( 2.449 − j1.414 ) + (1.294 − j 4.83 )
I = 5
= 3.743 − j 6.244 = 7.28∠ − 59.06&deg;
2.3
(a) Vmax = 359.3V; I max = 100 A
(b) V = 359.3
2 = 254.1V; I = 100
2 = 70.71A
(c) V = 254.1∠15&deg; V; I = 70.71 ∠ − 85&deg; A
2.4
(a) I1 = 10∠0&deg;
− j6
6∠ − 90&deg;
= 10
= 7.5∠ − 90&deg; A
8 + j6 − j6
8
I 2 = I − I1 = 10∠0&deg; − 7.3∠ − 90&deg; = 10 + j 7.5 = 12.5∠36.87&deg; A
V = I 2 ( − j 6 ) = (12.5∠36.87&deg; ) ( 6∠ − 90&deg; ) = 75∠ − 53.13&deg; V
(b)
2.5
(a) υ (t ) = 277 2 cos (ω t + 30&deg; ) = 391.7cos (ω t + 30&deg; ) V
(b)
I = V / 20 = 13.85∠30&deg; A
i(t ) = 19.58cos (ω t + 30&deg; ) A
2
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(c) Z = jω L = j ( 2π 60 ) (10 &times; 10 −3 ) = 3.771∠90&deg; Ω
I = V Z = ( 277 ∠30&deg; ) ( 3.771 ∠90&deg; ) = 73.46 ∠ − 60&deg; A
i(t ) = 73.46 2 cos (ω t − 60&deg; ) =103.9cos (ω t − 60&deg; ) A
(d) Z = − j 25 Ω
I = V Z = ( 277∠30&deg; ) ( 25∠ − 90&deg; ) = 11.08∠120&deg; A
i(t ) = 11.08 2 cos (ω t + 120&deg; ) = 15.67cos (ω t + 120&deg; ) A
2.6
(
(a) V = 100
)
2 ∠ − 30&deg;= 70.7∠ − 30&deg; ; ω does not appear in the answer.
(b) υ (t ) = 100 2 cos (ω t + 20&deg; ) ; with ω = 377,
υ (t ) = 141.4 cos ( 377t + 20&deg; )
(c) A = A∠α ; B = B∠β ; C = A + B
c(t ) = a(t ) + b(t ) = 2 Re Ce jωt 
The resultant has the same frequency ω.
2.7
(a) The circuit diagram is shown below:
(b) Z = 3 + j8 − j 4 = 3 + j 4 = 5∠53.1&deg; Ω
(c) I = (100∠0&deg; ) ( 5∠53.1&deg; ) = 20∠ − 53.1&deg; A
The current lags the source voltage by 53.1&deg;
Power Factor = cos53.1&deg; = 0.6 Lagging
2.8
Z LT = j ( 377 ) ( 30.6 &times; 10 −6 ) = j11.536 m Ω
Z LL = j ( 377 ) ( 5 &times; 10 −3 ) = j1.885 Ω
ZC = − j
V=
1
= − j 2.88 Ω
( 377 ) ( 921 &times; 10−6 )
120 2
2
∠ − 30&deg; V
3
&copy; 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
The circuit transformed to phasor domain is shown below:
2.9 KVL : 120∠0&deg; = ( 60∠0&deg; )( 0.1 + j 0.5 ) + VLOAD
∴ VLOAD = 120∠0&deg; − ( 60∠0&deg; )( 0.1 + j 0.5 )
= 114.1 − j 30.0 = 117.9∠ − 14.7&deg; V ←
2.10 (a) p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 359.3cos (ω t + 15&deg; )  100 cos (ω t − 85&deg; ) 
1
( 359.3)(100 ) cos100&deg; + cos ( 2ω t − 70&deg;) 
2
= −3120 + 1.797 &times; 10 4 cos ( 2ω t − 70&deg; ) W
=
(b) P = VI cos (δ − β ) = ( 254.1)( 70.71) cos (15&deg; + 85&deg; )
= −3120 W Absorbed
= +3120 W Delivered
(c) Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = ( 254.1)( 70.71) sin100&deg;
= 17.69 kVAR Absorbed
(d) The phasor current ( − I ) = 70.71∠ − 85&deg; + 180&deg; = 70.71 ∠ 95&deg; A leaves the positive
terminal of the generator.
The generator power factor is then cos (15&deg; − 95&deg; ) = 0.1736 leading
2.11 (a) p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 391.7 &times; 19.58cos2 (ω t + 30&deg; )
1
= 0.7669 &times; 10 4   1 + cos ( 2ω t + 60&deg; ) 
2
= 3.834 &times; 103 + 3.834 &times; 103 cos ( 2ω t + 60&deg; ) W
P = VI cos (δ − β ) = 277 &times; 13.85cos0&deg; = 3.836 kW
Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 0 VAR
Source Power Factor = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( 30&deg; − 30&deg; ) = 1.0
(b) p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 391.7 &times; 103.9cos (ω t + 30&deg; ) cos (ω t − 60&deg; )
1
= 4.07 &times; 10 4    cos90&deg; + cos ( 2ω t − 30&deg; ) 
2
4
= 2.035 &times; 10 cos ( 2ω t − 30&deg; ) W
P = VI cos (δ − β ) = 277 &times; 73.46 cos ( 30&deg; + 60&deg; ) = 0 W
4
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Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 277 &times; 73.46 sin 90&deg; = 20.35 kVAR
pf = cos (δ − β ) = 0 Lagging
(c) p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 391.7 &times; 15.67 cos (ω t + 30&deg; ) cos (ω t + 120&deg; )
1
= 6.138 &times; 103   cos ( −90&deg; ) + cos ( 2ω t + 150&deg; )  = 3.069 &times; 103 cos ( 2ω t + 150&deg; ) W
2
P = VI cos (δ − β ) = 277 &times; 11.08cos ( 30&deg; − 120&deg; ) = 0 W
Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 277 &times; 11.08sin ( −90&deg; )
= −3.069 kVAR Absorbed = +3.069 kVAR Delivered
pf = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( −90&deg; ) = 0 Leading
2.12 (a) pR (t ) = ( 359.3cos ω t )( 35.93cos ω t )
= 6455 + 6455cos2ω t W
(b) px (t ) = ( 359.3cos ω t ) 14.37cos (ω t + 90&deg; ) 
= 2582 cos ( 2cot + 90&deg; )
= −2582sin 2ω t W
2)
(
X = ( 359.3 2 )
(c) P = V 2 R = 359.3
2
(d) Q = V 2
2
10 = 6455 W Absorbed
25 = 2582 VAR S Delivered
(e) ( β − δ ) = tan −1 ( Q / P ) = tan −1 ( 2582 6455 ) = 21.8&deg;
Power factor = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( 21.8&deg; ) = 0.9285 Leading
2.13
Z = R − jxc = 10 − j 25 = 26.93 ∠ − 68.2&deg; Ω
i(t ) = ( 359.3 / 26.93 ) cos (ω t + 68.2&deg; )
= 13.34 cos (ω t + 68.2&deg; ) A
(a) pR (t ) = 13.34 cos (ω t + 68.2&deg; )  133.4 cos (ω t + 68.2&deg; ) 
= 889.8 + 889.8cos 2 (ω t + 68.2&deg; )  W
(b) px (t ) = 13.34 cos (ω t + 68.2&deg; )  333.5cos (ω t + 68.2&deg; − 90&deg; ) 
= 2224sin  2 (ω t + 68.2&deg; )  W
2 ) 10 = 889.8 W
(
(d) Q = I X = (13.34 2 ) 25 = 2224 VAR S
(c) P = I 2 R = 13.34
2
2
2
(e) pf = cos  tan −1 ( Q / P )  = cos  tan −1 (2224 / 889.8)
5
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2.14 (a) I = 4∠0&deg; kA
V = Z I = ( 2∠ − 45&deg; )( 4∠0&deg; ) = 8∠ − 45&deg; kV
υ (t ) = 8 2 cos (ω t − 45&deg; ) kV
p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 8 2 cos (ω t − 45&deg; )   4 2 cos ω t 



1
= 64    cos ( −45&deg; ) + cos ( 2ω t − 45&deg; ) 
2
= 22.63 + 32 cos ( 2ω t − 45&deg; ) MW
(b) P = VI cos (δ − β ) = 8 &times; 4 cos ( −45&deg; − 0&deg; ) = 22.63MW Delivered
(c) Q = VI sin (δ − β ) = 8 &times; 4sin ( −45&deg; − 0&deg; )
= −22.63 MVAR Delivered = + 22.63MVAR Absorbed
(d) pf = cos (δ − β ) = cos ( −45&deg; − 0&deg; ) = 0.707 Leading
(
2.15 (a) I =  4

)
2 ∠60&deg;

( 2∠30&deg;) =
2 ∠30&deg; A
i(t ) = 2 cos (ω t + 30&deg; ) A with ω = 377 rad/s
p(t ) = υ (t )i(t ) = 4 cos30&deg; + cos ( 2ω t + 90&deg; ) 
= 3.46 + 4 cos ( 2ω t + 90&deg; ) W
(b) υ(t), i(t), and p(t) are plotted below: (See next page)
(c) The instantaneous power has an average value of 3.46 W, and the frequency is twice that
of the voltage or current.
6
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2.16 (a) Z = 10 + j 120 π &times; 0.04 = 10 + j15.1 = 18.1∠56.4&deg; Ω
pf = cos56.4&deg; = 0.553 Lagging
(b) V = 120 ∠0&deg; V
The current supplied by the source is
I = (120 ∠0&deg; ) (18.1∠56.4&deg; ) = 6.63∠ − 56.4&deg; A
The real power absorbed by the load is given by
P = 120 &times; 6.63 &times; cos56.4&deg; = 440 W
which can be checked by I 2 R = ( 6.63 ) 10 = 440 W
2
The reactive power absorbed by the load is
Q = 120 &times; 6.63 &times; sin 36.4&deg; = 663VAR
(c) Peak Magnetic Energy = W = LI 2 = 0.04 ( 6.63 ) = 1.76 J
2
Q = ωW = 377 &times; 1.76 = 663VAR is satisfied.
2.17 (a) S = V I * = Z I I * = Z I
2
= jω LI 2
Q = Im[ S ] = ω LI 2 ←
(b) υ (t ) = L
di
= − 2ω L I sin (ω t + θ )
dt
p(t ) = υ (t ) ⋅ i(t ) = −2ω L I 2 sin (ω t + θ ) cos (ω t + θ )
= −ω L I 2 sin 2 (ω t + θ ) ←
= − Q sin 2 (ω t + θ ) ←
Average real power P supplied to the inductor = 0 ←
Instantaneous power supplied (to sustain the changing energy in the magnetic field) has a
maximum value of Q. ←
2.18 (a) S = V I * = Z I I * = Re  Z I 2  + j Im  Z I 2 
= P + jQ
∴P = Z I 2 cos ∠Z ; Q = Z I 2 sin ∠Z ←
(b) Choosing i(t ) = 2 I cos ω t ,
Then υ (t ) = 2 Z I cos (ω t + ∠Z )
∴ p(t ) = υ (t ) ⋅ i(t ) = Z I 2 cos (ω t + ∠Z ) ⋅ cos ω t
= Z I 2 cos ∠Z + cos ( 2ω t + ∠Z ) 
= Z I 2 [ cos ∠Z + cos2ω t cos ∠Z − sin 2ω t sin ∠Z ]
= P (1 + cos2ω t ) − Q sin 2ω t ←
7
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1
jωC
(c) Z = R + jω L +
From part (a), P = RI 2 and Q = QL + QC
1 2
I
ωC
which are the reactive powers into L and C, respectively.
Thus p(t ) = P (1 + cos2ω t ) − QL sin 2ω t − QC sin 2ω t ←
where QL = ω LI 2 and QC = −
If ω 2 LC = 1,

 ←
p(t ) = P (1 + cos2ω t ) 
QL + QC = Q = 0
Then
*
 150
 5

∠10&deg; 
∠ − 50&deg;  = 375 ∠60&deg;
2.19 (a) S = V I = 
 2
 2

= 187.5 + j 324.8
*
P = Re S = 187.5 W Absorbed
Q = Im S = 324.8 VAR SAbsorbed
(b) pf = cos ( 60&deg; ) = 0.5 Lagging
(c) QS = P tan QS = 187.5 tan cos −1 0.9  = 90.81VAR S
QC = QL − QS = 324.8 − 90.81 = 234 VAR S
2.20
Y1 =
1
1
=
= 0.05∠ − 30&deg; = ( 0.0433 − j 0.025 ) S = G1 − jB1
Z1 20∠30&deg;
Y2 =
1
1
=
= 0.04∠ − 60&deg; = ( 0.02 − j 0.03464 ) S = G2 + jB2
Z 2 25∠60&deg;
P1 = V 2 G1 = (100 ) 0.0433 = 433 W Absorbed
2
Q1 = V 2 B1 = (100 ) 0.025 = 250 VAR S Absorbed
2
P2 = V 2 G2 = (100 ) 0.02 = 200 W Absorbed
2
Q2 = V 2 B2 = (100 ) 0.03464 = 346.4 VAR SAbsorbed
2
8
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2.21 (a)
φL = cos−1 0.6 = 53.13&deg;
QL = P tan φL = 500 tan 53.13&deg; = 666.7 kVAR
φS = cos−1 0.9 = 25.84&deg;
QS = P tan φS = 500 tan 25.84&deg; = 242.2 kVAR
QC = QL − QS = 666.7 − 242.2 = 424.5 kVAR
SC = QC = 424.5 kVA
(b) The Synchronous motor absorbs Pm =
( 500 ) 0.746 = 414.4 kW and Q
0.9
m
= 0 kVAR
Source PF = cos  tan −1 ( 666.7 914.4 )  = 0.808 Lagging
2.22 (a) Y1 =
1
1
1
=
=
= 0.2∠ − 53.13&deg;
Z1 ( 3 + j 4 ) 5∠53.13&deg;
= ( 0.12 − j 0.16 ) S
Y2 =
1
1
=
= 0.1S
Z 2 10
P = V 2 ( G1 + G2 )  V =
P
=
G1 + G2
1100
= 70.71 V
( 0.12 + 0.1)
P1 = V 2 G1 = ( 70.71) 0.12 = 600 W
2
P2 = V 2 G2 = ( 70.71) 0.1 = 500 W
2
(b) Yeq = Y1 + Y2 = ( 0.12 − j 0.16 ) + 0.1 = 0.22 − j 0.16
= 0.272∠ − 36.03&deg; S
I S = V Yeq = 70.71( 0.272 ) = 19.23 A
9
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2.23
S = V I * = (120∠0&deg; )(10∠ − 30&deg; ) = 1200∠ − 30&deg;
= 1039.2 − j 600
P = Re S = 1039.2 W Delivered
Q = Im S = −600 VAR S Delivered = +600 VAR SAbsorbed
2.24
S1 = P1 + jQ1 = 10 + j 0; S2 = 10∠ cos−1 0.9 = 9 + j 4.359
10 &times; 0.746
∠ − cos−1 0.95 = 9.238∠ − 18.19&deg; = 8.776 − j 2.885
0.85 &times; 0.95
SS = S1 + S2 + S3 = 27.78 + j1.474 = 27.82 ∠3.04&deg;
S3 =
PS = Re(SS ) = 27.78 kW
QS = Im(SS ) = 1.474 kVAR
SS = SS = 27.82 kVA
2.25
SR = VR I * = RI I * = I 2 R = (20)2 3 = 1200 + j 0
SL = VL I * = ( jX L I )I * = jX L I 2 = j8(20)2 = 0 + j 3200
SC = VC I * = (− jIXC )I * = − jX C I 2 = − j 4(20)2 = 0 − j1600
Complex power absorbed by the total load SLOAD = SR + SL + SC = 2000∠53.1&deg;
Power Triangle:
Complex power delivered by the source is
*
SSOURCE = V I * = (100 ∠0&deg; )( 20∠ − 53.1&deg; ) = 2000∠53.1&deg;
The complex power delivered by the source is equal to the total complex power absorbed by
2.26 (a) The problem is modeled as shown in figure below:
PL = 120 kW
pfL = 0.85Lagging
θ L = cos−1 0.85 = 31.79&deg;
10
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QL = PL tan ( 31.79&deg; )
SL = PL + jQL = 141.18∠31.79&deg; kVA
= 74.364 kVAR
I = SL / V = 141,180 / 480 = 294.13A
Real power loss in the line is zero.
Reactive power loss in the line is QLINE = I 2 X LINE = ( 294.13 ) 1
2
= 86.512 kVAR
∴ SS = PS + jQS = 120 + j ( 74.364 + 86.512 ) = 200.7∠53.28&deg; kVA
The input voltage is given by VS = SS / I = 682.4 V (rms)
The power factor at the input is cos53.28&deg; = 0.6 Lagging
(b) Applying KVL, VS = 480 ∠0&deg; + j1.0 ( 294.13∠ − 31.79&deg; )
= 635 + j 250 = 682.4∠21.5&deg; V (rms)
( pf )S = cos ( 21.5&deg; + 31.79&deg; ) = 0.6 Lagging
2.27 The circuit diagram is shown below:
Pold = 50 kW; cos−1 0.8 = 36.87&deg; ; θOLD = 36.87&deg;; Qold = Pold tan (θ old )
= 37.5 kVAR
∴ Sold = 50,000 + j 37,500
θ new = cos−1 0.95 = 18.19&deg;; Snew = 50,000 + j 50,000 tan (18.19&deg; )
= 50,000 + j16, 430
Hence Scap = Snew − Sold = − j 21,070 VA
∴C =
21,070
( 377 )( 220 )
2
= 1155μ F ←
11
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2.28
S1 = 12 + j 6.667
S2 = 4 ( 0.96 ) − j 4 sin ( cos −1 0.96 )  = 3.84 − j1.12
S3 = 15 + j 0
STOTAL = S1 + S2 + S3 = ( 30.84 + j 5.547 ) kVA
(i) Let Z be the impedance of a series combination of R and X
*
V 
V2
Since S = V I * = V   = * , it follows that
Z
Z 
( 240 )
V2
Z =
=
= (1.809 − j 0.3254) Ω
S ( 30.84 + j 5.547 )103
2
*
∴ Z = (1.809 + j 0.3254 ) Ω ←
(ii) Let Z be the impedance of a parallel combination of R and X
( 240 )
( 30.84 )103
2
240 )
(
X=
( 5.547 )103
2
R=
Then
= 1.8677 Ω
= 10.3838 Ω
∴ Z = (1.8677 j10.3838 ) Ω ←
2.29 Since complex powers satisfy KCL at each bus, it follows that
S13 = (1 + j1) − (1 − j1) − ( 0.4 + j 0.2 ) = −0.4 + j1.8 ←
S31 = −S13* = 0.4 + j1.8 ←
Similarly, S23 = ( 0.5 + j 0.5 ) − (1 + j1) − ( −0.4 + j 0.2 ) = −0.1 − j 0.7 ←
S32 = −S23* = 0.1 − j 0.7 ←
At Bus 3, SG 3 = S31 + S32 = ( 0.4 + j1.8 ) + ( 0.1 − j 0.7 ) = 0.5 + j1.1 ←
2.30 (a) For load 1: θ1 = cos−1 (0.28) = 73.74&deg; Lagging
S1 = 125∠73.74&deg; = 35 + j120
S2 = 10 − j 40
S3 = 15 + j 0
STOTAL = S1 + S2 + S3 = 60 + j80 = 100∠53.13&deg; kVA = P + jQ
∴ PTOTAL = 60 kW; QTOTAL = 80 kVAR; kVA TOTAL = STOTAL = 100 kVA. ←
Supply pf = cos ( 53.13&deg; ) = 0.6 Lagging ←
(b) ITOTAL =
S * 100 &times; 103 ∠ − 53.13&deg;
=
= 100∠ − 53.13&deg; A
V*
1000∠0&deg;
12
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At the new pf of 0.8 lagging, PTOTAL of 60kW results in the new reactive power Q′ , such
that
θ ′ = cos−1 ( 0.8 ) = 36.87&deg;
and Q′ = 60 tan ( 36.87&deg; ) = 45 kVAR
∴ The required capacitor’s kVAR is QC = 80 − 45 = 35 kVAR ←
V 2 (1000 )
= − j 28.57 Ω
It follows then XC = * =
SC
j 35000
2
and
C=
106
= 92.85μ F ←
2π ( 60 )( 28.57 )
S ′* 60,000 − j 45,000
=
= 60 − j 45 = 75∠ − 36.87&deg; A
V*
1000∠0&deg;
The supply current, in magnitude, is reduced from 100A to 75A ←
The new current is I ′ =
2.31 (a) I12 =
V1∠δ1 − V2 ∠δ 2  V1
 V
=  ∠δ1 − 90&deg;  − 2 ∠δ 2 − 90&deg;
X ∠90&deg;
X
 X
V
V

Complex power S12 = V1 I12* = V1∠δ1  1 ∠90&deg; − δ1 − 2 ∠90&deg; − δ 2 
X
X

2
V1
V1V2
=
∠90&deg; −
∠90&deg; + δ1 − δ 2
X
X
∴ The real and reactive power at the sending end are
P12 =
Q12 =
V12
VV
cos90&deg; − 1 2 cos ( 90&deg; + δ1 − δ 2 )
X
X
V1V2
=
sin (δ1 − δ 2 ) ←
X
V12
VV
sin 90&deg; − 1 2 sin ( 90&deg; + δ1 − δ 2 )
X
X
V
= 1 V1 − V2 cos (δ1 − δ 2 )  ←
X
Note: If V1 leads V2 , δ = δ1 − δ 2 is positive and the real power flows from node 1 to
node 2. If V1 Lags V2 , δ is negative and power flows from node 2 to node 1.
(b) Maximum power transfer occurs when δ = 90&deg; = δ1 − δ 2 ←
PMAX =
V1V2
←
X
2.32 4 Mvar minimizes the real power line losses, while 4.5 Mvar minimizes the MVA power flow
into the feeder.
13
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2.33
Qcap
MW Losses
Mvar Losses
0
0.42
0.84
0.5
0.4
0.8
1
0.383
0.766
1.5
0.369
0.738
2
0.357
0.714
2.5
0.348
0.696
3
0.341
0.682
3.5
0.337
0.675
4
0.336
0.672
4.5
0.337
0.675
5
0.341
0.682
5.5
0.348
0.696
6
0.357
0.714
6.5
0.369
0.738
7
0.383
0.766
7.5
0.4
0.801
8
0.42
0.84
8.5
0.442
0.885
9
0.467
0.934
9.5
0.495
0.99
0.525
1.05
10
2.34 7.5 Mvars
2.35
14
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(.3846 + .4950 ) + j (10 − 1.923 − 4.950 )

− (.4950 − j 4.950 )

− (.4950 − j 4.950 )
 V10 
(.3846 + .4950 ) + j (10 − 1.923 − 4.95)  V20 
1.961∠ − 48.69&deg;
=

1.961∠ − 78.69&deg; 
 0.8796 + j 3.127 −0.4950 + j 4.950  V10  1.961∠ − 48.69&deg;

  = 

 −0.4950 + j 4.950 −0.8796 + j 3.127  V20  1.961∠ − 78.69&deg; 
2.36 Note that there are two buses plus the reference bus and one line for this problem. After
converting the voltage sources in Fig. 2.23 to current sources, the equivalent source
impedances are:
Z S1 = Z S 2 = ( 0.1 + j 0.5 ) // ( − j 0.1) =
=
( 0.1 + j 0.5 )( − j 0.1)
0.1 + j 0.5 − j 0.1
( 0.5099∠78.69&deg;)( 0.1∠ − 90&deg;) = 0.1237∠ − 87.27&deg;
0.4123∠75.96&deg;
= 0.005882 − j 0.1235 Ω
The rest is left as an exercise to the student.
2.37 After converting impedance values in Figure 2.29 to admittance values, the bus admittance
matrix is:
Ybus
0
0
−1
 1



1

1
 −1  1 + 1 + 1 + 1 − j1 

1
−
−
j
−
 2 3 4

3

4






 


=
1
1
1

1
 1

0
1
−  − j1 
−
+
+
−
j
j
j
j






4
2
3

3
 4


1
1 
1
 1
1

− 
− j 
 4 + j 4 − j 3 
 0
4
 4



Writing nodal equations by inspection:
−1
0
 1
 V10   1∠0&deg; 
0

  

−0.25
 −1 ( 2.083 − j1) ( −0.3333 + j1)
 V20  =  0 
 0 ( −0.3333 + j1) ( 0.3333 − j 0.25 )
 V30   0 
− j 0.25

 
− j 0.25
( 0.25 − j 0.08333)  V40  2∠30&deg;
 0 ( −0.25 )
15
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2.38 The admittance diagram for the system is shown below:
YBUS
where
Y11

Y
=  21
Y31

Y41
Y12
Y22
Y32
Y42
Y13 Y14 

Y23 Y24 
=
Y33 Y34 

Y43 Y44 
0 
 −8.5 2.5 5.0
 2.5 −8.75 5.0
0 
j
S
 5.0 5.0 −22.5 12.5 


0 12.5 −12.5
 0
Y11 = y10 + y12 + y13 ; Y22 = y20 + y12 + y23 ; Y23 = y13 + y23 + y34
Y44 = y34 ; Y12 = Y21 = − y12 ; Y13 = Y31 = − y13 ; Y23 = Y32 = − y23
Y34 = Y43 = − y34
and
2.39 (a)
Yc





+ Yd + Y f
−Yd
−Yc
−Y f
−Yd
Yb + Yd + Ye
−Yb
−Ye
  V1   I1 = 0 
  

−Ye
 V2  =  I 2 = 0 
 V   I

0
 3  3

Ye + Y f + Yg  V4   I 4

−Y f
−Yc
−Yb
Ya + Yb + Yc
0
4 2.5   V1   0
 −14.5 8

  
 8 −17 4


5  V2   0

=
(b) j 
 4

4 −8.8 0  V3  1∠ − 90&deg;

  

0 −8.3 V4   0.62∠ − 135&deg;
 2.5 5
−1
−1
YBUS V = I ; YBUS
YBUS V = YBUS
I
16
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−1
YBUS
= Z BUS
where
 0.7187
 0.6688
= j
 0.6307

 0.6194
0.6688
0.7045
0.7045
0.6307
0.6242
0.6840
0.6258
0.5660
0.6194 
0.6258 
Ω
0.5660 

0.6840 
−1
V = YBUS
I
 V1 
0

 
0

V2 



V=
and I =
V3 
1∠ − 90&deg;

 


V4 
 0.62∠ − 135&deg;
where
Then solve for V1 , V2 , V3 , and V4 .
208
2.40 (a) VAN =
3
∠0&deg; = 120.1∠0&deg; V (Assumed as Reference)
VAB = 208∠30&deg; V; VBC = 208∠ − 90&deg; V; I A = 10∠ − 90&deg; A
ZY =
(b) I AB =
VAN 120.1∠0&deg;
=
= 12.01∠ − 90&deg; = ( 0 + j12.01) Ω
I A 10∠ − 90&deg;
IA
3
ZΔ =
∠30&deg; =
10
3
∠ − 90&deg; + 30&deg; = 5.774∠ − 60&deg;A
VAB
208∠30&deg;
=
= 36.02∠90&deg; = ( 0 + j 36.02 ) Ω
I AB 5.774∠ − 60&deg;
Note: ZY = Z Δ / 3
2.41
S3φ = 3VLL I L ∠ cos−1 ( pf )
= 3 ( 480 )( 20 ) ∠ cos−1 0.8
= 16.627 &times; 103 ∠36.87&deg;
= (13.3 &times; 103 ) + j (9.976 &times; 103 )
P3φ = Re S3φ = 13.3kW
Delivered
Q3φ = I m S3φ = 9.976 kVAR
Delivered
2.42 (a) With Vab as reference
Van =
208
3
ZΔ
= 4 + j 3 = 5∠36.87&deg; Ω
3
∠ − 30&deg;
17
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Ia =
Van
120.1∠ − 30&deg;
=
= 24.02∠ − 66.87&deg; A
( Z Δ / 3) 5∠36.87&deg;
S3φ = 3Van I a* = 3 (120.1∠ − 30&deg; )( 24.02∠ + 66.87&deg; )
= 8654∠36.87&deg; = 6923 + j 5192
P3φ = 6923W; Q3φ = 5192 VAR; both absorbed by the load
pf = cos ( 36.87&deg; ) = 0.8 Lagging; S3φ = S3φ = 8654 VA
(b)
Vab = 208∠0&deg; V
I a = 24.02∠ − 66.87&deg; A
13.87∠ − 36.87&deg; A
2.43 (a) Transforming the Δ-connected load into an equivalent Y, the impedance per phase of the
equivalent Y is
Z2 =
60 − j 45
= ( 20 − j15 ) Ω
3
With the phase voltage V1 = 1203 3 = 120 V taken as a reference, the per-phase equivalent
circuit is shown below:
Total impedance viewed from the input terminals is
Z = 2 + j4 +
I=
( 30 + j 40 )( 20 − j15)
= 2 + j 4 + 22 − j 4 = 24 Ω
( 30 + j 40 ) + ( 20 − j15)
V1 120∠0&deg;
=
= 5∠0&deg; A
24
Z
The three-phase complex power supplied = S = 3V1 I * = 1800 W
P = 1800 W and Q = 0 VAR delivered by the sending-end source
18
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(b) Phase voltage at load terminals V2 = 120∠0&deg; − ( 2 + j 4 )( 5 ∠0&deg; )
= 110 − j 20 = 111.8∠ − 10.3&deg; V
The line voltage magnitude at the load terminal is
3 111.8 = 193.64 V
(c) The current per phase in the Y-connected load and in the equiv.Y of the Δ-load:
I1 =
V2
= 1 − j 2 = 2.236∠ − 63.4&deg; A
Z1
I2 =
V2
= 4 + j 2 = 4.472 ∠26.56&deg; A
Z2
The phase current magnitude in the original Δ-connected load
(I )
ph Δ
=
I2
3
=
4.472
3
= 2.582 A
The three-phase complex power absorbed by each load is
S1 = 3V2 I1* = 430 W + j 600 VAR
S2 = 3V2 I 2* = 1200 W − j 900 VAR
The three-phase complex power absorbed by the line is
SL = 3 ( RL + jX L ) I 2 = 3 ( 2 + j 4 ) (5)2 = 150 W + j300 VAR
The sum of load powers and line losses is equal to the power delivered from the supply:
S1 + S2 + SL = ( 450 + j600 ) + (1200 − j 900 ) + (150 + j 300 )
= 1800 W + j 0 VAR
2.44 (a) The per-phase equivalent circuit for the problem is shown below:
Phase voltage at the load terminals is V2 =
2200 3
= 2200 V taken as Ref.
3
Total complex power at the load end or receiving end is
SR( 3φ ) = 560.1( 0.707 + j 0.707 ) + 132 = 528 + j 396 = 660∠36.87&deg; kVA
19
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With phase voltage V2 as reference,
I =
SR*( 3φ )
3V2*
=
660,000∠ − 36.87&deg;
= 100∠ − 36.87&deg; A
3 ( 2200∠0&deg; )
Phase voltage at sending end is given by
V1 = 2200∠0&deg; + ( 0.4 + j 2.7 )(100∠ − 36.87&deg; ) = 2401.7∠4.58&deg; V
The magnitude of the line to line voltage at the sending end of the line is
(V1 ) L -L =
3V1 = 3 ( 2401.7 ) = 4160 V
(b) The three-phase complex-power loss in the line is given by
SL (3φ ) = 3 RI 2 + j 3 &times; I 2 = 3 ( 0.4 ) (100 2 ) + j 3 ( 2.7 )(100 )
2
= 12 kW + j81kVAR
(c) The three-phase sending power is
SS (3φ ) = 3V1 I * = 3 ( 2401.7∠4.58&deg; )(100∠36.87&deg; )
= 540 kW + j 477 kVAR
Note that SS (3φ ) = SR(3φ ) + SL ( 3φ )
2.45 (a)
IS =
SS
3VLL
=
25.001 &times; 103
3 ( 480 )
= 30.07 A
(b) The ammeter reads zero, because in a balanced three-phase system, there is no neutral
current.
2.46 (a)
20
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Using voltage division: VAN = Van
=
=
208
3
ZΔ / 3
( Z Δ / 3) + Z LINE
∠0&deg;
10∠30&deg;
10∠30&deg; + ( 0.8 + j 0.6 )
(120.09 )(10∠30&deg;) =
9.46 + j 5.6
1200.9∠30&deg;
10.99∠30.62&deg;
= 109.3∠ − 0.62&deg; V
Load voltage = VAB = 3 (109.3 ) = 189.3V Line-to-Line
(b)
Z eq = 10 ∠30 &deg; || (− j 20)
= 11.547 ∠0 &deg;Ω
VAN = Van
Z eq
Z eq + Z LINE
(
= 208
=
3
) (11.54711.547
+ 0.8 + j 0.6 )
1386.7
= 112.2∠ − 2.78&deg; V
12.362∠2.78&deg;
Load voltage Line-to-Line VAB = 3 (112.2 ) = 194.3 V
2.47
(a) I G1 =
15 &times; 103
∠ − cos−1 0.8 = 23.53∠ − 36.87&deg; A
8 ( 460 )( 0.8 )
460
∠0&deg; − (1.4 + j1.6 )( 23.53∠ − 36.87&deg; )
3
= 216.9∠ − 2.73&deg; V Line to Neutral
VL = VG1− Z LINE1 I G1 =
Load Voltage VL = 3 216.9 = 375.7 V Line to line
21
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30 &times; 103
(b) I L =
3 ( 375.7 )( 0.8 )
∠ − 2.73&deg; − cos−1 0.8 = 57.63∠ − 39.6&deg; A
I G 2 = I L − I G1 = 57.63 ∠ − 39.6&deg; − 23.53∠ − 36.87&deg;
= 34.14∠ − 41.49&deg; A
VG 2 = VL + Z LINE 2 I G 2 = 216.9∠ − 2.73&deg; + ( 0.8 + j1)( 34.14∠ − 41.49&deg; )
= 259.7∠ − 0.63&deg; V
Generator 2 line-to-line voltage VG 2 = 3 ( 259.7 )
= 449.8 V
(c) SG 2 = 3VG 2 I G* = 3 ( 259.7∠ − 0.63&deg; )( 34.14∠41.49&deg; )
2
= 20.12 &times; 103 + j17.4 &times; 103
PG 2 = 20.12 kW; QG 2 = 17.4 kVAR; Both delivered
2.48 (a)
(b) pf = cos31.32&deg; = 0.854 Lagging
SL
(c) I L =
3VLL
=
26.93 &times; 103
3 ( 480 )
= 32.39 A
(d) QC = QL = 14 &times; 103 VAR = 3 (VLL ) / X Δ
2
XΔ =
(e)
3 ( 480 )
2
= 49.37 Ω
14 &times; 103
I C = VLL / X Δ = 480 / 49.37 = 9.72 A
I LINE =
PL
3 VLL
=
23 &times; 103
3 480
= 27.66 A
22
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2.49 (a) Let ZY = Z A = Z B = ZC for a balanced Y-load
Z Δ = Z AB = Z BC = Z CA
Using equations in Fig. 2.27
ZY2 + ZY2 + ZY2
= 3 ZY
ZY
ZΔ =
and
ZY =
(b) Z A =
ZB =
( j10 )( − j 25)
j10 + j 20 − j 25
Z Δ2
Z
= Δ
3
ZΔ + ZΔ + ZΔ
= − j 50 Ω
( j10 )( j 20 ) = j 40 Ω; Z
j5
C
=
( j 20 )( − j 25) = − j 100 Ω
j5
2.50 Replace delta by the equivalent WYE: ZY = − j
2
Ω
3
Per-phase equivalent circuit is shown below:

2
Noting that  j 1.0 − j  = − j 2 , by voltage-divider law,
3

V1 =
− j2
(100∠0&deg;) = 105∠0&deg;
− j 2 + j 0.1
∴υ1 (t ) = 105 2 cos (ω t + 0&deg;) = 148.5cos ω t V ←
In order to find i2 (t ) in the original circuit, let us calculate VA′B′
VA′B′ = VA′N ′ − VB′N ′ = 3 e j 30&deg;VA′N ′ = 173.2∠30&deg;
Then
I A′B′ =
173.2∠30&deg;
= 86.6∠120&deg;
− j2
∴ i2 (t ) = 86.6 2 cos (ω t + 120&deg; )
= 122.5cos (ω t + 120&deg; ) A ←
23
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2.51 On a per-phase basis S1 =
∴ I1 =
1
(150 + j120 ) = ( 50 + j 40 ) kVA
3
( 50 − j 40 )103 =
2000
( 25 − j 20 ) A
Note: PF Lagging
Load 2: Convert Δ into an equivalent Y
1
(150 − j 48 ) = ( 50 − j16 ) Ω
3
2000∠0&deg;
∴ I2 =
= 38.1∠17.74&deg;
50 − j16
Z 2Y =
= ( 36.29 + j 11.61) A
1
S3 per phase = (120 &times; 0.6 ) − j 120sin( cos −1 0.6 )  = ( 24 − j 32 ) kVA
3
∴ I3 =
( 24 + j32 )103 =
2000
(12 + j 16 ) A
Total current drawn by the three parallel loads
I T = I1 + I 2 + I 3
ITOTAL = ( 73.29 + j 7.61) A
Voltage at the sending end: VAN = 2000∠0&deg; + ( 73.29 + j 7.61)( 0.2 + j 1.0 )
= 2007.05 + j 74.81 = 2008.44∠2.13&deg; V
Line-to-line voltage magnitude at the sending end =
2.52 (a) Let VAN be the reference: VAN =
2160
3
3( 2008.44 ) = 3478.62 V ←
∠0&deg;  2400∠0&deg; V
Total impedance per phase Z = ( 4.7 + j 9 ) + ( 0.3 + j1) = ( 5 + j10 ) Ω
∴ Line Current =
2400∠0&deg;
= 214.7∠ − 63.4&deg; A = I A ←
5 + j10
With positive A-B-C phase sequence,
I B = 214.7∠ − 183.4&deg; A; I C = 214.7∠ − 303.4&deg; = 214.7∠56.6&deg; A ←
24
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(b) (VA′N ) LOAD = 2400∠0&deg; − ( 214.7∠ − 63.4&deg; )( 0.3 + j1) 
= 2400∠0&deg; − 224.15∠9.9&deg; = 2179.2 − j 38.54
= 2179.5∠ − 1.01&deg; V ←
(V )
B′N
= 2179.5∠ − 121.01&deg; V  ; (VC ′N ) LOAD = 2179.5∠ − 241.01&deg; V 
(c) S / Phase = (VA′N ) LOAD I A = ( 2179.5 )( 214.7 ) = 467.94 kVA ←
Total apparent power dissipated in all three phases in the load
 S3φ 
= 3 ( 467.94 ) = 1403.82 kVA ←
Active power dissipated per phase in load = ( P1φ )
= ( 2179.5 )( 214.7 ) cos ( 62.39&deg; ) = 216.87 kW ←
∴  P3φ 
= 3 ( 216.87 ) = 650.61kW ←
Reactive power dissipated per phase in load = ( Q1φ )
= ( 2179.5 )( 214.7 ) sin ( 62.39&deg; ) = 414.65 kVAR ←
∴ Q3φ 
= 3 ( 414.65 ) = 1243.95 kVAR ←
(d) Line losses per phase ( P1φ )
Total line loss ( P3φ )
LOSS
= ( 214.7 ) 0.3 = 13.83 kW ←
2
LOSS
= 13.83 &times; 3 = 41.49 kW ←
25
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Chapter 3
Power Transformers
3.17 a
3.1 a
3.18 a
3.2 b
3.19 a
3.3 a
3.20 a
3.4 a
3.21 c
3.5 b
3.22 a
3.6 a
3.23 b
3.7 (i) b
(ii) c
3.24 a
(iii) a
3.25 c
3.8 a
3.26 b
3.9 (i) b
3.27 a
(ii) a
3.28 b
3.10 a
3.29 a
3.11 b
3.30 a
3.12 a
3.31 b
3.13 a False
3.32 a
b True
3.33 a
c True
3.34 a
3.14 a
3.35 b
3.15 b
3.36 b
3.16 a
27
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2
3.1
3.2
N 
(a) Z1 = a = Z 2 =  1  Z 2
 N2 
(b) Yes
(c) Yes
2
t
V2 =
N2
500
V1 =
(1000∠0&deg; ) = 250∠0&deg; V ←
N1
2000
I2 =
N1
2000
I1 =
( 5∠ − 30&deg; ) = 20∠ − 30&deg; A ←
N2
500
Z2 =
V2
250∠0&deg;
=
= 12.5∠30&deg; Ω
I 2 20∠ − 30&deg;
2
N 
 2000 
Z 2′ = Z 2  1  = (12.5∠30&deg; ) 
 = 200∠30&deg; Ω ←
 500 
 N2 
2
Also Z 2′ = V1 / I1 = (1000∠0&deg; ) ( 5∠ − 30&deg; ) = 200∠30&deg; Ω ←
3.3
28
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3.4
(a) E1 =
N1
2400
E2 =
( 230 ) = 2300 V
N2
240
*
 S   80 &times; 103 ∠ cos−1 0.8 
(b) S2 = E I ; I 2 =  2  = 
 = 347.8∠ − 36.87&deg;
230∠0&deg;

 E2  
*
*
2 2
Z2 =
E2
230∠0&deg;
=
= 0.6613∠36.87&deg; Ω
I 2 347.8∠ − 36.87&deg;
= 0.529 + j 0.397 Ω
2
N 
(c) Z 1′ =  1  Z 2 = 100 Z 2 = 66.13∠36.87&deg; Ω
 N2 
(d) P1 = P2 = 80 ( 0.8 ) = 64 kW
Q1 = Q2 = 64 tan ( 36.87&deg; ) = 48 kVAR
3.5
(a) E1 =
N1
 2400 
E2 = 
 ( 230 ) = 2300 V
N2
 240 
∗
∗
 S   110 &times; 103 ∠ − cos−1 0.85 
(b) I 2 =  2  = 
 = 478.26∠ + 31.79&deg; A
230∠0&deg;

 E2  
Z2 =
E2
230∠0&deg;
=
= 0.4809∠ − 31.79&deg; Ω
I 2 478.26∠31.79&deg;
Z 2 = 0.4088 − j 0.2533 Ω
29
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2
N 
(c) Z =  1  Z 2 = 100 Z 2 = 48.09∠ − 31.79&deg; Ω
 N2 
1
1
(d) P1 = P2 = (110 )( 0.85 ) = 93.5 kW
Q1 = Q2 = 110 tan ( −31.79&deg; ) = −68.17 kVARS supplied to primary winding
3.6
(a) E2 = 277∠0&deg;; E1 = E2 e j 30&deg; = 277∠30&deg; V
(b) I 2 = ( S2 E2 ) ∠ cos −1 ( PF ) = (100 &times; 103 277 ) ∠ cos −1 0.9 = 361∠25.84&deg; A
I1 = I 2
( e j 30&deg; )
∗
= I 2 e j 30&deg; = 361∠55.84&deg;A
(c) Z 2 = E2 I 2 = 277∠0&deg; 361∠25.84&deg; = 0.7673∠ − 25.84&deg; Ω
Z 21 = Z 2 = 0.7673 ∠ − 25.84&deg; Ω
(d) S1 = S2 = 100∠ − cos−1 0.9; kVA = 100∠ − 25.84&deg;
S1 = 90 kW − j 43.59 kVAR delivered to primary
3.7
(a)
For maximum power transfer to the load, RL′ = a 2 RL = RS or 50 a 2 = 1800
or a = 6 = N1 / N 2
(b) By voltage division,
υ L′ = 5 2 sin 2t V
(VL′ ) RMS = 5V
(VL′ ) RMS 
25
=
W  13.9mW
Paυ = 
1800
1800
2
30
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3.8
υ1 = (18sin10t ) 2 = 9sin10t V
1
3
1
υ3 = υ2 = 1.5sin10t V
2
υout (t ) = −2υ3 = −3sin10t V
υ2 = υ1 = 3sin10t V
3.9
(a) a = N1 / N 2 = 2000 / 500 = 4
Req1 = 2 + 0.125 ( 4 ) = 4 Ω; X eq 1 = 8 + ( 0.5 ) 4 2 = 16 Ω
2
Z 2′ = 12 ( 4 ) = 192 Ω
2
The equivalent circuit referred to primary is shown below:
I1 =
1000∠0&deg;
= 5.08∠ − 4.67&deg; A
192 + 4 + j16
aV 2 = 192 ( 5.08∠ − 4.67&deg; ) = 975.4∠ − 4.67&deg; V
V2 =
975.4∠ − 4.67&deg;
= 243.8∠ − 4.67&deg; V ←
4
(b) V2, NL = V1 a = 1000 / 4 = 250 V
Voltage Regulation =
250 − 243.8
&times; 100 = 2.54% ←
243.8
3.10 Rated current magnitude on the 66-kV side is given by
I1 =
15,000
= 227.3A
66
I12 Req 1 = ( 227.3 ) Req 1 = 100 &times; 103
2
∴Req 1 = 1.94 Ω ←
Z eq1 =
5.5 &times; 103
= 24.2 Ω
227.3
Then X eq 1 =
Z eq2 1 − Req2 1 =
( 24.2 ) − (1.94 )
2
2
= 24.12 Ω ←
31
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3.11
Turns Ratio = a = N1 N 2 = 66 /11.5 = 5.74
With high-voltage side designated as 1, and L-V side as 2,
(11.5 &times; 103 )
2
a 2 GC1 = 65 &times; 103 , based on O.C test.
Note: To transfer shunt admittance from H-V side to L-V side, we need to multiply by a2.
∴GC1 =
Y1 =
65 &times; 103
(11.5 &times; 10 ) ( 5.74 )
3 2
2
= 14.9 &times; 10 −6 S ←
I2 1
30
1
&times; 2 =
&times;
= 79.2 &times; 10 −6 S
3
V2 a
11.5 &times; 10 ( 5.74 )2
∴ Bm1 = Y12 − GC2 1 = 10 −6
( 79.2 ) − (14.9 )
2
2
= 77.79 &times; 10 −6 S ←
Total loss under rated conditions is approximately the sum of short-circuit and open-circuit
test losses.
∴Efficiencyη FL =
10,000
&times; 100 = 98.38% ←
(10,000 ) + (100 + 65)
3.12 (a)
Neglecting series impedance:
N1
N
 2400 
E2 = 1 V2 = 
 240∠0&deg; = 2400∠0&deg; V
N2
N2
 240 
N2
240
I2 =
( 4.85) = 0.485A
2400
N1
E1 =
GC = P2 E12 = 173 ( 2400 ) = 3.003 &times; 10 −5 S
2
N

YC =  2 I 2  E1 = 0.485 / 2400 = 2.021 &times; 10 −4 S
 N1 
Bm = YC2 − GC2 =
( 2.021 &times; 10−4 ) − ( 3.003 &times; 10 −5 )
2
2
= 1.998 &times; 10 −4 S
YC = GC − jBm = 3.003 &times; 10 −5 − j1.998 &times; 10 −4 S = 2.021 &times; 10 −4 ∠ − 81.45&deg; S
32
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(b)
Req 1 = P1 I12 = 650 ( 20.8 ) = 1.502 Ω
2
Z eq 1 = V1 I1 = 52 20.8 = 2.5 Ω
X eq 1 =
Z eq2 1 − Req2 1 =
( 2.5) − (1.502 )
2
2
= 1.998 Ω
Z eq 1 = Req 1 + jX eq 1 = 1.502 + j1.998 = 2.5∠53.07&deg; Ω
(c)
3.13
Using voltage division:
E1 = ( 2400∠0&deg; )
V2 = E2 =
j 5000
= 2399.8 ∠0&deg; V
j ( 5000 + 0.5 )
N2
E1 = 239.98 ∠0&deg; V
N1
3.14
33
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(a) I 2 =
Seated
50 &times; 103
∠ − cos−1 ( P.F . ) =
∠ − cos−1 ( 0.8 ) = 208.3∠ − 36.87&deg; A
V2
240
I1 =
N2
1
I 2 = ( 208.3∠ − 36.87&deg; ) = 20.83∠ − 36.87&deg; A
10
N1
E1 =
N1
V2 = 10 ( 240∠0&deg; ) = 2400∠0&deg; V
N2
V1 = E1 + ( Reg1 + jX eg1 ) I1
V1 = 2400∠0&deg; + (1 + j 2.5 )( 20.83∠ − 36.87&deg; )
= 2400 + 56.095∠31.329&deg;
= 2447.9 + j 29.166 = 2448.∠0.683&deg; V
(b) VS = E1 + ( R feed + jX feed + Req1 + jX eq1 ) I1
= 2400∠0&deg; + ( 2.0 + j 4.5 )( 20.83∠ − 36.87&deg; )
= 2400 + 102.59∠29.168&deg;
= 2489.6 + j 50.00 = 2490.∠1.1505&deg; V
(c) SS = VS I S∗ = ( 2490∠1.1505&deg; )( 20.83∠36.87&deg; )
= 51875.∠38.02&deg; = 40.87 &times; 103 + j 31.95 &times; 103
PS = Re ( SS ) = 40.87 kW

 delivered to the sending end of feeder.
QS = I m ( SS ) = 31.95 kVARS
3.15 (a) I1 = 20.83∠0&deg;
V1 = 2400∠0&deg; + (1 + j 2.5 )( 20.83∠0&deg; )
= 2400 + 56.095∠68.199&deg; = 2420.8 + j 52.08
= 2421.∠1.232&deg; V
(
)
VS = 2400∠0&deg; + 2.0 + 4.5 ( 20.83∠0&deg; )
= 2400 + 102.59∠66.04&deg; = 2441.7 + j 93.74
= 2443.∠2.199&deg; V
SS = VS I S∗ = ( 2443∠2.199&deg; )( 20.83∠0&deg; ) = 50896.∠2.199&deg;
= 50,859. + j1953.

 delivered
QS = 1.953kVARS
PS = 50.87 kW
34
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(b) I1 = 20.83∠36.87&deg; A
V1 = 2400∠0&deg; + (1 + j 2.5 )( 20.83∠36.87&deg; )
= 2400 + 56.095∠105.07&deg; = 2385.4 + j 54.17
= 2386∠1.301&deg; V
VS = 2400∠0&deg; + ( 2.0 + j 4.5 )( 20.83∠36.87&deg; )
= 2400 + 102.59∠102.91&deg; = 2377.1 + j100.0
= 2379.∠2.409&deg; V
SS = VS I S∗ = ( 2379.∠2.409&deg; )( 20.83∠ − 36.87&deg; )
= 49,566.∠ − 34.46&deg; = 40868. − j 28047.
PS = 40.87 kW delivered
QS = −28.05 kVARS delivered by source to feeder
= +28.04 kVARS absorbed by source
Note: Real and reactive losses, 0.87 kW and 1.95 kVARS, absorbed by the feeder and
transformer, are the same in all cases. Highest efficiency occurs for unity P.F
( EFF = Pout / Ps &times; 100 = ( 50 / 50.87 ) &times;100 = 98.29% ).
3.16 (a) a = 2400 / 240 = 10
2
 2400 
R2′ = a R2 = 
 0.0075 = 0.75 Ω
 240 
2
X 2′ = a 2 X 2 = (10 ) 0.01 = 1.0 Ω
2
Referred to the HV-side, the exciting branch conductance and susceptance are given by
(1/ a 2 ) 0.003 = (1/100 ) 0.003 = 0.03 &times; 10−3 S
and
(1/ a 2 ) 0.02 = (1/100 ) 0.02 = 0.2 &times; 10 −3 S
The equivalent circuit referred to the high-voltage side is shown below:
(b) R1′ = R1 / a 2 = 0.0075 Ω
X1′ = X1 / a 2 = 0.01Ω
35
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The equivalent circuit referred to the low-voltage side is shown below:
3.17 (a) Neglecting the exciting current of the transformer, the equivalent circuit of the
transformer, referred to the high-voltage (primary) side is shown below:
The rated (full) load current, Ref. to HV-side, is given by
( 50 &times; 103 )
2400 = 20.8 A
With a lagging power factor of 0.8, I1 = 20.8∠ − cos−1 0.8 = 20.8∠ − 36.9&deg; A
Using KVL, V1 = 2400∠0&deg; + ( 20.8∠ − 36.9&deg; )(1.5 + j 2 ) = 2450∠0.34&deg; V
(b) The corresponding phasor diagram is shown below:
(c)
Using KVL, VS = 2400∠0&deg; + ( 20.8∠ − 36.9&deg; )( 2 + j 4 ) = 2483.5∠0.96&deg; V pf at the
sending end is cos ( 36.9&deg; + 0.96&deg; ) = 0.79 Lagging
36
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3.18
SBase = 50 kVA
VBase 2 = 240 V
VBase1 = 2400 V
Z Base1 = ( 2400 )
2
( 50 &times; 103 ) = 115.2 Ω
Using voltage division
V2 pu = (1.0∠0&deg; )
j 43.4
= 0.9999∠0&deg; pu
j ( 43.4 + 4.3402 &times; 10−3 )
V2 = V2 pu VBase 2 = ( 0.9999∠0&deg; )( 240 ) = 239.98∠0&deg; V
3.19
Zone 1
Sbase = 50 kVA
Zone 2
VBase 2 = 240 V
Vbase1 = 2400 V
Z base1 = ( 2400 ) 50 &times; 103
2
= 115.2 Ω
(a) V1 pu = 1.0∠0&deg; + ( 8.6803 &times; 10 −3 + j 2.1701 &times; 10 −2 ) (1.0∠ − 36.87&deg; )
= 1.0 + 0.023373∠31.33&deg; = 1.01997 + j 0.012157
= 1.020∠0.683&deg; pu
V1 = V1 puVbase = (1.020∠0.683&deg; )( 2400 ) = 2448.∠0.683&deg; V
(b) Vspu = 1.0∠0&deg; + (1.7361 &times; 10 −2 + j 3.9063 &times; 10 −2 ) (1.0∠ − 36.87&deg; )
= 1.0 + 0.042747∠29.168&deg;
= 1.03733 + j 0.020833 = 1.037 S∠1.1505&deg; pu
VS = VspuVbase1 = (1.0375∠1.1505&deg; )( 2400 ) = 2490.∠1.1505&deg; V
37
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*
(c) Pspu + jQspu = Vspu I spu
= (1.0375∠1.1505&deg; )(1.0∠36.87&deg; )
= 1.0375∠38.02&deg; = 0.8173 + j 0.6390 per unit
PS = ( 0.8173 )( 50 ) = 40.87 kW

 delivered
QS = ( 0.6390 )( 50 ) = 31.95 kVARS
3.20
Zone 1
Zone 2
 240 
Vbase1 = 
 460
 480 
= 230 V
Zone 3
 460 
Vbase 2 = 
115 = 460 V
 115 
Z base 2
( 460 )
=
2
20,000
Vbase 3 = 115V
Z base3 =
= 10.58 Ω
I base3
(115)
2
= 0.6613 Ω
20,000
20,000
=
= 173.9 A
115
0.9 + j 0.2
= 1.361 + j 0.3025
0.6613
XT 2 pu = 0.10 pu
X Line pu =
2
= 0.1890 pu
10.58
2
 480   20 
XT 1 pu = ( 0.10 ) 
   = 0.07259 pu
 460   30 
220
= 0.9565 pu
230
Vspu =
Vspu
j ( XT 1 pu + XT 2 pu + X Line ) + Z
=
0.9565∠0&deg;
j (.07259 + .1890 + .10 ) + (1.361 + j.3025 )
=
0.9565∠0&deg;
0.9565∠0&deg;
=
1.361 + j 0.6641 1.514∠26.010
= 0.6316∠ − 26.01&deg; pu
I Load = I Load pu I base3 = ( 0.6316∠ − 26.01&deg; )(173.9 )
= 109.8∠ − 26.01&deg; A
38
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3.21
Z base =
( 600 )
2
100 &times; 103
= 3.6 Ω
I base =
100 &times; 103
3 ( 600 )
= 96.23 A
1∠85&deg;
= 0.2778∠85&deg; pu
3.6
10∠40&deg;
=
= 2.778∠70&deg; pu
3.6
Z L pu =
ZY pu
Ea pu =
I a pu =
I a pu =
480
3
600
3
∠ − 30&deg; = 0.8∠ − 30&deg; pu
Ea pu
Z L pu + ZY pu
=
0.8∠ − 30&deg;
0.2778∠85&deg; + 2.778∠40&deg;
0.8∠ − 30&deg;
0.8∠ − 30&deg;
=
2.1521 + j 2.0622 2.9807∠43.78&deg;
I a pu = 0.2684∠ − 73.78&deg; pu
I a = I a pu I base = ( 0.2684∠ − 73.78&deg; )( 96.23 )
I a = 25.83∠ − 73.78&deg; A
3.22
Per-unit positive-sequence circuit
Z base = ( 2772 ) 1000 = 7.673 Ω
ZY 1 pu = ( 20 + j10 ) 7.673 = ( 2.607 + j1.303) pu = 2.914∠26.57&deg; pu
Z Δ1 pu = ( 30 − j15 ) 3(7.673) = (1.303 − j 0.6516 ) pu = 1.437∠ − 26.57&deg; pu
39
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I1 pu =
=
VS1 pu
ZY 1 pu Z Δ1 pu
=
1.0 ∠0&deg;
 ( 2.914 ∠26.57&deg; )(1.457 ∠ − 26.57&deg; ) 


 ( 2.607 + j1.303 ) + (1.303 − j 0.6516 ) 
1.0 ∠0&deg;
1.0 ∠0&deg;
=
= 0.9337 ∠9.463&deg;pu
 4.246 ∠0&deg;  1.071∠ − 9.463&deg;


 3.91 + j 0.6517 
I base = 1000 277 = 36.1 A
I1 = I1 pu I base = ( 0.9337∠9.463&deg; ) (36.1)
= 33.71 ∠9.463&deg; A
3.23 Select a common base of 100MVA and 22kV (not 33kV printed wrongly in the text) on the
generator side; Base voltage at bus 1 is 22kV; this fixes the voltage bases for the remaining
buses in accordance with the transformer turns ratios. Using Eq. 3.3.11, per-unit reactances
on the selected base are given by
 100 
 100 
G : X = 0.18 
 = 0.2; T1 : X = 0.1
 = 0.2
 90 
 50 
 100 
 100 
T2 : X = 0.06 
 = 0.15; T2 : X = 0.06 
 = 0.15
 40 
 40 
 100 
 100 
T3 : X = 0.064 
 = 0.16; T4 : X = 0.08 
 = 0.2
 40 
 40 
2
 100  10.45 
M : X = 0.185 

 = 0.25
 66.5  11 
For Line 1, Z BASE =
For Line 2, Z BASE =
( 220 )
2
100
(110 )
= 484 Ω and X =
48.4
= 0.1
484
= 121 Ω and X =
65.43
= 0.54
121
2
100
The load complex power at 0.6 Lagging pf is SL (3φ ) = 57∠53.13&deg; MVA
∴ The load impedance in OHMS is Z L =
(10.45)
2
57∠ − 53.13&deg;
=
VLL2
SL*(3φ )
= 1.1495 + j1.53267 Ω
The base impedance for the load is (11) 100 =1.21 Ω
2
∴ Load Impedance in pu =
1.1495 + j1.53267
= 0.95 + j1.2667
1.21
40
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The per-unit equivalent circuit is shown below:
3.24 (a) The per-unit voltage at bus 4, taken as reference, is
V4 =
10.45
∠0&deg; = 0.95∠0&deg;
11
At 0.8 leading pf, the motor apparent power Sm =
∴ Current drawn by the motor is I m =
66.5
∠ − 36.87&deg;
100
Sm* 0.665∠36.87&deg;
=
0.95∠0&deg;
V4*
= 0.56 + j 0.42
Current drawn by the load is I L =
V4
0.95∠0&deg;
=
= 0.36 − j 0.48
Z L 0.95 + j1.2667
Total current drawn from bus 4 is I = I m + I L = 0.92 − j 0.06
0.45 &times; 0.9
= 0.3
0.45 + 0.9
Generator terminal voltage is then V1 = 0.95∠0&deg; + j 0.3 ( 0.92 − j 0.06 )
Equivalent reactance of the two lines in parallel is X eq =
V1 = 0.968 + j 0.276 = 1.0∠15.91&deg; pu = 22∠15.91&deg; kV
(b) The generator internal EMF is given by
Eg = V1 + Z g I = 0.968 + j 0.276 + j 0.2 ( 0.92 − j 0.06 )
= 1.0826∠25.14&deg; pu = 23.82∠25.14&deg; kV
The motor terminal EMF is given by
Em = V4 − Z m I m = 0.95 + j 0 − j 0.25 ( 0.56 + j 0.42 )
=1.064∠ − 7.56&deg; pu = 11.71∠ − 7.56&deg; kV
41
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3.25
Base impedance in circuit Z =
( 69 &times; 103 )
2
= 317.4 Ω
15 &times; 106
Pre-unit impedance of load in circuit Z =
500
= 1.575
317.4
The impedance diagram in PU is shown below:
3.26 Base impedance on the low-voltage, 3.81kV-side is
( 3.81)
90
2
= 0.1613 Ω
Note: The rating of the transformer as a 3-phase bank is
3 &times; 30 = 90 MVA, 3 ( 38.1) : 3.81 = 66 : 3 . 81kV
Δ
Y
With a base of 66kV on the H-V side, base on L.V side = 3.81 kV so, on L.V. side
RL =
1
= 6.2 pu
0.1613
2
 66 
Resistance referred to H.V. side = 1
 = 300 Ω
 3.81 
Per-unit value should be the same as 6.2 pu.
Check: base impedance on H.V. side =
( 66 )
90
2
= 48.4 Ω and
300
= 6.2pu
48.4
42
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3.27 Transformer reactance on its own base is
0.1
( 22 )
2
500
= 0.103pu
On the chosen base, reactance becomes
2
 220  100
= 0.019 pu ←
0.103 

 230  500
3.28 Eq. 3.3.11 of the text applies.
2
 2400   100 
G1 : Z = j 0.2 
 
 = j 2 pu
 2400   10 
2
 2400   100 
G2 : Z = j 0.2 
 
 = j1pu
 2400   20 
2
 2400   100 
T1 : Z = j 0.1
 
 = j 0.25 pu
 2400   40 
2
 10   100 
T2 : Z = j 0.1
 
 = j 0.136 pu
 9.6   80 
For the transmission-line zone, base impedance =
∴ Z LINE = ( 50 + j 200 )
M ; kV A =
100 &times; 103
( 9600 )
2
( 9600 )
2
100 &times; 103
= ( 0.054 + j 0.217 ) pu
25
4
= 0.25 pu; 4 kV =
= 0.833 pu
100
4.8
The impedance diagram for the system is shown below:
43
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3.29 Since Va′n′ = nVab = n ( Van − Vbn )
(
)
3n e j 30&deg; Van = C1Van 
 ←
Vb′n′ = C1Vbn ; Vc′n′ = C1Vcn

(i) Yes ←
(ii) Since I a = I ab − I ca = n( I a′ − I c′ )
Va′n′ =
(
)
3 n e − j 30&deg; I a′ = C1* I a′ ; I a′ = I a / C1* 
 ←

I b′ = I b / C1* ; I c′ = I c / C1*
Ia =
(iii) S ′ = Va′n′ ( I a′ ) = C1Van ( I a / C1* ) = Van I a* = S ←
*
*
3.30 For a negative sequence set,
(
)
3n e − j 30&deg; Van = C1* Van = C2Van 

Vb′n′ = C2Vbn ;Vc′n′ = C2Vcn where C2 = C1* 
 ←
*
*
′
′
I a = C2 I a or I a = I a / C2


*
*
*
I b′ = I b / C2 ; I c′ = I c / C2 where C2 = C1 
Va′n′ =
(i)
3.31

←

Also C1 = C2* ; Note:Taking the complex conjugate 
Transforms a positive sequence set into a negative sequence set.
C1 = 3 n e j 30&deg; ; C2 = 3 n e − j 30&deg; = C1*

 n j 30&deg; 
Va′n′ = 
e  Van = C3Van  For the positive seq. set
 3


Vb′n′ = C3 Vbn ; Vc′n′ = C3Vcn 
(i) C4 = C3* for the negative sequence set
(ii) Complex power gain = C (1 C * ) = 1
*
(iii) Z L =
Van Va′n′ / C
1
= *
= 2 Z L ,where C = C .
Ia
C I a′
C
44
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3.32 (a)
For positive sequence, VH 1 leads VM 1 by 90&deg;, and VH 1 lags VX 1 by 90&deg;.
For negative sequence, VH 2 lags VM 2 by 90&deg;, and VH 2 leads VX 2 by 90&deg;.
(b)
For positive sequence VH 1 leads VX 1 by 90&deg; and VX 1 is in phase with VM 1 . For
negative sequence VH 2 lags VX 2 by 90&deg; and VX 2 is in phase with VM 2 . Note that a
Δ – zig/zag transformer can be used to obtain the advantages of a Δ − Y transformer
without phase shift.
45
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(c)
For positive sequence, VH 1 lags VX 1 by 23.4&deg;.
For negative sequence, VH 2 leads VX 2 by 23.4&deg;.
3.33
3.34 (a)
46
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(b)
3.35 (a) Three-phase rating: 2.1MVA;
Single-phase rating:
13.8kVY 2.3kV Δ
2.1
= 0.7 MVA;
3
(b) Three-phase rating: 2.1MVA;
Single-phase rating: 0.7 MVA;
(c) Three-phase rating: 2.1MVA;
Single-phase rating: 0.7 MVA;
(d) Three-phase rating: 2.1MVA;
Single-phase rating: 0.7 MVA;
13.8
: 2.3 = 7.97 : 2.3kV
3
13.8 kV Δ 2.3kVY
2.3
= 13.8 :1.33kV
3
13.8 kVY 2.3kVY
13.8 :
7.97 kV:1.33kV
13.8 kV Δ 2.3kV Δ
13.8: 2.3kV
3.36
Open Δ Transformer
(a) Vbc and Vca remain the same after one, single-phase transformer is removed. Therefore,
Vab = − ( Vbc + Vca ) remains the same. The load voltages are then balanced, Positive-
sequence. Selecting Van as reference:
Van =
13.8
3
∠0&deg; = 7.967 ∠0&deg; kV
Vbn = 7.967 ∠ − 120&deg; kV
Vcn = 7.967∠ + 120&deg; kV
47
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(b) I a =
S3φ
3VLL
∠ 0&deg; =
43.3 &times; 106
3 (13.8 &times; 103 )
= 1.812∠0&deg; kA
I b = 1.812∠ − 120&deg; kA I c = 1.812∠ + 120&deg; kA
(c) Vbc = 13.8∠ − 120&deg; + 30&deg; = 13.8∠ − 90&deg; kV
Transformer bc delivers Sbc = Vbc I b*
Sbc = (13.8∠ − 90&deg; )(1.812∠ + 120&deg; ) = 25 ⋅ ∠30&deg; MVA
Sbc = ( 21.65 + j12.5 ) &times; 106
Transformer ac delivers Sac = Vac I a*
where Vac = −Vca = −13.8∠120&deg; + 30&deg; = 13.8∠ − 30&deg; kV
Sac = (13.8∠ − 30&deg; )(1.812∠0&deg; ) = 25 ⋅ ∠ − 30&deg; MVA
Sac = ( 21.65 − j12.5 ) &times; 106
The open-Δ transformer is not overloaded. Note that transformer bc delivers 12.5 Mvars
and transformer ac absorbs 12.5 Mvars. The total reactive power delivered by the openΔ transformer to the resistive load is therefore zero.
3.37 Noting that
3 ( 38.1) = 66 , the rating of the 3-phase transformer bank is 75 MVA, 66Y/3.81
Δ kV.
( 3.81)
Base impedance for the low-voltage side is
On the low-voltage side, RL =
75
2
= 0.1935 Ω
0.6
= 3.1pu
0.1935
Base impedance on high-voltage side is
( 66 )
75
2
= 58.1Ω
2
 66 
The resistance ref. to HV-side is 0.6 
 = 180 Ω
 3.81 
or RL =
180
= 3.1pu
58.1
48
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3.38 (a) The single-line diagram and the per-phase equivalent circuit, with all parameters in per
unit, are given below:
Current supplied to the load is
240 &times; 103
3 &times; 230
Base current at the load is 100,000
(
= 602.45 A
)
3 &times; 230 = 251.02 A
The power-factor angle of the load current is θ = cos−1 0.9 = 25.84&deg; Lag . With
VA = 1.0∠0&deg; as reference, the line currents drawn by the load are
IA =
602.45
∠ − 25.84&deg; = 2.4∠ − 25.84&deg; per unit
251.02
I B = 2.4∠ − 25.84&deg; − 120&deg; = 2.4∠ − 145.84&deg; per unit
IC = 2.4∠ − 25.84&deg; + 120&deg; = 2.4∠94.16&deg; per unit
(b) Low-voltage side currents further lag by 30&deg; because of phase shift
I a = 2.4∠ − 55.84&deg; ; I b = 2.4∠175.84&deg; ; I c = 2.4∠64.16&deg;
(c) The transformer reactance modified for the chosen base is
X = 0.11 &times; (100 / 330 ) =
1
pu
30
The terminal voltage of the generator is then given by
Vt = VA ∠ − 30&deg; + jXI a
= 1.0∠ − 30&deg; + j (1/ 30 )( 2.4∠ − 55.34&deg; )
= 0.9322 − j 0.4551 =1.0374 ∠ − 26.02&deg; pu
49
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Terminal voltage of the generator is 23 &times; 1.0374 = 23.86 kV
The real power supplied by the generator is
Re Vt I a*  = 1.0374 &times; 2.4 cos ( −26.02&deg; + 55.84&deg; ) = 2.16 pu
which corresponds to 216 MW absorbed by the load, since there are no I 2 R losses.
(d) By omitting the phase shift of the transformer altogether, recalculating Vt with the
 1 
reactance j   on the high-voltage side, the student will find the same value for Vt
 30 
i.e. Vt .
3.39
Zero Sequence
Positive Sequence
Negative Sequence
50
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2
3.40
 230   100 
X pu new = 0.06 
 
 = 0.01837 pu
 240   300 
Zero Sequence
Positive Sequence
Negative Sequence
3.41
Per-unit positive-sequence reactance diagram
51
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Sbase = 100 MVA
Vbase H = 500 kV in transmission-line Zones
Vbase X = 20 kV in motor/generator Zones
2
 18 
X g′′1 = X g′′2 = 0.2   = 0.162 pu
 20 
 1000 
X m′′ 3 = 0.2 
 = 0.1333pu
 1500 
XT 1 = XT 2 = XT 3 = XT 4 = 0.1pu
 1000 
XTS = 0.1
 = 0.06667 pu
 1500 
Z base H = ( 500 ) 1000 = 250 Ω
2
Xline 50 = 50 / 250 = 0.2 pu
Xline 25 = 25 / 250 = 0.1pu
3.42
18
∠0&deg; = 0.9∠0&deg; pu
20
1500
I3 =
∠ cos−1 0.8 = 60.14∠36.87&deg; kA
3 (18 )( 0.8 )
V3 pu =
I base X =
1000
= 28.87 kA
20 3
60.14
∠36.87&deg; = 2.083 ∠36.87&deg; pu
I3 =
28.87
1
V1 = V2 = V3 + I 3 ( j &times;T 5 ) + I 3 ( jX Line 25 + jXT 3 )
2
0.1 + 0.1  
 
= 0.9∠0&deg; + ( 2.083 ∠36.87&deg; )  j  0.06667 +

2

 
= 0.7454 ∠21.88&deg;pu
V1 = V2 = 0.7454 ( 20 ) = 14.91 kV
3.43
52
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Sbase = 30MVA
Vbase H = 66.4 3 = 115kV
I H1 = I X 1 =
(a) I base H =
1.0∠0&deg;
= 10.0∠ − 90&deg; pu
j 0.1
30
= 0.1506 kA Vbase X = 12.5 3 = 21.65 kV
115 3
30
I base X =
= 0.8kA
21.65 3
I H = 10 ( 0.1506 ) = 1.506 kA
I X = 10 ( 0.8 ) = 8kA
(b) I base H = 0.1506 kA; Vbase X = 12.5kV;
30
= 1.386 kA
12.5 3
I H = 1.506kA;
I base X =
I X = 10 (1.386 ) = 13.86 kA
3.44
Sbase = 35MVA
VBase H = 115kV
Vbase X = 13.2 kV
 35 
(a) X g1 = 1.5   = 1.75 pu
 30 
(b)
53
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(c) I base H =
35
115 3
= 0.1757 kA; I H =
15∠0&deg;
(115 3 ) (1.0)
= 0.0753∠0&deg; kA = 0.4286∠0&deg;pu
VX = 1∠0&deg; + ( 0.005 + j 0.1)( 0.4286∠0&deg; )
= 1.0021 + j 0.04286 = 1.003∠2.45&deg; pu;
VX = 1.003(13.2) = 13.24 kV
Eg = 1∠0&deg; + ( 0.005 + j1.85 )( 0.4286∠0&deg; ) = 1.961∠23.86&deg; pu;
Eg = 1.961 &times; 13.2 = 25.89kV
Px + jQx = Vx I x* = (1.003∠2.45&deg; )( 0.4286∠0&deg; )
= 0.4299∠2.45&deg; pu = 0.4299 ( 35 ) ∠2.45&deg; MVA
= 15.03MW + j 0.643MVAR
PF = cos 2.45&deg; = 0.999 Lagging
3.45 Three-phase rating of transformer T2 is 3 &times; 100 = 300 MVA and its line-to-line voltage ratio
is 3 (127 ) :13.2 or 220 :13.2 kV . Choosing a common base of 300 MVA for the system,
and selecting a base of 20 kV in the generator circuit,
The voltage base in the transmission line is 230 kV and the voltage base in the motor circuit
is 230 (13.2/220) = 13.8 kV transformer reactances converted to the proper base are given
by
2
T1 : X = 0.1 &times;
300
 13.2 
= 0.0857; T2 : 0.1
 = 0.0915
350
 13.8 
Base impedance for the transmission line is (230)2/300=176.3 Ω
0.5 &times; 64
= 0.1815
The reactance of the line in per unit is then
176.3
2
 300  13.2 
Reactance Xα′′ of motor M1 : 0.2 

 = 0.2745
 200  13.8 
2
 300  13.2 
Reactance Xα′′ of motor M 2 : 0.2 

 = 0.549
 100  13.8 
Neglecting transformer phase shifts, the positive-sequence reactance diagram is shown in
figure below:
54
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180
= 0.6 pu
300
With phase-a voltage at the motor terminals as reference,
3.46 The motors together draw 180 MW, or
V=
13.2
= 0.9565∠0&deg; pu
13.8
The motor current is given by
I =
0.6
∠0&deg; = 0.6273∠0&deg; pu
0.9565
Referring to the reactance diagram in the solution of PR. 3-33, phase-a per-unit voltages at
other points of the system are
At m : V = 0.9565 + 0.6273 ( j 0.0915 ) = 0.9582 ∠3.434&deg; pu
At l : V = 0.9565 + 0.6273 ( j 0.0915 + j 0.1815 ) = 0.9717∠10.154&deg; pu
At k : V = 0.9565 + 0.6273 ( j 0.0915 + j 0.1815 + j 00857 ) = 0.9826∠13.237&deg; pu
The voltage regulation of the line is then
0.9826 − 0.9582
= 0.0255
0.9582
The magnitude of the voltage at the generator terminals is
0.9826 &times; 20 = 19.652 kV
Note that the transformer phase shifts have been neglected here.
3.47 (a) For positive sequence operation and standard Δ-Y connection, the per-phase diagram is
shown below:
Va′n′ =
230
3
∠0&deg; kV, choosing that as a reference.
55
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100 &times; 106
∠ cos−1 0.8 = 41.67∠36.87&deg; MVA
0.8 &times; 3
S ′ 41.67 &times; 106 ∠36.87&deg;
I a′ * =
=
= 313.8∠36.87&deg; A
132.8 &times; 103
Va′n′
S′ =
∴ I a′ = 313.8∠ − 36.87&deg; A
I a = 10 3 e− j 30&deg; I a′ = 5435∠ − 66.87&deg; A
The primary current magnitude is 5435A. ←
 1

132.8 &times; 103 ∠ − 30&deg;  + j 0.08 ( 5435∠ − 66.87&deg; )
Van = V + j 0.08I a = 
 10 3

= 7667.4∠ − 30&deg; + 434.8∠23.13&deg;
= 7253.3∠ − 13.93&deg; V
Line-to-line primary voltage magnitude = 3 ( 7253.3 ) = 12.56 kV ←
Three-phase complex power supplied by the generator is
S3φ = 3Van I a* = 3 ( 7253.3∠ − 13.93&deg; )( 5435∠66.87&deg; )
=118.27∠52.94&deg; MVA ←
(b) The secondary phase leads the primary by 13.93&deg;; this phase shift applies to line-toneutral (phase) as well as line-to-line voltages. ←
3.48 (a) For positive sequence operation and standard Δ-Y &amp; Y-Δ connections, the per-phase
diagram is drawn below:
(b) V1 =
15
3
∠0&deg; kV, choosing that as a reference.
Z 3 = ( 5 + j1) + j 0.08 = ( 5 + j1.08 ) Ω
(
Z 2 = j100 + 10 3
(
)
2
Z 3 = (1500 + j 424 ) Ω
)
2
Z1 =  Z 2 10 3  + j 0.08 = 5 + j1.4933 = 5.22∠16.63&deg;


∴ I1 = V1 / Z1 = 8660.5 ( 5.22∠16.63&deg; ) = 1659.1∠ − 16.63&deg;
56
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Generator current magnitude = I1 = 1659.1 A ←
I2 =
1
10 3
e j 30&deg; I1 = 95.8∠13.37&deg; A
Transmission-line current magnitude = 95.8 A ←
I 3 = 10 3e − j 30&deg; I 2 = 1659.3∠ − 16.63&deg; A
Load current magnitude = 1659.3 A ←
V3 = Z LOAD I 3 = ( 5 + j1)(1659.3∠ − 16.63&deg; )
= 8462.4∠ − 5.32&deg; V
Line-to-line voltage magnitude at load terminals = 14.66 kV ←
Three-phase complex power delivered to the load is
S3φ = 3V3 I 3* = 3 Z LOAD I 32
= 3 ( 8462.4∠ − 5.32&deg; )(1659.3∠ + 16.63&deg; )
= 42.125∠11.31&deg; MVA ←
3.49 Base kV in transmission-line circuit = 132 kV
13.2
= 10.56 kV
Base kV in the generator G1 circuit = 132 &times;
165
13.8
= 11.04 kV
Base kV in the generator G2 circuit = 132 &times;
165
Impedance diagram of the system with pu values
57
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On the common base of 100 MVA for the entire system,
2
G1 : Z = j 0.15 &times;
100  13.2 
&times;
= j 0.4688 pu
50  10.56 
2
100  13.8 
G2 : Z = j 0.15 &times;
&times;
= j1.1719 pu
20  11.04 
2
100  13.2 
T1 : Z = j 0.1 &times;
&times;
 = j 0.1953pu
80  10.56 
2
T2 : Z = j 0.1 &times;
100  13.8 
&times;
 = j 0.3906 pu
40  11.04 
Base impedance in transmission-line circuit is
(132 )
100
2
= 174.24 Ω
50 &times; j 200
= 0.287 + j1.1478 pu
174.24
25 &times; j100
=
= 0.1435 + j 0.5739 pu
174.24
Z TR. LINE 1 =
Z TR. LINE 2
LOAD : 40 ( 0.8 + j 0.6 ) = ( 32 + j 24 ) MVA
(150 )
2
32
(150 )
= 703.1 Ω =
703.1
pu = 4.035pu
174.24
= 937.5 Ω =
937.5
pu = 5.381pu
174.24
2
24
3.50
58
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3.51 (a) X12 = 0.08 pu;
X13 = 0.1 pu;
X 23 = 0.09 (15/10 ) = 0.135 pu
1
( 0.08 + 0.1 − 0.135) = 0.0225 pu
2
1
X 2 = ( 0.08 + 0.135 − 0.1) = 0.0575 pu
2
1
X3 = ( 0.135 + 0.1 − 0.08 ) = 0.0775 pu
2
X1 =
(b)
2
R = VLL2 R
Using P3φ = 3VLN
R2 = (13.2 ) 7.5 = 23.23 Ω; R3 = ( 2.3) 5 = 1.058 Ω
2
2
Z 2 base = (13.2 ) 15 = 11.616 Ω; Z 3 base = ( 2.3) 15 = 0.3527 Ω
2
R2 pu = R2 Z 2 base
2
23.23
1.058
= 2 pu; R3 pu =
= 3pu
11.616
0.3527
3.52 (a)
Per unit positive sequence
1
( 0.1 + 0.1 − 0.1)
2
= 0.05 per unit
X1 = X 2 = X 3 =
59
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(b)
Per unit positive sequence.
(c)
Per unit positive sequence.
3.53 With a base of 15 MVA and 66 kV in the primary circuit, the base for secondary circuit is
15 MVA and 13.2 kV, and the base for tertiary circuit is 15 MVA and 2.3 kV,
Note that XPS and XPT need not be changed.
XST is modified to the new base as follows:
X ST = 0.08 &times;
15
= 0.12
10
With the bases specified, the per-unit reactances of the per-phase equivalent circuit are given
by
1
( j 0.07 + j 0.09 − 0.12 ) = j 0.02
2
1
X S = ( j 0.07 + j 0.12 − j 0.09 ) = j 0.05
2
1
XT = ( j 0.09 + j 0.12 − j 0.07 ) = j 0.07
2
XP =
3.54 The constant voltage source is represented by a generator having no internal impedance. On
a base of 5 MVA, 2.3 kV in the tertiary, the resistance of the load is 1.0 pu. Expressed on a
15
15 MVA, 2.3 kV base, the load resistance is R = 1.0 &times; = 3.0 pu
5
60
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On a base of 15 MVA, 13.2 kV, the reactance of the motor is
X ′′ = 0.2 &times;
15
= 0.4 pu
7.5
The impedance diagram is given below:
Note that the phase shift that occurs
between the Y-connected primary and
the Δ-connected tertiary has been
neglected here.
3.55 (a)
(b) S X = ( 2300 ) ( 47.83) = 110 kVA
SH = 2530 ( 43.48 )
10 kVA is transformed by magnetic induction.
100 kVA is transformed electrically.
(c) At rated voltage, core losses = 70 W
2
 4.348 
At full-load current, winding losses = 
 240 = 224W
 4.5 
Total losses = PLoss = 294 W
pout = ( 2530 ) ( 43.48 )( 0.8 ) = 88003W
Pin = Pout + PLoss = 88003 + 294 = 88297 W
0
0
Efficiency = ( Pout Pin ) &times; 100 = ( 88003 88297 )100 = 99.67 0 0
61
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3.56 (a)
(b) As a normal, single-phase, two-winding transformer, rated: 3 kVA, 220/110 V;
2
Xeq = 0.10 per unit. Z Base Hold = ( 220 ) 3000 = 16.133 Ω
As a single - phase autotransformer rated:
330 (13.64 ) = 4.50 kVA, 330 /110 V,
Z Base H new = ( 330 ) / 4500 = 24.2 Ω
2
 16.133 
X eq = ( 0.10 ) 
 = 0.06667 per unit
 24.2 
SBase 3φ = 13.5 kVA
VBase H = 479.5V
I Base H =
VBase X = 110 V
I Base X =
13.5 &times; 103
110 3
= 70.86 A
13.5 &times; 103
479.5 3
= 16.256 A
62
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IX =
6000∠ − cos−1 .8
(110 3 ) ( 0.8)
= 39.36∠ − 36.87&deg; A
39.36
∠ − 36.87&deg; = 0.5555∠ − 36.87&deg; per unit
70.86
I H = I X = 0.5555 per unit
IX =
I H = ( 0.5555 ) (16.256 ) = 9.031A
VH = VX + jX eq I X = 1.0∠0&deg; + ( j 0.06667 ) (.5555∠ − 36.86&deg; )
VH = 1.0 + 0.03704∠53.13&deg; = 1.0222 + j 0.02963
VH = 1.0226∠1.66&deg; per unit
VH = (1.0226 )( 479.5 ) = 490.3V
3.57 Rated currents of the two-winding transformer are
I1 =
60,000
= 250 A
240
and
I2 =
60,000
= 50 A
1200
The autotransformer connection is shown below:
(a) The autotransformer secondary current is I L = 300 A
With windings carrying rated currents, the autotransformer rating is
(12000 )( 300 )10−3 = 360 kVA
(b) Operated as a two-winding transformer at full-load, 0.8 pf,
Efficiencyη =
60 &times; 0.8
= 0.96
( 60 &times; 0.8 ) + pLoss
From which the total transformer loss PLOSS =
4.8 (1 − 0.96 )
0.96
= 2 kW
63
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The total autotransformer loss is same as the two-winding transformer, since the
windings are subjected to the same rated voltages and currents as the two-winding
transformer.
∴η AUTO. TR. =
360 &times; 0.8
= 0.9931
360
( &times; 0.8 ) + 2
3.58 (a) The autotransformer connection is shown below:
90,000
90,000
= 1125A; I 2 =
= 750 A
80
120
V1 = 80 kV; V2 = 120 + 80 = 200 kV
I1 =
I in = 1125 + 750 = 1875 A
(a) Input kVA is calculated as 80 &times; 1875 = 150,000 kVA which is same as
Output kVA = 200 &times; 750 = 150,000
Permissible kVA rating of the autotransformer is 150,000. The kVA transferred by the
magnetic induction is same as the rating of the two-winding transformer, which is
90,000 kVA.
3.59
∗
= (1.0∠0&deg; )(1.0∠ − 30&deg; ) = 1.0∠30&deg; = 0.866 + j 0.50 per unit
∗
64
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(a) No regulating transformer, C = 1.0
Using current division:
 XL2 
 0.25 
I L1 = 
 (1.0∠ − 30&deg; ) = 0.5556∠ − 30&deg; per unit
 0.45 
 X L1 + X L 2 
PL1 + jQL1 = V ′I L∗1 = 0.5556∠ + 30&deg; = 0.4811 + j 0.2778 per unit
PL 2 + jQL 2 = ( PLoad + jQLoad ) − ( PL1 + jQL1 ) = ( 0.866 + j 0.5 ) − (.4811 + j.2778 )
= 0.3849 + j 0.2222 per unit
(b) Voltage magnitude regulating transformer, C = 0.9524
Using the admittance parameters from Example 4.14(a)
j8.810   V 

  I  Y11 Y12   V   − j 9.0
I
=
 1 = 

=


 −1.0∠ − 30&deg;  − I Load  Y21 Y22  V   j8.810 − j8.628  1.0∠0&deg; 
Solving the second equation above for V :
−1.0∠ − 30&deg; = ( j8.810 ) V − ( j8.628 )(1.0∠0&deg; )
V=
8.628∠90&deg; − 1.0∠ − 30&deg; −.866 + j 9.128
=
= 1.041∠5.42&deg; per unit
j8.810
j8.810
Then:
I L1 =
V − V ′ 1.041∠5.42&deg; − 1.0∠0&deg; 0.0361 + j 0.0983
=
=
= 0.5235∠ − 20.14&deg;
jX L1
j 0.20
j 0.20
PL1 + jQL1 = V ′I L∗1 = 0.5235∠20.14&deg; = 0.4915 + j 0.1802 per unit
PL 2 + jQL 2 = ( PLoad + jQLoad ) − ( PL1 + jQL1 ) = 0.3745 + j 0.3198 per unit
The voltage magnitude regulating transformer increases the reactive power delivered by
line L-2 43.970 (from 0.2222 to 0.3198) with a relatively small change in the real power
delivered by line L2.
(c) Phase angle regulating transformer, C = 1.0∠ − 3&deg;
Using Y21 = −0.2093 + j8.9945 and Y22 = − j 9.0 per unit from Example 4.14(b):
V=
=
I L1 =
−Y22V ′ − I Load ( j 9.0 )(1.0∠0&deg; ) − 1.0∠ − 30&deg;
=
−0.2093 + j8.9945
Y21
−0.8660 + j 9.50
9.539∠95.21&deg;
=
= 1.060∠3.89&deg; per unit
−0.2093 + j8.9945 8.997∠91.33&deg;
V − V ′ 1.060∠3.879&deg; − 1.0∠0&deg; 0.0578 + j 0.717
=
=
jX L1
j 0.20
j 0.20
= 0.4606∠ − 38.87&deg; per unit
65
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PL1 + jQL1 = V ′I L∗1 = 0.4606∠ + 38.87&deg; = 0.3586 + j 0.2890
PL 2 + jQL 2 = ( PLoad + jQLoad ) − ( PL1 + jQL1 ) = 0.5074 + j 0.2110
The phase-angle regulating transformer increases the real power delivered by line L2
31.8% (from 0.3849 to 0.5074) with a relatively small change in the reactive power
delivered by line L2.
3.60 Losses are minimum at 0 degrees = 16.606 MW (there can be a +/- 0.1 variation in this
value values of the power flow solution tolerance).
3.61 Minimum occurs at a tap of 1.0 = 16.604 (there can be a +/- 0.1 variation in this value
values of the power flow solution tolerance).
66
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3.62 Using (3.8.1) and (3.8.2)
13.8
at =
= 0.03636
345 (1.1)
b=
13.8
= 0.04
345
c = at / b = 0.03636 / 0.04 = 0.90909
From Figure 3.25(a):
 1 
cYeq = ( 0.90909 ) 
 = − j18.18 per unit
 j 0.05 
 1 
(1 − c ) Yeq = ( 0.0909 ) 
 = − j1.818 per unit
 j 0.05 
(c
2
 1 
− c Yeq = ( 0.82645 − 0.90909 ) 
 = + j1.6529 per unit
 j 0.05 
)
The per-unit positive-sequence network is:
3.63 A radial line with tap-changing transformers at both ends is shown below:
V1′ and V2′ are the supply phase voltage and the load phase voltage, respectively, referred to
the high-voltage side. VS and VR are the phase voltages at both ends of the line. t S and t R
are the tap settings in per unit. The impedance Z includes the line impedance plus the
referred impedances of the sending end and the receiving end transformers to the highvoltage side. After drawing the voltage phasor diagram for the KVL VS = VR + ( R + jX ) I ,
neglecting the phase shift between VS and VR as an approximation, and noting that VS = t SV1′
and VR = t RV2′ , it can be shown that
tS =
1−
V2′ V1′
RPφ + XQφ
V1′ V2′
67
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where Pφ and Qφ are the load real and reactive powers per phase and it is assumed that t S t R = 1 .
1
(150 &times; 0.8 ) = 40 MW
3
1
Qφ = (150 &times; 0.6 ) = 30 MVAR
3
230
kV
V1′ = V2′ =
3
Pφ =
In our problem,
and
kS =
t S is calculated as
1
(18 )( 40 ) + ( 60 )( 30 )
1−
( 230 / 5 )
tR =
and
= 1.08 pu
2
1
= 0.926 pu
1.08
3.64 With the tap setting t = 1.05, ΔV = t − 1 = 0.05pu
The current setup by ΔV = 0.05∠0&deg; circulates around the loop with switch S open; with S
closed, only a very small fraction of that current goes through the load impedance, because
it is much larger than the transformer impedance; so the superposition principle can be
applied to ΔV and the source voltage.
From ΔV Alone, ICIRC = 0.05 / j 0.2 = − j 0.25
With ΔV shorted, the current in each path is one-half the load current.
1.0
= 0.8 − j 0.6
0.8 + j 0.6
Superposition yields: ITa = 0.4 − j 0.3 − (− j 0.25) = 0.4 − j 0.05
ITb = 0.4 − j 0.3 + (− j 0.25) = 0.4 − j 0.55
So that STa = 0.4 + j 0.05pu and STb = 0.4 + j 0.55
The transformer with the higher tap setting is supplying most of the reactive power to the
load. The real power is divided equally between the transformers.
Note: An error in printing: In the fourth line of the problem statement, first Tb should be
replaced by Ta and within brackets, Ta should be replaced by Tb.
3.65 Same procedure as in PR. 3.49 is followed.
Now t = 1.0∠3&deg;
So t − 1 = 1.0∠3&deg; − 1∠0&deg; = 0.0524∠91.5&deg;
ICIRC =
0.0524∠91.5&deg;
= 0.262 + j 0.0069
0.2∠90&deg;
68
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Then ITa = 0.4 − j 0.3 − ( 0.262 + j 0.0069 ) = 0.138 − j 0.307
ITb = 0.4 − j 0.3 + ( 0.262 + j 0.0069 ) = 0.662 − j 0.293
So
STa = 0.138 + j 0.307; STb = 0.662 + j 0.293
The phase shifting transformer is useful to control the amount of real power flow; out has
less effect on the reactive power flow.
69
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Chapter 4
Transmission-Line Parameters
4.22 Transposition
4.1 c
4.2 a
4.23 Deq = 3 D12 D23 D31 ;
4.3 a
Deq
La = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln
H/m
4.4 Bundle
DS
4.5 a
4.24 Reduces the electric field strength at the
4.6 a
conductor surfaces and hence reduces
4.7 d 2
corona, power loss, communication
interference, and audible noise.
4.8
a
4.25 a
4.9
(i) a
4.26 b
(ii) b
4.27 b
4.10 a
4.11 a
4.28 ( 2π ∈) ln ( D/r )
4.12 c
4.29 a
4.13 b
4.30 a
4.14 a
4.31 a
4.15 a
4.32 Charging current
4.16 a
4.33 ω CanVLL2
4.17 a
4.34 Images
4.18 b
4.35 a
4.19 6 ( D11′ D12′ )( D21′ D22′ )( D31′ D32′ )
4.36 Corona
4.20 a
4.37 20
4.38 a
Dxy
4.21
L x = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln
H/m
4.39 b
Dxx
71
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4.1
Rdc ,20&deg; C =
P20&deg; Cl (17.00 )(1000 &times; 1.02 )
=
= 0.01558 Ω /1000′
A
1113 &times; 103
 50 + T
Rdc ,50&deg; C = Rdc ,20&deg; C 
 20 + T
R60 HZ,50&deg; C
Rdc,50&deg; C
=

 50 + 228.1 
 = ( 0.01558 ) 
 = 0.01746Ω /1000′

 20 + 228.1 
0.0956 Ω / mi
0.0956
=
= 1.0368
1000′  0.0922
Ω 

 0.01746 1000′  5.28 mi 



The 60 HZ resistance is 3.68% larger than the dc resistance, due to skin effect.
4.2
R1 = 50 Ω at T1 = 20&deg; C; R2 = 50 + ( 0.1 &times; 50 ) = 55 Ω at T2 = ?
55 = 50 1 + 0.00382 ( T2 − 20 ) 
T2 = 25.24&deg; C ←
4.3
l = 1.05 &times; 3000 = 3150 m , Allowing for the twist.
X-sectional area of all 19 strands = 19 &times;
R=
π
4
&times; (1.5 &times; 10 −3 ) = 33.576 &times; 10 −6 m 2 .
2
Pl 1.72 &times; 10 −8 &times; 3150
=
= 1.614 Ω ←
A
33.576 &times; 10 −6
2
4.4
 π sq ⋅ mil   1in   0.0254 m 
(a) 795 MCM = ( 795 &times; 10 cmil )  4
 


 1 cmil  1000mil   1in 
= 4.0283 &times; 10 −4 m 2
2
3
 50 + T 
(b) R60 HZ, 50&deg;C = R60 HZ, 75&deg;C 

 75 + T 
 50+228.1 
= 0.0880 

 75+228.1 
= 0.0807 Ω/km
4.5
From Table A-4
Ω  1mi 

R60HZ ,50&deg; C =  0.1185 
 = 0.07365 Ω / km
mi  1.609 km 

per conductor (at 75% current capacity)
For 4 conductors per phase:
R60 HZ ,50&deg; C =
0.07365
= 0.01841 Ω / km per phase
4
72
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4.6
Total transmission line loss PL =
I=
2.5
(190.5) = 4.7625MW
100
190.5 &times; 103
= 500 A
3 ( 220 )
From PL = 3I 2 R , the line resistance per phase is
R=
4.7625 &times;106
3 ( 500 )
2
= 6.35 Ω
The conductor cross-sectional area is given by
A=
( 2.84 &times; 10 −8 )( 63 &times; 103 ) = 2.81764 &times; 10 −4 m 2
6.35
∴d = 1.894 cm = 0.7456 in = 556,000 cmil
4.7
The maximum allowable line loss = I 2 R = (100 ) R = 60 &times; 103 ,
2
For which R = 6 Ω
R=
Pl
Pl 1.72 &times; 10 −8 &times; 60 &times; 103
=
= 0.172 &times; 10 −3 m 2
or A =
R
6
A
π
4
4.8
d 2 = 0.172 &times; 10 −3 &times; 10 4 cm 2 or d = 1.48cm ←
(a) From Eq. (4.4.10)
H  1000 m  1000 m H 
1
Lint =  &times; 10 −7 

 = 0.05mH/ km Per Conductor
m  1km  1H 
2
(b) From Eq. (4.5.2)
 DH
L x = L y = 2 &times; 10 −7 Ln  
 Γ′  m
−1
 0.015 
−3
D = 0.5m Γ′ = e 4 
 = 5.841 &times; 10 m
 2 
0.5

 H  1000m  1000 mH 
L x = L y = 2 &times; 10 −7 Ln 



−3 
H
 5.841 &times; 10  m  km 

mH
per conductor
km
mH
per circuit
(c) L = L x + L y = 1.780
km
= 0.8899
73
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4.9
(a) Lint = 0.05mH/ km Per Conductor
0.5

 6
10 = 0.8535mH/ km Per Conductor
L x = L y = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
−3 
 1.2 &times; 5.841 &times; 10 
L = L x + L y = 1.707mH / km Per Circuit
(b) λ12( Ic ) = 0.2 I c ln
Dc 2
mWb/km
Dc1
0.5

 6
10 = 0.9346 mH/km Per Conductor
L x = L y = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
−3 
 0.8 &times; 5.841 &times; 10 
L = L x + L y = 1.869mH/km Per Circuit .
Lint is independent of conductor diameter.
The total inductance decreases 4.1% (increases 5%) at the conductor diameter increases
20 % (decreases 20%).
4.10 From Eq. (4.5.10)
DH
L1 = 2 &times; 10 −7 Ln  
 r′  m
D = 4 ft
−1
 .5   1ft 
r′ = e 4   

 2   12 in 
4


L1 = 2 &times; 10 −7 Ln 
−2 
 1.6225 &times; 10 
L1 = 1.101 &times; 10 −6
H
m
r ′ = 1.6225 &times; 10 −2 ft
X1 = ω L1 = ( 2π 60 ) (1.101 &times; 10 −6 ) (1000 ) = 0.4153 Ω / km
4.8

4.11 (a) L1 = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
 1.6225 &times; 10 −2

−6
 = 1.138 &times; 10 H/m

X1 = ω L1 = 2π ( 60 ) (1.138 &times; 10 −6 ) (1000 ) = 0.4292 Ω /km
3.2

(b) L1 = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
 1.6225 &times; 10 −2

−6
 = 1.057 &times; 10 H/m

X1 = 2π ( 60 ) (1.057 &times; 10 −6 ) (1000 ) = 0.3986 Ω / km
L1 and X1 increase by 3.35% (decrease by 4.02%) as the phase spacing increases by 20%
(decreases by 20%).
4.12 For this conductor, Table A.4 lists GMR to be 0.0217 ft.
20
H/m
∴ For one conductor, L x = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln
0.0217
The inductive reactance is then 2π ( 60 ) L x  Ω / m
20
Ω / mi = 0.828 Ω / mi
0.0217
For the single-phase line, 2 &times; 0.828 = 1.656 Ω / mi
or 2.022 &times; 10 −3 ( 60 ) ln
74
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4.13 (a) The total line inductance is given by
D

LT =  4 &times; 10 −4 ln  mH/ m
r′ 

3.6
= 4 &times; 10 −4 ln
= 0.0021mH/m
( 0.7788 )( 0.023 )
(b) The total line reactance is given by
XT = 2π ( 60 ) 4 &times; 10 −4 ln
= 0.1508 ln
or
0.2426 ln
D
r′
D
Ω / km
r′
D
Ω / mi
r′
∴ XT = 0.787 Ω / km or 1.266 Ω / mi
(c) LT = 4 &times; 10−4 ln
7.2
= 0.002365 mH/ m
0.7788 ( 0.025 )
Doubling the separation between the conductors causes only about a 13% rise in inductance.
4.14 (a) Eq. (4.5.9): L = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln
D
H/m Per Phase
r′
X = ω L = 4π f &times; 10 −7 ln ( D / r ′ ) Ω / m/ Phase
= f .Δπ &times; 10 −7 (1609.34 ) ln ( D / r ′ ) Ω / MILE /PH.
= f .4π (1609.34 )( 2.3026 )10 −7 log ( D / r ′ ) Ω /mi /ph.
= 4.657 &times; 10 −3 f log ( D / r ′ ) Ω /mi/ph.
= 0.2794 log ( D / r ′ ) Ω / mi / ph. at f = 60 HZ .
D
1
∴ X = k log   = k log D + k log   , Where k = 4.657 &times; 10 −3 f
 r′ 
 r′ 
(b) r ′ = r.e −1/ 4 = 0.06677 ( 0.7788 ) = 0.052 ft.
X a = k log
←
1
 1 
= 0.2794 log 
 = 0.35875
′
r
 0.052 
X d = k log D = 0.2794 log (10 ) = 0.2794
X = X a + X d = 0.63815 Ω / mi/ ph. ←
When spacing is doubled, X d = 0.36351 and X = 0.72226 Ω / mi/ph. ←
75
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4.15 For each of six outer conductors:
−
1
D11 = r ′ = e 7 r
D12 = D16 = D17 = 2r
D13 = D15 = 2 3r
D14 = 4r
For the inner conductor:
−
1
D77 = Γ1 = e 4 r
D71 = D72 = D73 = D74 = D75 = D76 = 2r




2
 − 1 

  −1 

↑
3
6
 e 4 r  ( 2r ) 2 3r ( 4r ) 
  e 4 r  ( 2r ) 
Ds = GMR = 49 
6

 



 
 Distances for each Outer conducter  Six outer conductors  Distances for inner conductor 
(
6
 −1 
18
Ds = GMR = r 49  e 4  ( 2 ) 2 3


(
7
 −1 
24
Ds = GMR = r 49  e 4  ( 2 ) 2 3


4.16
(
DSL = N b D11 D12 ⋅⋅⋅ D1N b
2
(
)
Nb
)
)
12
)
12
(4)
6
(4)
6
 − 14  6
 e  (2)


= 2.177 r
(
= D11 D12 ⋅⋅⋅ D1Nb
)
1
Nb
 ( n -1) π 
D11 = DS D1n = 2 A sin 
 n = 2,3, ⋅⋅⋅ N b
 Nb 
1
 
 π  
 2π   
 3π   
 N b − 1    Nb
DSL =  DS  2 A sin 
  2 A sin 
  2 A sin 
  ⋅⋅⋅ 2 A sin 
π 
 N b   
 N b   
 N b   
 N b   
 
Using the trigonometric identity,
{
DSL = DS ( A )
( N b −1)
Nb
}
1
Nb
which is the desired result.
76
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Two-conductor bundle, Nb = 2
d
A=
2
 d 
DSL =  DS   ( 2 ) 
 2 
1/ 2
= DS d Eq (4.6.19)
Three-conductor bundle, Nb = 3
  d 2 
DSL =  DS 
 3
  3  
d
A=
3
1/ 3
 4 
= 3 DS d 2 4 
 Eq (4.6.20)
2 2 
Four-conductor bundle, Nb = 4
  d 3 
A=
DSL =  DS 
 4
2
  2  
1/ 4
d
= 4 DS d 3
4
 4 


2 2 
= 1.0905 4 DS d 3 Eq (4.6.21)
3
1
 − 1 

3
−
4.17 (a) GMR =  e 4 r  ( 2r )( 2r )  = r 4e 4



9
= 1.4605 r


 − 1 

(b) GMR = 16  e 4 r  ( 2r )( 4r )( 6r ) 

  
 Distances for each outer conductor 
2


 − 1 

 e 4 r  ( 2r )( 2r )( 4r ) 

  
 Distances for each inner conductor 
2
4
 −1 
6
4
2
GMR = 16  e 4  ( 2 ) ( 4 ) ( 6 ) ( r ) = 2.1554r


77
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4

 

 − 
  − 

(c) GMR = r  e  ( 2 ) ( 4 )
20
8
32  &times;  e  ( 2 )
8
20 ( 4 ) 




  
 

 

1
2
4
81
2
(
) ( )(
)
2
1
3
4
Distances for each corner conductor
( )(
)
2
4
2
Distances for each outside non-corner conductor


 − 

&times;  e  ( 2 )
8 
 


1
4
4
( )
4
Distances for the center conductor
9
 −1 
24
GMR = r  e 4  ( 2 )


81
( 8) (
16
)
16
20
(4)
12
(
32
)
4
GMR = 2.6374 r
4.18
Deq = 3 8 &times; 8 &times; 16 = 10.079m
From Table A.4, DS = ( 0.0403ft )
1m
= 0.0123m
3.28 ft
 10.079 
−6
Li = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln ( Deq / Ds ) = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
 = 1.342 &times; 10 H/m
 0.0123 
X1 = 2π ( 60 ) L1 = 2π ( 60 )1.342 &times; 10 −6
4.19 (a)
Ω 1000 m
&times;
= 0.506 Ω / km
m 1km
 10.079 &times; 1.1 
−6
L1 = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
 = 1.361 &times; 10 H/m
0.0123


−6
X1 = 2π ( 60 )1.361 &times; 10 (1000 ) = 0.513 Ω / km
 10.079 &times; 0.9 
−6
(b) L1 = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
 = 1.321 &times; 10 H/m
 0.0123 
X1 = 2π ( 60 )1.321 &times; 10 −6 (1000 ) = 0.498 Ω / km
The positive sequence inductances L1 and inductive reactance X1 increase 1.4%
(decrease 1.6%) as the phase spacing increases 10% (decreases 10%).
4.20
Deq = 3 10 &times; 10 &times; 20 = 12.6 m
From Table A.4, DS = ( 0.0435ft )
1m
= 0.0133m
3.28 ft
 12.6  Ω 1000 m
X1 = ω L1 = 2π ( 60 ) 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
 &times;
 0.149  m 1km
= 0.335 Ω / km
78
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4.21 (a) From Table A.4:
 1 
DS = ( 0.0479 ) 
 = 0.0146 m
 3.28 
DSL = 3 ( 0.0146 )( 0.457 ) = 0.145m
2

Ω
 12.60  
X1 = ( 2π 60 ) 2 &times; 10 −7 Ln 
&times; 1000 = 0.337


km
 0.145  

 1 
(b) DS = ( 0.0391) 
 = 0.0119m
 3.28 
DSL = 3 ( 0.0119 )(.457 )(.457 ) = 0.136 m

Ω
 12.60  
X1 = ( 2π 60 ) 2 &times; 10 −7 Ln 
  &times; 1000 = 0.342 km
0.136



Results
ACSR Conductor
Aluminum Cross Section
X1
kcmil
Ω/km
Canary
900
0.342
Finch
1113
0.339
Martin
1351
0.337
% change
0.9%
0.69%
4.22 Application of Eq. (4.6.6) yields the geometric mean distance that seperates the two bundles:
DAB =
9
( 6.1) ( 6.2 ) ( 6.3) 6 ( 6.05 )( 6.15)( 6.25) = 6.15m
2
2
The geometric mean radius of the equilateral arrangement of line A is calculated using Eq. (4.6.7):
RA = 9 ( 0.015576 ) ( 0.1) = 0.0538m
3
6
In which the first term beneath the radical is obtained from
r ′ = 0.7788 r = 0.7788 ( 0.02 ) = 0.015576 m
The geometric mean radius of the line B is calculated below as per its configuration:
RB = 9 ( 0.015576 ) ( 0.1) ( 0.2 ) = 0.0628 m
3
4
2
The actual configuration can now be replaced by the two equivalent hollow conductors each
with its own geometric mean radius and separated by the geometric mean distance as shown
below:
79
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4.23 (a) The geometric mean radius of each phase is calculated as
R=
4
( r ′) ( 0.3)
2
2
where r ′ = 0.7788 &times; 0.0074
= 0.0416 m
The geometric mean distance between the conductors of phases A and B is given by
DAB = 4 6 2 ( 6.3 )( 5.7 ) = 5.996 − 6 m
Similarly,
DBC = 4 62 ( 6.3 )( 5.7 ) = 5.996 − 6 m
and
DCA = 4 122 (12.3 )(11.7 ) = 11.998 − 12 m
The GMD between phases is given by the cube root of the product of the three-phase
spacings.
Deq = 3 6 &times; 6 &times; 12 = 7.56 m
The inductance per phase is found as
L = 0.2 ln
7.56
= 1.041mH/km
0.0416
L = 1.609 &times; 1.041 = 1.674 mH/mi
or
(b) The line reactance for each phase then becomes
X = 2π f L = 2π ( 60 )1.674 &times; 10 −3 = 0.631 Ω / mi per phase
4.24 From the ACSR Table A.4 of the text, conductor GMR = 0.0244 ft.
Conductor diameter = 0.721 in.; since
( 40 ) + (16 )
2
GMD between phases = ( 43.08 )( 80 )( 43.08 ) 
1/ 3
(i) ∴ X = k log
2
= 43.08,
= 52.95 in.
D
 52.95 /12 
= 0.2794 log 
 = 0.6307 Ω /mi ←
r′
 0.0244 
 52.95 /12 
−7
(ii) L = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
 = 10.395 &times; 10 H/m
0.0244


X = ω L = 2π ( 60 )10.395 &times; 10 −7 Ω / m = 2π ( 60 )10.395 &times; 10 −7 (1609.34 )
Ω
mi
= 0.6307Ω /mi ←
4.25 Resistance per phase =
0.12
= 0.03Ω / mi
4
GMD = ( 41.76 )( 80 )( 41.76 ) 
1/ 3
, using
40 2 + 12 2 = 41.76.
= 51.78ft .
80
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3
GMR for the bundle :1.091 ( 0.0403 )(1.667 ) 


1/ 4
by Eq. (4.6.21)
[Note: from Table A.4, conductor diameter. = 1.196 in.; r =
1.196 1
&times; = 0.0498ft .] and
2
12
conductor GMR = 0.0403 ft.
GMR for the 4-conductor bundle = 0.7171 ft
 51.87 
∴ X = 0.2794 log 
 = 0.5195 Ω / mi ←
 0.7171 
Rated current carrying capacity for each conductor in the bundle, as per Table A.4, is 1010
A; since it is a 4-conductor bundle, rated current carrying capacity of the overhead line is
1010 &times; 4 = 4040A ←
4.26 Bundle radius A is calculated by
0.4572 = 2 A sin(π / 8) or A = 0.5974 m
GMD = 17m
 4.572

Subconductor’s GMR is r ′ = 0.7788 
&times; 10 −2  = 1.7803 &times; 10 −2 m
 2



GMD
17


= 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
L = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln
1/ 8 
N
N
-1
1/
7
[ Nr ′( A) ]
 8 (1.7803 &times; 10 −2 ) ( 0.5974 )  
 

which yields L = 7.03 &times; 10 −7 H / m ←
4.27 (a) DABeq = [30 &times; 30 &times; 60 &times; 120]1/ 4 = 50.45ft
DBCeq = [30 &times; 30 &times; 60 &times; 120]1/ 4 = 50.45ft
DACeq = [60 &times; 60 &times; 150 &times; 30]1/ 4 = 63.44 ft
∴ GMD = (50.45 &times; 50.45 &times; 63.44)1/ 3 = 54.46 ft
Equivalent GMR = (0.0588)3 (90)3 
1/ 6
= 2.3ft
 54.46 
−6
∴ L = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
 = 0.633 &times; 10 H/m ←
 2.3 
(b) Inductance of one circuit is calculated below:
Deq = [30 &times; 30 &times; 60]1/ 3 = 37.8ft; r ′ = 0.0588ft
 37.8 
−6
∴ L = 2 &times; 10 −7 ln 
 = 1.293 &times; 10 H/m
0.0588


81
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Inductance of the double circuit =
1.293 &times; 10 −6
= 0.646 &times; 10 −6 H/m ←
2
 0.633 − 0.646 
Error percent = 
 &times; 100 = −2.05% ←
0.633


4.28 With N
3, S = 21′′ , A =
S
21/12
=
= 1.0104 ft
2sin 60&deg; 2 &times; 0.866
Conductor GMR = 0.0485ft
2
Bundle GMR = 3 ( 0.0485 )(1.0104 ) 


Then rA′ = ( GMRb )( DAA′ ) 
rB′ = ( GMRb ⋅ DBB′ )
1/ 2
rC′ = ( GMRb ⋅ DCC ′ )
1/ 2
1/ 3
= 0.5296 ft
(
1/ 2
= 0.5296 &times; 32 2 + 362
= ( 0.5296 &times; 96 )
1/ 2
1/ 3
1/ 2
= 5.05ft
= 7.13ft
=  0.5296 &times; 322 + 36 2 


Overall Phase GMR = ( rA′rB′rC′ )
)
1/ 2
= 5.05ft
= 5.67ft
DABeq =  322 + 36 2 ⋅ 64 2 + 362 ⋅ ( 64 )( 32 ) 


DBCeq = ( 32 ) 642 + 36 2 ⋅ 64 ⋅ 32 2 + 362 


DACeq = ( 36 )( 32 )( 36 )( 32 ) 
1/ 4
1/ 4
1/ 4
= 51.88ft
= 51.88ft
= 33.94 ft
∴ GMD = [ 51.88 &times; 51.88 &times; 33.94 ]
1/ 3
= 45.04 ft
 45.04 
Then X L = 0.2794 log 
 = 0.2515 Ω /mi/phase ←
 5.67 
4.29
rA′ = 0.5296 ( 32 ) 
1/ 2
= 4.117ft
rB′ = 0.5296 ( 32 ) 
1/ 2
= 4.117ft
rC′ =  0.5296 ( 32 ) 
1/ 2
= 4.117ft
Then GMR phase = 4.117ft
{
}
2
2
DABeq =  ( 36 ) + ( 32 ) 36 ⋅ 64 2 + 36 2 


DBCeq = ( 64 )( 96 )( 32 )( 64 ) 
{
2
2
DACeq =  ( 32 ) = ( 36 )

}
1/ 4
1/ 4
= 49.76 ft
= 59.56 ft
362 + 64 2 ⋅ ( 36 ) 

1/ 4
= 49.76ft
82
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Then GMD = ( 49.76 &times; 59.56 &times; 49.76 )
1/ 3
= 52.83ft
 52.83 
X L = 0.2794 log 
 = 0.3097 Ω /mi/phase ←
 4.117 
4.30
rA′ = 0.5296 ( 96 ) 
rB′ =  0.5296 ( 32 ) 
1/ 2
= 7.13ft
1/ 2
= 4.117ft = rC′
From which GMR phase = ( 7.13 &times; 4.117 &times; 4.117 )
1/ 3
DABeq = ( 32 &times; 64 &times; 32 &times; 64 )
1/ 4
{
= 45.25ft
}
2
2
DBCeq = ( 36 ) ( 32 ) + ( 36 ) ( 36 ) 


DACeq = ( 322 + 36 )

2
= 4.95ft
642 + 36 2 

1/ 4
1/ 4
= 41.64 ft
= 59.47ft
Then GMD = ( 45.25 &times; 41.64 &times; 59.47 )
1/ 3
= 48.21ft
 48.21 
X L = 0.2794 log 
 = 0.2762 Ω /mi/ph. ←
 4.95 
4.31 Flux linkage between conductors 1 &amp; 2 due to current, Ia, is
λ12( I ) = 0.2 I a ln
a
Da 2
mWb/km
Da1
 Db1 = Db 2 , λ12 due to I b is zero.
λ12( I ) = 0.2 I c ln
c
Dc 2
mWb/km
Dc1
Total flux linkages between conductors 1 &amp; 2 due to all currents is
λ12 = 0.2 I a ln
Da 2
D
+ 0.2 I c ln c 2 mWb/km
Da1
Dc1
For positive sequence, with I a as reference, I c = I a ∠ − 240&deg;
 D
D 
∴ λ12 = 0.2 I a  ln a 2 + (1∠ − 240&deg; ) ln c 2 
Dc1 
 Da1
= 0.2 ( 250 )  ln ( 7.21/ 6.4 ) + (1∠ − 240&deg; ) ln ( 6.4 / 7.21) 
= 10.31∠ − 30&deg; mWb/km
 Note: Da1 = Dc 2 = 4 2 + 52 = 6.4 m



2
2 1/ 2



Da 2 = Dc1 = ( 5.2 ) + ( 5 )
= 7.21m 




83
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with I a as reference, instantaneous flux linkage is
λ12 ( t ) = 2 λ12 cos(ω t + α )
∴ Induced voltage in the telephone line per km is
VRMS = ωλ12 ∠α + 90&deg; = jωλ12 = j ( 2π &times; 60 )(10.31∠ − 30&deg; )10 −3
= 3.89∠60&deg; V ←
4.32
Cn =
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
2πε 0
F
to neutral
=
= 1.3246 &times; 10 −11
m
D
 0.5 
Ln  
Ln 

Γ
 0.015 / 2 
Yn = jωCn = j ( 2π 60 ) (1.3246 &times; 10 −11 )
Yn = j 4.994 &times; 10 −6
4.33 (a) Cn =
S
m
&times; 1000
m
km
S
to neutral
km
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 0.5 
ln 

 0.018 / 2 
= 1.385 &times; 10 −11 F/m to neutral
Yn = j 2π ( 60 )1.385 &times; 10 −11 (1000 ) = j 5.221 &times; 10−6 S/km to neutral
(b) Cn =
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 0.5 
ln 

 0.012 / 2 
= 1.258 &times; 10 −11 F/m to neutral
Yn = j 2π ( 60 )1.258 &times; 10 −11 (1000 ) = j 4.742 &times; 10 −6 S/km to neutral
Both the capacitance and admittance-to-neutral increase 4.5% (decrease 5.1%) as the
conductor diameter increases 20% (decreases 20%).
4.34
C1 =
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
2πε 0
F
=
= 1.058 &times; 10 −11
4
m
D


Ln  
Ln 

Γ
 0.25 /12 
Y1 = jωC1 = j ( 2π 60 ) (1.058 &times; 10 −11 ) (1000 )
= j 3.989 &times; 10 −6
4.35 (a) C1 =
S
km
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 4.8 
ln 

 0.25 /12 
= 1.023 &times; 10 −11 F/m
Y1 = j 2π ( 60 )1.023 &times; 10 −11 (1000 ) = j 3.857 &times; 10 −6 S/km
84
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(b) C1 =
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 3.2 
ln 

 0.25 /12 
= 1.105 &times; 10 −11 F/m
Y1 = j 2π ( 60 )1.105 &times; 10 −11 (1000 ) = j 4.167 &times; 10 −6 S/km
The positive sequence shunt capacitance and shunt admittance both decrease 3.3%
(increase 4.5%) as the phase spacing increases by 20% (decreases by 20%)
4.36 (a) Equations (4.10.4) and (4.10.5) apply.
For a 2-conductor bundle, the GMR Dsc = rd = 0.0074 &times; 0.3
= 0.0471
The GMD is given by Deq = 6 &times; 6 &times; 12 = 7.56 m
3
Hence the line-to-neutral capacitance is given by
Can =
or
2πε
F/m
ln( Deq / Dsc )
55.63
= 10.95nF/km
ln ( 7.56 / 0.0471)
( with ε = ε 0 )
or 1.609 &times; 10.95 = 17.62 n F/mi
(b) The capacitive reactance at 60 HZ is calculated as
XC =
Deq
1
= 29.63 &times; 103 ln
Ω − mi
2π ( 60 ) Can
Dsc
7.56
= 150,500 Ω − mi
0.0471
or 150,500 &times; 1.609 = 242,154 Ω − km
= 29.63 &times; 103 ln
(c) With the line length of 100 mi, the capacitive reactance is found as
150,500
= 1505 Ω / Phase
100
85
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4.37 (a) Eq (4.9.15): capacitance to neutral =
XC =
2πε
F/m
ln( D / r )
1
ln( D / r )
=
Ω ⋅ m to neutral
2π fC (2π f )(2πε )
with f = 60 HZ, ε = 8.854 &times; 10 −12 F/m .
or XC = k ′ log ( D / r ) , where k ′ =
1
= k ′ log D + k ′ log   ,
r 
4.1 &times; 106
, Ω ⋅ mile to neutral ←
f
where k ′ = 0.06833 &times; 10 6
at f = 60 HZ .
(b) X d′ = k ′ log D = 0.06833 &times; 106 log (10 ) = 68.33 &times; 103
1
1
X a′ = k ′ log   = 0.06833 &times; 106 log
= 80.32 &times; 103
0.06677
r
 
′
∴ X c = X d + X a′ = 148.65 &times; 103 Ω ⋅ mi to neutral ←
When spacing is doubled, X d′ = 0.06833 &times; 106 log ( 20 )
= 88.9 &times; 103
Then XC = 169.12 &times; 103 Ω ⋅ mi to neutral ←
4.38
 52.95 /12 
C = 0.0389 / log 
= 0.018μ F/mi/ph .
 0.721/ (12 &times; 2 ) 


XC =
4.39
1
= 147.366 &times; 103 Ω ⋅ mi ←
2π ( 60 ) 0.018 &times; 10 −6
Deq = 3 8 &times; 8 &times; 16 = 10.079m
For Table A.4, r =
1.196  0.0254 m 
in 
 = 0.01519m
2
 1in 
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
2πε 0
=
= 8.565 &times; 10 −12 F/m
D
 10.079 
ln  
ln 

r 
 0.01519 
Y1 = jω c1 = j 2π ( 60 ) 8.565 &times; 10 −12 (1000 ) = j 3.229 &times; 10 −6 S/km
C1 =
For a 100 km line length
(
)
I chg = Y1VLN = ( 3.229 &times; 10 −6 &times; 100 ) 230 / 3 = 4.288 &times; 10 −12 kA/ Phase
86
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4.40 (a) Deq = 3 8.8 &times; 8.8 &times; 17.6 = 11.084 m
C1 =
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 11.084 
ln 

 0.01519 
= 8.442 &times; 10 −12 F/m
Y1 = j 2π ( 60 ) 8.442 &times; 10 −12 (1000 ) = j 3.183 &times; 10 −6 S/km
(
)
I chg = 3.183 &times; 10 −6 &times; 1000 230 / 3 = 4.223 &times; 10 −12
kA
Phase
(b) Deq = 3 7.2 &times; 7.2 &times; 14.4 = 9.069m
C1 =
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 9.069 
ln 

 0.01519 
= 8.707 &times; 10 −12 F/m
Y1 = j 2π ( 60 ) 8.707 &times; 10 −12 (1000 ) = j 3.284 &times; 10 −6 S/km
(
)
I chg = 3.284 &times; 10 −6 &times; 100 230 / 3 = 4.361 &times; 10 −2
kA
Phase
C1, Y1, and Ichg decrease 1.5% (increase 1.7%)
As the phase spacing increases 10% (decreases 10%).
4.41
Deq = 3 10 &times; 10 &times; 20 = 12.6 m
From Table A.4, r =
1.293  0.0254m 
in 
 = 0.01642 m
2
 1in 
DSC = 3 rd 2 = 3 0.01642(0.5)2 = 0.16 m
C1 =
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
2πε 0
=
= 1.275 &times; 10 −11 F/m
Deq
 12.6 
ln 
ln

DSc
 0.16 
Y1 = jωC1 = j 2π ( 60 )1.275 &times; 10 −11 (1000 ) = j 4.807 &times; 10 −6 S/km
Q1 = VLL 2Y1 = ( 500 ) 4.807 &times; 10 −6 = 1.2 MVAR/ km
2
4.42 (a) From Table A.4, r =
1.424
( 0.0254 ) = 0.0181m
2
DSc = 3 0.0181( 0.5 ) = 0.1654 m
2
C1 =
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
= 1.284 &times; 10 −11 F/m
 12.6 
ln 

 0.1654 
Y1 = j 2π ( 60 ) (1.284 &times; 10 −11 ) (1000 ) = j 4.842 &times; 10 −6 S/km
Q1 = ( 500 ) 4.842 &times; 10 −6 = 1.21MVAR/ km
2
87
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1.162
2
( 0.0254 ) = 0.01476 m; DSc = 3 0.01476 ( 0.5) = 0.1546m
2
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
C1 =
= 1.265 &times; 10 −11 F/m
 12.6 
ln 

 0.1546 
Y1 = j 2π ( 60 )1.265 &times; 10 −11 (1000 ) = 4.77 &times; 10 −6 S/km
(b) r =
Q1 = ( 500 ) 4.77 &times; 10 −6 = 1.192 MVAR/ km
2
C1,Y1, and Q1 increase 0.8% (decrease 0.7%)
For the larger, 1351 kcmil conductors (smallel, 700 kcmil conductors).
4.43 (a) For drake, Table A.4 lists the outside diameter as 1.108 in
∴ r=
1.108
= 0.0462 ft
2 &times; 12
Deq = 3 20 &times; 20 &times; 38 = 24.8ft
Can =
2π &times; 8.85 &times; 10 −12
= 8.8466 &times; 10 −12 F/m
ln ( 24.8 / 0.0462 )
XC =
1012
= 0.1864 &times; 106 Ω ⋅ mi
2π (60)8.8466 &times; 1609
(b) For a length of 175 mi
0.1864 &times; 106
= 1065 Ω to neutral
175
220 &times; 103 1
0.22
=
=
= 0.681A/mi
XC
3
3 &times; 0.1864
Capacitive reactance =
I chg
or
0.681&times;175 = 119 A for the line
Total three-phase reactive power supplied by the capacitance is given by
3 &times; 220 &times; 119 &times; 10 −3 = 43.5MVAR
4.44
 51.87 
C = 0.0389 log 
 = 0.0212 μ F /mi/ph
 0.7561 
 Note: Equivalent radius of a 4-cond. bundle is given by



1/
4
1/
4
3
3
 1.091( 0.0498 d ) = 1.091( 0.0498 &times; 1.667 ) = 0.7561ft 
XC =
1
= 125.122 &times; 103 Ω ⋅ mi ←
2π ( 60 ) 0.0212 &times; 10 −6
88
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4.45
From Example 4.8,
C Xn =
2πε 0
D
 HXY 
Ln   − Ln 

Γ
 HXX 
C Xn = 1.3247 &times; 10 −11
=
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 0.5 
 20.006 
− Ln 
Ln 


 0.0075 
 20 
F
which is 0.01% larger than in Problem 4.32
m
4.46 (a) Deq = 3 12 &times; 12 &times; 24 = 15.12 m
r = 0.0328 / 2 = 0.0164 m
1
XC =
2π fCan
Where
Can =
2π &times; 8.85 &times; 10 −12
ln (15.12 / 0.0164 )
2.86
15.12
&times; 10 9 ln
= 3.254 &times; 108 Ω ⋅ m
60
0.016 Δ
3.254 &times; 108
For 125 km, XC =
= 2603 Ω
125 &times; 1000
∴ XC =
(b)
H1 = H 2 = H3 = 40 m
H12 = H 23 = 402 + 122
= 41.761m
H31 = 40 2 + 24 2 = 46.648m
89
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Deq = 15.12 m and r = 0.0164 m
∴ XC =
 Deq 1 H12 H 23 H31 
2.86
&times; 109  ln
− ln
Ω⋅m
60
3
r
H1 H 2 H3 

 15.12 1 41.761 &times; 41.761 &times; 46.648 
= 4.77 &times; 107  ln
− ln

40 &times; 40 &times; 40
 0.0164 3

8
= 3.218 &times;10 Ω ⋅ m
For 125 km, XC =
3.218 &times; 108
= 2574 Ω
125 &times; 103
4.47 D = 10 ft; r = 0.06677 ft; Hxx = 160 ft.; H xy = 160 2 + 10 2
= 160.3ft
(See Fig. 4.24 of text)
Line-to-line capacitance C xy =
πε
H
D
ln − ln xy
r
H xx
F/ m
(See Ex. 4.8 of the text)
C xy =
π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 10 
 160.3 
− ln 
ln 


 0.06677 
 160 
Neglecting Earth effect, C xy =
= 5.555 &times; 10 −12 F/ m
π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 10 
ln 

 0.06677 
= 5.553 &times; 10 −12 F/ m
Error - percentage =
5.555 − 5.553
&times; 100 = 0.036%
5.555
When the phase separation is doubled, D = 20 ft
H xy = 1602 + 202 = 161.245
With effect of Earth,
C xy =
π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 20 
 161.245 
− ln 
ln 


 0.06677 
 160 
= 4.885 &times; 10 −12 F/m
90
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Neglecting Earth effect, C xy =
π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 20 
ln 

 0.06677 
= 4.878 &times; 10 −12 F/ m
Error percentage =
4.885 − 4.878
&times; 100 = 0.143%
4.885
4.48 (a) H1 = H 2 = H 3 = 2 &times; 50 = 100 ft
H12 = H 23 = 252 + 100 2 = 103.08ft
H13 = 50 2 + 100 2 = 111.8ft
Deq =
r=
Can =
3
( 25)( 25)( 50 ) = 31.5ft
1.065
= 0.0444 ft
2 &times; 12
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 31.5 
 106 
ln 
− ln 


 0.0444 
 100 
= 9.7695 &times; 10 −12 F/ m ←
 Note : H m = (103.08 &times; 103.08 &times; 111.8 )1/ 3 = 106 ft 


H s = 100 ft


(b) Neglecting the effect of ground,
Can =
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 31.5 
ln 

 0.0444 
= 8.4746 &times; 10 −12 F/ m
Effect of ground gives a higher value.
Error percent =
4.49
9.7695 − 8.4746
&times; 100 = 13.25%
9.7695
GMD = ( 60 &times; 60 &times; 120 )
1/ 3
r=
or
= 75.6ft
1.16
π
= 0.0483ft; N = 4; S = 2 A sin
2 &times; 12
N
A=
18
= 1.0608ft
( 2sin 45&deg; )12
91
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GMR = rN ( A )

∴ Can =
N −1 1/ N


3
=  0.0483 &times; 4 &times; (1.0608 ) 


= 0.693ft
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 75.6 
ln 

 0.693 
1/ 4
= 11.856 &times; 10 −12 F/m ←
Next X d′ = 0.0683log ( 75.6 ) = 0.1283
 1 
X a′ = 0.0683log 
 = 0.0109
 0.693 
X c = X a′ + X d′ = 0.1392 M Ω ⋅ mi to neutral
= 0.1392 &times; 106 Ω ⋅ mi to neutral ←
4.50 From Problem 4.45
1
1
F
C xy = C xn = (1.3247 &times; 10 −11 ) = 6.6235 &times; 10 −12
2
2
m
with Vxy = 20 kV
Qx = C xy Vxy = ( 6.6235 &times; 10 −12 )( 20 &times; 103 ) = 1.3247 &times; 10 −7
C
m
From Eq (4.12.1) The conductor surface electric field strength is:
ET =
1.3247 &times; 10 −7
( 2π ) ( 8.854 &times; 10−12 ) ( 0.0075)
= 3.1750 &times; 105
= 3.175
V  kV  m 
&times;

m  1000 V 
 100 cm 
kVrms
cm
Using Eq (4.12.6), the ground level electric field strength directly under the conductor is:
 ( 2 )(10 )
( 2 )(10 ) 
1.3247 &times; 10 −7

−
2
( 2π ) ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )  (10 ) (10 )2 + ( 0.5 )2 
V  kV 
kV
= 1.188 &times; 
= 0.001188

m  1000 V 
m
Ek =
92
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4.51 (a) From Problem 4.30,
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
C xn =
 0.5 
 20.006 
− Ln 
Ln 


 0.009375 
 20 
1
F
C xy = C xn = 6.995 &times; 10 −12
2
m
= 1.3991 &times; 10 −11
F
m
Qx = C xy Vxy = ( 6.995 &times; 10 −12 )( 20 &times; 103 ) = 1.399 &times; 10 −7
EΓ =
c
m
1.399 &times; 10 −7
 1  1 
&times;

−12
( 2π ) ( 8,854 &times; 10 ) ( 0.009375)  1000 
 100 
= 2.682
kVrms
cm
 ( 2 )(10 )
( 2 )(10 ) 
1.399 &times; 10 −7

−
( 2π ) ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )  (10 )2 (10 )2 + ( 0.5)2 
V  kV 
kV
= 1.254 &times; 
 = 0.001254
m  1000 V 
m
Ek =
(b) C xn =
2π ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )
 0.5 
 20.06 
− Ln 
Ln 


 .005625 
 20 
1
F
C xy = C xn = 6.199 &times; 10 −12
2
m
= 1.2398 &times; 10 −11
F
m
Qx = C xy Vxy = ( 6.199 &times; 10 −12 )( 20 &times; 103 ) = 1.2398 &times; 10 −7
EΓ =
c
m
1.2398 &times; 10 −7
 1  1 
&times;

−12
( 2π ) ( 8.854 &times; 10 ) (.005625 )  1000 
 100 
EΓ = 3.962
kVrms
cm
 ( 2 )(10 )
( 2 )(10 ) 
1.2398 &times; 10 −7

−
2
( 2π ) ( 8.854 &times; 10 −12 )  (10 ) (10 )2 + ( 0.5)2 
V  kV 
kV
Ek = 1.112 &times; 
 = 0.001112
m  1000 V 
m
Eq =
The conductor surface electric field strength EΓ decreases 15.5 % ( increases 24.8%) as
the conductor diameter increases 25 % (decreases 25%). The ground level electric field
strength Ek increases 5.6 %( decreases 6.4%).
93
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Chapter 5
5.1
(a) VS = AVR + BI R
5.2.
a
5.3
VRNL = VS /A
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
Dimensionless, ohms, siemens, dimensionless
Thermal limit; voltage-drop limit; steady-state stability limit
a
m −1 , ohms
5.8
(eγ ′x + e −γ x ) 2; (eγ x − e− γ x ) 2
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
a
a
Dimensionless constants (per unit)
a
Real, imaginary
Inductive, capacitive
a
a
Surge impedance
Flat (constant); V 2 Z C
5.19
VSVR X ′
5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23
5.24
5.25
a
a
a
a
a
(b)
I S = CVR + DI R
95
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5.1 (a) A = D = 1.0∠0&deg; pu; C = 0. S
B = Z = ( 0.19 + j 0.34 ) 25 = 9.737∠60.8&deg; Ω
(b) VR =
IR =
33
∠0&deg; = 19.05∠0&deg; kVLN
3
SR ∠ − cos−1 ( pf )
3 VR L - L
=
10
3(33)
∠ − cos−1 ( 0.9 )
= 0.175∠ − 25.84&deg; kA
VS = AVR + B I R = (1.0 )(19.05 ) + ( 9.737∠60.8&deg; )( 0.175∠ − 25.84&deg; )
= 20.45 + j 0.976 = 20.47∠2.732&deg; kVL − N
VSL-L = 20.47 3 = 35.45 kV
(c) I R = 0.175∠25.84&deg;
VS = AVR + B I R = (1.0 )(19.05 ) + ( 9.737∠60.8&deg; )( 0.175∠25.84&deg; )
= 19.15 + j1.701 = 19.23∠5.076&deg; kVL − N
VS L−L = 19.23 3 = 33.3kV
5.2
Y Z
1
= 1 + ( 3.33 &times; 10−6 &times; 200∠90&deg; ) ( 0.08 + j 0.48 )( 200 )
2
2
= 1 + ( 0.0324 ∠170.5&deg; ) = 0.968 + j 0.00533 = 0.968∠0.315&deg;pu
(a) A = D = 1 +
 Y Z 
−4
C = Y 1 +
 = ( 6.66 &times; 10 ∠90&deg; ) (1 + .0.0162 ∠170.5&deg; )
4 

= 6.553 &times; 10 −4 ∠90.155&deg; S
B = Z = 97.32 ∠80.54&deg; Ω
(b) VR =
220
∠0&deg; = 127∠0&deg; kVL − N
3
P ∠ − cos−1 ( pf ) 250∠ − cos−1 0.99
=
= 0.6627∠ − 8.11&deg;kA
IR = R
3VR L−L ( pf )
3 ( 220 )( 0.99 )
VS = AVR + B I R = ( 0.968∠0.315&deg; )(127∠0&deg; ) + ( 97.32∠80.54&deg; )( 0.6627∠ − 8.11&deg; )
= 142.4 + j 62.16 = 155.4∠23.58&deg; kVL − N
VS L−L = 155.4 3 = 269.2 kV
I S = CVR + D I R = ( 6.553 &times; 10 −4 ∠90.155&deg; ) (127 ) + ( 0.968∠ − 0.315&deg; )( 0.6627∠ − 8.11&deg; )
= 0.6353 − j 3.786 &times; 10 −3 = 0.6353∠ − 0.34&deg; kA
(c) VRNL = VS A = 269.2 0.968 = 278.1kVLL
% VR =
VR NL − VR FL
VR FL
 278.1 − 220 
&times; 100 = 
100 = 26.4%
220


96
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5.3
Z base = V 2 base Sbase = ( 230 ) 100 = 529 Ω
2
Ybase = 1 Z base = 1.89 &times; 10−3 S
(a) A = D = 0.9680 ∠0.315 pu
B = ( 97.32 ∠80.54&deg;Ω ) 529 Ω = 0.184∠80.54&deg; pu
C = ( 6.553 &times; 10−4 ∠90.155 S ) (1.89 &times; 10−3 S) = 0.3467∠90.155&deg; pu
(b) I base =
Sbase 3φ
3′ Vbase L − L
100
= 0.251 kA
′
3 (230)
=
VRpu = ( 220 230 ) ∠0&deg; = 0.9565∠0&deg;
I Rpu = ( 0.6627 ∠ − 8.11&deg; ) 0.251 = 2.64∠ − 8.11&deg;
VSPU = APU VRPU + BPU I RPU
= ( 0.968 ∠0.315&deg; )( 0.9565 ∠0&deg; ) + ( 0.184 ∠80.54&deg; )( 2.64 ∠ − 8.11&deg; )
= 1.0725 + j 0.4682 = 1.17∠23.58&deg; pu; VS = 1.17 pu
I SPU = CPU VRPU + DPU I RPU
= ( 0.3467 ∠90.155&deg; )( 0.9565∠0&deg; ) + ( 0.968∠0.315&deg; )( 2.64∠ − 8.11&deg; )
= 2.531 − j 0.0151 = 2.531∠ − 0.34&deg; pu; I S = 2.531 pu
(c) VRNLpu = VSpu Apu = 1.17 0.968 = 1.209
%VR =
VRNLpu − VRFLpu
VRFLpu
 1.209 − 0.9565 
&times; 100 = 
100 = 26.4%
0.9565


5.4
VS   A1
 =
 I S  C1
B1  Vx   A1
  = 
D1   I x  C1
VS  ( A1 A2 + B1C2 )
 =
 I S  ( C1 A2 + D1C2 )
B1   A2

D1  C2
B2  VR 
 
D2   I R 
(A B
(C B
1
1
+ B1 D2 )  VR 
 
2 + D1 D2 )   I R 

2
5.5
97
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KCL : I S = I R + Y (VR + Z 2 I R ) = Y VR + (1 + Y Z 2 ) I R
KVL : VS = VR + Z 2 I R + Z1 I S
= VR + Z 2 I R + Z1 Y VR + (1 + Y Z 2 ) I R 
= (1 + Y Z1 ) VR + ( Z1 + Z 2 + Y Z1 Z 2 ) I R
In matrix format:
VS  (1 + Y Z1 )
 =
Y
 I S  
5.6
(Z
1
+ Z 2 + Y Z1 Z 2 )  VR 

(1 + Y Z2 )   I R 
(a)
VR is taken as reference; I = I R + ICR ; I S = I + ICS ;
ICR ⊥ VR (Leading); I CS ⊥ VS (Leading); VR + IR + jIX L = VS
( IR ) I ; ( jIX L ) ⊥ I
(b)
(i)
 R jX 
I S = I R + IC ; VC = VR + I R  + L  ; I C ⊥ VC (Leading)
2 
2
 R jX 
VS = VC + I S  + L  ; VR is taken as reference.
2 
2
98
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(ii) For nominal T-circuit
1
 1

A = 1 + Y Z = D; B = Z  1 + Y Z  ; C = Y ←
2
 4

For nominal π-circuit of part (a)
1
 1

A = D = 1 + Y Z ; B = Z ; C = Y 1 + Y Z  ←
2
 4

5.7
VS =
3300
= 1905.3 V (Line-to-neutral)
3
0.5∠53.13&deg; = 0.5 ( 0.6 + j 0.8 ) = 0.3 + j 0.4
I=
( 900 / 3 )103 = 375 &times; 103 A
0.8 &times; VR
VR
From the phasor diagram drawn below with I as reference,
VS2 = (VR cos φR + IR ) + (VR sin φR + IX )
2
2
(1)
2
(1905.3)
2

375 &times; 103 &times; 0.3  
375 &times; 103 &times; 0.4 
=  0.8VR +
 +  0.6VR +

VR
VR

 

2
From which one gets VR = 1805V
(a) Line-to-line voltage at receiving end = 1805 3
= 3126 V ←
= 3.126 kV
(b) Line current is given by
I = 375 &times; 103 = 207.76 A ←
5.8
(a) From phasor diagram of Problem 5.7 solution,
VR cosφR + IR = 1805 ( 0.8 ) + ( 207.76 &times; 0.3 ) = 1506.33V
Sending-End PF =
1506.33 1506.33
=
= 0.79 Lagging ←
1905.3
VS
99
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(b) Sending-End 3-Phase Power = PS = 3 (1905.3 )( 207.76 ) 0.79
= 938 kW ←
(c) Three-Phase Line Loss = 938 − 900 = 38 kW ←
or 3 ( 207.76 ) 0.3 = 38 kW
2
5.9
(a) From Table A.4, R = 0.1128
Ω  1 mi 

 = 0.0701 Ω / km
mi  1.609 km 
z = 0.0701 + j 0.506 = 0.511∠82.11&deg; Ω / km; y = 3.229 &times; 10−6 ∠90&deg; s/km
From Problems 4.14 and 4.25
A = D =1+
Y Z
1
= 1 + ( 3.229 &times; 10 −6 &times; 100∠90&deg; ) ( 0.511 &times; 100∠82.11&deg; )
2
2
= 0.9918∠0.0999&deg; per unit
B = Z = zl = 0.511 &times; 100∠82.11&deg; = 51.1∠82.11&deg; Ω
 Y Z 
−4
C = Y 1 +
 = ( 3.229 &times; 10 ∠90&deg; ) [1 + 0.004125∠172.11&deg;]
4


= 3.216 &times; 10 −4 ∠90.033&deg; S
VR =
218
∠0&deg; = 125.9∠0&deg; kVLN
3
IR =
300
∠ − cos −1 0.9 = 0.7945∠ − 25.84&deg; kA
218 3
Vs = AVR + BI R = 0.9918∠0.0999 (125.9 ) + 51.1∠82.11&deg; ( 0.7945∠ − 25.84&deg; )
= 151.3∠12.98&deg; kVLN
Vs = 151.3 3 = 262 kVLL
VR NL = VS / A = 262 / 0.9918 = 264.2 kVLL
% VR =
VR NL − VR FL
VR FL
&times; 100 =
264.2 − 218
&times; 100 = 21.2%
218
(b) I R = 0.7945∠0&deg; kA
VS = 0.9918∠0.0999&deg; (125.9 ) + 51.1∠82.11&deg; ( 0.7945∠0&deg; )
= 136.6∠17.2&deg; kVLN ; VS = 136.6 3 = 236.6 kVLL
VR NL = VS / A = 236.6 / 0.9918 = 238.6 kVLL
% VR =
238.6 − 218
&times; 100 = 9.43%
218
100
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(c) I R = 0.7945∠25.84&deg; kA
VS = 124.9∠0.0999&deg; + 40.6∠107.95&deg; = 118.9∠19.1&deg; kVLN
VS = 118.9 3 = 205.9 kVLL
% VR =
205.9 − 218
&times; 100 = −5.6%
218
5.10 From Table A.4, R =
1
Ω  1 mi 
( 0.0969 ) 
 = 0.0201 Ω /km
3
mi  1.609 km 
From Problems 4.20 and 4.41, z = 0.0201 + j 0.335 = 0.336∠86.6&deg; Ω /km
y = 4.807 &times; 10−6 ∠90&deg; S/km
(a) A = D = 1 +
Y Z
1
= 1 + ( 0.336 &times; 180∠86.6&deg; ) ( 4.807 &times; 10 −6 &times; 180∠90&deg; )
2
2
= 0.9739∠0.0912&deg; pu
B = Z = zl = 0.336(180)∠86.6&deg; = 60.48∠86.6&deg; Ω
 Y Z 
−6
C = Y 1 +
 = ( 4.807 &times; 10 &times; 180∠90&deg; ) (1 + 0.0131∠176.6&deg; )
4 

= 8.54 &times; 10 −4 ∠90.05&deg; S
(b) VR =
IR =
475
3
∠0&deg; = 274.24∠0&deg; kVLN
PR ∠ cos−1 ( pf )
3VR LL ( pf )
=
1600∠ cos−1 0.95
3 475(0.95)
= 2.047∠18.19&deg; kA
VS = AVR + B I R = (0.9739∠0.0912)(274.24) + (60.48∠86.6&deg;) ( 2.047∠18.19&deg; )
= 264.4∠27.02&deg; kVLN ; VS = 264.4 3 = 457.9 kVLL
I S = CVR + DI R = ( 8.54 &times; 10 −4 ∠90.05&deg; ) ( 274.24 ) + ( 0.9739∠0.0912&deg; )( 2.047∠18.19&deg; )
= 2.079∠24.42&deg; kA
(c) B
(d) Full- load line losses = PS − PR = 1647 − 1600 = 47 MW
Efficiency = ( PR / PS )100 = (1600 /1647 )100 = 97.1%
(e) VR NL = VS / A = 457.9 / 0.9739 = 470.2 kVLL
% VR =
VR NL − VR FL
VR FL
&times; 100 =
470.2 − 475
&times; 100 = −1%
475
101
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5.11 (a) The series impedance per phase Z = ( r + jω L ) l
= ( 0.15 + j 2π (60)1.3263 &times; 10 −3 ) 40 = 6 + j 20 Ω
The receiving end voltage per phase VR =
220
3
∠0&deg; = 127∠0&deg; kV
Complex power at the receiving end SR (3φ ) = 381∠ cos−1 0.8 MVA
= 304.8 + j 228.6 MVA
The current per phase is given by S R* (3φ ) 3VR*
∴IR =
( 381∠ − 36.87&deg;)103
= 1000∠ − 36.87&deg; A
3 &times; 127∠0&deg;
The sending end voltage, as per KVL, is given by
VS = VR + Z I R = 127∠0&deg; + ( 6 + j 20 )(1000∠ − 36.87&deg; )10 −3
= 144.33∠4.93&deg; kV
The sending end line-to-line voltage magnitude is then
VS ( L − L ) = 3 (144.33 ) = 250 kV
The sending power is SS (3φ ) = 3VS I S* = 3 (144.33∠4.93&deg; )(1000∠36.87&deg; )10 −3
= 322.8 MW + j 288.6 MVAR = 433∠41.8&deg; MVA
250 − 220
= 0.136
220
P (3φ ) 304.8
Transmission line efficiency is η = R
=
= 0.944
PS (3φ ) 322.8
Voltage regulation is
(b) With 0.8 leading power factor, I R = 1000∠36.87&deg; A
The sending end voltage is VS = VR + Z I R = 121.39∠9.29&deg; kV
The sending end line-to-line voltage magnitude VS ( L − L ) = 3 &times; 121.39
= 210.26 kV
The sending end power SS (3φ ) = 3V I
*
S S
= 3 (121.39∠9.29&deg; )(1∠ − 36.87&deg; ) = 322.8 MW − j168.6 M var
= 3618∠ − 27.58&deg; MVA
210.26 − 220
= −0.0443
220
P
304.8
Transmission line efficiency η = R (3φ ) =
= 0.944
PS (3φ ) 322.8
Voltage regulation =
102
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5.12 (a) The nominal π circuit is shown below:
The total line impedance Z = ( 0.1826 + j 0.784 )100 = 18.26 + j 78.4
= 80.5∠76.89&deg; Ω /ph.
The line admittance for 100 mi is
Y=
(b) VR =
1
1
∠90&deg; =
∠90&deg; = 0.5391 &times; 10 −3 ∠90&deg; S/ph.
185.5 &times; 103
XC
100
230
∠0&deg; = 132.8∠0&deg; kV
3
200 &times; 103
IR =
∠0&deg; = 502∠0&deg; A ( Unity Power Factor )
3 ( 230 )
Y 
I Z = I R + VR   = 502∠0&deg; + (132,800∠0&deg; ) ( 0.27 &times; 10 −3 ∠90&deg; )
2
= 502 + j 35.86 = 503.3∠4.09&deg; A
The sending end voltage VS = 132.8∠0&deg; + ( 0.5033∠4.09&deg; )( 80.5∠76.89&deg; )
= 139.152 + j 40.01 = 144.79∠16.04&deg; kV
The line-to-line voltage magnitude at the sending end is
3 (144.79 ) = 250.784 kV
Y 
I S = I Z + VS   = 502 + j 35.86 + (144.79∠16.04&deg; )( 0.27∠90&deg; )
2
= 491.2 + j 73.46 = 496.7∠8.5&deg; A
Sending end power SS (3φ ) = 3 (144.79)(0.4967 ) ∠16.04&deg; − 8.5&deg;
= 213.88 + j 28.31MVA
So PS (3φ ) = 213.88 MW; QS (3φ ) = 28.31MVAR
(c) Regulation =
5.13
VS − VR 144.79 − 132.8
=
= 0.09
VR
132.8
γ l = 0.4∠85&deg; = 0.034862 + j 0.39848
eγ l = e0.034862 e j 0.39848 = 1.03548∠0.39848 radians
= 0.9543 + j 0.40178
103
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e −γ l = e −0.034862 e − j 0.39848 = 0.965738∠ − 0.39848 radians
= 0.89007 − j 0.37472
eγ l + e − γ l
= ( 0.9543 + j 0.40178 ) + ( 0.89007 − j 0.37472 )  2
2
= 0.92219 + j 0.01353 = 0.9223∠0.841&deg; pu
cosh γ l =
Alternatively:
cosh ( 0.034862 + j 0.39848 ) = cosh ( 0.034862 ) cos ( 0.39848 radians )
+ j sinh ( 0.034862 ) sin ( 0.39848 radians )
= (1.00060 )( 0.92165 ) + j (0.034869) ( 0.388018 )
= 0.9222 + j 0.01353 = 0.9223 ∠0.841&deg; pu
e −e
= ( 0.9543 + j 0.40178 ) − ( 0.89007 − j 0.37472 )  2
2
= 0.03212 + j 0.38825 = 0.38958 ∠85.271&deg; pu
γl
sinh γ l =
−γ l
 γ l  cosh ( γ l ) − 1 ( 0.9222 + j 0.01353 ) − 1
=
tanh   =
sinh ( γ l )
0.38958 ∠85.271&deg;
 2 
=
5.14 (a)
ZC =
0.07897 ∠170.13&deg;
= 0.2027 ∠84.86&deg; pu
0.38958∠85.271&deg;
z
0.03 + j 0.35
=
= 282.6∠ − 2.45&deg; Ω
y
4.4 &times; 10 −6 ∠90&deg;
(b) γ l = z y (l ) =
( 0.35128∠85.101&deg; ) ( 4.4 &times; 10−6 ∠90&deg; ) ( 400 )
= 0.4973∠87.55&deg; = 0.02126 + j 0.4968 pu
(c) A = D = cosh γ l = cosh ( 0.02126 + j 0.4968 )
= ( cosh 0.02126 )( cos 0.4968 radians ) + j ( sinh 0.02126 )( sin 0.4968 radians )
= (1.00023 )( 0.87911) + j ( 0.02126 )( 0.47661)
= 0.87931 + j 0.01013 = 0.8794 ∠0.66&deg; pu
sinh γ l = sinh ( 0.02126 + j 0.4968 )
= sinh ( 0.02126 ) cos ( 0.4968 radians ) + j ( cosh 0.02126 )( sin 0.4968 radians )
= (0.02126)(0.87911) + j (1.00023)(0.47661)
= 0.01869 + j 0.4767 = 0.4771 ∠87.75&deg;
B = Z C sinh ( γ l ) = ( 282.6∠ − 2.45&deg; )( 0.4771∠87.75&deg; )
= 134.8 ∠85.3&deg;Ω
C=
1
0.4771∠87.75&deg;
sinh ( γ l ) =
= 1.688 &times; 10 −3 ∠90.2&deg; S
282.6 ∠ − 2.45&deg;
ZC
104
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5.15
(
)
VR = 475
IR =
3 ∠0&deg; = 274.2∠0&deg; kVL − N
PR ∠ cos −1 ( pf )
3 VR LL ( pf )
=
1000∠ cos −1 1.0
= 1.215∠0&deg; kA
3 ( 475 )(1.0 )
(a) VS = AVR + B I R = ( 0.8794 ∠0.66&deg; )( 274.2 ∠0&deg; ) + (134.8∠85.3&deg; )(1.215∠0&deg; )
= 241.13 ∠0.66&deg; + 163.78 ∠85.3&deg;
= 254.5 + j163.2 = 303.9∠33.11&deg; kVL − N
VS L − L = 303.9 3 = 526.4 kV
(b) I S = CVR + D I R = (1.688 &times; 10 −3 ∠90.2&deg; ) ( 274.2 ∠0&deg; ) + ( 0.8794∠0.66&deg; )(1.215 ∠0&deg; )
= 0.4628∠90.2&deg; + 1.0685∠0.66&deg;
= 1.0668 + j 0.4751 = 1.168∠24.01&deg; kA
I S = 1.168 kA
(c) PFS = cos ( 32.67 − 24.01) = cos (8.66&deg; ) = 0.989 Lagging
(d) PS = 3 VS LL I S ( pfS )
= 3 ( 526.4 )(1.168 )( 0.989 ) = 1053.2 MW
Full-load line losses = PS − PR = 1053.2 − 1000 = 53.2 MW
(e) VR NL = VS / A = 526.4 / 0.8794 = 598.6 kVL − L
% VR =
VR NL − VR FL
VR FL
&times; 100 =
598.6 − 475
= 26%
475
5.16 Table A.4 three ACSR finch conductors per phase
r=
(a) Z C = z / y =
0.0969 Ω  1 mi 

 = 0.02 Ω / km
3 mi  1.609 km 
0.336∠86.6&deg;
= 264.4∠ − 1.7&deg; Ω
4.807 &times; 10 −6 ∠90&deg;
(b) γ l = z y l = 0.336 &times; 4.807 &times; 10 −6 ∠86.6&deg; + 90&deg; ( 300 )
= 0.0113 + j 0.381 pu
(c) A = D = cosh ( γ l ) = cosh ( 0.0113 + j 0.381)
= cosh 0.0113 cos 0.381+ j sinh 0.0113 sin 0.381
= 0.9285 + j 0.00418 = 0.9285∠0.258&deg; pu
sinh γ l = sinh ( 0.0113 + j 0.381)
= sinh 0.0113 cos 0.381+ j cosh 0.0113 sin 0.381
= 0.01045 + j 0.3715 = 0.3716∠88.39&deg;
105
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B = Z C sinh γ l = 264.4∠ − 1.7&deg; ( 0.3716∠88.39&deg; )
= 98.25∠86.69&deg;Ω
C = sinh γ l / Z C = 0.3716∠88.39&deg; ( 264.4∠ − 1.7&deg; )
= 1.405 &times; 10 −3 ∠90.09&deg; S
5.17
(
)
VR = 480 / 3 ∠0&deg; = 277.1∠0&deg; kVLN
(a) I R =
1500
480 3
∠ − cos−1 0.9 = 1.804∠ − 25.84&deg; kA
VS = AVR + B I R = 0.9285∠0.258&deg; ( 277.1) + 98.25∠86.69&deg; (1.804∠ − 25.84&deg; )
= 377.4∠24.42&deg; kVLN ; VS = 377.4 3 = 653.7 kVLL
VRNL = VS / A = 653.7 / 0.9285 = 704 kVLL
% VR =
VR NL − VR FL
VR FL
&times; 100 =
704 − 480
&times; 100 = 46.7%
480
(b) VS = 0.9285∠0.258&deg; ( 277.1) + 98.25∠86.69&deg; (1.804∠0&deg; )
= 321.4∠33.66&deg; kVLN ; VS = 321.4 3 = 556.7 kVLL
VR NL = VS / A = 556.7 / 0.9285 = 599.5 kVLL
599.5 − 480
&times; 100 = 24.9%
480
(c) VS = 257.3∠0.258&deg; + 177.24∠112.5&deg;
% VR =
= 251.2∠41.03&deg; kVLN
VS = 251.2 3 = 435.1kVLL
VR NL = VS / A = 435.1/ 0.9285 = 468.6 kVLL
% VR =
5.18
468.6 − 480
&times; 100 = −2.4%
4.80
γ l = l y z = 230
(
)
0.843 &times; 5.105 &times; 10 −6 ∠ ( 79.04&deg; + 90&deg; ) 2
= 0.4772∠84.52&deg; = 0.0456 + j 0.475 = (α + j β ) l
ZC =
VR =
z
0.8431
=
∠ ( 79.04&deg; − 90&deg; ) 2 = 406.4∠ − 5.48&deg; Ω
y
5.105 &times; 10 −6
215
3
= 124.13∠0&deg; kV/ph.; I R =
125 &times; 103
3 &times; 215
∠0&deg; = 335.7∠0&deg; A
1
1
cosh γ l = e0.0456 ∠27.22&deg; + e −0.0456 ∠ − 27.22&deg; = 0.8904∠1.34&deg;
2
2
106
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1
1
sinh γ l = e0.0456 ∠27.22&deg; − e −0.0456 ∠ − 27.22&deg; = 0.4597∠84.93&deg;
2
2
VS = VR cosh γ l + I R ZC sinh γ l
= (124.13 &times; 0.8904∠1.34&deg; ) + ( 0.3357 &times; 406.4∠ − 5.48&deg; &times; 0.4597∠84.93&deg; )
= 137.86∠27.77&deg; kV
Line-to-Line voltage magnitude at the sending end is
I S = I R cosh γ l +
3 137.86 = 238.8 kV
VR
sinh γ l = ( 335.7 &times; 0.8904∠1.34&deg; ) +
ZC
124,130
&times; 0.4597∠84.93&deg;
406.4∠ − 5.48&deg;
= 332.31∠26.33&deg; A
Sending-end line current magnitude is 332.31 A
PS ( 3φ ) = 3 ( 238.8 )( 332.31) cos ( 27.77&deg; − 26.33&deg; ) = 137, 433 kW
QR (3φ ) = 3 ( 238.8 )( 332.31) sin ( 27.77&deg; − 26.33&deg; ) = 3454 kVAR
Voltage Regulation =
(137.86 / 0.8904 ) − 124.13 = 0.247
( Note that at no load, I
124.13
= 0; VR = VS / cosh γ l )
R
since β = 0.475 / 230 = 0.002065 rad/mi
The wavelength λ =
2π
β
=
2π
= 3043 mi
0.002065
and the velocity of propagation = f λ = 60 &times; 3043
= 182,580 mi/s
5.19 Choosing a base of 125 MVA and 215 kV,
Base Impedance =
So Z C =
( 215)
125
2
= 370 Ω; Base Current =
125 &times; 103
3 &times; 215
= 335.7 A
406.4∠ − 5.48&deg;
= 1.098∠ − 5.48 pu; VR = 1∠0&deg; pu
370
The load being at unity pf, I R = 1.0∠0&deg; pu
∴ VS = VR cosh γ l + I R Z C sinh γ l
= (1∠0&deg; &times; 0.8904∠1.34&deg; ) + (1∠0&deg; &times; 1.098∠ − 5.48&deg; &times; 0.4597∠84.93&deg; )
= 1.1102 ∠27.75&deg; pu
107
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I S = I R cosh γ l +
VR
sinh γ l
ZC
1.0∠0&deg;


= (1∠0&deg; &times; 0.8904∠1.34&deg; ) + 
&times; 0.4597∠84.93&deg; 
1.098
5.48
∠
−
&deg;


= 0.99 ∠26.35&deg; pu
At the sending end
Line to line voltage magnitude = 1.1102 &times; 215
= 238.7 kV
Line Current Magnitude = 0.99 &times; 335.7
= 332.3A
5.20 (a) Let θ = γ l =
Then A = 1 +
ZY
ZY Z 2Y 2 Z 3Y 3
+
+
+  which iscosh γ l
2
24
720


ZY Z 2 Y 2 Z 3Y 3
B = ZC 1 +
+
+
+   which is Z C sinh γ l
6
120
5040


2 2

1
1 
ZY Z Y
Z 3Y 3
sinh γ l =
C=
+
+
+ 
1 +
6
120
5040
ZC
Zc 

D=A
Considering only the first two terms,
ZY 

2 

ZY  
B = ZC  1 +
 ←
6 

ZY  
1 
C=
1 +

Zc 
6  
A = D =1+
(b) Refer to Table 5.1 of the text.
A −1 Y
= ;B= Z ←
For Nominal-π circuit:
B
2
A −1 Y′
For Equivalent-π circuit:
= ; B = Z′ ←
B
2
5.21 Eq. (5.1.1):
Vs = AVR + BI R
VS I S = AVR I S + BI R I S
108
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Substituting I S = CVR + DI R and A = D
VS I S = A VR I S + BI R ( CVR + AI R )
Now adding VR I R on both sides,
VS I S + VR I R = AVR I S + ( BC + 1) VR I R + BAI R2
But A 2 − BC = 1
Hence VS I S + VR I R = AVR I S + A 2VR I R + BAI R2 = A (VR I S + VS I R )
∴A =
Now B =
VS I S + VR I R
←
VR I S + VS I R
VS − AVR
; substituting the above result
IR
For A , one obtains B =
Thus B =
or B =
5.22
VS VR  VS I S + VR I R 
− 

I R I R  VR I S + VS I R 
VSVR I S + VS2 I R − VRVS I S − VR2 I R
I R (VR I S + VS I R )
VS2 − VR2
←
VR I S + VS I R
1
+X
eθ + e −θ
X
−θ
A=
; with X = e , A =
2
2
or X 2 − 2 AX + 1 = 0 ; Substituting X = X1 + jX 2
And A = A1 + jA2 , one gets
X12 − X 22 + 2 jX1 X 2 − 2  A1 X1 − A2 X 2 + j ( A2 X1 + A1 X 2 )  + 1 = 0
which implies X12 − X 22 − 2 [ A1 X1 − A2 X 2 ] + 1 = 0 
 ←
and X1 X 2 − ( A2 X1 + A1 X 2 ) = 0

5.23 Equivalent π circuit:
Z ′ = B = 134.8∠85.3&deg; = (11.0 + j134.3 ) Ω = R′ + jx ′
109
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Alternatively:
Z ′ = Z F1 = ( zl )
sinh γ l
γl
 0.4771 ∠87.75&deg; 
= ( 0.35128 ∠85.1&deg; ) 400 

 0.4973 ∠87.55&deg; 
= 134.8∠85.3&deg; Ω


Y′ Y
yl
yl  cosh γ l − 1 
= F2 =  tanh ( γ l/2 ) ( γ l/2 )  = 

2 2
2
2 γ l
⋅ sinh γ l 
 2



0.87931 + j 0.01013 − 1
 4.4 &times; 10 −6

=
∠90&deg;  ( 400 ) 

2


 ( 0.2487 ∠87.55&deg; )( 0.4771∠87.75&deg; ) 
G′ + jB′
= 8.981 &times; 10 −4 ∠89.9&deg; S = (1.57 &times; 10 −6 + j8.981 &times; 10 −4 )S =
2
R′ = 11 Ω is 8% smaller than R = 12 Ω
X ′ = 134.3 Ω is 4% smaller than X = 140 Ω
B′ / 2 = 8.981 &times; 10−4 S is 2% larger than Y / 2 = 8.8 &times; 10−4 S
G ′ / 2 = 1.57 &times; 10−6 S is introduced into the equivalent π circuit.
110
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5.24
Z ′ = B = 98.25∠86.69&deg;Ω = 5.673 + j 98.09 Ω




Y′  Y 
cosh
γ
l
1
−
 4.807

=   F2 = 
&times; 10 −6 ∠90&deg; &times; 300  

2 2
 2
  γ l sinh γ l 
 2




0.9285 + j 0.00418 − 1
 1.442

−3
=
&times; 10 ∠90&deg;  

 2
  0.3812 ∠88.3&deg; ( 0.3716∠88.39&deg; ) 
 2

 −0.0715 + j 0.00418 
= 7.21 &times; 10 −4 ∠90&deg; 

 0.0708∠176.7&deg; 
= 6.37 &times; 10 −7 + j 7.294 &times; 10 −4 S
R′ = 5.673 Ω is 5.5% smaller than R = 6 Ω
X ′ = 98.09 Ω is 2.4% smaller than X = 100.5 Ω
B′ / 2 = 7.294 &times; 10 −4 S is 1.2% larger than Y / 2 = 7.211 &times; 10 −4 S
G ′ / 2 = 6.37 &times; 10 −7 S is introduced into the equivalent π circuit
5.25 The long line π-equivalent circuit is shown below:
111
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z = ( 0.1826 + j 0.784 ) Ω / mi per phase
y=
1
1
=
= 5.391 &times; 10 −6 ∠90&deg; S /mi per phase
xc ∠ − 90&deg; 185.5 &times; 103 ∠ − 90&deg;
γ = y z ; Z = zl = 160.99∠76.89&deg; Ω; Y = yl = 1.078 &times; 10 −3 ∠90&deg; S
F1 = ( sinh γ l ) / γ l = 0.972∠0.37&deg;; F2 =
∴ Z′ = Z
Y′ Y
=
2 2
tanh ( γ l / 2 )
γ l/2
= 1.0144∠ − 0.19&deg;
sinh γ l
= 156.48∠77.26&deg; Ω
γl
 tanh ( γ l / 2 ) 

 = 0.5476 &times; 10 −3 ∠89.81&deg; S
γ
l
/
2


I Z ′ = I R + VR
Y′
= 502∠0&deg; + (132,800 ∠0&deg; ) ( 0.5476 &times; 10 −3 ∠89.81&deg; )
2
= 507.5 ∠8.24&deg; A
VS = VR + I Z ′ Z ′ = 132,800∠0&deg; + 507.5∠8.24&deg; (156.48∠77.26&deg; )
= 160,835 ∠29.45&deg; V
(a) Sending end line to line voltage magnitude = 3160.835 = 278.6 kV
Y′ 
(b) I S = I Z ′ + VS   = 507.5∠8.24&deg; + 160.835 ( 0.5476 ) ∠29.45 + 89.81&deg;
2
= 482.93 ∠18.04&deg; A; I S = 482.93A
(c) SS (3φ ) = 3VS I S∗ = 3 (160.835 )( 0.48293 ) ∠29.45&deg; − 18.04&deg;
= 228.41 MW + j 46.1 M var
(d) Percent voltage regulation =
5.26 (a)
ZC =
z
=
y
160.835 − 132.8
&times; 100 = 21.1%
132.8
j 0.34
= 274.9 ∠0&deg; = 274.9 Ω
j 4.5 &times; 10−6
(b) γ l = z y ( l ) =
( j 0.34 ) ( j 4.5 &times; 10−6 ) ( 300 ) = j 0.3711pu
(c) γ l = j ( β l ) ; β l = 0.3711pu
A = D = cos ( β l ) = cos ( 0.3711 radians ) = 0.9319∠0&deg; pu
B = j Z C sin ( β l ) = j ( 274.9 ) sin ( 0.3711 radians )
= j 99.68 Ω
 1 
 1 
C = j
 sin ( β l ) = j 
 sin ( 0.3711 radians )
 274.9 
 ZC 
= j1.319 &times; 10−3 S
112
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(d) β = 0.3711 / 300 = 1.237 &times; 10−3 radians/ km
λ = 2π /β = 5079 km
(e) SIL =
5.27
2
Vrated
L− L
ZC
=
( 500 )
2
274.9
= 909.4 MW ( 3φ )
Z ′ = B = j 99.68 Ω
Alternatively:
Z ′ = Z F1 = ( zl )
 sin ( 0.3711 radians ) 
sin β l
= ( j 0.34 &times; 300 ) 

0.3711
βl


= ( j102 ) ( 0.97721) = j 99.68 Ω
 tan ( 0.1855 radians ) 
Y′ Y
4.5 &times; 10−6
 y  tan ( β l / 2 )
= F2 =  l 
=j
&times; 300 

2 2
2
0.1855
 2  ( β l / 2)


= ( j 6.75 &times; 10−4 ) (1.012 ) = j 6.829 &times; 10−4 S
5.28 (a) VR = VS A = 500 / 0.9319 = 536.5 kV
(b) VR = VS = 500 kV
 V 
(c) VS = cos ( β l ) .VR + ( j Z C sin β l )  1 R 
 1 ZC 
VS = cos β l + jZ sin β l VR
VS = 500 cos 0.3711 radians + j 2 sin 0.3711 radians
= 500 1.18 = 423.4 kV
(d) Pmax 3φ =
VSVR ( 500 )( 500 )
=
= 2508MW
99.68
X′
5.29 Reworking Problem 5.9:
(a) z = j 0.506 Ω / km
Y Z
1
= 1 + ( 3.229 &times; 10 −4 ∠90&deg; ) ( 50.6∠90&deg; ) = 0.9918 pu
2
2
B = Z = zl = j 50.6 Ω
A = D =1+
113
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 Y Z 
−4
C = Y 1 +
 = 3.229 &times; 10 ∠90&deg; (1 − 0.004085 )
4


= 3.216 &times; 10 −4 ∠90&deg; S
VS = AVR + B I R = 0.9918 (125.9 ) + j 50.6 ( 0.7945∠ − 25.84&deg; )
= 146.9∠14.26&deg; kVLN
VS = 146.9 3 = 254.4 kVLL
VR NL = VS / A = 254.4 / 0.9918 = 256.5 kVLL
% VR =
VR NL − VR FL
VR FL
&times; 100 =
256.5 − 218
&times; 100 = 17.7%
218
(b) VS = 0.9918 (125.9 ) + j 50.6 ( 0.7945∠0&deg; )
= 124.86 + j 40.2 = 131.2∠17.85&deg; kVLN
VS = 131.2 3 = 227.2 kVLL
VR NL = VS / A = 227.2 / 0.9918 = 229.1kV
229.1 − 218
&times; 100 = 5.08%
218
(c) Vs = 0.9918 (125.9 ) + j 50.6 ( 0.7945∠25.84&deg; )
% VR =
= 107.34 + j 36.18 = 113.3∠18.63&deg;
VS = 113.3 3 = 196.2 kVLL
VR NL = VS / A = 196.2 / 0.9918 = 197.9 kV
197.9 − 218
&times; 100 = −9.22%
218
Next, reworking Prob. 5.16:
% VR =
ZC = z / y =
(a) γ l = z yl =
j 0.335 / j 4.807 &times; 10 −6 = 264 Ω
j 0.335 ( j 4.807 &times; 10 −6 ) ( 300 ) = j 0.3807 pu
(b) A = D = cos β l = cos ( 0.3807 radians ) = 0.9284 pu
B = jZ c sin β l = j 264sin ( 0.3807 radians ) = j 98.1 Ω
 1 
1
sin ( 0.3807 radians ) = j1.408 &times; 10 −3 S
C = j
 sin β l = j
264
Z
 C
114
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5.30
μ0
Ln ( Deq / DSL )
L1
z
ZC =
=
= 2π
y
C1
 Deq 
2πε 0 / Ln 

 DSC 

 D   D 
 Ln  eq  Ln  eq  
μ0 
 DSL   DSC  
ZC =


ε o  
π
2



Geometric factors
Characteristic 

impedence of 

free space
where
μ0
4π &times; 10 −7
=
= 377 Ω
ε0
 1 
−9
 36π  &times; 10


1
=
L1C1
ω=
1
 Deq 
μ0  Deq 
Ln 
 2πε 0 / Ln 

2π
 DSL 
 DSC 



 1  Ln ( Deq / DSC ) 

ω =

 μ ε   Ln ( D / D ) 
eq
SL
0
0

   
Free space
 Geometric factors 
velocity of
propagation
1
m
= 3.0 &times; 108
s
μ 0ε 0
 1

4π &times; 10 −7 
&times; 10 −9 
36
π


For the 765 kV line in Example 5.10,
where
1
=
(
)
Deq = 3 (14)(14)(28) = 17.64 m
3
 .0403 
DSL = 1.091 4 
 ( 0.457 ) = 0.202m
 3.28 
3
 1.196 
DSC = 1.0914 
 ( .0254 )( 0.457 ) = 0.213m
 2 

 17.64   17.64  
 Ln 
 Ln 

 0.202   0.213  

Z C = 377
= 267 Ω


2π




ω = 3 &times; 108
Ln (17.64 /.213 )
Ln (17.64 / .202 )
= 2.98 &times; 108
m
s
115
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5.31 (a) For a lossless line, β = ω LC = 2π ( 60 ) 0.97 &times; 0.0115 &times; 10 −9
ZC = L / C =
0.97 &times; 10 −3
= 290.43 Ω
0.0115 &times; 10 −6
Velocity of propagation υ =
1
LC
=
and the line wave length is λ = υ / f =
(b) VR =
1
0.97 &times; 0.0115 &times; 10 −9
= 2.994 &times; 105 km/s
)
(
1
2.994 &times; 103 = 4990 km
60
500
∠0&deg; kV = 288.675∠0&deg; kV
3
800
SR( 3φ ) =
∠ cos−1 0.8 = 800 + j 600 MVA = 1000∠36.87&deg; MVA
0.8
(1000∠ − 36.87&deg;)103 = 1154.7∠ − 36.87&deg; A
I R = S * R (3φ ) / 3VR* =
3 &times; 288.675∠0&deg;
Sending end voltage VS = cos β lVR + jZ c sin β lI R
β l = 0.001259 &times; 300 = 0.3777 rad = 21.641&deg;
∴VS = 0.9295 ( 288.675∠0&deg; ) + j ( 290.43 ) 0.3688 (1154.7∠ − 36.87&deg; ) (10 −3 )
= 356.53∠16.1&deg; kV
Sending end line-to-line voltage magnitude = 3 356.53
= 617.53 kV
IS = j
1
sin β lVR + cos β l I R
ZC
1
0.3688 ( 288.675∠0&deg; )103 + 0.9295 (1154.7∠ − 36.87&deg; )
290.43
= 902.3∠ − 17.9&deg; A; Line current = 902.3A
=j
SS (3φ ) = 3VS I S∗ = 3 ( 356.53∠16.1&deg; )( 902.3∠ − 17.9&deg; )10 −3
= 800 MW + j 539.672 MVAR
Percent voltage regulation =
( 356.53 / 0.9295) − 288.675 &times; 100
288.675
= 32.87%
5.32 (a) The line phase constant is β l =
2π
λ
360
λ
l=
360
315
3000
= 22.68&deg;
116
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P3φ =
VS puVR pu ( SIL )
sin β l
sin δ ; 700 =
(1.0 )( 0.9 )( SIL ) sin 36.87&deg;
sin 22.68&deg;
∴ SIL = 499.83MW
Since SIL =
( kV
L rated
)
2
Zc
MW, kVL =
Z c ( SIL ) =
( 320 )( 499.83)
= 400 kV
(b) The equivalent line reactance for a lossless line is
X ′ = Z c sin β l = 320 ( sin 22.68&deg; ) = 123.39 Ω
For a lossless line, the maximum power that can be transmitted under steady-state
condition occurs for a load angle of 90&deg;.
With VS = 1pu = 400 kV ( L − L ) , VR = 0.9 pu = 0.9 ( 400 ) kV ( L − L )
Theoretical Maximum Power =
( 400 )( 0.9 &times; 400 ) &times; 1
123.39
= 1167 MW
5.33 (a) V2 = Z C I 2 since the line is terminated in Z C .
Then V1 = V2 ( cosh γ l + sinh γ l ) = V2 eγ l = V2 eα l e jβ l
(1)
I1 = I 2 ( cosh γ l + sinh γ l ) = I 2 eγ l = I 2 eα l e j β l
∴
V1 V2
=
= ZC ←
I1 I 2
(b) V1 = V1 = V2 eα l or
(c)
( Note :γ
(2)
= α + jβ )
V2
= e −α l
V1
From (1) ←
I2
= e −α l
I1
From (2) ←
(d) − S21 = V2 I 2∗ = V1e −α l e − j β l I1∗e −α l e j β l
= S12 e−2α l
Thus −
S21
= e −2α l ←
S12
which is ( I 22 / I12 ) .
(e) Noting that α is real,
η=
− P21
= e −2α l ←
P12
117
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5.34 For a lossless line, Z C =
L
, Eq. (5.4.3) of text which is pure real, i.e. resistive.
C
γ = j β is pure imaginary; β = ω LC ; α = 0
∴
V2 I 2 −S21 − P21
= =
=
=η = 1
V1 I1
S12
P12
P12 = Re (V1 I1∗ ) = Re ZC I12 = Z C I12 Since Z C is real.
Since I1 = V1 / Z C , P12 = V12 / Z C ←
5.35 Open circuited  I 2 = 0; Lossless  α = 0; γ = j β .
Short line: V1 = V2
 ( γ l )2

ZY 
Medium Line: Nominal π : V1 =  1 +
 V2 =  1 +
2 
2


 ( β l )2 
 V2
= 1 −
2 


Long Line:Equiv. π :
V1 = V2 cosh γ l = V2 cos β l
 
 V2 
 
 

 ←





Note: The first two terms in the series expansion of
(βl)
cos β l are 1 −
2
2
While V1 = V2 in the case of short-line model, 

the voltage at the open receiving end is higher 
 ←
than that at the sending end,for small β l,for 

the medium and long-line models.
5.36 From Problem 5.7 solution, see Eq. (1)
VS2 = VR2 + 2VR I ( R cosφR + X sin φR ) + I 2 ( R 2 + X 2 )
Using P = VR I cosφR and Q = VR I sin φR , one gets
−VS2 + VR2 + 2 PR + 2QX +
1
( P 2 + Q 2 )( R 2 + X 2 ) = 0
VR2
(2)
In which only P and Q vary.
118
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For maximum power, dP / dQ = 0 :
dP
2 X + 2QC
R2 + X 2
=−
, Where C =
2 R + 2 PC
dQ
VR2
and for
V2X
dP
= 0, Q = − 2 R 2 ←
dQ
R +X
Substituting the above in (2), after some algebraic simplification, one gets
PMAX =

VR2  ZVS
− R ←
2 
Z  VR

where Z = R 2 + X 2 .
*
V −V  V 2 V V *
5.37 (a) S12 = V1 I1* = V1  1 2  = 1 * − 1 *2
Z
Z
 Z 
V12 j ∠Z V1V2 j ∠Z jθ12
−
← (1)
e
e e
Z
Z
which is the power sent by V1 .
=
S21 =
V22 j∠Z V2V1 j∠z − jθ12
e −
e e
Z
Z
V22 j∠z V2V1 j∠z − jθ12
←2
e +
e e
Z
Z
which is the power received by V2 .
and − S21 = −
(b)
(i)
With V1 = V2 = 1.0

 ←
− S21 = −1∠85&deg; + 1∠75&deg; = 0.1717 − j 0.0303
(ii) With V1 = 1.1 and V2 = 0.9
S12 = 1∠85&deg; − 1∠95&deg; = 0.1743
S12 = 1.21∠85&deg; − 0.99∠95&deg; = 0.1917 + j 0.2192 
 ←
− S21 = −0.81∠85&deg; + 0.99∠75&deg; = 0.1856 + j 0.1493

 ←
but Q12 and − Q21 have changed considerably.
Comparing, P12 has not changed much,
5.38 From Problem 5.14
A = 0.8794∠0.66&deg; pu;
B = Z ′ = 134.8∠85.3&deg; Ω;
A = 0.8794 and θ A = 0.66&deg;
Z ′ = 134.8 and θ Z = 85.3&deg;
Using Eq. (5.5.6)
119
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500 &times; 500 ( 0.8794 )( 500 )
cos ( 85.3&deg; − 0.66&deg; )
=
−
134.8
134.8
= 1854.6 − 152.4 = 1702 MW ( 3φ )
2
PR max
PR max
IR =
3 VR LL ( PF )
=
1702
3 ( 500 )(1.0 )
= 1.966 kA / Phase
From Table A.4, the thermal limit for 3 ACSR 1113 kcmil conductors is
3 &times; 1.11 = 3.33 kA/ p hase. The current 1.966 kA corresponding to the theoretical steady-state
stability limit is well below the thermal limit of 3.33 kA.
5.39
Line Length
Ω
ZC
pu
γl
pu
A=D
Ω
B
S
C
MW
PR max
200 km
282.6∠ − 2.45&deg;
600 km
282.6 ∠ − 2.45&deg;
0.2486∠87.55&deg;
0.9694∠0.1544&deg;
69.54∠85.15&deg;
8.71 &times; 10−4 ∠90.05&deg;
3291
0.7459∠87.55&deg;
0.7356∠1.685&deg;
191.8∠85.57&deg;
2.403 &times; 10−3 ∠90.47&deg;
1201
The thermal limit of 3.33 kA/phase corresponds to
and unity power factor.
5.40
3 ( 500 ) 3.33 = 2884 MW at 500 kV
A = 0.9285∠0.258&deg; pu; A = 0.9285, θ A = 0.258&deg;
B = Z ′ = 98.25∠86.69&deg; Ω ; Z ′ = 98.25,θ Z = 86.69&deg;
(a) Using Eq. (5.5.6)
500 &times; 500 0.9285(500)2
−
cos(86.69&deg; − 0.258&deg;)
98.25
98.25
= 2544.5 − 147 = 2397.5 MW
PR max =
(b) Using Eq. (5.5.4) with δ = θ Z :
QR =
− AVR2
−0.9285(500)2
sin (θ Z − θ A ) =
sin ( 86.69&deg; − 0.258&deg; )
98.25
Z′
QR = −2358 MVAR Delivered to receiving end
QR = +2358 MVAR Absorbed by line at the receiving end

Q 
2358 

Receiving end pf = cos  tan −1 R  = cos  tan −1
2397.5 
PR 


120
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5.41 (a)
Z = zl = ( 0.088 + j 0.465 )100 = 8.8 + j 46.5 Ω
Y yl
= = ( j 3.524 &times; 10 −6 )100 / 2 = j 0.1762 mS
2 2
Z base = V
( 230 )
=
2
= 529 Ω
100
∴ Z = ( 8.8 + j 46.5 ) / 529 = 0.0166 + j 0.088 pu
2
L base
S3φ base
Y
= j 0.1762 (1/ 0.529 ) = j 0.09321pu
2
The nominal π circuit for the medium line is shown below:
&lt;&lt;Figure 12&gt;&gt;
(b) S3φ rated = VL rated I L rated 3 = 230 ( 0.9 ) 3 = 358.5 MVA
ZY
= 1 + ( 8.8 + j 46.5 ) ( 0.1762 &times; 10 −3 ) = 0.9918∠0.1&deg;
2
B = Z = 8.8 + j 46.5 = 47.32∠79.3&deg; Ω
(c) A = D = 1 +
Z Y2
= 0.1755∠90.04&deg; mS
4
(d) SIL = VL2 rated Z C
C =Y +
ZC =
z
0.088 + j 0.465
=
&times; 103 = 366.6∠ − 5.36&deg; Ω
y
j 3.524
∴ SIL = ( 230 ) 366.6 = 144.3MVA
2
5.42
&deg;
2π
360
 360 
βl =
l =
( 500 ) = 36&deg;
λ
 λ  5000
Using Eq. (5.4.29) of the text,
460 =
1.0 &times; 0.9 ( SIL )
sin 36.87&deg;
sin 36&deg;
1 &times; 0.9 &times; SIL
=
( 0.6 )
0.5878
From which SIL = 500.7 MW
From Eq. (5.4.21) of the text,
VL − L =
( ZC ) SIL = ( 500.7 ) 500 = 500.3 kV
121
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Nominal voltage level for the transmission line is
500 kV ←
For Δ loss less line, X ′ = Z C sin β l
= 500sin 36&deg; = 293.9 Ω
From Eq. (5.4.27) of the text,
P3φ max =
( 500 )( 0.9 &times; 500 ) = 765.6 MW
293.9
←
5.43 The maximum amount of real power that can be transferred to the load at unity pf with a bus
voltage greater than 0.9 pu (688.5 kV) is 2950 MW.
5.44 The maximum about of reactive power transfer that can be transferred to the load with a bus
voltage greater than 0.9 pu is 650 Mvar.
5.45 (a) Using Eq. (5.5.3) with δ = 35&deg;
( 500 )( 0.95 &times; 500 )
cos ( 85.3&deg; − 35&deg; ) −
134.8
= 1125.4 − 137.5 = 987.9 MW (3φ )
PR =
( 0.8794 )( 0.95 &times; 500 )
134.8
2
cos ( 85.3&deg; − 0.66&deg; )
122
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PR = 988 MW is the practical line loadability provided that the voltage drop limit and
thermal limits are not exceeded.
PR
987.9
=
= 1.213 kA
(b) I R FL =
3 VR LL ( PF )
3 ( 0.95 &times; 500 )( 0.99 )
(c) VS = AVR FL + B I R FL
500
∠δ = ( 0.8794∠0.66&deg; ) (VR FL ∠0&deg; ) + (134.8∠85.3&deg; )(1.213∠8.109&deg; )
3
288.68∠δ = 0.8794VR FL ∠0.66&deg; + 163.5∠93.41&deg;
288.68∠δ = ( 0.8793VR FL − 9.725 ) + j ( 0.01013VR FL + 163.21)
Taking the squared magnitude of the above equation:
83333 = 0.7733VR2 FL − 13.8 VR FL + 26732
VR FL =
13.8 +
(13.8)
2
+ 4 ( 0.7733)( 56601)
2 ( 0.7733)
= 279.6 kVL − N
VR FL = 279.6 3 = 484.3kVL − L = 0.969 pu
(d) VR NL = VS /A = 500 0.8794 = 568.6kVL − L
568.6 − 484.3
&times; 100 = 17%
484.3
(e) From Problem 5.38, thermal limit is 3.33 kA. Since VR FL / VS = 484.3 / 500
% VR =
= 0.969 &gt; 0.95, and the thermal limit of 3.33 kA is greater than 1.213kA, the voltage
drop it and thermal limits are not exceeded at PR = 987.9MW. Therefore, loadability is
determined by stability.
5.46
A = 0.9739∠0.0912&deg; pu; A = 0.9739, θ A = 0.0912&deg;
B = Z = 60.48∠86.6&deg; Ω; Z = 60.48, θ Z = 86.6&deg;
(a) Using Eq. (5.5.3) with δ = 35&deg; :
500 ( 0.95 &times; 500 )
cos ( 86.6&deg; − 35&deg; ) −
60.48
= 2439.2 − 221.2 = 2218 MW ( 3φ )
PR =
0.9739 ( 0.95 &times; 500 )
60.48
2
cos ( 86.6&deg; − 0.0912&deg; )
PR = 2218 MW is the line loadability if the voltage drop and thermal limits are not
exceeded.
PR
2218
=
= 2.723 kA
(b) I R FL =
3VR LL ( pf )
3 ( 0.95 &times; 500 )( 0.99 )
(c) VS = AVR + BI R
123
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500
3
∠δ = ( 0.9739∠0.0912&deg; ) VR FL ∠0&deg; + 60.48∠86.6&deg; ( 2.723∠8.11&deg; )
288.68∠δ = ( 0.9739 VR FL − 13.55 ) + j ( 0.0016VR FL + 164.14 )
Taking the squared magnitude of the above
83,333 = 0.93664VR2FL − 25.6VR FL + 27,126
VR FL =
25.60 +
( 25.60 ) + 4 (.93664 )( 56,207 )
= 250.68 kVLN
2 ( 0.9678 )
2
VR FL = 250.68 3 = 434.18 kVLL = 0.868 per unit for this load current, 2.723 kA, the
voltage drop limit VR / VS = 0.95 is exceeded. The thermal limit, 3.33 kA is not
exceeded. Therefore the voltage drop limit determines loadability for this line. Based on
VR FL = .95 per unit , IRFL is calculated as follows:
VS = AVR FL + B I R FL
 0.95 &times; 500

∠δ = ( 0.9739∠0.0912&deg; ) 
∠0&deg;  + 60.48∠86.6&deg; ( I R FL ∠8.11&deg; )
3
3


288.68∠δ = 267.09∠0.0912&deg; + 60.48 I R FL ∠94.71&deg;
500
= ( −4.966 I R FL + 267.09 ) + j ( 60.28 I R FL + 0.4251)
Taking squared magnitudes;
83,333 = 3658 I R2 FL − 2601 I R FL + 71,337
I R FL =
2601 +
( 2601) + 4 ( 3658 )(11,996 )
= 2.2 kA
2 ( 3658 )
2
At 0.99 pf leading, the practical line loadability for the line is
PR = 3 ( 0.95 &times; 500 ) 2.2 ( 0.99 ) = 1792 MW
which is based on the voltage drop limit VR / VS = 0.95.
(d) VR NL = VS / A = 500 / 0.9739 = 513.4 kVLL
% VR =
513.4 ( 500 &times; 0.95 )
500 &times; 0.95
&times; 100 = 8.08%
124
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5.47 (a) l = 200kM; The steady-state limit is:
PR =
−
500 ( 0.95 &times; 500 )
69.54
cos ( 86.15&deg; − 35&deg; )
0.9694 ( 0.95 &times; 500 )
69.54
= 1914 MW
I R FL =
PR
3 VR FL ( PF )
=
2
cos ( 85.14&deg; − 0.154&deg; )
1914
3 ( 0.95 &times; 500 )( 0.99 )
= 2.35 kA
VS = AVR FL + B I R FL
500
3
∠δ = ( 0.9694∠0.154&deg; ) (VR FL ∠0&deg; ) + ( 69.54∠85.15&deg; )( 2.35∠8.109&deg; )
288.675∠δ = ( 0.9694VR FL − 9.29 ) + j ( 0.0026VR FL + 163.1)
Taking the squared magnitude:
83333. = 0.9397 VR2FL − 17.16VR FL + 26707
Solving
VR FL =
17.16 +
(17.16 ) + 4 ( 0.9397 )( 56626 )
= 254.8kVL − N
2 ( 0.9397 )
2
VR FL = 254.8 3 = 441.3kVL −L = 0.8825 pu
The voltage drop limit VR FL VS ≥ 0.95 is not satisfied.
At the voltage drop limit:
VS = AVR FL + B I R FL
 0.95 &times; 500

∠δ = ( 0.9694 ∠0.154&deg; ) 
∠0&deg;  +
3
3


500
( 69.54∠85.15&deg;) ( I R FL ∠8.109&deg; )
288.675∠δ = ( 265.85 − 3.953I R FL ) + j ( 0.715 + 69.4 I R FL )
83333 = 70677 − 2003 I R FL + 4836 I R2 FL
I R FL =
2003 +
( 2003) + 4 ( 4836 )(12656 )
= 1.84 kA
2 ( 4836 )
2
The practical line loadability for this 200-km line is
PR FL = 3 ( 0.95 &times; 500 )1.84 ( 0.99 ) = 1499 MW
at VR FL VS = 0.95pu and at 0.99 pf leading.
125
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(b) l = 600 kM
PR =
500 ( 0.95 &times; 500 )
cos ( 85.57&deg; − 35&deg; ) −
0.7356 ( 0.95 &times; 500 )
191.8
= 786.5 − 92.3 = 694.2 MW
191.8
2
cos ( 85.57&deg; − 1.685&deg; )
The practical line loadability is 694.2 MW corresponding to steady-state stibility for the
600-km line.
5.48 (a) SIL = ( 345 ) 300 = 396.8MW
2
Neglecting losses and using Eq. (5.4.29)
P=
1 &times; 0.95 ( SIL ) sin 35&deg;
 2π ( 300 )

sin 
 5000

Number of 345-kV lines =
(b) For 500-kV lines, SIL =
= 1.48 ( SIL ) = 1.48 ( 396.8 ) = 587.3 MW/line
2000
+ 1 = 3.4 + 1  5Lines
587.3
( 500 )
2
= 909.1MW
275
P = 1.48 ( SIL ) = 1.48 &times; 909.1 = 1345.6MW/ Line
Number of 500-kV Lines =
(c) For 765-kV lines, SIL =
2000
+ 1 = 1.49 + 1  3Lines
1345.6
( 765)
2
= 2250.9 MW
260
P = 1.48 ( SIL ) = 1.48 &times; 2250.9 = 3331.3MW/ Line
Number of 765-kV lines =
2200
+ 1 = 0.6 + 1  2 Lines
3331.3
5.49 (a) Using Eq. (5.4.29):
1 &times; 0.95 ( SIL ) sin 35&deg;
= 1.48 ( SIL )
 2π ( 300 )

sin 
 5000

P = 1.48 ( 396.8 ) = 587.3MW / 345 − kV Line
P=
3200
+ 1 = 5.4 + 1  7Lines
587.3
P = 1.48 ( 909.1) = 1345.5MW / 500 − kV Line
#345-kV Lines =
3200
+ 1 = 2.4 + 1  4 Lines
1345.5
P = 1.48(2250.9) = 3331.3MW / 765 − kV Line
#500-kV Lines =
126
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3200
+ 1 = 0.96 + 1  2 Lines
3331.3
(1)(.95 )( SIL )( sin 35&deg; ) = 1.131 SIL
(b) P =
( )
 2π &times; 400

sin 
 5000

#765-kV Lines =
P = 1.131( 396.8 ) = 448.8 MW / 345 − kV Line
2000
+ 1 = 4.5 + 1 = 6 Lines
448.8
P = (1.131)( 909.1) = 1028.3MW / 500 kV Line
#345-kV Lines =
2000
+ 1 = 1.94 + 1 = 3Lines
1028.3
P = (1.131)( 2250.9 ) = 2545.9MW / 765 kV Line
#500-kV Lines =
#765-kV Lines =
5.50
2000
+ 1 = 0.79 + 1 = 2 Lines
2545.9
β l = ( 9.46 &times; 10 −4 ) ( 300 )(180 / π ) = 16.26&deg;
Real power for one transmission circuit P = 3600 / 4 = 900 MW
From the practical line loadability, P3φ =
VS puVR pu ( SIL )
sin β l
sin δ
(1.0)(0.9)(SIL )
sin(36.87&deg;)
sin16.26&deg;
From which SIL = 466.66 MW
or
900 =
Since SIL = ( kVL rated )

kVL =
2
Z C ( SIL ) =
Z C  MW

( 343 ) (466.66 = 400 kV
| VR || VS | ∠β − δ  | A || VR |2 ∠β − α
−
|B|
|B|
(a) The phasor diagram corresponding to the above equation is shown below:
5.51 To show: PR + jQR =
127
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(b) By shifting the origin from 0′ to 0, the power diagram is shown in Fig. (b) above.
For a given load and a given value of | VR | , 0′ A = | VR | | VS | | B | the loci of point A will
be a set of circles of radii 0′ A, one for each of the set of values of | VS | . Portions of
two such circles (known as receiving-end circles) are shown below:
(c) Line 0A in the figure above is the load line whose intersection with the power circle
determines the operating point. Thus, for a load (with a lagging power-factor angel θ R )
A and C are the operating points corresponding to sending-end voltages | VS1 | and
| VS 2 | , respectively. These operating points determine the real and reactive power
received for the two sending-end voltages.
The reactive power that must be supplied at the receiving end in order to maintain
constant | VR | when the sending-end voltage decreases from | VS1 | to | VS 2 | is given by
AB, which is parallel to the reactive-power axis.
5.52 (a) See Problem 5.37(a) solution: Eqs. (1) and (2) with the substitution of Z ′ for Z ,
adding the contribution of the complex power consumed by Y ′ / 2 , using Eq. (1) of
Problem 5.37(a) solution, one gets
S12 =
Y ′* 2 V12 V1V2 jθ12
V1 + * − * e
←
Z
Z
2
Similarly, subtracting the complex power consumed in
Y′
(on the right-hand side in
2
Fig. 5.17),
For the received power, one has
− S21 = −
Y ′* 2 V22 V1V2 − jθ12
V2 − * + * e
←
Z′
Z′
2
Except for the additional constant terms, the equations have the same form as those in
PR. 5.37.
128
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(b) For a lossless line, Z C = L / C is purely real and γ = j β is purely imaginary. Also
Y′ = Y
tanh ( γ l / 2 )
γ l/2
= jω c
tan ( β l / 2 )
βl / 2
and Z ′ = Z C sinh(γ l )
which becomes jZ C sinh( β l ) .
Note: Y ′ is now the admittance of a pure capacitance;
Z ′ is now the impedance of a pure inductance.
Active power transmitted, P12 = − P21
And P12 =
V12 sin θ12
←
Z C sin ( β l )
Using Eq. (5.4.21) of the text for SIL
P12 = PSIL
sin θ12
←
sin ( β l )
(c) For β l = 0.002l radians = (0.1146l )&deg; , and θ12 = 45&deg; ,
Applying the result of part (b), one gets
P12
1
= 0.707
←
sin ( 0.1146l ) &deg;
PSIL
(d) Thermal limit governs the short lines;
 ←
Stability limit prevails for long lines. 
5.53 The maximum power that can be delivered to the load is 10,250 MW.
5.54 For 8800 MW at the load the load bus voltage is maintained above 720 kV even if 2 lines
are taken out of service (8850 MW may be OK since the voltage is 719.9 kV).
129
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5.55 From Problem 5.23, the shunt admittance of the equivalent π circuit without compensation is
Y ′ = G ′ + jB′ = 2 (1.57 &times; 10 −6 + j8.981 &times; 10 −4 ) = ( 3.14 &times; 10 −6 + j1.796 &times; 10 −3 ) S
With 65% shunt compensation, the equivalent shunt admittance is
65 

−6
−4
Yeq = 3.14 &times; 10 −6 + j1.796  1 −
 = 3.14 &times; 10 + j 6.287 &times; 10
 100 
= 6.287 &times; 10 −4 ∠89.71&deg; S
Since there is no series compensation
Z eq = Z ′ = 134.8∠85.3&deg; Ω
The equivalent A parameter of the compensated line is
Yeq Z eq
1
( 6.287 &times; 10 −4 ∠89.71&deg;) (134.8∠85.3&deg;)
2
2
= 0.9578∠0.22&deg; pu
Aeq = 1 +
=1+
VR NL = VS Aeq = 526.14 0.9578 = 549.6 kVL − L
where VS is obtained from Problem 5.15.
VR FL = 475kVL − L is the same as given in Problem 5.15, since the shunt reactors are removed
% VR =
VR NL − VR FL
VR FL
&times; 100 =
549.6 − 475
&times; 100 = 15.7%
475
The impedance of each shunt reactor is
−1
 B′

1

Z reactor = j  ( 0.65 )  = j  &times; 1.796 &times; 10−3 &times; 0.65
2

2

−1
= j 1713 Ω / phase, at each end of the line.
5.56 (a) VS = 653.7 kVLL (same as Problem 5.17)
Yeq = 2 6.37 &times; 10 −7 + j 7.294 &times; 10 −4 (1 − 0.5 )  from Problem 5.18
= 1.274 &times; 10 −6 + j 7.294 &times; 10 −4 = 7.294 &times; 10 −4 ∠87.5&deg; S
Z eq = Z ′ = 98.25∠86.69&deg; Ω
Yeq Z eq
1
( 7.294 &times; 10 −4 ∠87.5&deg; ) ( 98.25∠86.69&deg; )
2
2
= 1 + 0.0358∠174.19&deg; = 0.9644 + j 0.0036 = 0.9644∠0.21&deg;
Aeq = 1 +
=1+
130
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VRNL = VS / Aeq = 653.7 / 0.9644 = 677.8 kVLL
677.8 − 480
&times; 100 = 41.2%
480
(b) VS = 556.7 kVLL (same as Problem 5.17)
% VR =
VR NL = VS / A = 556.7 / 0.9644 = 577.3 kVLL
577.3 − 480
&times; 100 = 20.3%
480
(c) VS = 435.1kVLL (same as Problem 5.17)
% VR =
VR NL = VS / A = 435.1/ 0.9644 = 451.2 kVLL
% VR =
451.2 − 480
&times; 100 = −6%
480
5.57 From Problem 5.23
Z ′ = R′ + jX ′ = (11.0 + j134.3 ) Ω
Based on 40% series compensation, half at each end of the line, the impedance of each
series capacitor is
Z CAP = − jXCAP = − j
1
( 0.4 )(134.3) = − j 26.86 Ω / phase (at each end)
2
Using the ABCD parameters from Problem 5.14, the equivalent ABCD parameters of the
compensated line are
 Aeq

C
 eq
Beq   1 − j 26.86   0.8794∠0.66&deg;
134.8∠85.3&deg; 
=



−3
Deq  0
1  1.688 &times; 10 ∠90.2&deg; 0.8794∠0.66&deg;

compensated line
Sending-end
series capacitors
uncompensated line
 1 − j 26.86 
0
1 

receiving-end
series capacitors
 Aeq

C
 eq
Beq  0.9248∠0.64&deg; 86.66∠82.31&deg; 
=
Deq   1.688∠90.2&deg; 0.9248∠0.64&deg; 

5.58 From Problem 5.16:
(a) Z ′ = B = 98.25∠86.69&deg; = 5.673 + j 98.09 Ω
Impedance of each series capacitor is
1
Z CAP = − jXCAP = − j   0.3 ( 98.09 ) = − j14.71 Ω
2
131
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Equivalent ABCD parameters of the compensated line are
 Aeq

Ceq
Beq   1 − j14.71  0.9285∠0.258&deg;
98.25∠86.69&deg;  1 − j14.71
=


−3
1  1.405 &times; 10 ∠90.09&deg; 0.9285∠0.258&deg; 0
1 
Deq   0

Sending end
series capacitors
Uncompansated line from Pr. 5.13
Receiving end
series capacitors
84.62∠86.12&deg; 
 1 − j14.71  0.9285∠0.258&deg;
=


−3
1  1.405 &times; 10 ∠90.19&deg; 0.9492∠0.2535&deg;
 0
71.45∠80.5&deg; 
 0.9492∠0.2553&deg;
=

−3
1.405 &times; 10 ∠90.09&deg; 0.9492∠0.2535&deg;
(b) Aeq = 0.9492, θ A = 0.2553&deg;
Beq = Z eq′ = 71.45 Ω, θ Z eq = 80.5&deg;
From Eq. (5.5.6) with VS = VR = 500 kVLL
500 &times; 500 ( 0.9492 )( 500 )
−
cos ( 80.5&deg; − 0.2553&deg; )
71.45
71.45
= 3499 − 563 = 2936 MW ( 3φ )
2
PR MAX =
which is 22.5% larger than the value.
Pmax = 2397.5 MW calculated in Problem 5.40 for the uncompensated line.
5.59 From Problem 5.57:
Aeq = 0.9248 pu; θ A = 0.64&deg;
Beq = Z eq′ = 86.66 Ω ; θ Zeq = 82.31&deg;
From Eq. (5.5.6), with VS = VR = 500 kVL − L
500 &times; 500 0.9248(500) 2
−
cos ( 82.31&deg; − 0.64&deg; )
86.66
86.66
= 2885 − 387 = 2498 MW (3φ )
PR max =
which is 46.7% larger than the value PR max = 1702 MW calculated in Problem 5.38 for the
uncompensated line.
5.60 Let X eq be the equivalent series reactance of one 765-kV, 500 km, series compensated line.
The equivalent series reactance of four lines with two intermediate substations and one line
section out-of-service is then:
12
 11

 X eq  +  X eq  = 0.2778 X eq
4 3
 3 3

132
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From Eq. (5.4.26) with δ = 35&deg;, VR = 0.95per unit , and P = 9000 MW;
P=
( 765 )(.95 &times; 765) sin ( 35&deg;) = 9000.
.2778 X eq
Solving for X eq :
N 
N 


X eq = 127.54 Ω = X ′  1 − C  = 156.35  1 − C 
 100 
 100 
Solving: N C = 18.4% series capacitive compensation ( N C = 21.6% including 4% line
losses).
5.61
Z CAP = − j
YREAC = − j
 Aeq

Ceq
134.3  40 
X ′  NC 
= −j
= − j 26.86 Ω


2  100 
2  100 
8.981 &times; 10 −4  65 
B′ N L
= −j
= − j 2.92 &times; 10 −4 S


2 100
2
 100 
Beq  1
0   1 − j 26.86 
=
−4
1   0
1 
Deq   − j 2.92 &times; 10

Sending-end
Sending-end
shunt compensation
series compensation
134.8∠85.3&deg; 
 0.8794∠0.66&deg;
1.688 &times; 10 −3 ∠90.2&deg; 0.8794∠0.66&deg;  &times;


Line
1
 1 − j 26.86  
&times;


1   − j 2.92 &times; 10 −4
 0
Receiving end
series compensation
0
1 
Receiving end
shunt compensation
After multiplying the above 5 matrices, the answer can be obtained.
133
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5.62 See solution of Pr. 5.18 for γ l, Z C ,cosh γ l, and sinh γ l .
For the uncompensated line:
A = D = cosh γ l = 0.8904∠1.34&deg;
B = Z ′ = ZC′ sinh γ l = 186.78∠79.46&deg; Ω
C=
sinh γ l 0.4596∠84.94&deg;
=
= 0.001131∠90.42&deg; S
Z C′
406.4∠ − 5.48&deg;
Noting that the series compensation only alters the series arm of the equivalent π -circuit,
the new series arm impedance is
′ = Bnew = 186.78∠79.46&deg; − j 0.7 &times; 230 ( 0.8277 ) = 60.88∠55.85&deg; Ω
Z new
In which 0.8277 is the imaginary part of z = 0.8431∠79.04&deg; Ω / mi
Nothing that A =
Y′
1 cosh γ l − 1
Z ′Y ′
+ 1 and
=
= 0.000399∠89.82&deg; S
2 Z C′ sinh γ l
2
Anew = ( 60.88∠55.85&deg; &times; 0.000599∠89.81&deg; ) + 1 = 0.97∠1.24&deg;

Z ′Y ′ 
Z ′Y ′2
Cnew = Y ′  1 +
 =Y′+
4 
4

= 2 &times; 0.000599∠89.81&deg; + 60.88∠55.85&deg; ( 0.000599∠89.81&deg; )
2
= 0.00118∠90.41&deg; S
The series compensation has reduced the parameter B to about one-third of its value for the
uncompensated line, without affecting the A and C parameter appreciably.
Thus, the maximum power that can be transmitted is increased by about 300%.
5.63 The shunt admittance of the entire line is
Y = yl = − j 5.105 &times; 10 −6 &times; 230 = − j 0.001174S
With 70% compensation, Ynew = 0.7 &times; (− j 0.001174) = − j 0.000822S
From Fig. 5.4 of the text, for the case of ‘shunt admittance’,
A = D = 1; B = 0; C = Y
∴ C = Ynew = − j 0.000822S
For the uncompensated line, the A, B, C , D parameters are calculated in the solution of
Pr. 5.49.
For ‘series networks’, see Fig.5.4 of the text to modify the parameters. So for the line with a
shunt inductor,
Aeq = 0.8904∠1.34&deg; + 186.78∠79.46&deg; ( 0.000822∠ − 90&deg; )
= 1.0411∠ − 0.4&deg;
134
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The voltage regulation with the shunt reactor connected at no load is given by
(137.86 /1.0411) − 124.13 = 0.0667
124.13
which is a considerable reduction compared to 0.247 for the regulation of the
uncompensated line. (see solution of Pr. 5.18)
5.64 (a) From the solution of Pr. 5.31,
Z C = 290.43 Ω; β l = 21.641&deg;
For a lossless line, the equivalent line reactance is given by
X ′ = ZC sin β l = (290.43)sin 21.641&deg; = 107.11 Ω
The receiving end power SR (3φ ) = 1000∠ cos−1 0.8 = 800 + j600 MVA
VS ( L − L )VR( L − L )
sin δ , the power angel δ is obtained from
X′
800 = ( 500 &times; 500 /107.11) sin δ
Since P3φ =
or δ = 20.044&deg;
The receiving end reactive power is given by (approximately)
QR( 3φ ) =
VS ( L − L )VR ( L − L )
X′
cos δ −
VR2( L − L )
X′
cos β l
( 500 ) cos 21.641&deg;
500 &times; 500
=
cos ( 20.044&deg; ) −
(
)
107.11
107.11
= 23.15MVAR
2
Then the required capacitor MVAR is SC = j 23.15 − j 600 = − j 576.85
The capacitive reactance is given by (see Eq. 2.3.5 in text)
XC =
or
C=
− jVL2
− j 500 2
=
= 433.38 Ω
SC
− j 567.85
106
= 6.1μ F
2π ( 60 ) 433.38
(b) For 40% compensation, the series capacitor reactance per phase is
X ser = 0.4 X ′ = 0.4 (107.1) = 42.84 Ω
The new equivalent π -circuit parameters are given by
Z ′ = j ( X ′ − X ser ) = j64.26 Ω; Y ′ = j
2
 βl 
tan   = j 0.001316S
ZC
 2 
Bnew = j 64.26 Ω; Anew = 1 +
Z ′Y ′
= 0.9577
2
135
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The receiving end voltage per phase VR =
500
3
∠0&deg; kV = 288.675∠0&deg; kV
The receiving end current is I R = SR*( 3φ ) / 3VR*
1000∠ − 36.87&deg;
= 1.1547∠ − 36.87&deg; kA
3 &times; 288.675∠0&deg;
The sending end voltage is then given by
Thus I R =
VS = AVR + B I R = 326.4∠10.47&deg; kV; VS ( L − L ) = 3 326.4 = 565.4 kV
Percent voltage regulation =
( 565.4 / 0.958 ) − 500 &times; 100 = 18%
500
5.65 The maximum amount of real power which can be transferred to the load at unity pf with a
bus voltage greater than 0.9 pu is 3900 MW.
5.66 The maximum amount of real power which can be transferred to the load at unity pf with a
bus voltage greater than 0.9 pu is 3400 MW (3450 MW may be OK since pu voltage is 0.8985).
136
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Chapter 6
Power Flows
6.1 Nonzero
6.2 Upper triangular
6.3 Diagonal; lower triangular
6.4 b
6.5
∂ f1
∂ x1
∂ f1
∂f
 1
∂ x2 ∂ xN
6.6
6.7
6.8
a
a
Independent
6.9
P1 , Q1
6.10
Vk , δ k
6.11
Pk &amp; Vk ; Qk &amp; δ k
6.12
− PLk ; − QLk
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
6.19
6.20
6.21
6.22
6.23
6.24
6.25
Bus data, transmission line data, transformer data
a
a
a
Newton-Raphson
Real power, reactive power
Negative
a
Sparse
Storage, time
a
a
a
137
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6.1
5
10
10 x1  0 
− 25
 5 − 10
5
0 x2  2 

 10
5 − 10
10 x3  = 1 

   
0
0 − 20 x4  − 2
 10
There are N − 1 = 3 Gauss elimination steps.
Step 1: Use equation 1 to eliminate x1 from equations 2, 3, and 4.
 −25 5 10 10   x1   0 
 
 0 −9 7
2   x2   2 

=
 0
7 −6 14   x3   1 

   
2 4 −16   x4   −2 
 0
Step 2: Use equation 2 to eliminate x2 from equations 3 and 4.
 −25 5 10
 0 −9 7


−5
0
 0
9

50

0
 0
9
10 
 0 

 2 
x


2  1

  
140   x2  =  23 



9   x3   9 
 
−140   x4   14 
 − 9 
9 
Step 3: Use equation 3 to eliminate x3 from equation 4.
− 25 5 10 10  x   0 
 0
  1  2 
−
9
7
2

 x2   

5 140   = 23
x
0 −
 0
9
9   3  9 


 
0
0 140 x4  24
 0
The matrix is now triangular. Solving via back substitution,
6
35
1
x3 =
5
1
x2 = −
35
1
x1 =
7
x4 =
6.2
 6 2 1   x1   3 
 4 10 2   x  =  4 

 2  
 3 4 14   x3   2 
138
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There are N − 1 = 2 Gauss elimination steps.
Step 1: Use equation 1 to eliminate x1 from equations 2 and 3.
6

0


0
2
26
3
3
1   x1  3 
4  x2  = 2 
3  x  1 
 3
27 
2

2
Step 2: Use equation 2 to eliminate x2 from equation 3.
6

0


0
2
26
3
0
1  x1   3 
4  x2  =  2 
3  x   5 
 3 −
339
 26

26 
The matrix is now triangular. Solving via back substitution,
5
339
79
x2 =
339
48
x1 =
113
x3 = −
6.3
4 2 1  x1  3
4 10 2    = 4

 x2   
3 4 14 x3  2
There are N − 1 = 2 Gauss elimination steps.
Step 1: Use equation 1 to eliminate x1 from equations 2 and 3.
4
0


0
2
8
5
2
1   x1  3 
1  x2  = 1 
53 x3  − 1
 4 
4 
Step 2: Use equation 2 to eliminate x2 from equation 3.
4 2
0 8


0 0
1  x1   3 
1  x2  =  1 
207  x3   9 
− 16
16 
139
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The matrix is now triangular. Solving via back substitution,
1
23
3
x2 =
23
16
x1 =
23
x3 = −
6.4
− 10 10   x1   10

 =

 5 − 5 x2  − 10
If we perform Gauss elimination, we arrive at:
− 10 10  x1  10
 0 0 x  = − 5

  2  
nd
The 2 row says that
0 x1 + 0 x2 = − 5
Clearly, this is not possible.
The problem in this case is that the system we started with is indeterminate. That is,
− 10 10
=0
5 −5
This system has no solution.
6.5
From Eq. (7.1.6), back substitution is given by:
Xk =
yk − Ak ,k +1 X k +1 − Ak ,k + 2 X k + 2  − Ak , N X N
Akk
which requires one division, (N − k) multiplications and (N − k) subtractions for
each k = N ,( N − 1)1 .
Summary- Back Substitution
Solving for
# Divisions
# Multiplications
# Subtractions
XN−1
1
1
0
1
0
1
XN−2
1
2
2
X1

1
(N−1)
(N−1)
Totals
N
XN
N −1
i =
i =1
N ( N − 1)
2
N −1
i =
i =1
N ( N − 1)
2
140
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6.6
−0.3333 −0.1667 
 0

M = D ( D − A) =  −0.4
0
−0.2 
 −0.2143 −0.2857
0 
6 0 0 
D = 0 10 0 
0 0 14 
−1
x (i + 1) = Mx (i) + D −1 B
x1 = 0.4243 x 2 = 0.2325 x 3 = −0.0152 after 10 iterations
6.7
6 0 0 
 0 −0.3333 −0.1667 


−1
D =  4 10 0  M = D ( D − A) =  0 0.1333 −0.1333
 3 4 14 
 0 0.0333 0.0738 
x (i + 1) = Mx (i) + D −1 B
x1 = 0.4249 x 2 = 0.2330 x 3 = −0.0148 after 4 iterations
The Gauss-Seidel method converges over twice as fast as the Jacobi method.
6.8
10 − 2 − 4  x1  − 2
− 2 6 − 2 x  =  3

  2  
− 4 − 2 10 x3  − 1
10 0 0
D =  0 6 0
 0 0 10
1
10

−1
D =0


0


0

1
−1
M = D (D − A) = 
3
2

5
1
5
0
1
5

0

1
0
6

1
0

10
0
2
5

1
3

0

Expressing in the form of Eq. (6.2.6)

0
 x1 (i + 1) 

 1
x2 (i + 1) =  3
x3 (i + 1) 
2

5
1
5
0
1
5
2
1

5  x (i ) 10
 1

1 
+0
(
)
x
i
3  2  
 x3 (i ) 
0
0



0
 − 2
1
0   3 
6

1  − 1
0

10 
0
141
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Using
1
x(0) = 1
0
we arrive at the following table:
i
0
x1
1
0
0.1667
x2
1
0.8333
0.6667
0.5778
x3
0
0.5
0.0667
0.1
–0.0004
ε
Inf
Inf
1.24
1.0044
30
1
2
3
–0.04
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
–0.0444
–0.0962
–0.1085
–0.1239
–0.1303
–0.1355
–0.1382
0.485
0.4633
0.45
0.4418
0.4367
0.4336
–0.0138
–0.0415
–0.0507
–0.0596
–0.0638
–0.0668
2.0095
0.2235
0.1741
0.0704
0.0484
0.52
ε for iteration 9 is less than 0.05.
∴ x1 = − 0.14
x2 = 0.43
x3 = − 0.07
6.9
x2 − 3 x1 + 1.9 = 0
x2 + x12 − 3.0 = 0
Rearrange to solve for x1 and x2 :
x1 =
1
x + 0.6333
3 2
x2 = 3.0 − x12
Starting with an initial guess of x1 (0) = 1 and x2 (0) = 1
1
x1 (1) = x2 (0) + 0.6333 = 0.9667
3
x2 (1) = 3 − [ x1 (0)]2 = 2
We repeat this procedure using the general equations
1
x1 (n + 1) = x2 (n) + 0.6333
3
x2 (n + 1) = 3 − [ x1 (n)]2
n
0
x1
1
x2
1
1
2
3
...
0.9667 1.3
1.3219
...
1.1746 1.1735
1.1734
1.1743
2.0
1.31
...
1.6205 1.6202
1.6229
1.6231
2.0656
47
48
49
50
142
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After 50 iterations, x1 and x2 have a precision of 3 significant digits.
x1 = 1.17
x2 = 1.62
6.10
x2 − 4 x + 1 = 0
Rearrange to solve for x:
1 2 1
x +
4
4
Using the general form
x=
1
1
x(n + 1) = [ x(n)]2 +
and x(0) = 1
4
4
we can obtain the following table:
n
0
1
2
3
4
x
1
0.5
0.3125
0.2744
0.2688
ε
0.5
0.375
0.1219
0.0204
0.0028
5
0.2681
ε (4) = 0.0028 &lt; 0.01
∴ x = 0.27
x=
−b &plusmn; b2 − 4 ac
2a
4 &plusmn; (− 4)2 − 4
2
x = 0.268, 3.732
x=
Note: There does not exist an initial guess which will give us the second solution x = 3.732.
6.11 After 100 iterations the Jacobi method does not converge.
After 100 iterations the Gauss-Seidel method does not converge.
6.12 Rewriting the given equations,
x1 =
x2
+ 0.633; x2 = 1.8 − x12
3
With an initial guess of x1 (0) = 1 and x2 (0) = 1,
update x1 with the first equation above, and x2 with the second equation.
Thus
and
x2 (0)
1
+ 0.633 = + 0.633 = 0.9663
3
3
2
x2 = 1.8 − x1 (0) = 1.8 − 1 = 0.8
x1 =
143
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In succeeding iterations, compute more generally as
x1 (n + 1) =
x2 ( n )
+ 0.633
3
x2 (n + 1) = 1.8 − x12 (n)
and
After several iterations, x1 = 0.938 and x2 = 0.917 .
After a few more iterations, x1 = 0.93926 and x2 = 0.9178 .
However, note that an “uneducated guess” of initial values, such as x1 (0) = x2 (0) = 100 ,
would have caused the solution to diverge.
6.13
x1 =

1  − 1 + 0.5 j
− j10 &times; x2 − j10

*
− 20 j 
x1

x2 =

1 −3 + j
− j10 &times; x1 − j10

*
− 20 j  x2

Rewriting in the general form:

1  − 1 + 0.5 j
− j10 &times; x2 (n) − j10

*
− 20 j  [ x1 (n)]

1  −3 + j

x2 (n + 1) =
− j10 &times; x1 (n + 1) − j10
− 20 j [ x2 (n)]*

x1 (n + 1) =
Solving using MATLAB with x1 (0) = 1, x2 (0) = 1, ε = 0.05 :
x1 = 0.91 − 0.16 j
x2 = 0.86 − 0.22 j
ε = 0.036 after 3 iterations
6.14
f ( x) = x3 − 6 x2 + 9x − 4 = 0
1
2
4
x = − x 3 + x 2 + = g( x )
9
3
9
Apply Gauss-Seidel algorithm with x(0) = 2.
First iteration yields
1
2
4
x (1) = g(2) = − 23 + 22 + = 2.2222
9
3
9
Second iteration: x(2) = g ( 2.2222 ) = 2.5173
Subsequent iterations will result in
2.8966,3.3376, 3.7398, 3.9568, 3.9988, and 4.0000 ←
Note:
There is a repeated root at x = 1 also. With a wrong initial estimate, the solution
might diverge.
144
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6.15
x 2 cos x − x + 0.5 = 0
Rearranging to solve for x,
x = x 2 cos x + 0.5
In the general form
x(n + 1) = [ x(n)]2 cos x(n) + 0.5
Solving using MATLAB with x(0) = 1, ε = 0.01:
x = 1.05
ε = 0.007 after 2 iterations
To test which initial guesses result in convergence, we use MATLAB and try out initial
guesses between − 20 and 20, with a resolution of 0.001. In the following plot the curve is
the original function we solved. The shaded area is the values of x(0) which resulted in
convergence.
145
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6.16 Eq. (6.2.6) is: x (i + 1) = Mx (i ) = D −1 y
Taking the Z transform (assume zero initial conditions):
zX ( z) = MX ( z ) + D −1Y ( z )
( zU − M ) X ( z) = D −1Y ( z)
−1
X ( z) = ( zU − M ) D −1Y ( z ) = G ( z )Y ( z )
6.17 For Jacobi,
 A11
M = D −1 ( D − A) = 
 0

 Z
Det ( ZU − M ) = Det 
 A21

 A22
0 
A22 
−1
 0
− A
 21

0
− A12  
=
0   − A21

 A22
− A12 
A11 


0 

A12 
A11 
 = Z 2 − A12 A21 = 0

A11 A22
Z 

A A 
Z = &plusmn;  12 21 
 A11 A22 
For Gauss-Seidel,
− A12 

0

A11 
 A11 0  0 − A12  

−1
=
M = D ( D − A) = 
 
0  
A12 A21 
 A21 A22  0
0

A11 A22 


A12


Z

A11

 = Z  Z − A12 A21  = 0
det ( ZU − M ) = Det



A12 A21 
A11 A22 

0 Z −

A11 A22 


A A
Z = 0, 12 21
A11 A22
−1
When N = 2 , both Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel converge if and only if
A12 A21
&lt; 1.
A11 A22
146
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6.18
x 3 + 8 x 2 + 2 x − 50 = 0
x(0) = 1
J (i) =
df
dx
= [3 x 2 + 16 x + 2]x = x (i )
x = x (i )
In the general form:
x (i + 1) = x (i) +
1
&times; (− x (i )3 − 8 x (i)2 − 2 x (i) + 50)
3 x (i) + 16 x (i) + 2
2
Using x(0) = 1, we arrive at
0
i
1
2
3
4
5
2.126
x
1
2.857
2.243
2.129
2.126
ε
1.857
0.215
0.051
0.0018
2.0E-6
After 5 iterations, ε &lt; 0.001.
∴ x = 2.126
6.19 Repeating Problem 6.18 with x(0) = − 2, we get:
i
0
x
–2
ε
1
–3.67
0.833
0.015
2
–3.610
3
–3.611
0.00016
After 3 iterations, ε &lt; 0.001 . Therefore,
x = − 3.611
Changing the initial guess from 1 to − 2 caused the Newton-Raphson algorithm to converge
to a different solution.
6.20
x 4 + 3 x 3 − 15 x 2 − 19 x + 30 = 7
J (i) =
df
dx
= [4 x 3 + 9 x 2 − 30 x − 19]x = x ( i )
x = x (1)
In general form
x (i + 1) = x (i) +
1
&times; (7 − x (i)4 − 3x (i )3 + 15 x (i )2 + 19 x (i) − 30)
4 x (i)3 + 9 x (i)2 − 30 x (i) − 19
Using x(0) = 0, we arrive at:
i
x
ε
0
0
∞
1
1.211
0.342
2
0.796
0.010
3
0.804
8.7E-6
4
0.804
After 4 iterations, ε &lt; 0.001. Therefore,
x = 0.804
147
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6.21 Repeating Problem 6.20 with x(0) = 4, we arrive at x = 3.082 after 4 iterations.
6.22
For points near x = 2.2, the function is flat, meaning the Jacobian is close to zero.
In Newton-Raphson, we iterate using the equation
x(i + 1) = x(i) + J −1 (i)[ y − f ( x(i))]
If J (i) is close to zero, J −1 (i) will be a very large positive or negative number.
If we use an initial guess of x(0) which is near 2.2, the first iteration will cause x(i) to jump
to a point far away from the solution, as illustrated in the following plot:
148
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6.23
df
= 4 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 108 x + 108
dx
From Eq. (6.3.9):
J=
x(i + 1) = x(i) +  4 x 3 (i ) + 36 x 2 (i ) + 108 x(i ) + 108 
{0 −  x
4
(i ) + 12 x 3 (i ) + 54 x 2 (i ) + 108 x(i ) + 81}
i
0
1
2
3
4
…
x(i )
−1
− 1.5
− 1.875
− 2.15625
− 2.3671875
…
17
− 2.9848614
18
− 2.989901
19
− 2.9923223
x(19) − x(18) −2.9923223 + 2.989901
=
= 0.0008
x(18)
−2.989901
Stop after 19 iterations. x(19) = −2.9923223 . Note that x = −3 is one of four solutions to
th
this 4 degree polynomial. The other three solutions are x = −3 , x = −3 , and x = −3 .
6.24
2 x12 + x22 − 10 = 0
x12 − x22 + x1 x2 − 4 = 0
J (i) =
df
dx
x = x (i )
4 x
= 1
2 x1 + x2


− 2 x2 + x1 x = x (i )
2 x2
In general form
x(i + 1) = x(i) − J −1 (i ) f ( x )
Solving using MATLAB with x1 (0) = 1, x2 (0) = 1, ε = 0.001:
i
0
1
2
3
4
x1
1
2.3
1.934
1.901
1.900
x2
1
1.9
1.683
1.667
1.667
ε
1.30
0.157
0.0175
2E-4
After 4 iterations ε &lt; 0.001. Therefore,
x1 = 1.900
x2 = 1.667
6.25
10 x1 sin x2 + 2 = 0
10 x12 − 10 x1 cos x2 + 1 = 0
J (i) =
df
dx
x = x (i )
10 x1 sin x2 
10sin x2
=

20 x1 − 10cos x2 10 x1 sin x2  x = x (i )
In the general form
x(i + 1) = x(i) − J −1 (i ) f ( x )
149
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Solving using MATLAB with x1 (0) = 1, x2 (0) = 0, ε = 1E − 4 :
i
0
1
2
3
x1
1
0.90
0.8587
0.8554
x2
0
– 0.20
– 0.2333
– 0.2360
ε
∞
0.01131
7.0E-5
0.1667
4
0.8554
– 0.2360
After 4 iterations, Newton-Raphson converges to
6.26 Repeating Problem 6.25 with x1 (0) = 0.25 and x2 (0) = 0, Newton-Raphson converges to
after 6 iterations.
6.27 To determine which values of x1 (0) result in the answer obtained in Problem 6.25, we test
out initial guesses for x1 between 0 and 1, with a resolution of 0.0001. The conclusion of
this search is that if 0.5 &lt; x1 (0) ≤ 1 and x2 (0) = 0, Newton-Raphson will converge to
Note: If x1 (0) = 0.5 and x2 (0) = 0. Newton-Raphson does not converge. This is because
4.79 5
J (0) = 

0
 0
Thus, J −1 does not exist.
6.28 (a) Y11 = 2 − j 4 + 3 − j 6 = 5 − j10 = 11.18 ∠ − 63.43 &deg;
Y22 = 2 − j 4 = 4.47 ∠ − 63.43 &deg;
Y33 = 3 − j6 = 6.71 ∠ − 63.43 &deg;
Y12 = Y21 = − 2 + j 4 = 4.47∠116.57 &deg;
Y13 = Y31 = − 3 + j6 = 6.71 ∠ 116.57 &deg;
Y23 = Y32 = 0
N
(b) Pk = Vk  YknVn cos (δ k − δ n − θkn )
n =1
At bus 2,
P2 = V2 Y21V1 cos (δ 2 − δ1 + θ21 ) + Y22V2 cos (δ 2 − δ 2 − θ22 )
+ Y23V3 cos (δ 2 − δ 3 − θ23 )
1.5 = 1.1[4.47 cos (δ 2 − 116.57 &deg;) + 4.47 &times; 1.1 cos (63.43 &deg;)]
150
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Solving for δ 2
δ 2 = 15.795 &deg;
(c) At bus3
P3 = V3 Y31V1 cos (δ 3 − δ1 − θ31) + Y33V3 cos (−θ33 )
− 1.5 = V3 6.71 cos (δ 3 − 116.57 &deg;) + 6.71V3 cos (63.43 &deg;) Eq. 1
Also
Q3 = V3 Y31V1 sin (δ 3 − δ1 − θ31) + Y33V3 sin (−θ33 )
0.8 = V3 6.71 sin (δ 3 − 116.57 &deg;) + 6.71V3 sin (63.43)
Eq. 2
Solving for V3 and δ 3 using Eq. 1 and Eq. 2:
First, rearrange Eq. 1 and Eq. 2 to separate V3 and δ 3
−
1.5
− V3 cos (63.43 &deg;) = cos (δ 3 − 116.57 &deg;)
6.71V3
0.8
− V3 sin (63.43 &deg;) = sin (δ 3 − 116.57 &deg;)
6.71V3
Next, square both sides of each equation, then add the two equations. The trigonometric
identity sin 2 (θ ) + cos2 (θ ) = 1 can be used to simplify the right hand side.
2
2
 1.5
  0.8

6.71V − V3 cos (63.43) + 6.71V − V3 sin (63.43) = 1
3
3

 

Solving, we get V3 = 0.9723 p.u.
Substitute V3 back into Eq. 1 or Eq. 2 to get δ 3 = − 15.10 &deg; .
(d) At bus 1
P1 = V1 Y11V1 cos (−θ11) + Y12V2 cos (−δ 2 − θ12 ) + Y13V3 cos (−δ 3 − θ13 )
= 11.18 cos (63.43 &deg;) + 4.47 &times; 1.1 cos (− 15.795 &deg; − 116.57 &deg;)
+ 6.71 &times; 0.9723 cos (15.10 &deg; − 116.57 &deg;)
= 0.39 p.u.
(e)
= P1 + P2 + P3
= 0.39 + 1.5 − 1.5
= 0.39 p.u.
151
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6.29
Y21 = 0
1
1
1.72
0.88
+
+j
+j
0.009 + j 0.100 0.009 + j 0.100
2
2
= 18.625 ∠ − 84.50 &deg;
Y22 =
Y23 = 0
1
= 9.960 ∠ 95.14 &deg;
0.009 + j 0.100
1
Y25 = −
= 9.960 ∠ 95.14 &deg;
0.009 + j 0.100
Y24 = −
6.30
6.25 − j18.695
− 5.00 + j15.00
− 1.25 + j 3.75
0
0
− 5.00 + j15.00
12.9167 − j 38.665
− 1.6667 + j 5.00
− 1.25 + j 3.75
− 5.00 + j15.00
− 1.25 + j 3.75
− 1.6667 + j 5.00
8.7990 − j 32.2294
− 5.8824 + j 23.5294
0
0
− 1.25 + j 3.75
− 5.8824 + j 23.5294
9.8846 − j 36.4037
− 2.7523 + j 9.1743
0
− 5.00 + j15.00
0
− 2.7523 + j 9.1743
7.7523 − j24.1443
6.31 First, we need to find the per-unit shunt admittance of the added capacitor.
75 Mvar = 0.75 p.u.
To find Y, we use the relation
S = V 2Y
S 0.75
= 2 = 0.75 p.u.
V2
1
Now, we can find Y44
Y=
Y44 =
1
1
1
+
+
0.08 + j 0.24 0.01 + j 0.04 0.03 + j 0.10
+j
0.05 + 0.01 + 0.04
+ j 0.75
2
= 9.8846 − j35.6537
6.32
152
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Assume flat start V1 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 0, V2 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 0

1  P2 − JQ2
− Y21V1 (i)

*
Y22  V2 (i)

1
= − 4 + j8
Y21 = −
0.05 + j 0.1
1
= 4 − j8
Y22 =
0.05 + j 0.1
V2 (i + 1) =
Using MATLAB, with V1 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 0 and V2 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 0 :
i
0
V2
1
1.0 ∠ 0
2
0.9220 ∠ − 3.7314 &deg;
3
0.9101 ∠ − 3.7802 &deg;
0.9111∠ − 3.7314
After 3 iterations,
V2 = 0.9101 ∠ − 3.7802 &deg;
6.33 If we repeat Problem 6.32 with V2 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 30 &deg;, we get V2 = 0.9107 ∠ − 3.8037 &deg; after 3
iterations.
6.34
V1 = 1.0 ∠ 0

1  P2 − jQ2
− Y21V1 − Y23V3 (i)
Y22  V2* (i)


1 1 − j 0.5
=
− j 5V1 − j 5V3 (i)

*
− j10  V2 (i )

V2 (i + 1) =
 P3 − jQ3

 V * (i) − Y31V1 − Y32V2 (i + 1)
 3


1 1.5 − j 0.75
=
− j 5V1 − j 5V2 (i + 1)

*
− j10  V3 (i)

V3 (i + 1) =
1
Y33
Solving using MATLAB with V2 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 0 and V3 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 0 :
i
0
1
2
V2
1.0 ∠ 0
0.9552 ∠ − 6.0090 &deg;
0.9090 ∠ − 12.6225 &deg;
V3
1.0 ∠ 0
0.9220 ∠ − 12.5288 &deg;
0.8630 ∠ − 16.1813 &deg;
After 2 iterations,
V2 = 0.9090 ∠ − 12.6225 &deg;
V3 = 0.8630 ∠ − 16.1813 &deg;
153
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6.35 Repeating Problem 6.34 with V1 = 1.05 ∠ 0
i
0
1
2
V2
1.0 ∠ 0
0.9801 ∠ − 5.8560 &deg;
0.9530 ∠ − 11.8861 &deg;
V3
1.0 ∠ 0
0.9586 ∠ − 120426 &deg;
0.9129 ∠ − 14.9085 &deg;
After 2 iterations,
V2 = 0.9530 ∠ − 11.8861 &deg;
V3 = 0.9129 ∠ − 14.9085 &deg;
6.36
V21 =

1  P2 − jQ2
− Y21V1 − Y23V30 − Y24V40 

0 *
Y22  (V2 )


1  0.5 + j 0.2
− 1.04(−2 + j 6) − (−0.666 + j 2) − (−1 + j 3) 

Y22  1 − j 0

4.246 − j11.04
=
= 1.019 + j 0.046 = 1.02∠2.58&deg; p.u.
3.666 − j11
=
V22 =
1
Y22
 P − jQ

2
 2
− Y21V1 − Y23V31 − Y24V41 
*
 (V21 )

Determine V31 and V41 in the same way as V21 . Then
V22 =
=
1  0.5 + j 0.2
− 1.04(−2 + j 6) − (−0.666 + j 2.0)(1.028 − j 0.087)
Y22 1.019 + j 0.046
− (−1 + j 3)(1.025 − j 0.0093)]
4.0862 − j11.6119
= 1.061 + j 0.0179 = 1.0616∠0.97&deg; p.u.
3.666 − j11.0
6.37 Gauss-Seidel iterative scheme:
With δ 2 = 0;V3 = 1 p.u .; δ 3 = 0 (starting values)
Given
Also given
YBus
 7 −2 −5 
= − j  −2 6 −4  ;
 −5 −4 9 
V1 = 1.0∠0&deg; p.u.
V2 = 1.0 p.u.; P2 = 60 MW
P3 = −80 MW; Q3 = −60 M var (lag)
154
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Iteration 1:
Q2 = − Im(Y22V2 + Y21V1 + Y23V3 )V2*
= − Im {[ − j 6(1∠0) + j 2(1∠0) + j 4(1∠0)]1∠0} = 0
V2 =
=

1  P2 − jQ2
−
−
Y
V
Y
V


21
1
23
3
Y22  V2*

1  0.6 + j 0

− j 2(1∠0) − j 4(1∠0)

− j 6  1∠0

= 1 + j 0.1  1∠5.71&deg;
Repeat:
0.1∠90&deg;
= 0.99005 + j 0.0995
1∠ − 5.71&deg;
= 0.995∠5.74&deg;
V2 = 1 +
V2 = 1∠5.74&deg; = 0.995 + j 0.1

1  P3 − jQ3
− Y31V1 − Y32V2 

*
Y33  V3

1  −0.8 + j 0.6

=
− j 5 (1∠0 ) − j 4 ( 0.995 + j 0.1) 
− j 9  1∠0

0.1111∠53.13&deg;
= 0.9978 + j 0.0444 −
1∠0
= 0.9311 − j 0.0444 = 0.9322∠ − 2.74&deg;
V3 =
Repeat:
Check:
0.1111∠53.13&deg;
0.9322∠2.74&deg;
= 0.9218 − j 0.0474 = 0.923∠ − 2.94&deg;
V3 = 0.9978 + j 0.0444 −
ΔV2 = (0.995 + j 0.100) − (1 − j 0) = −0.005 + j 0.1
ΔV3 = (0.9218 + j 0.0474) − (1 − j 0) = −0.0782 − j 0.0474
Δxmax = 0.1
Iteration 2:
Q2 = − Im {[ − j 6(0.995 + j 0.1) + j 2(1∠0)
+ j 4(0.9218 − j 0.0474)] (0.995 − j 0.1)}
= 0.36
V2 =
1  0.6 − j 0.36

− j 2(1∠0) − j 4(0.9218 − j 0.0474) 

− j 6  1∠ − 5.74&deg;

= 0.9479 + j 0.316 +
0.1166∠59.04
= 1∠4.24 = 0.9973 + j 0.0739
1∠ − 5.74
155
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Repeat:
0.1166∠59.04
= 1.0003 + j 0.0725
1∠ − 4.24
 1∠4.15 = 0.9974 + j 0.0723
V2 = 0.9479 − j 0.0316 +
1  −0.8 + j 0.6

− j 5(1∠0) − j 4(0.9974 + j 0.0723)

j 9  0.9230∠2.94

0.1111∠53.13&deg;
= 0.9988 + j 0.0321 −
= 0.9217 − j 0.0604
0.923∠2.94
= 0.9237∠ − 3.75
V3 =
Repeat:
V3 = 0.9988 + j 0.0321 −
0.1111∠53.13&deg;
= 0.9205 − j 0.0592
0.9237∠3.75&deg;
= 0.9224∠ − 3.68
Check:
ΔV2 = (0.9974 + j 0.0732) − (0.995 + j 0.1) = 0.0024 − j 0.0277
ΔV3 = (0.9205 − j 0.0592) − (0.9218 − j 0.0474) = −0.0013 − j 0.0118
Δxmax = 0.028
Third iteration yields the following results within the desired tolerance:

 ←
V3 = 0.9208 − j 0.0644 = 0.923∠ − 4&deg;
V2 = 0.9981 + j 0.0610 = 1∠3.5&deg;
6.38
First, convert all values to per-unit.
Ppu =
P
− 150 MW
=
= − 1.5 p.u.
Sbase 100 MVA
Qpu =
Q
− 50 MW
=
= − 0.5 p.u.
Sbase 100 MVA
Δ ymax,pu =
Δ ymax 0.1 MVA
=
= 1E-4 p.u.
Sbase 100 MVA
Since there are 2 bases, we need to solve 2(n − 1) = 2 equations.
Therefore, J has dimension 2 &times; 2.
156
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Using Table 6.5
J122 = −V2V21V1 sin (δ 2 − δ1 − θ21 )
J 222 = V2Y22 cos(θ22 ) + Y21V1 cos (δ 2 − δ1 − θ21 ) + Y22V2 cos (−θ22 )
J 322 = V2Y21V1 cos (δ 2 − δ1 − θ21 )
J 422 = −V2Y22 sin θ22 + Y21V1 sin (δ 2 − δ1 − θ21 ) + Y22 + V2 sin (−θ22 )
Also,
− j10 j10  10 ∠ − 90 10 ∠90 
Ybus = 
=

10 ∠ − 90
 j10 − j10 10 ∠90
Finally, using Eqs. (6.6.2) and (6.6.3),
P2 (δ 2 , V2 ) = V2 Y21V1 cos (δ 2 − δ1 − θ21 ) + Y22V2 cos (−θ22 )
Q2 (δ 2 , V2 ) = V2 Y21V1 sin (δ 2 − δ1 − θ21 ) + Y22V2 sin (−θ22 )
Solving using MATLAB with V2 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 0,
i
0
V2
1.0 ∠ 0
1
0.9500 ∠ − 8,5944 &deg;
2
3
0.9338 ∠ − 9.2319 &deg;
0.9334 ∠ − 9.2473 &deg;
After 3 iterations
V2 = 0.9334 ∠ − 9.2473 &deg;
6.39 If we repeat Problem 6.38 with V2 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 30 &deg;, Newton-Raphson converges to
0.9334 ∠ − 9.2473 &deg; after 5 iterations.
6.40 If we repeat Problem 6.38 with V2 (0) = 0.25 ∠0 &deg;, Newton-Raphson converges to
V2 = 0.1694 ∠ − 27422.32 &deg; = 0.1694 ∠ − 62.32 &deg; after 14 iterations.
6.41 The number of equations is 2(n − 1) = 4. Therefore, J will have dimension 4 &times; 4.
Using Table 6.5
0
10 − 5 0


0
0
− 5 10
J (0) = 
 0
0 10 − 5


0 − 5 10
 0
6.42 First, we convert the mismatch into per-unit 0.1 MVA = 1E-4 p.u. with Sbase = 100 MVA.
Solving using MATLAB with V2 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 0 and V3 (0) = 1.0 ∠ 0,
i
0
1
2
3
4
V2
1.0 ∠ 0
0.8833 ∠ − 13.3690 &deg;
0.8145 ∠ − 16.4110 &deg;
0.8019 ∠ − 16.9610 &deg;
0.8015∠ − 16.9811 &deg;
V3
1.0 ∠ 0
0.8667 ∠ − 15.2789 &deg;
0.7882 ∠ − 19.2756 &deg;
0.7731 ∠ − 20.1021 &deg;
0.7725 ∠ − 20.1361 &deg;
157
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After 4 iterations, Newton-Raphson converges to
V2 = 0.8015 ∠ − 16.9811 &deg;
V3 = 0.7725 ∠ − 20.1361 &deg;
6.43 (a) Step 1
By inspection:
− j12.5 + j10.0 + j 2.5


YBus = + j10.0 − j15.0 + j 5.0
+ j 2.5 + j 5.0 − j 7.5


δ 2 (0) = δ 3 (0) = 0&deg; V2 (0) = 1.0
Compute Δ y(0)
P2 ( X ) = 1.0 [10 cos (−90&deg;) + 5 cos ( −90&deg;)] = 0
P3 ( X ) = 2.5 cos (−90&deg;) + 5cos (−90&deg;) = 0
Q2 ( X ) = 1.0 [10 sin (−90&deg;) + 15 + 5 sin (−90&deg;) ] = 0
 P2 − P2 ( X )   −2.0 − 0   −2.0 
Δy(0) =  P3 − P3 ( X )  =  1.0 − 0  =  1.0 
Q2 − Q2 ( X )   −0.5 − 0   −0.5
(b) Step 2
Compute J(0) (see Table 6.5 text)
J 122 =
∂P2
= −V2 [Y21V1 sin (δ 2 − δ1 − θ 21 ) + Y23V3 sin (δ 2 − δ 3 − θ 23 )]
∂δ 2
= −1.0 [10(1) sin (−90&deg;) + 5(1) sin ( −90&deg;) ] = 15.
J 123 =
∂P2
= V2Y23V3 sin (δ 2 − δ 3 − θ 23 ) = (1.0)(5) sin (−90&deg;) = −5.
∂δ 3
J 132 =
∂P3
= V3Y32V2 sin (δ 3 − δ 2 − θ32 ) = (1)(5)(1) sin (−90&deg;) = −5
∂δ 2
J 133 =
∂P3
= −V3 [Y31V1 sin (δ 3 − δ1 − θ31 ) + Y32V2 sin (δ 3 − δ 2 − θ32 ) ]
∂δ 3
= −1.0 ( 2.5 ) (1) sin ( −90&deg;) + (5)(1) sin ( −90&deg;)  = 7.5
J 222 =
∂P2
= V2Y22 cos (θ 22 ) + [Y21V1 cos (δ 2 − δ1 − θ 21 ) + Y22V2 cos (−θ 22 )
∂V2
+ Y23V3 cos (δ 2 − δ 3 − θ 23 )] = 0
158
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J 232 =
∂P3
= V3Y32 cos (δ 3 − δ 2 − θ32 ) = 0
∂V2
J 322 =
∂Q2
= V2 [Y21V1 cos (δ 2 − δ1 − θ 21 )] + Y23V3 cos (δ 2 − δ 3 − θ 23 ) = 0
∂δ 2
J 323 =
∂Q2
= −V2Y23 V3 cos (δ 2 − δ 3 − θ 23 ) = 0
∂δ 3
Y21V1 sin (δ 2 − δ1 − θ 21 ) + Y22V2 sin (−θ 22 ) 
∂Q2
= −V2Y22 sin θ 22 + 

∂V2
 +Y23V3 sin (δ 2 − δ 3 − θ 23 )

J 422 = (−1)(15) sin (−90&deg;) + [(10)(1) sin (−90&deg;) + 15(1) sin (90&deg;) + 5(1) sin ( −90&deg;) ]
J 422 =
= 15
15 −5 0 
 J 1 J 2 

=  −5 7.5 0  per unit
J (0) = 

 J 3 J 4   0
0 15

Step 3
Solve J Δx = Δy
15 −5 0   Δδ 2   −2.0 
 −5 7.5 0   Δδ  =  1.0 

 3 

 0
0 15  ΔV2   −0.5 
Using Gauss elimination, multiply the first equation by (−5/15) and subtract from the second
equation:
−5
0   Δδ 2   −2.0 
15
 0 5.833333 0   Δδ  =  0.33333

 3 

 0
0
15  ΔV2   −0.5 
Back substitution:
ΔV2 = −0.5/15 = −0.033333
Δδ 3 = 0.33333/5.833333 = 0.05714285
Δδ 2 = [ −2.0 + 5(0.05714285) ] 15 = −0.1142857
 Δδ 2   −0.1142857 
Δx =  Δδ 3  =  0.05714285 
 ΔV2   −0.033333 
Step 4
Compute x(1)
δ 2 (1) 
 0   −.1142857   −0.1142857  radians


x (1) = δ 3 (1)  = x (0) + Δx =  0  +  .05714285  =  0.05714285  radians
V2 (1) 
1   −.0333333  0.96666667  per unit
Check QG3 using Eq. (6.5.3)
159
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Q3 = V3 [Y31V1 sin (δ 3 − δ1 − θ 31 ) + Y32V2 sin (δ 3 − δ 2 − θ32 ) + Y33V3 sin (−θ33 ) ]


π
π

= 1  (2.5)(1) sin  0.05714


 − 2  + 5(0.966666) sin  0.05714 + 0.11429 − 2 




 π 
+7.5 (1) sin  
 2 
Q3 = 1[ −2.4959 − 4.7625 + 7.5] = 0.2416 per unit
Q G3 = Q3 + QL 3 = 0.2416 + 0 = 0.2416 per unit
Since QG3 = 0.2416 is within the limits [−5.0, +5.0], bus 3 remains a voltage-controlled bus.
This completes the first Newton-Raphson iteration.
6.44 Repeating Problem 6.43 with PG 2 = 1.0 p.u.
(a) Step 1
Ybus stays the same.
P2 ( x(0)) , P3 ( x(0)) , Q2 ( x(0)) also stay the same.
P2 − P2 ( x(0))  − 2.0 + 1.0 − 0 − 1.0

 
 

Δ y(0) = P3 − P3 ( x(0))  =  1.0 − 0
 =  1.0

 
 − 0.5
Q2 − Q2 ( x(0)) − 0.5 − 0
(b) Step 2
The Jacobian stays the same.
15 − 5 0 


J (0) = − 5 7.5 0 
 0
0 15
(c) Step 3
Solve J Δ x = Δ y
15 − 5 0 Δ δ 2  − 1.0
 



− 5 7.5 0 Δ δ 3  =  1.0
 0
0 15 Δ V2  − 0.5
Multiply the first equation by
−5
and substract from the second equation.
15
− 5 0 Δ δ 2  − 1.0
15
 



 0 35 6 0 Δ δ 3  =  2 3
0 15 Δ V2  − 0.5
 0
160
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Via back substitution
− 0.5
Δ V2 =
= − 0.033333
15
23
Δδ3 =
= 0.11429
35 6
Δ δ 2 = (− 1.0 + 5 &times; 0.11429) 15 = − 0.028571
(d) Step 4
0 − 0.028571 − 0.028571
 
 

x(1) = x(0) + Δ x = 0 +  0.11429  =  0.11429 
1 − 0.033333  0.96667 
Check QG3 using Eq. (6.5.3)
Q3 = V3 Y31V1 sin (δ 3 − δ1 − θ31) + Y32V2 sin (δ 3 − δ 2 − θ32 ) + Y33V3 sin (−θ33 )

π
π


= 1.0 2.5 &times; 1.0 sin 0.11429 −  + 5 &times; 0.96667 sin  0.11429 + 0.028571 − 
2
2



 π 
+ 7.5 &times; 1.0 sin  
 2 
= 0.2322 p.u.
QG3 = Q3 + QL3 = 0.2322 + 0 = 0.2322 p.u.
Since QG3 is within the limits [− 5.0, 5.0] , bus 3 remains a voltage controlled bus.
∴ After the first iteration,
δ 2  − 0.028571
  

x = δ 3  =  0.11429 
V2   0.96667 
6.45 After the first three iterations J22 = 104.41, 108.07, 107.24; and with the next iteration it
converges to 106.66.
6.46 First, convert all values to per-unit.
PG 2 = 80 MW = 0.8 p.u.
PL3 = 180 MW = 1.8 p.u.
For convergence, Δ ymax = 0.1 MVA = 1E-4 p.u.
Second, find Ybus .
Ybus
8 − j16 − 4 + j8 − 4 + j8


= − 4 + j8 8 − j16 − 4 + j8
− 4 + j8 − 4 + j8 8 − j16 
161
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To solve the case, we follow the steps outlined in section 6.6.
Iteration 0
Step 1
δ 2 (0) 0


V3 (0) 1
P ( x(0)) 0
P ( x(0)) =  2
= 
P3 ( x(0)) 0
Q ( x(0)) = Q3 ( x(0)) = 0
 P2 − P2 ( x(0))   0.8 

 

Δ y(0) =  P3 − P3 ( x(0))  = − 1.8
Q3 − Q3 ( x(0))  0 


Step 2
16 − 8
J1 = 

− 8 16
J 3 = [4 − 8]
− 4
J2 =  
8
J 4 = 
16 − 8 − 4


J (0) = − 8 16 8 
 4 − 8 16


Step 3
J (0)Δ x(0) = Δ y(0)
16 − 8 − 4 Δ δ 2 (0)  0.8
 



8 Δ δ 3 (0) = − 1.8
− 8 16
 4 − 8 16 Δ V3 (0)  0 
− 0.0083333


Δ x(0) = − 0.094167 
− 0.045

Step 4
− 0.0083333


x(1) = x(0) + Δ x(0) = − 0.094167 
 0.955

162
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Iteration 1
Step 1
 0.7825
P ( x(1)) = 

− 1.6861
Q ( x(1)) = 0.0610
 0.017502


Δ y(1) = − 0.11385 
− 0.06104 
Step 2
15.9057 − 7.93935 − 3.29945


J (1) = − 7.28439 14.5314
5.8744 
 4.4609 − 8.98235 15.3439 
Step 3
− 0.0038007


Δ x(1) = − 0.0069372
− 0.0069342
Step 4
− 0.012134


x(2) = − 0.1011 
 0.94807 
Iteration 2
Step 1
 0.7999
P ( x(2)) = 

− 1.7990
Q ( x(2)) = 6.484 E-4
 1.3602 E-4


Δ y(2) = − 1.0458 E-4
− 6.484 E-4 
Step 2
15.8424 − 7.89148 − 3.27336
J (2) = − 7.21758 14.3806
5.68703
 4.45117 − 8.98958 15.1697 
Step 3
− 3.7748 E-5
Δ x (2) = − 6.412E-5 
− 6.9664 E-5
163
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Step 4
− 0.012172


x(3) = − 0.10117 
 0.948

Iteration 3
Step 1
 0.8000
P ( x(3)) = 

− 1.8000
Q ( x(3)) = 6.4875 E-8
 1.1294 E-8 


Δ y(3) = − 9.7437 E-8
− 6.4875 E-8
Δ y(3) &lt; 1E-4
∴ Newton-Raphson has converged in 3 iterations to
V1 = 1.0 ∠ 0
V2 = 1.0 ∠ − 0.012172 rad = 1.0 ∠ − 0.6974&deg;
V3 = 0.948 ∠ − 0.10117 rad = 0.948 ∠ − 5.797&deg;
Using the voltages, we can calculate the powers at buses 1 and 2 with Eqs. (6.6.2) and
(6.6.3).
P1 = 1.0910 p.u. = 109.10 MW
Q1 = 0.0237 p.u. = 2.37 Mvar
Q2 = 0.1583 p.u. = 15.83 Mvar
Using PowerWorld simulator, we get
P1 = 109.1 MW
Q1 = 2.4 Mvar
Q2 = 15.8 Mvar
V3 = 0.948 p.u.
which agrees with our solution.
6.47 First, convert values to per-unit
Q2 = 50 Mvar = 0.5 p.u.
Ybus stays the same as in Problem 6.46.
164
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Since bus 2 is now a PQ bus, we introduce a fourth equation in order to solve for V2 .
Iteration 0
Step 1
δ 2 (0) 0

δ 3 (0) 0

=
V2 (0) 1

 
V3 (0) 1
P ( x(0)) 0
P ( x(0)) =  2
= 
P3 ( x(0)) 0
Q ( x(0)) 0
Q ( x(0)) =  2
= 
Q3 ( x(0)) 0
 P2 − P2 ( x(0))   0.8


P3 − P3 ( x(0))  − 1.8

Δ y(0) =
=
Q2 − Q2 ( x(0)   0.5

 

Q3 − Q3 ( x(0))  0
Step 2
16

−8
J (0) = 
− 8

4
−8 8
− 4

16 − 4 8 
4 16 − 8

− 8 − 8 16 
Step 3
J (0)Δ x(0) = Δ y(0)
− 0.023333


− 0.10167 
Δ x(0) = 
 1.03



 0.97

Step 4
− 0.023333


− 0.10167 
x(1) = x(0) + Δ x(0) = 
 1.03



 0.97

165
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Iteration 1
Step 1
 0.8174
P ( x(1)) = 

− 1.7299
0.5517
Q ( x(1)) = 

0.0727
− 0.01739 


− 0.070052

Δ y(1) =
− 0.051746


− 0.072698
Step 2
9.03358 − 3.46256
16.4227 − 8.28102


5.97655
− 7.65556 14.9817
− 4.47535
J (1) = 
− 7.66981
3.35868 17.0157 − 8.53714


 4.60961 − 9.25715 − 7.43258 15.5949 
Step 3
− 0.00057587


− 0.0032484 
Δ x(1) = 
− 0.0077284 


− 0.010103 
Step 4
− 0.023904


− 0.10492 
x(2) = 
 1.0223 


 0.9599 
Iteration 2
Step 1
 0.7999
P ( x(2)) = 

− 1.7989
0.5005
Q ( x(2)) = 

0.0007
 0.00013185


− 0.0011097 
Δ y(2) = 
− 0.00048034


− 0.00072284
166
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Step 2
 16.2201 − 8.14207 8.96061 − 3.41392


− 7.50685 14.7417 − 4.44838 5.80513 

J (2) =
− 7.56045 3.27701 16.8459 − 8.48223


 4.54745 − 9.17011 − 7.34331 15.3591 
Step 3
 − 6.3502 E-7 


− 5.3289E-5 
Δ x(2) = 
 − 7.6468E-5 


− 0.00011525
Step 4
− 0.02391


− 0.10497
x(3) = 
 1.0222 


 0.95978 
Iteration 3
Step 1
 0.8000 
P ( x(3)) = 

− 1.8000
0.5000
Q ( x(3)) = 

0.0000
 6.1267 E-8 


− 2.0161E-7 
Δ y(3) = 
− 6.5136 E-8


 − 8.9553E-8 
Δ y(3) &lt; 1 E-4
∴ Newton-Raphson has converged in 3 iterations to
V1 = 1.0 ∠ 0
V2 = 1.0222 ∠ − 0.02391 rad =1.0222 ∠ − 1.370 &deg;
V3 = 0.95978 ∠ − 0.10497 rad = 0.95978 ∠ − 6.014&deg;
Using the voltages, we can calculate the powers at bus 1 with Eqs. (6.6.2) and (6.6.3).
P1 = 1.0944 p.u. = 109.44 MW
Q1 = − 0.3112 p.u. = − 31.12 Mvar
167
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Using PowerWorld Simulator, we get
P1 = 109.4 MW
Q1 = − 31.1 Mvar
V2 = 1.025 p.u.
V3 = 0.960 p.u.
Which agrees with our solution.
6.48
6.49
Tap setting
0.975
0.98125
0.9875
0.99375
1.0
1.00625
1.0125
1.01875
1.025
1.03125
1.0375
1.04375
1.05
1.05625
1.0625
1.06875
1.075
1.08125
1.0875
1.09375
1.1
Mvar @ G1
V5 (p.u.)
94
90
98
106
114
123
131
140
149
158
167
176
185
195
204
214
224
233
243
253
263
0.954
0.961
0.965
0.97
0.974
0.979
0.983
0.987
0.992
0.996
1.0
1.004
1.008
1.012
1.016
1.02
1.024
1.028
1.031
1.035
1.039
V2 (p.u.)
P losses
0.806
0.817
0.823
0.828
0.834
0.839
0.845
0.850
0.855
0.86
0.865
0.87
0.874
0.879
0.884
0.888
0.893
0.897
0.901
0.906
0.910
37.64
36.63
36.00
35.4
34.84
34.31
33.81
33.33
32.89
32.47
32.08
31.72
31.38
31.06
30.76
30.49
30.23
30.00
29.79
29.59
29.42
168
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6.50
Line
2-4
Line
2-5
Line
4-5
Total Power
Losses (MW)
0.834
27%
49%
19%
34.37
184.0
0.959
25%
44%
16%
25.37
261.0
1.000
25%
43%
15%
23.95
Shunt Capacitor
State
Shunt Capacitor
Rating (Mvar)
Shunt Capacitor
Output (Mvar)
Disconnected
0
0
Connected
200
Connected
261
V2
(p.u.)
When the capacitor rating is set at 261 Mvar, the voltage at bus 2 becomes 1.0 per unit. As a result of this, the
line loadings decrease on all lines, and thus the power loss decrease as well.
6.51
Before new line
Bus voltage V2 (p.u.)
Total real power losses (MW)
After new line
0.834
34.8
68.5
0.953
18.3
63.1
27.3
17.5
49.0
25.4
(both lines)
53.1
45.7
18.8
22.1
6.52 With the line connecting HOMER 69 and LAUF 69 removed, the voltage at HANNAH 69
drops to 0.966 p.u. To raise that voltage to 1.0 p.u., we require 32.0 Mvar from the capacitor
bank of HANNAH 69.
6.53
When the generation at BLT138 is 300 MW, the losses on the system are minimized to
10.24 MW.
169
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6.54
When the generation at BLT138 is 220 MW or 240 MW, the losses on the system are
minimized to 11.21 MW.
6.55 DIAG
= [17 25 9 2 14 15]
OFFDIAG = [−9.1 −2.1 −7.1 −9.1 −8.1 −1.1 −6.1 −8.1 −1.1 −2.1 −6.1 −5.1 −7.1 −5.1]
C0L
=[ 2
5
6
1
3
4
5
2
2
1
2
6 1
5]
ROW
=[ 3 4
1
1
3 2]
6.56 By the process of node elimination and active branch designation, in Fig. 6.9:
The fill-in (dashed) branch after Step 6 is shown below:
Note that two fill-ins are unavoidable. When the bus numbers are assigned to Fig. 6.9 in
accordance with the step numbers above, the rows and columns of YBUS will be optimally
ordered for Gaussian elimination, and as a result, the triangular factors L and U will
require minimum storage and computing time for solving the nodal equations.
170
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6.57 Table 6.6 w/DC Approximation
Bus #
Voltage
Magnitude
(per unit)
1
2
1.000
1.000
3
4
1.000
1.000
5
1.000
Generation
Phase Angle
(degrees)
PG
(per unit)
0.000
QG
(per unit)
PL
(per unit)
QL
(per unit)
3.600
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
8.000
0.000
0.000
−1.997
5.200
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.800
0.000
0.000
0.000
−4.125
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
TOTAL
8.800
0.000
8.800
0.000
−18.695
0.524
When comparing these results to Table 6.6 in the book, voltage magnitudes are all constant.
Most phase angles are close to the NR algorithm except bus 3 has a positive angle in DC and
a negative value in NR. Total generation is less since losses are not taken into account and
reactive power is completely ignored in DC power flow.
Table 6.7 w/ DC Approximation
Line #
Bus to Bus
P
1
2
4
2
4
2
2
5
5
4
5
2
5
4
3
Q
−2.914
2.914
−5.086
5.086
1.486
−1.486
S
0.000
2.914
0.000
0.000
2.914
5.086
0.000
0.000
0.000
5.086
1.486
1.486
With the DC power flow, all reactive power flows are ignored. Real power flows are close
to the NR algorithm except losses are not taken into account, so each end of the line has the
same flow.
Table 6.8 w/DC Approximation
Tran. #
1
2
Bus to Bus
P
1
5
5
1
3
4
4
3
3.600
−3.600
4.400
−4.400
Q
S
0.000
0.000
3.600
3.600
0.000
0.000
4.400
4.400
With DC approximation the reactive power flows in transformers are also ignored and losses
are also assumed to be zero.
171
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6.58 With the reactance on the line from bus 2 to bus 5 changed, the B matrix becomes:
0
− 43.333

0
− 100
B=
 10
100

0
 33.333
P remains the same:
10
100
− 150
40
33.333

0


40

− 123.333
− 8.0


4.4 
P=
 0 


 0 
− 0.2443
− 13.995&deg; 




0.0255
1.4638&deg;
−1


δ = −B P =
− 0.0185
 − 1.0572&deg;




− 0.0720
 − 4.1253&deg;
6.59 (a) Since bus 7 is the slack bus, we neglect row 7 and column 7 in our B matrix and P
vector.
16.667
4.167
0
0
0
− 20.833



5.556
5.556
8.333 16.667
 16.667 − 52.778
 4.167

5.556 − 43.056
33.333
0
0
B=

5.556
33.333 − 43.056
4.167
0
 0

 0

8.333
0
4.167 − 29.167
0


16.667
0
0
0
− 25
 0

 160
 1.6




 110
 1.1
− 110
− 1.1
P=
 MW= 
 p.u.
− 30 
− 0.3
− 130
− 1.3




 0 
 0 
(b) δ = − B−1 P
 7.6758 &deg;


 4.2020 &deg;
− 0.4315 &deg;
=

− 0.3265 &deg;
− 1.3999 &deg;


 2.8014 &deg;
This agrees with the angles shown in PowerWorld.
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6.60 First, we find the angle of bus 1 required to give a 65 MW line loading to the line between
buses 1 and 3.
P13 =
δ1 − δ 3
x13
δ1 − δ 3
0.24
δ1 = δ 3 + 0.156
0.65 =
Now, we solve for the angles:
P = − Bδ
1.6 + Δ P1

 1.1 




 − 1.1 


 = −
 − 0.3 

 − 1.3 




 0 

B
 δ 3 + 0.156


δ2




δ3


δ4




δ5


δ6
 

This is a system of 6 unknowns (δ 2 , δ 3 δ 6 , Δ P1 ) and 6 equations. Solving yields
Δ P1 = 0.3194 p.u.
=31.94 MW
Therefore, if the generator at bus 1 increases output by 31.94 MW, the flow on the line
between buses 1 and 3 will reach 100%.
6.61 A type 1 or 2 wind turbine is one which maintains a constant real and reactive power output.
Hence, the bus it is connected to will be a PQ bus. A type 3 or 4 wind turbine is one which
maintains a constant voltage and real power output; the bus it is connected to will be a PV
bus. In a contingency such as a line outage, the voltage in the PQ bus will change due to the
redistribution of power flows on the remaining lines. However, the voltage on a PV bus
remains constant in a contingency, due to the fact that the type 3 or 4 wind turbine changes
its reactive power output to maintain that voltage. In this regard, a type 3 or 4 wind turbine
is more favorable.
From Eq. (6.6.3), we can see that the reactive power injection at a bus is directly
proportional to the voltage magnitude at that bus.
173
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Chapter 7
Symmetrical Faults
7.1
Sinusoid, exponentially, the instant of short circuit
7.2
Time in cycles
7.3
Subtransient, transient
7.4
Direct-axis short-circuit subtransient, direct-axis short-circuit transient
7.5
Direct-axis synchronous reactance
7.6
Armature time constant
7.7
Leakage reactances, series reactances, constant voltage sources
7.8
a
7.9
a
7.10 a
7.11 Bus-impedance
7.12 a
7.13 Self impedances, mutual impedances
7.14 Elongating and cooling it
7.15 1500
7.16
SF6 GAS
7.17 a
7.18 A magnetic force
7.19 a
7.20 1.0
7.21 Silver, sand
7.22 Time-current
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7.1
(a)
Z = R + jω L = 0.4 + j ( 2.π .60 ) 2 &times; 10 −3 = 0.4 + j 0.754
= 0.8535∠62.05&deg; Ω
Z = 0.8535 Ω and θ = 62.05&deg;
V
277
=
= 324.5A
I ac =
Z 0.8535
(b) I rms (0) = I ac k (0) = 324.5 3 = 562.1 A
(c) Using Eq. (7.1.12), with
X 0.754
=
= 1.885
R
0.4
k (τ = 5cycles) = 1 − 2 e−4π (5) 1.885 1.0
I rms (τ = 5cycles) = I ac k (5cycles) = 324.5A
(d) From Eq. (7.1.1)
 300 
 300 
V (0) = 2 V sin α = 300; α = sin −1 
 = sin −1 
 = 49.98&deg;
 2V 
 2 277 
From Eq. (7.1.4)
2V
sin (α − θ ) e − t / T
Z
2 (277)
sin ( 49.98&deg; − 62.05&deg; ) e − t / T
=−
0.8535
= 95.98e− t / T
idc (t ) = −
where T =
L 2 &times; 10−3
=
= 5 &times; 10−3 s
R
0.4
−3
idc (t ) = 95.98 e − t (5&times;10 ) A
7.2
(a)
Z = 1 + j 2 = 2.236∠63.43&deg;Ω
I ac = V Z = 4000 2.236 = 1789 A
(b) I rms (0) = 1789 3 = 3098 A
(c) with X R = 2, k (5) = 1 + 2e −4π (5)/2  1.0
I rms (5) = k (5) I ac = (1.0 )(1789 ) = 1789 A
(
)
(d) α = sin −1 300 4000 2 = 3.04&deg;;
T=
X
2
=
= 5.305 &times; 10−3 s
ω R (2π .60)(1)
idc (t ) = −
2(4000)
sin ( 3.04&deg; − 63.43&deg; ) e − t / T
2.236
−3
= 2200e− t ( 5.305&times;10 ) A
176
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7.3
Z = 0.125 + j 2π (60)0.01 = 0.125 + j 3.77 = 3.772 ∠88.1&deg;Ω
1
40
=
A
2 3.772
2
T = L/R = 0.08Sec.
I ac rms =
151
The response is then given by
i(λ ) = 40sin (ω t + α − 88.1&deg; ) − 40e − t / 0.08 sin (α − 88.1&deg; )
(a) No dc offset, if switch is closed when α = 88.1&deg; .
(b) Maximum dc offset, when α = 88.1&deg; − 90&deg; = −1.9&deg;
Current waveforms with no dc offset (a), and with Max. dc offset (b) are shown below:
7.4
(a) For X / R = 0 , i(t ) = 2 I rms sin (ω t − θ Z )  ←
(b) The wave form represents a sine wave, with ← no dc offset.
For X / R = ∞, i (t ) = 2 I rms sin (ω t − θ Z ) + sin θ Z  ←
177
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The dc offset is maximum for (X/R) equal to infinity. ←
(c) For ( X/R ) = 0, Asymmetrical Factor = 1.4141 

For ( X/R ) = ∞, Asymmetrical Factor = 2.8283 

The time of peak, t p , For X / R = 0, is 4.2 ms. ←
and For X / R = ∞,is 8.3 ms. 
Note:
The multiplying factor that is used to determine the maximum peak instantaneous
fault current can be calculated by taking the derivative of the bracketed term of the
given equation for i(t) in PR.7.4 with respect to time and equating to zero, and then
solving for the time of maximum peak tp; substituting tp into the equation, the
appropriate multiplying factor can be determined.
7.5
VL − N =
VL − L
3
=
13.2 &times; 103
3
= 7621V
RMS symmetrical fault current, I rms =
7621
( 0.52 + 1.52 ) 2
1
= 4820 A ←
X/R Ratio of the system is
1.5
= 3 , for which the asymmetrical factor is 1.9495.
0.5
∴ The maximum peak instantaneous value of fault current is I max peak = 1.9495 ( 4820 )
= 9397 A ←
All substation electrical equipment must be


able to withstand a peak current of approximately  ←

9400 A.

178
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7.6
(a) Neglecting the transformer winding resistance,
I ′′ =
Eq
1.0
1
=
=
= 3.704 pu
X d′′ + XTR 0.17 + 0.1 0.27
The base current on the HV side of the transformer is:
Srated
I base H =
3 Vrated H
1000
= 1.673 kA
3 ( 345 )
=
I ′′ = 3.704 &times; 1.673 = 6.198 kA
(b) Using Eq (7.2.1) at t = 3 cycles = 0.05 S with the transformer reactance included,
 1
1  −0.05 0.05  1
1  −0.05 1.0 1 
I ac ( 0.05 ) = 1.0 
−
e
+
−
+

e
1.6 
 0.4 1.6 
 0.27 0.4 
= 2.851 Pu
From Eq (7.2.5)
idc (t ) = 2 ( 3.704 ) e− t / 0.1 = 5.238e − t / 0.1 pu
The rms asymmetrical current that the breaker interrupts is
I rms ( 0.05S ) = I ac2 ( 0.05 ) + idc2 ( 0.05 )
=
( 2.851)
2
+ ( 5.238 ) e−2( 0.05) 0.1
2
= 4.269 pu = 4.269 (1.673) = 7.144 kA
7.7
(a) Using Eq. (7.2.1) with the transformer reactance included, and with α = 0&deg; for
maximum dc offset,
 1
1  − t / 0.05  1
1  − t /1.0 1  
π
sin  ω t − 
iac (t ) = 2 (1.0) 
−
+
−
+
e
e

1.6  
2
 0.4 1.6 
 0.27 0.4 
π

= 2 1.204 e − t / 0.05 + 1.875 e − t /1.0 + 0.625sin  ω t −  pu
2

The generator base current is
I base L =
srated
3 Vrated L − L
=
1000
= 28.87 kA
3 ( 20 )
π

∴ iac (t ) = 40.83 1.204 e − t / 0.05 + 1.875e − t /1.0 + 0.625 sin  ω t −  kA
2

where the effect of the transformer on the time constants has been neglected.
(b) From Eq. (7.2.5) and the results of Problem 7.6,
idc (t ) = 3 I ′′e − t / TA = 2 ( 3.704 ) e − t / 0.1
= 5.238 e − t 0.1 pu = 151.2 e− t 0.1 kA
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7.8
(a) iac (t ) = 10 (1 + e − t / 200 + 6 e − t /15 ) , t in ms and i in kA.
The plot is show below:
I base =
(b)
300
= 12551A;
Z base =
0.0138 3
i(k ) = 0.797 (1 + e− t / τ1 + 6e− t / τ 2 ) pu
(13.8)2
= 0.635 Ω
300
1
= 1.255pu
0.797
1
lim i(t ) = 8 &times; 0.797; ∴ X d′′ =
= 0.157 pu
t →0
8 &times; 0.797
(c) X d = 1.255 &times; 0.635 = 0.797 Ω
lim i( k ) = 0.797; ∴ X d =
t →∞
X d′′ = 0.157 &times; 0.635 = 0.996 Ω
7.9
The prefault and postfault per-phase equivalent circuits are shown below:
Vf =
14.5
= 0.967∠0&deg; pu , taken as reference
15
Base Current =
I MOTOR
60 &times; 106
= 2309.5A
3 &times; 15 &times; 103
40 &times; 103 ∠36.9&deg;
=
= 1991∠36.9&deg; A
0.8 &times; 3 &times; 14.5
= 0.8621∠36.9&deg; pu = ( 0.69 + j 0.52 ) pu
180
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For the generator,
Vt = 0.967 + j 0.1( 0.69 + j 0.52 ) = ( 0.915 + j 0.069 ) pu
Eg′′ = 0.915 + j 0.069 + j 0.1( 0.69 + j 0.52 ) = ( 0.863 + j 0.138 ) pu
I g′′ =
0.863 + j 0.138
= ( 0.69 − j 4.315 ) pu
j 0.2
= 2309.5 ( 0.69 − j 4.315 ) = (1593.6 − j 9965.5 ) A ←
For the motor:
Vt = V f = 0.967 ∠0&deg;
Em′′ = 0.967 − j 0.1( 0.69 + j 0.52 ) = (1.019 − j 0.069 ) pu
I m′′ =
1.019 − j 0.069
= ( −0.69 − j10.19 ) pu
j 0.1
= 2309.5 ( −0.69 − j10.19 ) = −1593.6 − j 23533.8 A ←
In the fault: I ′′f = I g′′ + I m′′ = 0.69 − j 4.315 − 0.69 − j10.19
= − j14.505 pu = − j14.505 &times; 2309.5
= − j 33,499 A ←
Note: The fault current is very high since the subtransient reactance of synchronous
machines and the external line reactance are low.
7.10
The pre-fault load current in pu is
IL =
S pu
Vpu
∠ − cos(PF) =
1.0
∠ − cos−1 ( 0.8 ) = 1.0 ∠ − 36.86&deg;pu
1.0
The initial generator voltage behind the subtransient reactance is
Eg′′ = V + j ( Xα′′ + X TR ) I L = 1.0 ∠0&deg; + ( j 0.27 )(1.0∠ − 36.86&deg; )
= 1.162 + j 0.216 = 1.182 ∠10.53&deg; pu
181
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The subtransient fault current is
I ′′ = Eg′′ j ( X d′′ + XTR ) = 1.182 ∠10.53&deg; j 0.27 = 4.378 ∠ − 79.47&deg;pu
I ′′ = 4.378 (1.673 ) ∠ − 79.47&deg; = 7.326 ∠ − 79.47&deg;kA
Alternatively, using superposition,
I ′′ = I1′′ + I 2′′ = I1′′ + I L = 3.704 ∠ − 90&deg; + 1.0∠ − 36.86&deg;
[From Pr. 7.6 (a)]
I ′′ = 0.8 − j 4.304 = 4.378 ∠ − 79.47&deg; pu
= 7.326 ∠ − 79.47&deg;kA
7.11 The prefault load current in per unit is:
IL =
S
1.0
∠ − cos−1 (P.F.) =
∠ − cos−1 0.95 = 0.9524 ∠ − 18.195&deg; per unit
V
1.05
The internal machine voltages are:
Eg′′ = V + jX g′′ I L = 1.05∠0&deg; + ( j 0.15 )( 0.9524∠ − 18.195&deg; )
= 1.05 + 0.1429∠71.81&deg; = 1.0946 + j 0.1358 = 1.1030∠7.072&deg; per unit
Em′′ = V − j ( XT 1 + X Line + XT 2 + X m′′ ) I L
= 1.05∠0&deg; − ( j 0.505 )( 0.9524 ∠ − 18.195&deg; )
= 1.05 + 0.48095∠ − 18.195&deg; = 0.8998 − j 0.4569 = 1.0092∠ − 26.92&deg; per unit
The short circuit currents are:
I g′′ =
I m′′ =
E g′′
jX g′′
=
1.1030∠7.072&deg;
= 7.353 ∠ − 82.93&deg; per unit
j 0.15
Em′′
1.0092 ∠ − 26.92&deg;
=
= 1.998 ∠243.1&deg; per unit
j ( Xτ1 + X Line + Xτ 2 + X m′′ )
j 0.505
I F′′ = I g′′ + I m′′ = 7.353∠ − 82.93&deg; + 1.998∠243.1&deg; = − j 9.079 per unit
182
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7.12
Per Unit Positive Sequence Reactance Diagram
 1000 
X g′′1 = ( 0.20 ) 
 = 0.40 per unit
 500 
X′′g 2 = ( 0.18 )(1000 / 750 ) = 0.24 Per unit
X T 1 = ( 0.12 )(1000 / 500 ) = 0.24 per unit
XT 2 = ( 0.10 )(1000 / 750 ) = 0.1333per unit
X ′′j 3 = 0.17 per unit
XT 3 = 0.10 per unit
( 500 ) = 250 Ω
V
= base 4 =
1000
Sbase
2
Z base 4
X Line1.2 = X Line 2.3 = X Line 2.4 =
50
= 0.20 per unit
250
(a) XTh = ( 0.40 + 0.24 ) // 0.20 + ( 0.20 + 0.10 + 0.17 ) // ( 0.20 + 0.1333 + 0.24 ) 
= 0.64 // [ 0.20 + 0.47 // 0.5733] = 0.64 // 0.4583
= 0.2670 per unit
(b) VF =
I F′′ =
525
= 1.05∠0&deg; per unit
500
I base 4 =
Sbase
3∇base 4
=
1000
( )
3 ( 500 )
= 1.155 kA
VF 1.05∠0&deg;
=
= − j 3.933per unit = ( − j 3.933)(1.155 ) = − j 4.541 kA
Z Th j 0.2670
(c) Using current division:
0.4583
I g′′1 = I F′′
= ( − j 3.933)( 0.4173) = − j1.641per unit = − j1.896 kA
( 0.4583 + 0.64 )
0.64


′′ 1.2 = I F′′ 
I Line
 = ( − j 3.933)( 0.5827 ) = − j 2.292per unit = − j 2.647 kA
 0.4583 + 0.64 
183
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7.13 (a) XTh = ( 0.20 + 0.24 + 0.40 ) // ( 0.20 + 0.10 + 0.17 ) // ( 0.20 + 0.1333 + 0.24 )
XTh = 0.84 // 0.47 // 0.5733 =
(b) I F′′ =
1
= 0.1975per unit
1
1
1
+
+
0.84 0.47 0.5733
VF 1.05∠0&deg;
=
= − j 5.3155per unit
Z Th j 0.1975
I F′′ = ( − j 5.3155 )(1.155 ) = − j 6.1379kA
1.05∠0&deg;
= − j1.25per unit = ( − j1.25 )(1.155 ) = − j1.443kA
j 0.84
1.05∠0&deg;
′′ =
I 32
= − j 2.234 per unit = ( − j 2.234 )(1.155 ) = − j 2.580kA
j 0.47
1.05∠0&deg;
′′ =
I 42
= − j1.8315per unit = ( − j1.8315 )(1.155 ) = − j 2.115kA
j 0.5733
(c) I12′′ =
7.14 (a) Zone 1
Vbase1 = 10 kV
Zone 2
Vbase 2 = 15kV
Zone 3
Vbase 3 = 138 kV
Z base3
2
 12 
X g′′1 = ( 0.20 )  
 10 
X g′′2 = 0.20 per unit
(138 )
=
100
2
= 190.44 Ω
 100 
 50  = 0.576 per unit


 100 
XT 1 = ( 0.10 ) 
 = 0.20 per unit
 50 
XT 2 = 0.10 per unit
X Line = 40 /190.44 = 0.21per unit
184
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(b) XTh = ( 0.20 ) // ( 0.576 + 0.20 + 0.21 + 0.21 + 0.10 )
= 0.20 //1.296 = 0.1733per unit
VF = 1.0 per unit
I F′′ =
(c)
I base 2 =
VF
1.0∠0&deg;
=
= − j 5.772 per unit
Z Th j 0.1733
100
= 3.849 kA
15 3
I F′′ = ( − j 5.772 )( 3.849 ) = − j 22.21kA
1.0∠0&deg;
= − j 5.0 per unit = ( − j 5.0 )( 3.849 ) = − j19.245kA
j 0.20
1.0∠0&deg;
IT′′2 =
= − j 0.7716 per unit = ( − j 0.7716 )( 3.849 ) = − j 2.970 kA
j1.296
I g′′2 =
(d)
7.15 (a) XTh = ( 0.20 + 0.10 ) // ( 0.576 + 0.20 + 0.21 + 0.21)
= 0.30 //1.196 = 0.2398 per unit
(b)
1.0∠0&deg;
= − j 4.1695per unit
j 0.2398
100
I base3 =
= 0.4184 kA
138 3
I F′′ = ( − j 4.1695 )( 0.4184 ) = − j1.744 kA
I F′′ =
1.0∠0&deg;
= − j 3.333per unit = ( − j 3.333 )( 0.4184 ) = − j1.395 kA
j 0.30
1.0∠0&deg;
′′ =
I 34
= − j 0.836 per unit = ( − j 0.836 )( 0.4184 ) = − j 0.350 kA
j1.196
(c) IT′′2 =
7.16 Choosing base MVA as 30 MVA and the base line voltage at the HV-side of the transformer
to be 33kV,
30
30
30
&times; 0.15 = 0.225pu; X G 2 = &times; 0.1 = 0.3pu; XTRANS = &times; 0.05 = 0.05pu
20
10
30
30
= ( 3 + j15 ) 2 = ( 0.0826 + j 0.4132 ) pu
33
XG1 =
Z LINE
185
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The system with pu-values is shown below:
Z TOTAL = 0.0826 + j 0.5918 = 0.5975∠82&deg; pu
Then
IF =
I base =
1.0
= 1.674∠ − 82&deg; pu
0.5975∠82&deg;
30 &times; 106
3 33 &times; 10
= 524.8 A
I F = 1.674 &times; 524.8 = 878.6 A
7.17 Choosing base values of 25 MVA and 13.8 kV on the generator side
Generator reactance = 0.15 pu
2
25  13.2 
Transformer reactance =

 0.11 = 0.101 pu
25  13.8 
Base voltage at the transmission line is 13.8 &times;
Per-unit line reactance:
65
69
= 72.136 kV
13.2
25
( 72.136 )
2
= 0.312
2
25  13 
X M = 0.15 &times; &times; 
 = 0.222 pu
15  13.8 
186
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The reactance diagram is shown below; Switch SW simulates the short circuit, and Eg′′ and
Em′′ are the machine prefault internal voltages.
Choose VF to be equal to the voltage at the fault point prior to the occurrence of the fault;
then VF = Em′′ = Eg′′ ; prefault currents are neglected; I F′′ 2 = 0; so VF may be open circuited as
shown below:
Equivalent impedance between
terminals a &amp; b is
Neglecting prefault currents,
Eg′′ = Em′′ = VF = 1∠0&deg; pu
j 0.15 &times; j 0.736
= j 0.1246
j 0.15 + j 0.736
∴ I F′′ = I F′′1 =
1∠0&deg;
= − j8.025pu
j 0.1246
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7.18 (A)
(a)
(b) I F′′ 2 =
VF 1.0∠0&deg;
=
= − j8.333per unit
Z 22
j 0.12
Using Eq (8.4.7):

Z 
 0.08 
E1 =  1 − 12  VF = 1 −
1.0∠0&deg; = 0.3333∠0&deg; per unit
Z 22 
 0.12 


Z 
E2 =  1 − 22  VF = 0
Z 22 


Z 
 0.06 
E3 =  1 − 23  VF =  1 −
1.0∠0&deg; = 0.50∠0&deg; per unit
Z 22 
 0.12 

(B)
(a)
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(b)
I F′′ 2 = VF Z 22 = 1.0∠0&deg; j 0.8 = − j1.25 pu
Using Eq (7.4.7)

Z 
0.1 

E1 =  1 − 12  VF =  1. −
 (1∠0&deg; ) = 0.875 ∠0&deg; pu
0.8 
Z 22 



Z 
E2 =  1 − 22  VF = 0
Z 33 


Z 
 0.5 
E3 =  1 − 23  VF =  1 −
1∠0&deg; = 0.375 ∠0&deg; pu
Z 33 
 0.8 

7.19
YBUS
6.5625
 −5
=−j
 0

 0
0
0 
−5
−5
−5 
15
per unit
0 
−5 8.7037

0
7.6786 
−5
Using the personal computer subroutine
Z bus
7.20
Ybus
0.2671
0.1505
= j
0.0865

0.098
0.1505 0.0865 0.098 
0.1975 0.1135 0.1286 
per unit
0.1135 0.1801 0.0739 

0.1286 0.0739 0.214 
−5
0
0
0 
6.7361
 −5
9.7619 −4.7619
0
0 

= −j 0
−4.7619 9.5238 −4.7619 0  per unit


−4.7619 14.7619 −10 
0
 0
 0
−10
0
0
15 
Using the personal computer subroutine
Z bus
0.3542
0.2772

= j 0.1964

0.1155
0.077
0.2772 0.1964 0.1155 0.077 
0.3735 0.2645 0.1556 0.1037 
0.2645 0.3361 0.1977 0.1318  per unit

0.1556 0.1977 0.2398 0.1599 
0.1037 0.1318 0.1599 0.1733 
189
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7.21 (a) The admittance diagram is shown below:
(b) Y11 = − j 0.5 − j 5 − j 5 = − j10.5; Y22 = − j 0.5 − j 2.5 − j 5 = − j8.0
Y33 = − j 0.5 − j 5 − j10 − j 2.5 = − j18.0; Y44 = − j 5 − j10 − j 5 = − j 20.0
Y12 = Y21 = 0; Y13 = Y31 = j 5.0; Y14 = Y41 = j 5.0
Y23 = Y32 = j 2.5; Y24 = Y42 = j 5; Y34 = Y43 = j10.0
Hence the bus admittance matrix is given by
0
j 5.0
j 5.0 
 − j10.5
 0
− j8.0
j 2.5
j 5.0 
=
 j 5.0
j 2.5 − j18.0 j10.0 


j 5.0
j10.0 − j 20.0 
 j 5.0
YBUS
−1
is given by
(c) The bus impedance matrix Z BUS = YBUS
Z BUS
 j 0.724
 j 0.620
=
 j 0.656

 j 0.644
(1)
7.22 (a)
YBUS
j 0.620
j 0.738
j 0.642
j 0.656
j 0.642
j 0.702
j 0.660
j 0.676
j 0.644 
j 0.660 
j 0.676 

j 0.719 
(2)
(3)
(4)
(1)  j1.5
0
0 
− j 0.25

(2)  − j 0.25 j 0.775 − j 0.4 − j 0.125
=
− j 0.4
− j 0.2 
j1.85
(3)  0


− j 0.125 − j 0.2 j 0.325 
(4)  0
190
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(1)
(b)
Z BUS
Note:
(2)
(1)  j 0.71660
(2)  j 0.60992
=
(3)  j 0.53340

(4)  j 0.58049
(3)
j 0.60992
j 0.53340
j 0.73190
j 0.64008
j 0.64008
j 0.71660
j 0.69659
j 0.66951
(4)
j 0.58049 
j 0.69659 
j 0.66951 

j 0.76310 
Z BUS may be formulated directly (instead of inverting YBUS ) by adding the branches
in the order of their labels; and numbered subscripts on Z BUS will indicate the
intermediate steps of the solution.
nd
For details of this step-by-step method of formulating Z BUS , please refer to the 2
edition of the text.
7.23 (a) I ′′f =
1.0
1.0
=
= − j 4.348 pu ← Due to the fault
Z 22 j 0.23
Note: Because load currents are neglected, the prefault voltage at each bus
is 1.0∠0&deg; pu , the same as V f at bus 2.
(b) Voltages during the fault are calculated below:
j 0.2 

 1 − j 0.23 
  0.134 
 V1  
0
 
  

 =  0  pu ←
V2  = 
j 0.15 
V3   1 −
 0.3478 

j 0.23  
 

  0.3435 
V4  
1 − j 0.151 

j 0.23 
(c) Current flow in line 3-1 is
I 31 =
V3 − V1 0.3478 − 0.1304
=
= − j 0.8696 pu ←
Z 3−1
j 0.25
(d) Fault currents contributed to bus 2 by the adjacent unfaulted buses are calculated below:
V
0.1304
= − j1.0432 ←
From Bus 1: 1 =
Z 2 −1 j 0.125
From Bus 3:
V3
0.3478
=
= − j1.3912 ←
Z 2 −3
j 0.25
From Bus 4:
V4
0.3435
=
= − j1.7175 ←
Z 2−4
j 0.2
Sum of these current contributions = −j4.1519
Which is approximately same as I ′′f .
191
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7.24 For a fault at bus 2, generator 5 supplies 1.25 per unit current, generator 6 supplies 1.8315
pu, and generator 7 supplies 1.75 pu. The per unit fault-on voltages are bus 1 = 0.25, bus
2 = 0, bus 3 = 0.35, bus 4 = 0.3663, bus 5 = 0.55, bus 6 = 0.610, and bus 7 = 0.525.
7.25 For a fault at bus 1, generator 5 supplies 1.641 per unit current, generator 6 supplies 1.089
pu, and generator 7 supplies 1.040 pu. The per unit fault-on voltages are bus 1 = 0, bus 2 =
0.426, bus 3 = 0.634, bus 4 = 0.644, bus 5 = 0.394, bus 6 = 0.789, and bus 7 = 0.738.
7.26 For a fault midway on the line between buses 2 and 4, generator 5 supplies 0.972 per unit
current, generator 6 supplies 2.218 pu, and generator 7 supplies 1.361 pu. The per unit faulton voltages are bus 1 = 0.428, bus 2 = 0.233, bus 3 = 0.506, bus 4 = 0.222, bus 5 = 0.661,
bus 6 = 0.518, and bus 7 = 0.642.
7.27 Generator G3 (at bus 7) supplies the most fault current for a bus 7 fault, during which it
supplies 3.5 per unit fault current. This value can be limited to 2.5 per unit by increasing the
G3 positive sequence impedance from 0.3 to 1.05/2.5 = 0.42, which would require an
addition of 0.12 per unit reactance.
7.28 For a three phase fault at bus 16 (PETE69), the generators supply the following per unit
fault currents: 14 (WEBER69) = 0.000 (off-line), 28 (JO345) G1 = 2.934, 28 (JO345),
G2=2.934, 31 (SLACK345) = 5.127, 44 (LAUF69) = 3.123, 48 (BOB69) = 0.000 (off-line),
50 (ROGER69) = 1.987, 53 (BLT138) = 8.918, 54 (BLT69) = 8.958. During the fault a total
of 27 of the 37 buses have voltages at or below 0.75 per unit (one bus has a voltage of
0.74994 so some students may round this to 0.75 and say 26 buses are BELOW 0.75).
7.29 For a three phase fault at bus 48 (BOB69) the generators supply the following per unit fault
currents: 14 (WEBER69) = 0.000 (off-line), 28 (JO345) G1 = 2.665, 28 (JO345), G2 =
2.665, 31 (SLACK345) = 4.600, 44 (LAUF69) = 2.769, 48 (BOB69) = 0.000 (off-line), 50
(ROGER69) = 2.857, 53 (BLT138) = 9.787, 54 (BLT69) = 6.410. During the fault a total of
28 of the 37 buses have voltages at or below 0.75 per unit.
7.30 With the generator at bus 3 open in the Example 7.5 case, all of the fault current is supplied
by the generator a bus 1. The fault is 23.333 for a fault at bus 1, 10.426 for a bus 2 fault,
10.889 for bus 3, 12.149 for bus 4, and 16.154 for bus 5.
7.31 (a) The symmetrical interrupting capability is:
 15.5 
at 10 kV: ( 9.0 ) 
 = 13.95 kA
 10 
V
15.5
Vmin = max =
= 5.805 kV
k
2.67
at 5kV: I max = k &plusmn; = ( 2.67 )( 9.0 ) = 24.0 kA
(b) The symmetrical interrupting capability at 13.8 kV is:
 15.5 
9.0 
 = 10.11kA
 13.8 
Since the interrupting capability of 10.11 kA is greater than the 10 kA symmetrical fault
current and the (X/R) ratio is less than 15, the answer is yes. This breaker can be safely
installed at the bus.
192
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7.32 From Table 7.10, select the 500 kV (nominal voltage class) breaker with a 40 kA rated short
circuit current. This breaker has a 3 kA rated continuous current.
7.33 The maximum symmetrical interrupting capability is k &times; rated short-circuit
current • 1.21 &times; 19,000 = 22,990 A which must not be exceeded.
Rated maximum voltage
K
72.5
=
= 60 kV
1.21
Lower limit of operating voltage =
Hence, in the operating voltage range 72.5–60 kV, the symmetrical interrupting current may
exceed the rated short-circuit current of 19,000 A, but is limited to 22,990 A. For example,
at 66 kV the interrupting current can be
72.5
&times; 19,000 = 20,871A
60
7.34 (a) For a base of 25 MVA, 13.8 kV in the generator circuit, the base for motors is 25 MVA,
6.9 kV. For each of the motors,
X d′′ = 0.2
25000
= 1.0 pu
5000
The reactance diagram is shown below:
For a fault at P, VF = 1∠0&deg; pu; ZTh = j 0.125pu
I ′′f = 1∠0&deg; j 0.125 = − j8.0 pu
25000
= 2090 A
3 &times; 6.9
so, subtransient fault current = 8 &times; 2090 = 16,720A
(b) Contributions from the generator and three of the four motors come through breaker A.
0.25
= − j 4.0 pu
The generator contributes a current of − j8.0 &times;
0.50
Each motor contributes 25% of the remaining fault current, or − j1.0 pu amperes each.
For breaker A
The base current in the 6.9 kV circuit is
I ′′ = − j 4.0 + 3 ( − j1.0 ) = − j 7.0 pu or 7 &times; 2090 = 14,630 A
193
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(c) To compute the current to be interrupted by breaker A, let us replace the sub transient
reactance of j1.0 by the transient reactance, say j1.5, in the motor circuit. Then
Z Th = j
0.375 &times; 0.25
= j 0.15pu
0.375 + 0.25
The generator contributes a current of
1.0
0.375
&times;
= − j 4.0 pu
j 0.15 0.625
Each motor contributes a current of
1
1
0.25
&times;
&times;
= − j 0.67 pu
4 j 0.15 0.625
The symmetrical short-circuit current to be interrupted is
( 4.0 + 3 &times; 0.67 ) &times; 2090 = 12,560 A
Supposing that all the breakers connected to the bus are rated on the basis of the current
into a fault on the bus, the short-circuit current interrupting rating of the breakers
connected to the 6.9 kV bus must be at least
4 + 4 &times; 0.67 = 6.67 pu, or 6.67 &times; 2090 = 13,940 A .
A 14.4-kV circuit breaker has a rated maximum voltage of 15.5kV and a k of 2.67. At
15.5kV its rated short-circuits interrupting current is 8900 A. This breaker is rated for a
symmetrical short-circuit interrupting current of 2.67 &times; 8900 = 23,760 A , at a voltage of
15.5 / 2.67 = 5.8 kV .
This current is the maximum that can be interrupted even though the breaker may be in
a circuit of lower voltage.
The short-circuit interrupting current rating at 6.9 kV is
15.5
&times; 8900 = 20,000 A
6.9
The required capability of 13,940 A is well below 80% of 20,000 A, and the breaker is
suitable with respect to short-circuit current.
194
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Chapter 8
Symmetrical Components
8.1
Equal, &plusmn; 120&deg;; equal, &plusmn; 120 &deg;;
8.21
equal, zero
8.22 Positive sequence, subtransient
8.23 Does not
8.24 a
8.25 (i) Can, do; does not, 3
(ii) e j 30&deg; :1, e− j 30&deg; :1
1
3
+j
2
2
8.2
1e j120&deg; ; −
8.3
V0 + V1 + V2 ; V0 + a 2V1 + av2 ;
V0 + aV1 + a 2V2
8.5
8.6
8.7
1
1
Va + Vb + Vc ) ; (Va + aVb + a 2Vc ) ;
(
3
3
1
(V + a2Vb + aVc )
3 a
Zero
May, Never
a
8.8
I a + I b + I c ; 3I 0
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
Zero
a
a
a
ZY + Z n ; Z n
8.14
A− 1 Z p A
8.4
8.26
Z go + 3 Z n
(iii) Do not
(i) Short
(ii) 3 Z n
(iii) Open
(iv) Short
8.27
3; V0 I 0* + V1 I1* + V2 I2*
8.15 a
8.16 ZY + 3 Z n
8.17
∞, Z Δ / 3, Z Δ / 3
8.18 Diagonal, uncoupled
8.19 Uncoupled, positive-sequence
8.20 Diagonal, zero
195
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8.1
Using the identities shown in Table 8.1
(a)
(b)
a −1
−(1 − a )
(−1) 3 ∠ − 30&deg;
3
=
=
=
∠ 90&deg;
2
2
2
1+ a − a
(1 + a + a ) − 2a (−1) 2 ∠ 240&deg; 2
( a2 − a ) + j =
ja + a 2
=
(c)
8.2
−1 + j
=
a ( j + a)
2∠135&deg;

1
3
(1∠120&deg; )  j − + j 
2
2 

2∠15&deg;
2∠15&deg;
=
= 0.7321 ∠ 270&deg;
 3
 1.932 ∠ 105&deg;
1
− + j 
+ 1 
2
 2

(1 + a ) (1 + a 2 ) = ( −a 2 ) ( −a ) = a3 = 1 ∠ 0&deg;
(d)
( a − a 2 )( a 2 − 1) = ( a 2 − a )(1 − a 2 ) = (
(a)
(a)
(b)
( ja )
= ( j)
(c)
(1 − a )
3
10
3∠270&deg;
)(
)
3∠30&deg; = 3 ∠ 300&deg;
1
3
3
= a ( a3 ) = a = − + j
2
2
10
10
=
(
(a)
10
= ( j)
4
( j ) ( j ) ( a ) = −a =
4
2
1
3
−j
2
2
) ( 3 ) ∠ − 90&deg; = 0 − j3
3
3∠ − 30&deg; =
3
3
= 0 − j 5.196
1
3
+j
2
2
1
3
2
= 0.6065∠49.62&deg; = 0.3929 + j 0.4620
(d) e a = e
8.3
−
−
= e 2∠
(a) I 0 
1 1
 

I1  = 1 1 a
3 1 a 2
I 2 
1   5 ∠ 90 &deg; 
1 ∠90 &deg; + 1 ∠ 320 &deg; + 1∠220 &deg; 





5
a 2  5 ∠ 320 &deg; = 1 ∠90 &deg; + 1 ∠80 &deg; + 1 ∠100 &deg; 
3
a  5 ∠ 220 &deg;
1 ∠ 90 &deg; + 1 ∠200 &deg; + 1 ∠ 340 &deg;
0 − j 0.2856 0.476 ∠ − 90 &deg;

 

5 0 + j 2.97  =  4.949 ∠ 90 &deg;  A
= 
3  0 + j 0.316   0.5266 ∠ 90 &deg;
(b) I 0 
1 1
 

I1  = 1 1 a
I 2  3 1 a 2
1  50 ∠ 90 &deg;
 1 ∠ 90 &deg; + 1 ∠ 0 &deg;   23.57 ∠ 45 &deg; 


 

2 
a   50 ∠ 0 &deg;  50 1 ∠90 &deg; + 1∠120 &deg;  =  32.2 ∠ 105 &deg;  A
=
a   0  3 1 ∠ 90 &deg; + 1∠240 &deg; 8.627 ∠ 165 &deg;
196
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8.4
Van  1 1
  
2
Vbn  = 1 a
Vcn  1 a
1  50 ∠ 80 &deg;
1 ∠80 &deg; + 2 ∠ 0 &deg; + 1 ∠90 &deg;





a  100 ∠ 0 &deg; = 50 1 ∠ 80 &deg; + 2 ∠ 240 &deg; + 1 ∠210 &deg;
1 ∠ 80 &deg; + 2 ∠120 &deg; + 1 ∠330 &deg; 
a 2  50 ∠ 90 &deg;
 2.174 + j1.985   147.2 ∠ 42.4 &deg; 

 

= 50 − 1.692 − j1.247 = 105.1 ∠ 216.4 &deg; V
0.0397 + j 2.217 110.9 ∠ 88.97 &deg;
8.5
Eq. (8.1.12) of text:
1
I0 = ( Ia + Ib + Ic )
3
1
= (12∠0&deg; + 6∠ − 90&deg; + 8∠150&deg; ) = 1.69 − j 0.67 = 1.82∠ − 21.5&deg; A ←
3
1
( I a + aI b + a 2 I c )
3
1
= (12∠0&deg; + 1∠120&deg; ( 6∠ − 90&deg; ) + 1∠240&deg; ( 8∠150&deg; ) )
3
1
= (12∠0&deg; + 6∠30&deg; + 8∠30&deg; ) = 8.04 + j 2.33 = 8.37∠16.2&deg; A ←
3
I1 =
1
( I a + a 2 I b + aI c )
3
1
= (12∠0&deg; + 1∠240&deg; ( 6∠ − 90&deg; ) + 1∠120&deg; ( 8∠150&deg; ) )
3
1
= (12∠0&deg; + 6∠150&deg; + 8∠ − 90&deg; ) = 2.27 − j1.67 = 2.81∠ − 36.3&deg; ←
3
(a) Eq. (8.1.9) of text:
I2 =
8.6
Va = (V0 + V1 + V2 )
= (10∠0&deg; + 80∠30&deg; + 40∠ − 30&deg; ) = 114 + j 20 = 116∠9.9&deg; V ←
Vb = V0 + a 2V1 + aV2
= 10∠0&deg; + 1∠240&deg; ( 80∠30&deg; ) + 1∠120&deg; ( 40∠ − 30&deg; ) 
= (10∠0&deg; + 80∠ − 90&deg; + 40∠90&deg; ) = 10 − j 40 = 41.3∠ − 76&deg; ←
Vc = V0 + aV1 + a 2V2
= 10∠0&deg; + 1∠120&deg; ( 80∠30&deg; ) + 1∠240&deg; ( 40∠ − 30&deg; ) 
= (10∠0&deg; + 80∠150&deg; + 40∠ − 150&deg; ) = −94 + j 20 = 96.1∠168&deg; ←
197
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(b) Vab = Va − Vb = (114 + j 20 ) − (10 − j 40 ) = 104 + j 60 = 120∠30&deg; V ←
Vbc = Vb − Vc = (10 − j 40 ) − ( −94 + j 20 ) = 104 − j 60 = 120∠ − 30&deg; V ←
Vca = Vc − Va = ( −94 + j 20 ) − (114 + j 20 ) = −208 + j 0 = 208∠180&deg; V ←
(V )
=
1
1
Vab + Vbc + Vca ) = (120∠30&deg; + 120∠ − 30&deg; + 208∠180&deg; ) = 0 ←
(
3
3
(V )
=
1
1 120∠30&deg; + 1∠120&deg; (120∠ − 30&deg; ) 
Vab + aVbc + a 2Vca ) = 

(
3
3 
+1∠240&deg; ( 208∠180&deg; ) 
=
1
(120∠30&deg; + 120∠90&deg; + 208∠60&deg; ) = 69.33 + j120 = 138.6∠60&deg; V ←
3
ab 0
ab 1
(V )
ab 2
1
1 120∠30&deg; + 1∠240&deg; (120∠ − 30&deg; ) 
Vab + a 2 Vbc + a (Vca ) = 

3
3 
+1∠120&deg; ( 208∠180&deg; ) 
1
= (120∠30&deg; + 120∠210&deg; + 208∠ − 60&deg; ) = 34.67 − j 60 = 69.3∠ − 60&deg; V ←
3
=
(
)
Since (Vab )0 = Va 0 − Vb 0 = 0
And (Vab )1 = Va1 − Vb1 ; (Vab )2 = Va 2 − Vb 2 , we have
VL − L 0 = 0; VL − L 1 =
(
)
3∠30&deg; V1 ; VL − L 2 =
(
)
3∠ − 30&deg; V2
 1

 1

Or V1 = 
∠ − 30&deg;  VL1 and V2 = 
∠30&deg;  VL 2
 3

 3

Applying the above, one gets
 1

V1 = 
∠ − 30&deg;  (138.6∠60&deg; ) = 80∠30&deg; = 69.3 + j 40 ←
 3

 1

V2 = 
∠30&deg;  ( 69.3∠ − 60&deg; ) = 40∠ − 30&deg; = 34.6 − j 20 ←
 3

Phase voltages are then given by
Va = V1 + V2 = 103.9 + j 20 = 105.9∠10.9&deg; V ←
Vb = a 2V1 + aV2 = 1∠240&deg; ( 80∠30&deg; ) + 1∠120&deg; ( 40∠ − 30&deg; )
= ( 80∠ − 90&deg; + 40∠90&deg; ) = − j 40 = 40∠ − 90&deg; V ←
Vc = aV1 + a 2V2 = 1∠120&deg; ( 80∠30&deg; ) + 1∠240&deg; ( 40∠ − 30&deg; )
= 80∠150&deg; + 40∠210&deg; = −104 + j 20 = 105.9∠169&deg; V ←
The above are not the same as in part (a) ←
However, either set will result in the same line voltages. Note that the zero-sequence
line voltage is always zero, even though zero-sequence phase voltage may exist. So it is
not possible to construct the complete set of symmetrical components of phase voltages
even when the unbalanced system of line voltages is known. But we can obtain a set
with no zero-sequence voltage to represent the unbalanced system.
198
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8.7
I0 
1 1
  1
 I1  = 1 a
 I 2  3 1 a 2
1 
0

 1∠150&deg; + 1∠30&deg; 

1∠270&deg; + 1∠270&deg;
1000
2
a  1000∠150&deg; =


3 
a   1000∠30&deg; 
 1∠30&deg; + 1∠150&deg; 
 333.3 ∠ 90&deg; 
= 666.7 ∠ 270&deg;  A
 333.3 ∠ 90&deg; 
Current to ground, I n = 3I 0 = 1000 ∠ 90 &deg; A
8.8
Vab = Va − Vb ; Vbc = Vb − Vc ; Vca = Vc − Va
 Vab + Vbc + Vca = 0, Vab 0 = Vbc 0 = Vca 0 = 0
Choosing Vab as the reference,
1
(Vab + aVbc + a 2Vca )
3
1
= ( Va − Vb ) + a (Vb − Vc ) + a 2 (Vc − Va )
3
1
= (Va + aVb + a 2Vc ) − ( a 2Va + Vb + aVc ) 
3
1
= (Va + aVb + a 2Vc ) − a 2 ( Va + aVb + a 2Vc ) 
3
1
= (1 − a 2 ) (Va + aVb + a 2Vc )  = (1 − a 2 ) Va1
3
Vab1 =
(
)
= 3 Va1 e j 30&deg; ←
1
(Vab + a 2Vbc + aVca )
3
1
= (Va − Vb ) + a 2 (Vb − Vc ) + a (Vc − Va )
3
1
= (Va + a 2Vb + aVc ) − ( aVa + Vb + a 2Vc ) 
3
1
= (Va + a 2Vb + aVc ) − a ( Va + a 2Vb + aVc ) 
3
1
= (1 − a ) (Va + a 2Vb + aVc )  = (1 − a ) Va 2
3
Vab 2 =
(
)
= 3 Va 2 e − j 30&deg; ←
199
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8.9
Choosing Vbc as reference and following similar steps as in Pr. 8.8 solution, one can get
Vbc 0 = 0; Vbc1 = 3Va1e − j 90&deg; = − j 3Va1 ;
 ←
and Vbc 2 = 3Va 2 e j 90&deg; = j 3Va 2 
8.10 (a) VLg 0 
1 1

 1
VLg1  = 1 a

 3 1 a 2
VLg 2 
1   280∠0&deg;

2
a   250∠ − 110&deg;
a   290∠130&deg; 
280∠0&deg; + 250∠ − 110&deg; + 290∠130&deg; 2.696 − j 4.257 
1
 = 270.6 + j 31.26 
= 280∠0&deg; + 250∠ 10&deg; + 290∠10&deg;
 

3
280∠0&deg; + 250∠130&deg; + 290∠250&deg;   6.706 − j 27 
 5.039 ∠ − 57.65&deg;
=  272.4 ∠ 6.59&deg;  V
 27.82∠ − 76.05&deg; 
(b) Vab  Vag − Vbg   280∠0&deg; − 250∠ − 110&deg; 
  
 

Vbc  = Vbg − Vcg  = 250∠ − 110&deg; − 290∠130&deg;

Vca  Vcg − Vag  290∠130&deg; − 280∠0&deg;
 365.5 + j 234.9   434.5∠32.73&deg; 
=  100.9 − j 457.1  =  468.1∠ − 77.55&deg; V
 −466.4 + j 222.2   516.6∠154.5&deg; 
(c) VLL 0 
1 1

 1
VLL1  = 1 a
VLL 2  3 1 a 2
1   434.5∠32.73&deg; 
a 2   468.1∠ − 77.55&deg;
a   516.6∠154.5&deg; 
 434.5 ∠ 32.73&deg; + 468.1 ∠ − 77.55&deg; + 516.6 ∠154.5&deg;  0 + j 0

1


=  434.5 ∠ 32.73&deg; + 468.1 ∠ 42.55&deg; + 516.6 ∠ 34.5&deg;  = 378.9 + j 281.2 
3
 434.5 ∠ 32.73&deg; + 468.1 ∠162.5&deg; ∠ + 516.6 ∠ 274.5&deg;  −13.46 − j 46.44 


0
0




=  471.8 ∠ 36.58&deg;  V =  3 VLg1 ∠ + 30&deg; 


 48.35 ∠ − 106.2&deg;
 3VLg 2 ∠ − 30&deg; 
200
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8.11 The circuit is shown below:
1
(10∠0&deg; + 10∠180&deg; + 0 ) = 0
3
1
I a1 = (10∠0&deg; + 10∠180&deg; + 120&deg; + 0 ) = 5 − j 2.89 = 5.78∠ − 30&deg; A
3
1
I a 2 = (10∠0&deg; + 10∠180&deg; + 240&deg; + 0 ) = 5 + j 2.89 = 5.78∠30&deg; A
3
Then
Ia0 =
I b 0 = I a 0 = 0 A;
Ic0 = Ia0 = 0 A
I b1 = a 2 I a1 = 5.78∠ − 150&deg; A; I c1 = aI a1 = 5.78∠90&deg; A
I b 2 = aI a 2 = 5.78∠150&deg; A;
I c 2 = a 2 I a 2 = 5.78∠ − 90&deg; A
8.12 Note an error in printing: Vab should be 1840∠82.8&deg; selecting a base of 2300 V and
500 kVA, each resistor has an impedance of 1∠0&deg; pu ; Vab = 0.8 ; Vbc = 1.2 ; Vca = 1.0
The symmetrical components of the line voltages are:
Vab1 =
1
( 0.8∠82.8&deg; + 1.2∠120&deg; − 41.4&deg; + 1.0∠240&deg; + 180&deg; ) = 0.2792 + j 0.9453
3
= 0.9857∠73.6&deg;
Vab 2 =
1
( 0.8∠82.8&deg; + 1.2∠240&deg; − 41.4&deg; + 1.0∠120&deg; + 180&deg; ) = −0.1790 − j 0.1517
3
= 0.2346∠220.3&deg;
(These are in pu on line-to-line voltage base.)
Phase voltages in pu on the base of voltage to neutral are given by
Van1 = 0.9857∠73.6&deg; − 30&deg; = 0.9857∠43.6&deg;
Van 2 = 0.2346∠220.3&deg; + 30&deg; = 0.2346∠250.3&deg;
[Note: An angle of 180&deg; is assigned to Vca ]
Zero-sequence currents are not present due to the absence of a neutral connection.
I a1 = Va1 /1∠0&deg; = 0.9857∠43.6&deg; pu
I a 2 = Va 2 /1∠0&deg; = 0.2346∠250.3&deg; pu
The positive direction of current is from the supply toward the load.
201
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8.13 (a) I Δ 0 
1 1
  1
I Δ1  = 1 a
3 1 a 2

I Δ 2 
1   10 ∠ 0 &deg; 


a 2  15 ∠ − 90 &deg;
a   20 ∠ 90 &deg; 
10 ∠ 0 &deg; + 15 ∠ − 90 &deg; + 20 ∠ 90 &deg;   3.333 + j1.667  3.727 ∠ 26.56 &deg;
1
 
 

=  10 ∠ 0 &deg; + 15 ∠ 30 &deg; + 20 ∠ 330 &deg;  = 13.44 − j 0.8333 = 13.47 ∠ − 3.55 &deg; A
3
10 ∠ 0 &deg; + 15 ∠150 &deg; + 20 ∠ 210 &deg; − 6.77 − j 0.8333  6.821 ∠187 &deg; 
(b) I a  I ab − I ca   10 ∠ 0 &deg; − 20 ∠ 90 &deg;   10 − j 20  22.36 ∠ − 63.43 &deg;
  
 
 
 

I b  = I bc − I ab  =  15 ∠ − 90 &deg; − 10 ∠ 0 &deg;  = − 10 − j15 =  18.03 ∠ 236.3 &deg;  A
35 ∠ 90 &deg;

I c  I ca − I bc  20 ∠ 90 &deg; − 15 ∠ − 90 &deg;  j35  
(c) I L 0 
1 1
  1
I L1  = 1 a
3 1 a 2

I L 2 
1  22.36 ∠ − 63.43 &deg;


a 2   18.03 ∠236.3 &deg; 
35 ∠ 90 &deg;
a  

 22.36 ∠ − 63.43 &deg; + 18.03 ∠ 236.3 &deg; + 35 ∠ 90 &deg; 
1

=  22.36 ∠ − 63.43 &deg; + 18.03 ∠356.3 &deg; + 35 ∠330 &deg; 
3
22.36 ∠ − 63.43 &deg; + 18.03 ∠116.3 &deg; + 35 ∠ 210 &deg;
0

0 + j 0
 0




 

= 19.43 − j12.89  = 23.32 ∠ − 33.56 &deg; A =  3I Δ1 ∠ − 30 &deg; 


− 9.43 − j 7.112 11.81 ∠ 217 &deg;

 3 I Δ 2 ∠ + 30 &deg;
8.14
I0 =
I1 =
I2 =
VLg 0
Z0
VLg1
Z1
VLg 2
Z2
=
5.039∠ − 57.65 &deg;
= 0.252 ∠ − 110.78 &deg; A
20∠ 53.13 &deg;
=
272.4 ∠6.59 &deg;
= 13.62 ∠ − 46.54 &deg; A
20 ∠ 53.13 &deg;
=
27.82 ∠ − 76.05 &deg;
= 1.391 ∠ − 129.18 &deg; A
20 ∠ 53.13 &deg;
202
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I a  1 1
  
2
I b  = 1 a
I c  1 a
 
1  0.252 ∠ − 110.78 &deg;
a   13.62 ∠ − 46.54 &deg; 
a 2  1.391 ∠ −129.18 &deg; 
0.2520 ∠ − 110.78 &deg; + 13.62 ∠ − 46.54 &deg; + 1.391∠ − 129.18 &deg;
= 0.2520 ∠ − 110.78 &deg; + 13.62 ∠193.46 &deg; + 1.391 ∠ − 9.18 &deg; 
0.2520 ∠ − 110.78 &deg; + 13.62 ∠ 73 .46 &deg; + 1.391 ∠110.82 &deg; 
 8.4 − j11.2   14 ∠ − 53.13 &deg; 

 

= − 11.96 − j 3.628 = 12.5 ∠ − 163.1 &deg; A
 3.294 + j14.12   14.5 ∠ 76.37 &deg; 
Note: The source and load neutrals are connected with a zero-ohm wire.
I a  Vag zY   280 ∠ 0 &deg; 20 ∠ 53.13 &deg;   14 ∠ − 53.13 &deg; 
 
  
 

I b  = Vbg zY  = 250 ∠ − 110 &deg; 20 ∠53.13 &deg; = 12.5 ∠ − 163.1 &deg;
I c  V z   290 ∠130 &deg; 20 ∠53.13 &deg;   14.5 ∠76.87 &deg; 
   cg Y 
Which agrees with the above result.
8.15
I 0 = 0 ; From Problem 8.14, I1 = 13.62∠ − 46.54&deg; A; I 2 = 1.391∠ − 129.18&deg; A
 I a  1 1
  
2
 I b  = 1 a
 I c  1 a
 
1 
0



a   13.62∠ − 46.54&deg; 
a 2  1.391∠ − 129.18&deg; 
13.62∠ − 46.54&deg; + 1.391∠ − 129.18&deg;
=  13.62∠193.46&deg; + 1.391∠ − 9.18&deg; 
 13.62∠73.46&deg; + 1.391∠110.82&deg; 
 8.49 − j10.96  13.86∠ − 52.24&deg;
=  −11.87 − j 3.392  = 12.35∠195.9&deg;  A
 3.383 + j14.36  14.75∠76.74&deg; 
203
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8.16
272.4∠6.59&deg;
= 40.86∠ − 46.54&deg; A
 20 
 3  ∠53.13&deg;
 
27.82∠ − 76.05&deg;
I2 =
= 4.173∠ − 129.18&deg; A
 20 
 3  ∠53.13&deg;
 
 I a  1 1 1  0
  41.58∠ − 52.24&deg; 
  


2
a   40.86∠ − 46.54&deg;  = 37.05∠195.9&deg;  A
 I b  = 1 a
 I c  1 a a 2   4.173∠ − 129.18&deg;   44.25∠76.74&deg; 
 
I 0 = 0; I1 =
Note: These currents are 3 times thoe in problem 8.15.
8.17
I0 =
I1 =
I2 =
VLg 0
Z0
VLg1
Z1
VLg 2
Z2
=
5.039∠ − 57.65&deg;
= 0.4826∠ − 131&deg; A
3 + j10
=
272.4∠6.59&deg;
= 36.54∠ − 19.98&deg; A
7.454∠26.57&deg;
=
27.82∠ − 76.05&deg;
= 3.732∠ − 102.72&deg; A
7.454∠26.57&deg;
 I a  1 1
  
2
 I b  = 1 a
 
 I c  1 a
1  0.4826∠ − 131&deg; 
a  36.54∠ − 19.98&deg; 
a 2  3.732∠ − 102.72&deg;
0.4826∠ − 131&deg; + 36.54∠ − 19.98&deg; + 3.732∠ − 102.72&deg; 
=  0.4826∠ − 131&deg; + 36.54∠220.02&deg; + 3.732∠17.28&deg; 
 0.4826∠ − 131&deg; + 36.54∠100.02&deg; + 3.732∠137.28&deg; 
 33.2 − j16.49  37.07∠ − 26.41&deg; 
=  −24.74 − j 22.75  = 33.61∠222.6&deg;  A
 −9.416 + j 38.15 39.29∠103.9&deg; 
204
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8.18
 Z0
Z
 10
 Z 20
Z 01
Z1
Z 21
Z 02 
1 1

Z12  1 1 a
=
Z 2  3 1 a 2
1
a 2 
a 
( Z aa + Z ab + Z ac ) ( Z aa + a 2 Z ab + aZ ac )( Z aa + aZ ab + a 2 Z ac ) 


2
2
 ( Z ab + Z bb + Z bc ) ( Z ab + a Z bb + aZ bc )( Z ab + aZ bb + a Z bc ) 
 ( Z ac + Z bc + Z cc ) ( Z ac + a 2 Z bc + aZ cc )( Z ac + aZ bc + a 2 Z cc ) 


( Z aa + Z bb + Z cc ) + 2 ( Z ab + Z ac + Z bc )
1
= ( Z aa + aZ bb + a 2 Z cc ) + Z ab (1 + a ) + Z ac (1 + a 2 ) + Z bc ( a + a 2 )
3
( Z aa + a 2 Z bb + aZ cc ) + Z ab (1 + a 2 ) + Z ac (1 + a ) + Z bc ( a 2 + a )

( Z aa + a 2 Z bb + aZ cc ) + Z ab ( a 2 + 1) + Z ac ( a + 1) + Z bc ( a + a 2 )
( Z aa + a3 Z bb + a3 Z cc ) + Z ab ( a 2 + a ) + Z ac ( a + a 2 ) + Z bc ( a 2 + a 4 )
( Z aa + a 4 Z bb + a 2 Z cc ) + Z ab ( a 2 + a 2 ) + Z ac ( 2a ) + Z bc ( a 2 + a 4 )
( Z aa + aZ bb + a 2 Z cc ) + Z ab (1 + a ) + Z ac (1 + a 2 ) + Z bc ( a + a 2 ) 

( Z aa + a 2 Z bb + a 4 Z cc ) + Z ab ( 2a ) + Z ac ( 2a 2 ) + Z bc ( 2 )

3
3
2
2
2 
Z
a
Z
a
Z
Z
a
a
Z
a
a
Z
a
a
( aa + bb + cc ) + ab ( + ) + ac ( + ) + bc ( + ) 
 Z aa + Z bb + Z cc + 2 Z ab + 2 Z ac + 2 Z bc
1
=  Z aa + aZ bb + a 2 Z cc − a 2 Z ab − aZ ac − Z bc
3
 Z aa + a 2 Z bb + aZ cc − aZ ab − a 2 Z ac − Z bc
Z aa + a 2 Z bb + aZ cc − aZ ab − a 2 Z ac − Z bc
Z aa + Z bb + Z cc − Z ab − Z ac − Z bc
Z aa + aZ bb + a 2 Z cc + 2 a 2 Z ab + 2 aZ ac + 2 Z bc
Z aa + aZ bb + a 2 Z cc − a 2 Z ab − aZ ac − Z bc


2
2
Z aa + a Z bb + aZ cc + 2 aZ ab + 2 a Z ac + 2 Z bc 

Z aa + Z bb + Z cc − Z ab − Z ac − Z bc
8.19 (a)
205
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writing KVL equations [see Eqs (8.2.1) – (8.2.3)]:
Vag = Z y I a + Z n ( I a + I b + I c )
Vbg = Z y I b + Z n ( I a + I b + I c )
Vcg = Z y I c + Z n ( I a + I b + I c )
In matrix format [see Eq (8.2.4)]
( Z y + Z n )


Zn


Zn

( 3 + j 5 )

 j1
 j
1


V 
  I a   ag 


 I b = Vbg 
Zn
   
( Z y + Z n )  I c  Vcg 
Zn
(Z
y
Zn
+ Zn )
Zn
j1
(3 + j5)
j1
 I a  ( 3 + j 5 )
  
 I b  =  j1
 I c   j1
  
  I a   100∠0&deg; 
  

  I b  =  75∠180&deg;
( 3 + j 5)  I c   50∠90&deg; 
j1
j1
j1
( 3 + j 5)
j1



( 3 + j 5) 
j1
j1
−1
 100∠0&deg; 
 75∠180&deg; 


 50∠90&deg; 
Performing the indicated matrix inverse (a computer solution is suggested):
 I a   0.1763∠ − 56.50&deg; 0.02618∠150.2&deg; 0.02618∠150.2&deg;   100∠0&deg; 
  


 I b  =  0.02618∠150.2&deg; 0.1763∠ − 56.50&deg; 0.02618∠150.2&deg;  75∠180&deg; 
 I c   0.02618∠150.2&deg; 0.02618∠150.2&deg; 0.1763∠ − 56.50&deg;   50∠90&deg; 
 
Finally, performing the indicated matrix multiplication:
 I a  17.63∠ − 56.50&deg; + 1.964∠330.2&deg; + 1.309∠240.2&deg;
  

 I b  =  2.618∠150.2&deg; + 13.22∠123.5&deg; + 1.309∠240.2&deg; 
 I c   2.618∠150.2&deg; + 1.964∠330.2&deg; + 8.815∠33.5&deg; 
 
 I a   10.78 − j16.81  19.97∠ − 57.32&deg; 
  
 

 I b  =  −10.22 + j11.19  = 15.15∠132.4&deg;  A
 I c   6.783 + j 5.191  8.541∠37.43&deg; 
 
206
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(b) Step (1): Calculate the sequence components of the applied voltage:
Vg 0 
1 1
  1
Vg1  = 1 a
  3 1 a 2

Vg 2 
1   100∠0&deg; 
a 2  =  75∠180&deg;
a   50∠90&deg; 
 100∠0&deg; + 75∠180&deg; + 50∠90&deg; 
1
= 100∠0&deg; + 75∠300&deg; + 50∠330&deg;
3
 100∠0&deg; + 75∠60&deg; + 50∠210&deg; 
8.333 + j16.667  18.63∠63.43&deg; 
=  60.27 − j 29.98  = 67.32∠ − 26.45 V
 31.40 + j13.32  34.11∠22.99&deg; 
Step (2): Draw sequence networks:
Step (3): Solve sequence networks
Vg
Vg0
18.63∠63.43&deg; 18.63∠63.43&deg;
I0 = 0 =
=
=
Z0 Z y + 3 Zn
3 + j7
7.616∠66.80&deg;
I 0 = 2.446∠ − 3.37&deg; A
I1 =
I2 =
Vg1
Z1
Vg 2
Z2
=
67.32∠ − 26.45&deg; 67.32∠ − 26.45&deg;
=
= 13.46∠ − 79.58 A
3 + j4
5∠53.13&deg;
=
34.11∠22.99&deg;
= 6.822∠ − 30.14&deg;
5∠53.13&deg;
Step (4): Calculate the line currents (phase components):
 I a  1 1 1   2.446∠ − 3.37&deg; 
  
2
a  13.46∠ − 79.58&deg; 
 I b  = 1 a
 I c  1 a a 2  6.822∠ − 30.14&deg;
 
 2.446∠ − 3.37&deg; + 13.46∠ − 79.58&deg; + 6.822∠ − 30.14&deg; 
=  2.446∠ − 3.37&deg; + 13.46∠160.42&deg; + 6.822∠89.86&deg; 
 2.446∠ − 3.37&deg; + 13.46∠40.42&deg; + 6.822∠209.86&deg; 
 10.78 − j16.81  19.97∠ − 57.32&deg;
=  −10.22 + j11.19  = 15.15∠132.4&deg;  A
 6.773 + j 5.187  8.531∠37.45&deg; 
207
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8.20 (a) The line-to-line voltages are related to the Δ currents by
Vab   j 27
  
Vbc  =  0
 
Vca   0
0   I ab 
 
0   I bc 
j 27   I ca 
0
j 27
0
Transforming to symmetrical components,
Vab 0   j 27


A  Vab1  =  0

  0
Vab 2  
0
j 27
0
0   I ab 0 


0  A  I ab1 
j 27   I a b 2 


Premultiplying each side by A−1 ,
Vab 0 
 I ab 0   j 27



 
−1
Vab1  = j 27 A A  I ab1  =  0




Vab 2 
 I ab 2   0
0
j 27
0
0   I ab 0 


0   I ab1 
j 27   I ab 2 


As shown in Fig. 8.5 of the text, sequence networks for an equivalent Y representation
of a balanced-Δ load are given below:
(b) With a mutual impedance of (j6) Ω between phases,
Vab 0   j 27


A  Vab1  =  j 6


Vab 2   j 6
j6
j 27
j6
j 6   I ab 0 


j6  A  I ab1 
j 27   I ab 2 


Rewriting the coefficient matrix into two parts,
 j 27
 j6

 j 6
j6
j 27
j6
j6 
1 0 0 
1 1 1



j 6  = j 21  0 1 0  + j6 1 1 1
0 0 1 
1 1 1
j 27 
208
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and substituting into the previous equation,
Vab 0  
1 1 1   I ab 0 

 


 
−1
−1
Vab1  =  j 21A A + jGA 1 1 1 A   I ab1 

 
1 1 1   I 
Vab 2  
 ab 2 
  j 21

=   0
 0

0
j 21
 j39
=  0
 0
0
0
j 21
0
0 
 3 0 0    I ab 0 


0  + j 6 0 0 0    I ab1 
0 0 0    I 
j 21
 ab 2 
0   I ab 0 


0   I ab1 
j 21  I ab 2 


Then the sequence networks are given by:
8.21 From Eq.(8.2.28) and (8.2.29), the load is symmetrical.
Using Eq. (8.2.31) and (8.2.32):
Z 0 = Z aa + 2 Z ab = 6 + j10 Ω
Z1 = Z 2 = Z aa − Z ab = 6 + j10 Ω
0
0 
6 + j10

6 + j10
0  Ω
Zs =  0
 0
0
6 + j10 
8.22 Since Z s is diagonal, the load is symmetrical.
Using Eq.(8.2.31) and (8.2.32):
Z 0 = 8 + j12 = Z aa + 2 Z ab
Z1 = 4 = Z aa − Z ab
Solving the above two equations
1
1
4
( 8 + j12 − 4 ) = ( 4 + j12 ) = + j 4 Ω
3
3
3
16
Z aa = Z ab + 4 = + j 4 Ω
3
Z aa =
209
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4
4
16

 3 + j4 3 + j4 3 + j4 


4
16
4
Z p =  + j4
+ j4
+ j4  Ω
3

3
3


 4 + j 4 4 + j 4 16 + j 4 
3
3
 3

8.23 The line-to-ground voltages are
Va = Z s I a + Z m I b + Z m I c + Z n I n
Vb = Z m I a + Z s I b + Z m I c + Z n I n
Vc = Z m I a + Z m I b + Z s I c + Z n I n
Since I n = I a + I b + I c , it follows
Va   Z s + Z n Z m + Z n Z m + Z n   I a 
  
 
Vb  =  Z m + Z n Z s + Z n Z m + Z n   I b 
Vc   Z m + Z n Z m + Z n Z s + Z n   I c 
  


  
phase impedance matrix Z p
or in compact form Vp = Z p I p
Form Eq. (8.2.9) Z s = A−1 Z p A
1 1
1
∴ Z s = 1 a
3
2
1 a
1   Zs + Zn

a 2   Z m + Z n
a   Z m + Z n
Zm + Zn
Zs + Zn
Zm + Zn
Z m + Z n  1 1

Z m + Z n  1 a 2
Z s + Z n  1 a
1
a 
a 2 
 Zs + 3 Zn + 2 Zm
0
0 


=
0
0 
Zs − Zm

0
0
Z s − Z m 



Sequence impedance matrix
When there is no mutual coupling, Z m = 0
 Zs + 3 Zn

0
∴ Zs = 

0

0
Zs
0
0

0
Z s 
210
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8.24 (a) The circuit is shown below:
KVL:
( j12 ) I a + ( j 4 ) I b − ( j12 ) I b − j 4 ( I a ) = Va − Vb = VLINE ∠30&deg;
( j12 ) I b + ( j 4 ) I c − ( j12 ) I c − ( j 4 ) I b = Vb − Vc = VLINE ∠ − 90&deg;
KCL: I a + I b + I c = 0
In matrix form:
 j12 − j 4 − ( j12 − j 4 )
  I a  VL ∠30&deg; 
0

( j12 − j 4 ) − ( j12 − j 4 )   I b  = VL ∠90&deg;
 0
 1
  I c   0 
1
1

 
where VL = 100 3
Solving for I a , I b , I c , one gets I a = 12.5∠ − 90&deg;; I b = 12.5∠150&deg;; I c = 12.5∠30&deg;A
(b) Using symmetrical components,
 j12 + 2 ( j 4 )
 0 



Vs = 100  ; Z s = 
0

 0 
0

0
j12 − j 4
0


0 
j12 − j 4 
0
From the solution of Prob. 8.18 upon substituting the values
Is = Zs
−1
1 1
Vs and I p = A I s where A = 1 a 2
1 a
1
a 
a 2 
which result in
I a = 12.5∠ − 90&deg;; I b = 12.5∠150&deg;; I c = 12.5∠30&deg; A
which is same as in (a)
211
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8.25 (a)
1 1
Z s = A Z p A; A = 1 a 2
1 a
−1
1
1 1
1

−1
a  ; A = 1 a
3
1 a 2
a 2 
1
a 2 
a 
The load sequence impedance matrix comes out as
0
0 
8 + j 32

Zs =  0
8 + j 20
0  Ω
 0
0
8 + j 20 
see the result of PR. 8.18
 200∠25&deg; 
1 1
1


−1
−1
(b) Vp = 100∠ − 155&deg;  ; Vs = A Vp ; A = 1 a
3
80∠100&deg; 
1 a 2
1
a 2 
a 
Symmetrical components of the line-to-neutral voltages are given by:
V0 = 47.7739∠57.6268&deg;; V1 = 112.7841∠ − 0.0331&deg;; V2 = 61.6231∠45.8825&deg; V
(c) Vs = Z s I s ; I s = Z s −1 Vs , which results in
I 0 = 1.4484∠ − 18.3369&deg;; I1 = 5.2359∠ − 68.2317&deg;; I 2 = 2.8608∠ − 22.3161&deg; A
1 1
(d) I p = A I s ; A = 1 a 2
1 a
1
a 
a 2 
The result is:
I a = 8.7507∠ − 47.0439&deg;; I b = 5.2292∠143.2451&deg;; I c = 3.0280∠39.0675&deg; A
8.26
I0 =
I1 =
I2 =
VLg 0
3 + j 4 + Z0
VLg1
3 + j 4 + Z1
VLg 2
3 + j4 + Z2
=
5.039∠ − 57.65&deg;
5.039∠ − 57.65&deg;
=
= 0.2016∠ − 110.78&deg; A
3
4
12
16
25∠53.13&deg;
+
j
+
+
j
(
) (
)
=
272.4∠6.59&deg;
= 10.896∠ − 46.54&deg; A
25∠53.13&deg;
=
27.82∠ − 76.05&deg;
= 1.1128∠ − 129.18&deg; A
25∠53.13&deg;
212
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 I a  1 1
  
2
 I b  = 1 a
 I c  1 a
 
1   0.2016∠ − 110.78&deg;
a   10.896∠ − 46.54&deg; 
a 2  1.1128∠ − 129.18&deg; 
0.2016∠ − 110.78&deg; + 10.896∠ − 46.54&deg; + 1.1128∠ − 129.18&deg;
= 0.2016∠ − 110.78&deg; + 10.896∠193.46&deg; + 1.1128∠ − 9.18&deg; 
0.2016∠ − 110.78&deg; + 10.896∠73.46 + 1.1128∠110.82&deg;

 6.72 − j8.96  11.2 ∠ − 53.13 &deg;

 

=  − 9.57 − j 2.902  =  10 ∠ − 163.1 &deg;  A
2.635 + j11.297  11.6∠76.87 &deg; 
Also, since the source and load neutrals are connected with a zero-ohm neutral wire,
 I a  Vag / ( 3 + j 4 + ZY )   280∠0&deg; / 25∠53.13&deg;  11.2∠ − 53.13&deg; 
 
  
 

 I b  = Vbg / ( 3 + j 4 + ZY )  =  250∠ − 110&deg; / 25∠53.13&deg;  =  10∠ − 163.1&deg;  A

  
 I c  Vcg / ( 3 + j 4 + ZY )   290∠130&deg; / 25∠53.13&deg;   11.6∠76.87&deg; 
Which checks.
8.27 (a) KVL : Van = Z aa I a + Z ab I b + Z ab I c + Z an I n + Va′n′
− ( Z nn I n + Z an I c + Z an I b + Z an I a )
Voltage drop across the line section is given by
Van − Va′n′ = ( Z aa − Z an ) I a + ( Z ab − Z an )( I b + I c ) + ( Z an − Z nn ) I n
Similarly for phases b and c
Vbn − Vb′n′ = ( Z aa − Z an ) I b + ( Z ab − Z an )( I a + I c ) + ( Z an − Z nn ) I n
Vcn′ − Vc′n′ = ( Z aa − Z an ) I c + ( Z ab − Z an )( I a + I b ) + ( Z an − Z nn ) I n
KCL :
In = − ( Ia + Ib + Ic )
Upon substitution
Van − Va′n′ = ( Z aa + Z nn − 2 Z an ) I a + ( Z ab + Z nn − 2 Z an ) I b + ( Z ab + Z nn − 2 Z an ) I c
Vbn − Vb′n′ = ( Z ab + Z nn − 2 Z an ) I a + ( Z aa + Z nn − 2 Z an ) I b + ( Z ab + Z nn − 2 Z an ) I c
Vcn − Vc′n′ = ( Z ab + Z nn − 2 Z an ) I a + ( Z ab + Z nn − 2 Z an ) I b + ( Z aa + Z nn − 2 Z an ) I c
The presence of the neutral conductor changes the self- and mutual impedances of the
phase conductors to the following effective values:
Z s Δ Z aa + Z nn − 2 Z an ; Z m Δ Z ab + Z nn − 2 Z an
213
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Using the above definitions
Vaa′  Van − Va′n′   Z s
  
 
Vbb′  = Vbn − Vb′n′  =  Z m
Vcc′  Vcn − Vc′n′   Z m
  
 
Zm
Zs
Zm
Zm  Ia 
 
Zm   Ib 
Z s   I c 
Where the voltage drops across the phase conductors are denoted by Vaa′ ,Vbb′ ,
and Vcc′ .
(b) The a-b-c voltage drops and currents of the line section can be written in terms of their
symmetrical components according to Eq. (8.1.9); with phase a as the reference phase,
one gets
Vaa′0    Z s − Z m

 
A  Vaa′1  =  


Vaa′2 



 

  Zm
 

 +  Zm
Z s − Z m   Z m

Zs − Zm

Zm
Zm
Zm
Zm   Ia0 
  
Z m   A  I a1 
Z m    I a 2 
−1
Multiplying across by A
,

Vaa′ 0 
1   
1 1 1   I a 0 






  
−1
Vaa′1  = A ( Z s − Z m )   1   + Z m 1 1 1  A  I a1 

Vaa′ 2 
   1
1 1 1   I a 2 



or
Vaa′ 0   Z s − 2 Z m
V  = 

 aa′1  

Vaa′ 2  


Zs − Zm

 Ia0 
 

  I a1 
Z s − Z m   I a 2 

Now define zero-, positive-, and negative-sequence impedances in terms of Z s
and Z m as
Z 0 = Z s + 2 Z m = Z aa + 2 Z ab + 3 Z nn − 6 Z an
Z1 = Z s − Z m = Z aa − Z ab
Z 2 = Z s − Z m = Z aa − Z ab
Now, the sequence components of the voltage drops between the two ends of the line
section can be written as three uncoupled equations:
Vaa′0 = Van 0 − Va′n′0 = Z 0 I a 0
Vaa′1 = Van1 − Va′n′1 = Z1 I a1
Vaa′2 = Van 2 − Va′n′2 = Z 2 I a 2
214
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8.28 (a) The sequence impedances are given by
Z 0 = Z aa + 2 Z ab + 3 Z nn − 6 Z an = j 60 + j 40 + j 240 − j180 = j160 Ω
Z1 = Z 2 = Z aa − Z ab = j 60 − j 20 = j 40 Ω
The sequence components of the voltage drops in the line are
Vaa′ 0 
(182.0 − 154.0 ) + j ( 70.0 − 28.0 )

Van − Va′n′ 






−1
−1
Vaa′1  = A Vbn − Vb′n′  = A ( 72.24 − 44.24 ) − j ( 32.62 − 74.62 )



 − (170.24 − 198.24 ) + j ( 88.62 − 46.62 ) 
 Vcn − Vc′n′ 
V




 aa′ 2 
 28.0 + j 42.0   28.0 + j 42.0 
 kV
0
= A  28.0 + j 42.0  = 

 28.0 + j 42.0  

0
From PR. 8.22 result, it follows that
−1
Vaa′0 = 28,000 + j 42,000 = j160 I a 0 ; Vaa′1 = 0 = j 40 I a1 ; Vaa′2 = 0 = j 40 I a 2
From which the symmetrical components of the currents in phase a are
I a 0 = ( 262.5 − j175 ) A; I a1 = I a 2 = 0
The line currents are then given by
I a = I b = I c = ( 262.5 − j175 ) A
(b) Without using symmetrical components:
The self- and mutual impedances [see solution of PR. 8.22(a)] are
Z s = Z aa + Z nn − 2 Z an = j 60 + j80 − j 60 = j80 Ω
Z m = Z ab + Z nn − 2 Z an = j 20 + j80 − j 60 = j 40 Ω
So, line currents can be calculated as [see solution of PR. 8.22(a)]
Vaa′  28 + j 42 
 j80
  


3
Vbb′  = 28 + j 42  &times; 10 =  j 40
Vcc′  28 + j 42 
 j 40
 
 I a   j80
  
 I b  =  j 40
 I c   j 40
 
j 40
j80
j 40
j 40 
j 40 
j80 
−1
j 40
j80
j 40
j 40   I a 
 
j 40   I b 
j80   I c 
 28 + j 42 


3
 28 + j 42  &times; 10
28 + j 42 
262.5 − j175
= 262.5 − j175 A
262.5 − j175
215
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8.29
Z1 = Z 2 = j 0.5 &times; 200 = j100 Ω
Z 0 = j 2 &times; 200 = j 400 Ω
Y1 = Y2 = j 3 &times; 10 −9 &times; 200 &times; 103 = j 6 &times; 10 −4 S
Y0 = j1 &times; 10 −9 &times; 200 &times; 103 = j 2 &times; 10 −4 S
Nominal- π sequence circuits are shown below:
8.30 (a) I AB =
I BC =
VAB
480∠0&deg;
=
= 23.31∠ − 29.05&deg; A
(18 + j10 ) 20.59∠29.05&deg;
VBC
480∠120&deg;
=
= 23.31∠ − 149.05&deg; A
(18 + j10 ) 20.59∠29.05&deg;
(b) I A = I AB = 23.31∠ − 29.05&deg; A
I B = I BC − I AB = 23.31∠ − 149.05&deg; - 23.31∠ − 29.05&deg;
I B = −40.37 − j 0.6693 = 40.38∠180.95&deg; A
IC = − I BC = 23.31∠30.95&deg; A
I L0 
1 1 1   23.31∠ − 29.05&deg;
  1
(c)  I L1  = 1 a a 2   40.38∠180.95&deg; 
3
2
 
a   23.31∠30.95&deg; 
1 a
I L2 
 23.31∠ − 29.05&deg; + 40.38∠180.95&deg; + 23.31∠30.95&deg; 
1
=  23.31∠ − 29.05&deg; + 40.38∠300.95&deg; + 23.31∠270.95&deg; 
3
 23.31∠ − 29.05&deg; + 40.38∠60.95&deg; + 23.31∠150.95&deg; 
0 + j0
0

 




= 13.84 − j 23.09  =  26.92∠ − 59.06&deg; A
6.536 + j11.77   13.46∠60.96&deg; 
216
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8.31
I Line 0 = I Line 2 = 0
 200 

 ∠90&deg;
3

=
I Line1 =
 ZΔ 
 10 
Z Line1 + 
 0.5∠80&deg; +  3  ∠40&deg;
 
 3 
115.47∠90&deg; 115.47∠90&deg;
=
=
= 30.96∠45.05&deg; A
2.64 + j 2.635 3.73∠44.95&deg;
Vg1
8.32
217
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Vgan = Vg1 = Vm1 + Z Line1 I m1
I m1 =
5000∠ cos−1 0.8
200 3 ( 0.8 )
= 18.04∠36.87&deg; A
200
∠0&deg; + ( 0.5∠80&deg; )(18.04∠36.87&deg; )
3
= 115.47 + ( −4.077 + j8.046 )
Vgan =
= 111.39 + j8.046
= 111.7∠4.131&deg; V
Vg = 3 (111.7 ) = 193.5V (Line to Line)
8.33 Converting the Δ load to an equivalent Y, and then writing two loop equations:
 2 ( Z L + ZY ) − ( Z L + ZY )   I  Vcg − Vag 

 c  = 

−
+
+
Z
Z
2
Z
Z
 ( L
( L Y )  −I b  Vag − Vbg 
Y )

 21.46∠43.78&deg; −10.73∠43.78&deg;  I c   295∠115&deg; − 277∠0&deg; 
 −10.73∠43.78&deg; 21.46∠43.78&deg;    = 


  − I b   277∠0&deg; − 260∠ − 120&deg;
−1
 I c   21.46∠43.78&deg; −10.73∠43.78&deg;  482.5∠146.35&deg;
  =  −10.73∠43.78&deg; 21.46∠43.78&deg;  

  465.1∠28.96&deg; 
 − I b  
 I c   0.06213∠ − 43.78&deg; 0.03107∠ − 43.78&deg;   482.5∠146.35&deg;
  = 0.03107∠ − 43.78&deg; 0.06213∠ − 43.78&deg;  

  465.1∠28.96&deg; 
 − I b  
 I c   29.98∠102.57&deg; + 14.45∠ − 14.82&deg;  7.445 + j 25.57 
 =
=

 − I b  14.99∠102.57&deg; + 28.90∠ − 14.82&deg;  24.68 + j 7.239 
 I c  26.62∠73.77&deg;
 =
A
 − I b   25.71∠16.34&deg; 
218
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Also, I a = − I b − I c
I a = ( 24.68 + j 7.239 ) − ( 7.445 + j 25.57 )
I a = 17.23 − j18.33 = 25.15∠ − 46.76&deg;
 I a   25.15∠ − 46.76&deg;
  

 I b  =  25.71∠196.34&deg;  A
 I c   26.62∠73.77&deg; 
 
which agrees with Ex. 8.6. The symmetrical components method is easier because it avoids
the need to invert a matrix.
8.34 The line-to-ground fault on phase a of the machine is shown below, along with the
corresponding sequence networks:
With the base voltage to neutral
Va = 0;
13.8
Vb = 1.013∠ − 102.25&deg;;
= ( −0.215 − j 0.99 ) pu
with Z base =
Z g0 =
(13.8 )
20
2
= 9.52 Ω, Z1 =
3
kV ,
Vc = 1.013∠102.25&deg; pu.
= ( −0.215 + j 0.99 ) pu
j 2.38
j 3.33
= j 0.25; Z 2 =
= j 0.35;
9.52
9.52
j 0.95
= j 0.1; Z n = 0; Z 0 = j 0.1pu
9.52
219
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The symmetrical components of the voltages at the fault point are
Va 0 
1 1
  1
Va1  = 3 1 a
Va 2 
1 a 2
 
Ia0 = −
I a1 =
1 
0
  −0.143 + j 0 
2
a   −0.215 − j 0.99  =  0.643 + j 0  pu
a   −0.215 + j 0.99   −0.500 + j 0 
( −0.143 + j 0 ) = − j1.43pu
Va 0
=−
Z g0
j 0.1
Ean − Va1 (1 + j 0 ) − ( 0.643 + j 0 )
=
= − j1.43pu
Z1
j 0.25
Ia2 = −
( −0.5 + j 0 )
Va 2
=−
= − j1.43pu
Z2
j 0.35
∴ Fault current into the ground I a = I a 0 + I a1 + I a 2 = 3I a 0 = − j 4.29pu
With base current
20,000
3 &times; 13.8
= 837 A , the subtransient current in line a is
I a = 4.29 &times; 837 = 3590 A
Line-to-line voltages during the fault are: (on base voltage to neutral)
Vab = Va − Vb = 0.215 + j 0.99 = 1.01∠77.7&deg; pu = 8.05∠77.7&deg; kV
Vbc = Vb − Vc = 0 − j1.98 = 1.98∠270&deg; pu = 15.78∠270&deg; kV
Vca = Vc − Va = −0.215 + j 0.99 = 1.01∠102.3&deg; pu = 8.05∠102.3&deg; kV
Phasor diagrams of line voltages before and after the fault are shown below:
Vab = 13.8∠30&deg; kV
Vab = 8.05∠77.7&deg; kV
Vbc = 13.8∠270&deg; kV
Vbc = 15.78∠270&deg; kV
Vca = 13.8∠150&deg; kV
Vca = 8.05∠102.3&deg; kV
(Balanced)
(Unbalanced)
8.35 Base MVA = 100
100
100
100
= 0.5; G2 : X = 0.15 &times;
= 0.375; G3 : X = 0.15 &times;
= 0.375
20
40
40
100
100
Reactors: X1 = 0.05 &times;
= 0.25; X 2 = 0.04 &times;
= 0.25pu.
20
16
G1 : X = 0.1 &times;
220
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Per-phase reactance diagram is shown below: (Excluding the source)
[in pu]
 j 0.5  j ( 0.25 + 0.2344 )  with respect to f = j 0.246
100
= 406.5MVA ←
0.246
406.5 &times; 106
Fault Current =
= 17,780 A
3 &times; 13.2 &times; 103
= 17.78 kA
∴ Fault MVA =
8.36 Line-to-ground fault: Let Va = 0; I b = I c = 0 ←
Then I a 0 =
1
1
Ia + Ib + Ic ) = Ia
(
3
3
1
( I a + aI b + a2 I c ) = 13 I a
3
1
1
= ( I a + a 2 I b + aI c ) = I a
3
3
I a1 =
Ia2
1
so that I a 0 = I a1 = I a 2 = I a ; Va 0 + Va1 + Va 2 = 0 ←
3
Sequence network interconnection is shown below:
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
Ea
Z 0 + Z1 + Z 2
V0 + V1 + V2 = 0
Ia =
←
3E a
Z 0 + Z1 + Z 2
221
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8.37 (a) Short circuit between phases b and c: I b + I c = 0; I a = 0 (Open Line); Vb = Vc
then I a 0 = 0;
1
1
0 + aI b + a 2 I c ) = ( aI b − a 2 I b )
(
3
3
1
= ( a − a2 ) Ib
3
1
1
1
I a 2 = ( 0 + a 2 I b + aI c ) = ( a 2 I b − aI b ) = ( a 2 − a ) I b
3
3
3
so that I a1 = − I a 2
I a1 =
From Vb = Vc , one gets Va 0 + a 2Va1 + aVa 2 = Va 0 + aVa1 + a 2Va 2
so that Va1 = Va 2
Sequence network interconnection is shown below:
(b) Double line-to-ground fault:
Fault conditions in phase domain are represented by I a = 0; Vb = Vc = 0
1
Sequence components: Va 0 = Va1 = Va 2 = Va
3
I a 0 + I a1 + I a 2 = 0
Sequence network interconnection is shown below:
8.38 (a)
222
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(b)
8.39
223
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2
8.40
 345   100 
X pu new = ( 0.09 ) 
 
 = 0.02755 per unit
 360   300 
8.41
2
 18   100 
X g1− 0 = ( 0.05 )   
 = 0.0054 = X g 2 − 0
 20   750 
 100 
X m 3− 0 = ( 0.05 ) 
 = 0.003333
 1500 
2
 18 
X n 2 = ( 0.06 )   = 0.0486
 20 
8.42
3 X n 2 = 0.1458
VA1 = 1∠45&deg; + 30&deg; = 1∠75&deg; = 0.2588 + j 0.9659
VA2 = 0.25∠250 − 30&deg; = 0.25∠220&deg; = −0.1915 − j 0.1607
VA = VA1 + VA 2 = 0.0673 + j 0.8052 = 0.808∠85.2&deg;
VB1 = a 2VA1 = 1∠315&deg; = 1∠ − 45&deg; = 0.7071 − j 0.7071
VB 2 = aVA2 = 0.25∠340&deg; = 0.25∠ − 20&deg; = 0.2349 − j 0.0855
VB = VB1 + VB 2 = 0.942 − j 0.7926 = 1.02∠ − 40.1&deg;
VC1 = aVA1 = 1∠195&deg; = −0.9659 − j 0.2588
VC 2 = a 2VA2 = 0.25∠100&deg; = −0.0434 + j 0.2462
VC = VC1 + VC 2 = −1.0093 − j 0.0126 = 1.009∠180.7&deg;
224
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Line-to-line voltages are given by: [in pu on line-neutral voltage base]
VAB = VA − VB = −0.8747 + j1.5978
= 1.82∠118.7&deg; ←
Note: Divide by 3

if the base is
= 2.1∠ − 21.8&deg; ←
line-to-line voltage
= VC − VA = −1.0766 − j 0.8178 
VBC = VB − VC = 1.9513 − j 0.78
VCA
= 1.352∠217.2&deg; ←
Load impedance in each phase is 1∠0&deg; pu.
∴ I a1 = Va1 in pu; I a 2 = Va 2 in pu
Thus I A = VA in pu
I A = 0.808∠85.2&deg; pu 

I B = 1.02∠ − 40.1&deg; pu  ←
IC = 1.009∠180.7&deg; pu 
8.43 (a)
e j 90&deg; : i
Per Unit Zero Sequence
1
( 0.1 + 0.1 − 0.1)
2
= 0.05 per unit
X1 = X 2 = X 3 =
e j 90&deg; : i
(e + j 90&deg; : i) (e j 90&deg; : i )
Per Unit Positive Sequence
(Per Unit Negative Sequence)
(b)
Per Unit Zero Sequence
Per Unit Positive Sequence
(Per Unit Negative Sequence)
225
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(c)
e j 23.40 : i
Per unit Zero Sequence
(e − j 23.40 : i )
Per Unit Positive Sequence
(Per Unit Negative Sequence)
8.44
Per Unit Zero Sequence Network
Per Unit Positive (or Negative) Sequence Network (Phase Shift Not Shown)
p-primary
s-secondary
t-tertiary
226
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8.45
S3φ = Van I a* + Vbn I b* + Vcn I c*
= ( 280∠0&deg; )(14 ∠53.13&deg; ) + ( 250∠ − 110&deg; )(12.5∠163.1&deg; )
+ ( 290∠130&deg; )(14.5∠ − 76.87&deg; )
= 3920∠53.13&deg; + 3125∠53.1&deg; + 4205∠53.13&deg;
= 6751 + j8999
P3φ = Re S3φ = 6751W 
Q3φ = Im S3φ = 8999 vars 
8.46 (a)
Z0 = Z y + 3 Zn
= 2 + j2 + j3
= 2 + j 5 = 5.385∠68.20&deg;
(b) I 0 =
V0
10∠60&deg;
=
Z 0 5.385∠68.20&deg;
I 0 = 1.857∠ − 8.199&deg; A
ZΔ
= ( 2 + j 2 ) // ( 2 + j 2 ) = 1 + j = 2∠45&deg;.Ω
3
V
100∠0&deg;
= 70.71∠ − 45&deg; A
I1 = 1 =
Z1
2∠45&deg;
Z1 = ZY //
Z 2 = Z1 = 2∠45&deg;Ω
I2 =
V2 15∠200&deg;
=
= 10.61∠155&deg; A
Z2
2 ∠45&deg;
S0 = V0 I 0* = (10∠60&deg; )(1.857∠8.199&deg; ) = 6.897 + j17.24
S0 = 18.57∠68.199&deg;
S1 = V1 I1* = (100∠0&deg; )( 70.71∠45&deg; ) = 5000 + j 5000
S1 = 7071∠45&deg;
S2 = V2 I 2* = (15∠200&deg; )(10.61∠ − 155&deg; ) = 112.5 + j112.5
S2 = 159.∠45&deg;
227
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(c) S3φ = 3 ( S0 + S1 + S2 ) = 3 ( 5119 + j 5129 )
S3φ = 15,358. + j15,389.
S3φ = 21.74 &times; 103 ∠45.06&deg; VA
8.47
S3φ = Va 0 I a*0 + Va1 I a*1 + Va 2 I a*2
Substituting values of voltages and currents from the solution of PR.8.8,
S3φ = 0 + ( 0.9857∠43.6&deg; )( 0.9857∠ − 43.6&deg; ) + ( 0.2346∠250.3&deg; )( 0.2346∠ − 250.3&deg; )
= ( 0.9857 ) + ( 0.2346 )
2
2
= 1.02664 pu
With the three-phase 500-kVA base,
S3φ = 513.32 kW
To compute directly:
The Equivalent Δ-Connected resistors are
RΔ = 3 RY = 3 &times; 10.58 = 31.74 Ω
From the given line-to-line voltages
S3φ =
Vab
RΔ
2
+
Vbc
RΔ
2
+
Vca
RΔ
(1840 ) + ( 2760 ) + ( 2300 )
2
=
2
2
2
31.74
= 513.33 kW
8.48 The complex power delivered to the load in terms of symmetrical components:
S3φ = 3 ( Va 0 I a*0 + Va1 I a*1 + Va 2 I a*2 )
Substituting values from the solution of PR. 8.20,
S3φ = 3  47.7739∠57.6268&deg; (1.4484∠18.3369&deg; ) + 112.7841∠ − 0.0331&deg; ( 5.2359∠68.2317&deg; )
+61.6231∠45.8825&deg; ( 2.8608∠22.3161&deg; ) 
= 904.71 + j 2337.3VA
The complex power delivered to the load by summing up the power in each phase:
S3φ = Va I a* + Vb I b* + Vc I c* ; with values from PR. 8.20 solution,
= 200∠25&deg; ( 8.7507∠47.0439&deg; ) + 100∠ − 155&deg; ( 5.2292∠ − 143.2431&deg; )
+80∠100&deg; ( 3.028∠ − 39.0673&deg; ) 
= 904.71 + j 2337.3VA
228
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8.49 From PR. 8.6(a) solution:
Va = 116∠9.9&deg; V; Vb = 41.3∠ − 76&deg; V; Vc = 96.1∠168&deg; V
From PR.8.5, I a = 12∠0&deg; A; I b = 6∠ − 90&deg; A; I c = 8∠150&deg; A
(a) In terms of phase values
S = Va I a* + Vb I b* + Vc I c*
= 116∠9.9&deg; (12∠0&deg; ) + 41.3∠ − 76&deg; ( 6∠90&deg; ) + 96.1∠168&deg; ( 8∠ − 150&deg; )
= ( 2339.4 + j 537.4 ) VA ←
(b) In terms of symmetrical components:
V0 = 10∠0&deg; V; V1 = 80∠30&deg; V; V2 = 40∠ − 30&deg; V From PR. 8.6(a)
I 0 = 1.82∠ − 21.5&deg; A; I1 = 8.37∠16.2&deg; A; I 2 = 2.81∠ − 36.3&deg; From PR. 8.5 Soln.
∴ S = 3 (V0 I 0* + V1 I1* + V2 I 2* )
= 3 10∠0&deg; (1.82∠21.5&deg; ) + 80∠30&deg; ( 8.37∠ − 16.2&deg; ) + 40∠ − 30&deg; ( 2.81∠36.3&deg; ) 
= 3 ( 779.8 + j179.2 )
= ( 2339.4 + j 537.4 ) VA ←
229
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Chapter 9
Unsymmetrical Faults
9.1 a
9.2 a
9.3 Positive
9.4 Single line-to-ground, line-to-line, double line-to-ground, balanced three-phase faults
9.5
I 0 and I 2 ; zero; zero
9.6
In series; 3 Z F ; all equal
9.7
9.8
In parallel; 1; zero
In parallel; 3 Z F
9.9
a
231
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9.1
Calculation of per unit reactances
Synchronous generators:
G1
X1 = X d′′ = 0.18
X 2 = X d′′ = 0.18
X1 = X d′′ = 0.20
G2
X 2 = X d′′ = 0.20
2
 13.8   1000 
X1 = X d′′ = 0.15 
 

 15   500 
= 0.2539
X 2 = X d′′ = 0.2539
G3
X 0 = 0.07
X 0 = 0.10
2
 13.8   1000 
X 0 = 0.05 
 

 15   500 
= 0.08464
3 X n = 3 X 0 = 0.2539
2
 13.8   1000 
X1 = X d′′ = 0.30 

 
 15   750 
= 0.3386
G4
2
2
 13.8   1000 
X 2 = 0.40 
 

 15   750 
= 0.4514
 13.8   1000 
X 0 = 0.10 
 

 15   750 
= 0.1129
Transformers:
XT 1 = 0.10
XT 2 = 0.10
 1000 
XT 4 = 0.11
 = 0.1467
 750 
 1000 
XT 3 = 0.12 

 500 
= 0.24
Transmission Lines:
Z base H
( 765)
=
2
1000
= 585.23 Ω
Positive/Negative Sequence
Zero Sequence
50
X12 =
= 0.08544
585.23
X12 =
150
585.23
= 0.2563
40
585.23
= 0.06835
100
585.23
= 0.1709
X13 = X 23 =
X13 = X 23 =
232
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9.2
n = 1 (Bus 1 = Fault Bus)
Thevenin equivalents as viewed from Bus 1:
Per unit zero sequence
VF = 1.0∠0&deg; per unit
Per unit negative sequence
Zero sequence Thevnin Equivalent:
X 0 = .10 //.5063 // (.1427 + .3376 )
X 0 = 0.07114 per unit
Negative Sequence Thevenin Equivalent:
X 2 = .28 //.7605 // (.04902 + .1872 )
X 2 = 0.1097per unit
Similarly, X1 = .28 //.7605 // ( .04902 + .1745 ) = 0.1068
233
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9.3
Three-phase fault at bus 1.
Using the positive-sequence Thevenin equivalent from Problem 9.2:
I base H =
=
I1 =
Sbase3φ
3 Vbase H
1000
3 ( 765 )
= 0.7547 kA
VF 1.0∠0&deg;
=
= − j 9.363per unit
Z1 j 0.1068
I0 = I2 = 0
 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1  0
 9.363∠ − 90&deg;


a   − j 9.363 =  9.363∠150&deg;  per unit
a 2   0
 9.363∠30&deg; 
 I A′′  9.363∠ − 90&deg;
7.067∠ − 90&deg; 
  



 I B′′  = 9.363∠150&deg;  &times; 0.7547 =  7.067∠150&deg;  kA
 
 7.067∠30&deg; 
 I C′′  9.363∠30&deg; 
9.4
(a)
234
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(b) n = 1 (Bus 1 = fault bus)
Thevenin equivalents as viewed from bus 1:
Zero sequence thevenin equivalent:
X 0 = 0.1  0.85  ( 0.3579 + 0.5667 )
X 0 = 0.08158 per unit
Negative sequence thevenin equivalent:
235
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X 2 = 0.25  0.9875  ( 0.1181 + 0.2143 )
= 0.1247 per unit
(c) Three-phase fault at bus 1.
Using the positive sequence thevenin equivalent from Problem 9.2:
Sbase 3φ
1000
=
= 1.155 kA
I base H =
3 Vbase H
3 ( 500 )
I0 = I2 = 0
I1 =
VF 1.0 ∠0&deg;
=
= − j8.177 per unit
Z1 j 0.1223
 I A′′  1 1 1  0
 8.177 ∠ − 90&deg;
 ′′  


 

2
 I B  = 1 a a   − j8.177  = 8.177 ∠150&deg;  per unit &times; 1.155
2
 
 8.177 ∠30&deg; 
 I C′′  1 a a  0
 9.441 ∠ − 90&deg;
=  9.441 ∠150&deg;  kA
 9.441 ∠30&deg; 
9.5
Calculation of per unit reactances
Synchronous generators:
G1
G2
G3
X base3
 1000 
X1 = X d′′ = ( 0.2 ) 
 = 0.4
 500 
X 2 = X d′′ = 0.4
 1000 
X 0 = ( 0.10 ) 

 500 
= 0.20
 1000 
X1 = X d′′ = 0.18 
 = 0.24
 750 
X 2 = X d′′ = 0.24
 1000 
X 0 = 0.09 

 750 
= 0.12
X1 = 0.17
X 0 = 0.09
( 20 )
=
X 2 = 0.20
2
= 0.4 Ω
1000
Transformers:
 1000 
XT 1 = 0.12 
 = 0.24
 500 
 1000 
XT 2 = 0.10 
 = 0.1333
 750 
3Xn =
3 ( 0.028 )
0.4
= 0.21per unit
XT 3 = 0.10
236
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Each Line:
X base H =
( 500 )
1000
X1 = X 2 =
X0 =
2
= 250 Ω
50
= 0.20 per unit
250
150
= 0.60 per unit
250
237
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9.6
n = 1 (Bus 1 = Fault Bus)
Thevenin equivalents as viewed from Bus 1:
Zero Sequence Thevenin equivalents:
X 0 = 0.24 // .6 + (.7333 // .7 ) 
X 0 = .24 // .9581 = 0.1919 per unit
Positive Sequence Thevenin equivalent:
X1 = .64 // .2 + (.5733 //.47 ) 
X1 = .64 // .4583
X1 = 0.2670 per unit
Negative Sequence Thevenin equivalent:
X 2 = .64 // .2 + (.5733 //.50 ) 
X 2 = .64 //.4671 = 0.270 per unit
238
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9.7
Three-phase fault at bus 1.
Using the positive-sequence Thevenin equivalent from Problem 9.5:
I base H =
1000
500 3
= 1.155 kA
I1 =
VF 1.0∠0&deg;
=
= 3.745∠ − 90&deg; per unit
Z1 j 0.267
I0 = I2 = 0
 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1  0
 3.745∠ − 90&deg;



a  3.745∠ − 90&deg;  = 3.745∠150&deg;  per unit
 3.745∠30&deg; 
a 2   0
 I A′′  3.745∠ − 90&deg; 
 4.325∠ − 90&deg;
  



′′
 I B  = 3.745∠150&deg;  &times; 1.155 =  4.325∠150&deg;  kA
 
 4.325∠30&deg; 
 I C′′  3.745∠30&deg; 
9.8
Calculation of per unit reactances
Synchronous generators:
2
G1
 12   100 
X1 = X d′′ = 0.2   

 10   50 
X1 = 0.576 per unit
2
 12   100 
X 0 = ( 0.1)   

 10   50 
X 0 = 0.288 per unit
X 2 = X1 = .576 per unit
G2
X1 = X d′′ = 0.2
X 0 = 0.1
X 2 = 0.23
Transformers:
 100 
XT 1 = 0.1
 = 0.2 per unit
 50 
XT 2 = 0.1per unit
239
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Each line:
Z base H =
(138 )
100
2
= 190.44 Ω
40
= 0.210 per unit
190.44
100
= 0.5251per unit
X0 =
190.44
X1 = X 2 =
9.9
n = 1 (Bus 1 = Fault Bus) Thevenin equivalents as viewed from Bus 1:
240
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Zero Sequence Thevenin equivalent:
Z 0 = j1.3502 per unit
Positive Sequence Thevenin equivqlent:
Z1 = j.576 // j.92 = j 0.3542 per unit
Negative Sequence Thevenin equivalent:
Z 2 = j.576 // j.95 = j 0.3586 per unit
9.10 Three-phase fault at bus 1.
Using the positive-sequence Thevenin equivalent from Problem 9.9:
I base1 =
100
= 5.774 kA
10 3
V
1.0∠0&deg;
= 2.823∠ − 90&deg; per unit
I1 = F =
Z1 j.3542
I0 = I2 = 0
 I ′′A  1 1
 I ′′  = 1 a 2
 B 
 I C′′  1 a
1  0
 2.823∠ − 90&deg; 


a  2.823∠ − 90&deg; = 2.823∠150&deg;  per unit
 2.823∠30&deg; 
a 2   0
 I ′′A  2.823∠ − 90&deg; 
16.30∠ − 90&deg;
 I ′′  = 2.823∠150&deg;  &times; 5.774 = 16.30∠150&deg;  kA
 B 



 I C′′  2.823∠30&deg; 
16.30∠30&deg; 
241
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9.11 (a) The positive sequence network and steps in its reduction to its th&eacute;venin equivalent are
shown below:
242
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The negative sequence network and its reduction is shown below:
243
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The zero-sequence network and its reduction are shown below:
(b)
For a balanced 3-phase fault, only positive sequence network comes into picture.
I sc = I a = I a1 =
1∠0&deg;
= 3.23∠ − 90&deg;
j ( 0.26 + 0.05 )
I sc = 3.23pu
244
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9.12 The zero-,positive-, and negative sequence networks are shown below:
Using delta-wye transformation and series-parallel combinations, th&eacute;venin equivalents
looking into bus 3 are shown below:
245
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For a bolted 3-phase fault at bus 3,
V1 = 0; Also V2 = V0 = 0
I 0 = 0; I 2 = 0
I1 =
1 ∠ 0&deg;
= − j 5.71
j 0.175
The fault current is 5.71 pu.
 I a  1 1
  
2
 I b  = 1 a
 I c  1 a
 
1  0
 5.71∠ − 90&deg;


a   − j 5.71 = 5.71∠150&deg; 
 5.71∠30&deg; 
a 2  0
9.13 For a balanced 3-phase fault at bus 3, we need the positive sequence impedance network
reduced to its th&eacute;venin’s equivalent viewed from bus 3. The development is shown below:
Convert the Δ formed by buses 1, 2 and 3 to an equivalent Y
Z1X =
( j 0.125)( j 0.15) = j 0.0357143
Z2X =
( j 0.125)( j 0.25) =
Z3X =
( j 0.15 )( j 0.25 ) =
j 0.525
j 0.525
j 0.525
j 0.0595238
j 0.0714286
246
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Using series-parallel combinations, the positive sequence th&eacute;venin impedance is given by,
viewed from bus 3:
( j 0.2857143 )( j 0.3095238 ) + j 0.0714286
j 0.5952381
= j 0.1485714 + j 0.0714286 = j 0.22
With the no-load generated EMF to be 1∠0&deg; pu, the fault current is given by (with
Z F = j 0.1 )
I a = I a1 =
1.0∠0&deg;
j 0.22 + j 0.1
= − j 3.125 pu = 820.1∠ − 90&deg; A
The fault current is 820.1 A.
9.14 Bolted single-line-to-ground fault at bus 1.
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
 I ′′A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
VF
Z 0 + Z1 + Z 2
=
1.0∠0&deg;
j ( 0.07114 + 0.1068 + 0.1097 )
=
1.0∠0&deg;
= − j 3.4766 per unit
j 0.2876
1   − j 3.4766   − j10.43
 − j 7.871





a   − j 3.4766  =  0  per unit =  0  kA
a 2   − j 3.4766   0 
 0 
247
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Using Eq (9.1):
V0   0   j 0.07114
  
 
0
V1  = 1.0∠0&deg; − 
 
0
V2   0  
0
j 0.1068
0
  − j 3.4766 
  − j 3.4766 


j 0.1097   − j 3.4766 
0
0
V0   −0.2473 
  

V1  =  0.6287  per unit
 
V2   −0.3814 
VAg  1 1
  
2
VBg  = 1 a
  1 a
VCg  
1   −0.2473  
0





a   0.6287  =  0.9502∠247.0&deg;  per unit
a 2   −0.3814   0.9502∠113.0&deg; 
9.15 Single-Line-to Ground Arcing Fault at Bus 1.
( 765 )
=
2
= 585.2 Ω
1000
30∠0&deg;
ZF =
= 0.05126∠0&deg; per unit
585.2
VF
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
Z 0 + Z1 + Z 2 + 3 Z F
Z base H
=
1.0∠0&deg;
0.1538 + j 0.2876
=
1.0∠0&deg;
= 3.0639∠ − 61.86&deg; per unit
0.3262∠61.86&deg;
248
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 I ′′A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1  3.0659∠ − 61.86&deg; 9.198∠ − 61.86&deg;
 per unit
0
a  3.0659∠ − 61.86&deg; = 

0
a 2  3.0659∠ − 61.86&deg; 

6.942∠ − 61.86&deg;
 kA
0
= 



0
V0   0   j 0.07114
  
 
0
V1  = 1.0∠0&deg;  − 
V2   0  
0
 
0
j 0.1068
0
 3.0659∠ − 61.86&deg;
 3.0659∠ − 61.86&deg;


j 0.1097  3.0659∠ − 61.86&deg;
0
0
V0   0.2181∠208.14&deg; 
  

V1  =  0.7279∠ − 12.25&deg; per unit
V2   0.3363∠208.14&deg; 
 
 VAg  1 1

 
2
VBG  = 1 a
V  1 a
 CG  
1   0.2181∠208.14&deg;  0.4717∠ − 61.85&deg;
a  0.7279∠ − 12.25&deg; =  0.9099∠244.2&deg;  per unit
a 2   0.3363∠208.14&deg;   1.0105∠113.52&deg; 
9.16 Bolted Line-to-Line Fault at Bus 1.
VF = 1.0 ∠0&deg;
I1 = − I 2 =
VF
Z1 + Z 2
1.0∠0&deg;
j.2165
= − j 4.619 per unit
=
 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1  0  
0
0









a   − j 4.619  = 8.000∠180&deg; per unit = 6.038∠180&deg; kA
a 2   + j 4.619   8.000∠0&deg; 
 6.038∠0&deg; 
V0   0   j.07114
  
 
V1  = 1∠0&deg;  −  0
V2   0   0
 
VAg  1 1
  
2
VBg  = 1 a
  1 a
VCg  
0
j 0.1068
0
 0  0 
0   − j 4.619   0.5067  per unit
j 0.1097   − j 4.619  0.5067 
0
1   0  1.013∠0&deg;





a  0.5067  =  0.5067∠180&deg;  per unit
a 2  0.5067   0.5067∠180&deg; 
249
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9.17 Bolted double-line-to-ground fault at bus 1.
VF = 1.0∠0&deg;
I1 =
VF
Z1 + Z 2 // Z 0
=
1.0∠0&deg;
j (.1068 + .1097 // .0711)
=
1.0∠0&deg;
j 0.14995
= 6.669∠ − 90&deg; per unit
 Z0 
 .07114 
I 2 = − I1 
 = j 6.669 

 .18084 
 Z0 + Z2 
I 2 = j 2.623per unit
 Z2
I 0 = − I1 
 Z0 + Z2
 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 I C′′  1 a
 

 .1097 
 = j 6.669 
 = j 4.046 per unit
 .18084 

1   j 4.046  
0
0









a   − j 6.669  = 10.08∠143.0&deg;  per unit = 7.607∠143&deg; kA
 7.607∠37&deg; 
a 2   j 2.623  10.08∠37.02&deg;
V0   0   j 0.07114
  
 
0
V1  = 1∠0&deg;  − 
V2   0  
0
 
VAg  1 1
  
2
VBg  = 1 a
  1 a
VCg  
0
j 0.1068
0
  j 4.046  0.2878 
0   − j 6.669  = 0.2878  per unit
j 0.1097   j 2.623  0.2878 
0
1  0.2878  0.8633
a  0.2878  =  0  per unit
a 2  0.2878   0 
250
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9.18
The zero sequence network is the same as in Problem 9.1.
The Δ − Y transformer phase shifts have no effect on the fault currents and no effect on the
voltages at the voltages at the fault bus. Therefore, from the results of Problem 9.10:
 I A′′   − j10.43
 − j 7.871
 ′′  



 I B  =  0  per unit =  0  kA
 
 0 
 I C′′   0 
VAg  
0

  

VBg  = 0.9502∠247.0&deg; per unit
 
VCg   0.9502∠113.0&deg; 
Contributions to the fault from generator 1:
From the zero-sequence network: I G1− 0 = 0
From the positive sequence network, using current division:
 .1727 
I G1−1 = ( − j 3.4766 ) 
 ∠ − 30&deg;
 .28 + .1727 
= 1.326∠ − 120&deg; per unit
From the negative sequence network, using current division:
 .1802 
I G1− 2 = ( − j 3.4766 ) 
 ∠ + 30&deg;
 .28 + .1802 
= 1.3615∠ − 60&deg; per unit
251
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Transforming to the phase domain:
 I G′′1− A  1 1

 
2
 I G′′1− B  = 1 a
 I G′′1−C  1 a


1 
0
 2.328∠ − 89.6&deg;


a  1.326∠ − 120&deg;  =  2.328∠89.6&deg;  per unit
a 2   1.326∠ − 60&deg;  0.036∠180&deg; 
1.757∠ − 89.6&deg;
= 1.757∠89.6&deg;  kA
 0.027∠180&deg; 
9.19 (a) Bolted single-line-to-ground fault at bus 1.
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
=
VF
Z 0 + Z1 + Z 2
1.0 ∠0&deg;
1.0 ∠0&deg;
=
j (.08158 + .1223 + .1247 ) j 0.3286
= − j 3.043 per unit
 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 I C′′  1 a
 
1   − j 3.043  − j 9.130 
a   − j 3.043 =  0  per unit
a 2   − j 3.043  0 
 − j10.54 
=  0  kA
 0 
Using Eq. (9.1):
V0   0   j.08158
  
 
 V1  = 1.0 ∠0&deg; −  0
V2   0   0
 
0
j.1223
0
0   − j 3.043
0   − j 3.043
j.1247   − j 3.043
 −0.2483
=  0.6278  per unit
 −0.3795
VAg  1 1
  
2
VBg  = 1 a
VCg  1 a
 
1   −.2483 
0





a   .6278  = 0.9485 ∠246.9&deg;  per unit
a 2   −.3795  0.9485∠113.1&deg; 
252
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(b) Single-line-to-ground arcing fault at bus 1.
Z base H =
( 500 )
2
= 250 Ω
1000
15
ZF =
= 0.06 ∠0&deg; per unit
250
VF
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
Z 0 + Z1 + Z 2 + 3 Z F
1.0 ∠0&deg;
1.0 ∠0&deg;
=
0.18 + j 0.3286 0.3747∠61.29&deg;
= 2.669 ∠ − 61.29&deg; per unit
=
 I ′′A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1  2.669 ∠ − 61.29&deg; 8.007 ∠ − 61.29&deg; 
 per unit&times; 1.155
a  2.669 ∠ − 61.29&deg; = 
0

a 2  2.669 ∠ − 61.29&deg; 
0

 9.246 ∠ − 61.29&deg;
 kA
= 
0



0
V0   0   j.08158
  
 
V1  = 1.0 ∠0&deg; −  0
 
V2   0   0
0
 2.669 ∠ − 61.29&deg;
0  2.669 ∠ − 61.29&deg;
j.1247   2.669 ∠ − 61.29&deg;
0
j.1223
0
 0.2177 ∠208.71&deg;
=  0.7307 ∠ − 12.9&deg;  per unit
 0.3328 ∠208.71&deg;
VAg  1 1
  
2
VBg  = 1 a
 
VCg  1 a
1  .2177 ∠208.71&deg;   0.4804 ∠ − 61.29&deg; 
a   .7307 ∠ − 12.4&deg;  =  0.9094 ∠244.0&deg;  per unit
a 2  .3328∠208.71&deg;  1.009 ∠113.6&deg;

(c)
I1 = − I 2 =
=
VF
Z1 + Z 2
1.0 ∠0&deg;
= − j 4.0486
j ( 0.1223 + 0.1247 )
253
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 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1 
0
0
 





a   − j 4.0486  = 7.012 ∠ 180&deg; per unit&times; 1.155
a 2   + j 4.0486   7.012 ∠0&deg; 
 0&deg; 
=  −8.097  kA
 8.097 
V0   0   j.08158
  
 
 V1  = 1.0 ∠0&deg; −  0
 
V2   0   0
0
0




0   − j 4.0486 
j.1247   + j 4.0486 
0
j.1223
0
 0 
=  0.5049  per unit
 0.5049 
VAg  1 1
  
2
VBg  = 1 a
 
VCg  1 a
1   0  1.010 ∠0&deg;





a  .5049  =  0.5049 ∠180&deg;  per unit
a 2  .5049   0.5049 ∠180&deg; 
(d)
I1 =
VF
Z1 + Z 2 // Z 0
=
1.0 ∠0&deg;
j (.1223 + .1247//.0816 )
=
1.0 ∠0&deg;
j 0.1716
= − j 5.827 per unit
 Z0 
 .08158 
I 2 = − I1 
 = j 5.827 

Z
Z
+
 .2063 
2 
 0
I 2 = j 2.304 per unit
 Z2 
 .1247 
I 0 = − I1 
 = j 5.827 
 = j 3.523 per unit
 .2063 
 Z0 + Z2 
 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1   j 3.523  
0





a   − j 5.827  = 8.804 ∠143.1&deg; per unit&times; 1.155
a 2   j 2.304   8.304∠36.9&deg; 
0&deg;



= 10.17∠143.1 kA
10.17∠36.9&deg; 
254
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V0   0   j 0.08158
  
 
0
V1  = 1.0∠0 &deg; − 
V2   0  
0
 
0
j.1223
0
  j 3.523 


 − j 5.827
j.1247  j 2.304 
0
0
0.2874


= 0.2874 per unit
0.2874
VAg  1 1
  
VBg  = 1 a 2
  1 a
VCg  
1  .2874 0.8622∠0 &deg;

 

0
a  .2874 = 
 per unit
2 

0
a  .2874 
(e)
Per unit positive sequence network
Per unit negative sequence network
The per unit zero sequence network is the same as in Problem 9.1
255
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The Δ − Y transformer phase shifts have no effect on the fault currents and no effect on
the voltages at the fault bus. Therefore, from the results of Problem 9.19(a),
VAg  
I A′′  − j 9.130
0
− j10.54

  
  




I B′′ =  0  per unit=  0  kA VBg  = 0.9485∠246.90 per unit
  0.9485∠113.1 &deg;
IC′′   0 
 0 

 
VCg  
Contribution to the fault current from generator 1:
From the zero-sequence circuit: IG1− 0 = 0
From the positive sequence circuit, using current division:
 .2393 
IG1−1 = (− j3.043) 
 ∠ − 30 &deg;
 .25 + .2393 
Transformer
= 1.488∠ − 120 &deg; per unit
phase shift
From the negative sequence circuit, using current division:
 .2487 
IG1− 2 = (− j 3.043) 
 ∠ + 30 &deg;
 .25 + .2487 
Transformer
= 1.518∠ − 60 &deg; per unit
phase shift
Transforming to the phase domain:
0
IG′′1− A  1 1 1  
 2.603∠ − 89.7 &deg;
 ′′  


2
a  1.488∠ − 120 &deg; =  2.603∠89.7 &deg;  per unit
I G1− B  = 1 a
2
I G′′1−C  1 a a   1.518∠ − 60 &deg;   0.03∠180 &deg; 
3.006∠87.7 &deg;
= 3.006∠87.7 &deg; kA
 0.035∠180 &deg; 
9.20
I base H =
Sbase
3 Vbase H
=
500
3 ( 500 )
= 0.5774 kA
Three- phase fault:
I 0 = I 2 = 0 I1 =
VF 1.0∠0&deg;
=
Z1
j 0.30
= − j3.333per unit
256
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I a′′ = I1 = − j 3.333per unit
= − j1.925kA
Single line-to-ground fault:
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
VF
1.0∠0&deg;
=
= − j1.429 per unit
Z 0 + Z1 + Z 2 j ( 0.1 + 0.3 + 0.3 )
I a′′ = 3I 0′′ = − j 4.286 per unit = − j 2.474 kA
Line-to-line fault:
I 0 = 0 I1 = − I 2 =
VF
1.0∠0&deg;
=
= − j1.667 per unit
Z1 + Z 2 j ( 0.3 + 0.3 )
I b′′ = ( a 2 − a ) I1 = ( a 2 − a ) ( − j1.667 ) = 2.887∠180&deg; per unit
I b′′ = 1.667∠180&deg; kA
Double line-to-ground fault:
I1 =
VF
1.0∠0&deg;
1.0
=
=
= − j 2.667 per unit
Z1 + Z 2 Z 0 j ( 0.3 + 0.3 0.1) j 0.375
 Z0 
 .1 
I 2 = − I1 
 = ( j 2.667 )   = j 0.667 per unit
 .4 
 Z0 + Z2 
 Z2 
 .3 
I 0 = − I1 
 = ( j 2.667 )   = j 2.0 per unit
 .4 
 Z0 + Z2 
I B′′ = I c + a 2 I1 + aI 2 = 2.0∠90&deg; + 2.667∠150&deg; + .667∠210&deg; = 4.163∠134&deg; per unit
= 2.404∠134&deg; kA
9.21 Bolted single-line-to-ground fault at bus 1.
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
=
VF
Z 0 + Z1 + Z 2
1.0∠0&deg;
= − j1.372 per unit
j ( 0.1919 + 0.267 + 0.27 )
 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1   − j1.372 
a   − j1.372 
a 2   − j1.372 
 I A′′   − j 4.116 
 − j 4.753
 ′′  



 I B  =  0  per unit =  0  kA
 
 0 
 I C′′   0 
257
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Contributions to the fault current
Zero sequence:
 .9581 
Transformer: IT − 0 = − j1.372 

 .24 + .9581 
= − j1.097 per unit
.24


Line: I L − 0 = − j1.372 
 = − j 0.2748
.24
.9581
+


Positive sequence:
 .4583 
Transformer: IT −1 = − j1.372 

 .64 + .4583 
= − j 0.5725
.64


Line: I L −1 = − j1.372 
 = − j 0.7994
 .64 + .4583 
Negative sequence:
 .4671 
Transformer: IT − 2 = − j1.372 

 .64 + .4671 
= − j 0.5789 per unit
.64


Line: I L − 2 = j1.372 
 = − j 0.7931per unit
.64
.4671
+


Transformer:
 IT′′− A  1 1 1   − j1.097   − j 2.248 
 − j 2.596 
 I ′′  = 1 a 2 a   − j 0.5725  = .521∠ − 89.4&deg;  per unit = .602∠ − 89.4&deg;  kA
 T −B  

 



 I T′′−C  1 a a 2   − j 0.5789  .521∠ − 90.6&deg;
.602∠ − 90.6&deg;
Line:
 I L′′− A  1 1
 I ′′  = 1 a 2
 L−B  
 I L′′−C  1 a
1   − j 0.2748   − j1.8673 
 − j 2.156 





a   − j 0.7994  = .521∠90.6&deg;  per unit = .602∠90.6&deg; kA
.602∠89.4&deg; 
a 2   − j 0.7931 .521∠89.4&deg; 
9.22 Bolted line-to-line fault at bus 1.
I1 = − I 2 =
=
VF
Z1 + Z 2
1.0∠0&deg;
j (.2670 + .270 )
= − j1.862 per unit
258
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 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1  0  
0





a   − j1.862  = 3.225∠180&deg; per unit
a 2   + j1.862   3.225∠0&deg; 
 I A′′  
0
0



 ′′  



 I B  = 3.225∠180&deg; &times; 1.155 = 3.724∠180&deg; kA
 
 3.724∠0&deg; 
 I C′′   3.225∠0&deg; 
Contributions to the fault current
Zero sequence:
IT −0 = I L − 0 = 0
Positive sequence:
 .4583 
Transformer: IT −1 = − j1.862 

 .64 + .4583 
= − j 0.7770 per unit
.64


Line: I L −1 = − j1.862 
 = − j1.085per unit
 .64 + .4583 
Negative sequence:
 .4671 
Transformer IT − 2 = j1.862 

 .64 + .4671 
= j 0.7856 per unit
.64


Line I L − 2 = j1.862 

 .64 + .4671 
= j1.076 per unit
Contribution to fault from transformer:
 IT′′− A  1 1

 
2
 I T′′− B  = 1 a
 I T′′−C  1 a


1  0
  j.0086

 0.0099∠90&deg; 





a   − j.777  = 1.353∠180.2&deg; per unit = 1.562∠180.2&deg;  kA
1.562∠ − 0.2&deg; 
a 2   j.7856  1.353∠ − 0.2&deg; 
Contribution to fault from line:
 I L′′− A  1 1

 
2
 I L′′− B  = 1 a
 I L′′−C  1 a


1   0   − j 0.0086 
0.0099∠ − 90&deg;





a   − j1.085 = 1.871∠179.9&deg;  per unit =  2.160∠179.9&deg;  kA
 2.160∠0.1&deg; 
a 2   j1.076   1.871∠0.1&deg; 
259
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9.23 Bolted double-line-to-ground fault at bus 1.
VF = 1.0∠0&deg;
I1 =
VF
Z1 + Z 2 Z 0
I1 =
1.0∠0&deg;
j (.267 + .27 .1919 )
1.0∠0&deg;
j 0.3792
= − j 2.637 per unit
=
 Z0 
 .1919 
I 2 = − I1 
 = j 2.637 

 .27 + .1919 
 Z0 + Z2 
I 2 = j1.096 per unit
 Z2 
.27


I 0 = − I1 
 = j 2.637 

 .27 + .1919 
 Z0 + Z2 
I 0 = j1.541per unit
 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1   j1.541  
0





a   − j 2.637  =  3.975∠144.3&deg;  per unit&times; 1.155
a 2   j1.096  3.975∠35.57&deg;
0



=  4.590∠144.3&deg;  kA
 4.590∠35.57&deg;
Contributions to the fault current
Zero sequence:
 .9581 
Transformer: IT − 0 = j1.541

 .24 + .9581 
= j1.232 per unit
.24


Line: I L − 0 = j1.541
 = j 0.3087 per unit
 .24 + .9581 
Positive sequence:
 .4583 
IT −1 = ( − j 2.637 ) 
 = − j1.100
 .64 + .4583 
.64


I L −1 = ( − j 2.637 ) 
 = − j1.537 per unit
 .64 + .4583 
260
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Negative Sequence:
 .4671 
IT − 2 = ( j1.096 ) 
 = j 0.4624
 .64 + .4671 
.64


I L − 2 = ( j1.096 ) 
 = j 0.6336
 .64 + .4671 
Contribution to fault from transformer:
 IT′′− A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I T − B  = 1 a


 I T′′−C  1 a
1   j1.232   j 0.5944





a   − j1.10  =  2.058∠131.1&deg;  per unit&times; 1.155
a 2   j 0.4624  2.058∠48.90&deg; 
 0.6864∠90&deg; 
=  2.376∠131.1&deg;  kA
2.376∠48.90&deg;
Contributions to fault from line:
 I L′′− A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I L − B  = 1 a


 I L′′−C  1 a
1   j.3087   − j.594 
a   − j1.537  =  2.028∠158.0&deg; per unit&times; 1.155
a 2   j.6336   2.028∠22.0&deg; 
 0.686∠ − 90&deg;
=  2.342∠158&deg;  kA
 2.342∠22&deg; 
9.24 Bolted single-line-to-ground fault at bus 1.
VF = 1.0∠0&deg;
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
=
VF
Z 0 + Z1 + Z 2
1.0∠0&deg;
j (1.3502 + 0.3542 + 0.3586 )
= − j 0.4847 per unit
100
I base 1 =
= 5.774 kA
10 3
 I A′′  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1   − j.4847   − j1.454 
 − j8.396 





a   − j.4847  =  0  per unit&times; 5.774 =  0  kA
a 2   − j.4847   0 
 0 
Contributions to fault current
261
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Zero sequence:
Generator G1 I G1− 0 = 0
Transformer T1 IT 1− 0 = − j 0.4847 per unit
Positive sequence:
 .92

Generator G1 I G1−1 = − j.4847 

 .92 + .576 
= − j 0.2981per unit
 .576 
Transformer T1 IT 1−1 = − j.4847 
 = − j 0.1866 per unit
 .92 + .576 
Negative sequence:
 .95 
Generator G1 I G1− 2 = − j.4847 

 .95 + .576 
= − j 0.3017 per unit
 .576 
Transformer T1 IT 1− 2 = − j.4847 

 .576 + .95 
= − j.1830
Contribution to fault from generator G1:
 I G′′1− A  1 1

 
2
 I G′′1− B  = 1 a
 I G′′1−C  1 a


1  0
  − j 0.5998





a   − j.2981  = 0.2999∠89.4&deg;  per unit&times; 5.774
a 2   − j.3017   0.2999∠90.6&deg; 
3.463∠ − 90&deg;
=  1.731∠89.4&deg;  kA
 1.731∠90.6&deg; 
Contribution to fault from transformer T1:
 I T′′1− A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I T 1− B  = 1 a


 I T′′1−C  1 a
1   − j.4847  
− j.8543





a   − j.1866  = 0.2999∠ − 90.6&deg; per unit&times; 5.774
a 2   − j.1830   0.2999∠ − 89.4&deg; 
 4.932∠ − 90&deg; 
= 1.731∠ − 90.6&deg; kA
1.731∠ − 89.4&deg; 
262
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9.25 Arcing simple-line-to-ground fault at bus 1.
VF = 1.0∠0&deg;
VF
Z 0 + Z1 + Z 2 + 3 Z F
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
=
1.0∠0&deg;
0.15 + j (1.3502 + .3542 + .3586 )
1.0∠0&deg;
2.068∠85.84&deg;
= 0.4834∠ − 85.84&deg; per unit
=
 I ′′A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 
 I C′′  1 a
1  .4834∠85.84&deg;  1.450∠85.84&deg;
 per unit&times; 5.774
a  .4834∠85.84&deg;  = 
0

a 2  .4834∠85.84&deg;  
0

8.374∠85.84&deg; 
 kA
0
= 



0
Contributions to fault current
Zero sequence:
Generator G1: I G1− 0 = 0
Transformer T1: IT 1− 0 = 0.4834∠ − 85.84&deg; per unit
Positive sequence:
 .92

Generator G1: I G1−1 = .4834∠ − 85.84&deg; 

 .92 + .576 
= 0.2973∠ − 85.84&deg;
263
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 .576 
Transformer T1: IT 1−1 = .4834∠ − 85.84&deg; 

 .92 + .576 
= 0.1861∠ − 85.84&deg; per unit
Negative sequence:
 .95 
Generator G1: I G1− 2 = .4834∠ − 85.84&deg; 

 .576 + .95 
= 0.3009∠ − 85.84&deg;
 .576 
Transformer T1: IT 1− 2 = .4834∠ − 85.84&deg; 

 .576 + .95 
= 0.1825∠ − 85.84&deg; per unit
Contribution to fault from generator G1:
 I G′′1− A  1 1

 
2
 I G′′1− B  = 1 a


 I G′′1−C  1 a
1 
0
 .5982∠ − 85.84&deg; 


a  0.2973∠ − 85.84&deg;  =  .2991∠93.56&deg;  per unit&times; 5.774
a 2  0.3009∠ − 85.84&deg;  .2991∠94.76&deg; 
3.454∠ − 85.84&deg;
=  1.727∠93.56&deg;  kA
 1.727∠94.76&deg; 
Contribution to fault from generator T1:
 I T′′1− A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I T 1− B  = 1 a
 I T′′1−C  1 a


1  .4834∠ − 85.84&deg;   0.852∠ − 85.84&deg; 
a  .1861∠ − 85.84&deg;  =  0.2991∠ − 86.44&deg; per unit&times; 5.774
a 2  .1825∠ − 85.84&deg;  0.2991∠ − 85.24&deg;
 4.919∠ − 85.84&deg; 
= 1.727∠ − 86.44&deg;  kA
1.727∠ − 85.24&deg; 
9.26 Bolted line-to-line fault at bus 1.
I1 = − I 2 =
=
VF
Z1 + Z 2
1.0∠0&deg;
j (.3542 + .3586 )
= − j1.403per unit
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 I ′′A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 I C′′  1 a
 
1  0  
0





a   − j1.403  = 2.430∠180&deg; per unit&times; 5.744
a 2   + j1.403  2.430∠0&deg; 
0



= 14.03∠180&deg;  kA
 14.03∠0&deg; 
Contributions to fault current.
Zero sequence:
Generator G1: I G1− 0 = 0
Transformer T1: IT 1− 0 = 0
Positive sequence:
 .92

Generator G1: I G1−1 = − j1.403 

 .92 + .576 
= − j 0.8628per unit
 .576 
Transformer T1: IT 1−1 = − j1.403 
 = − j 0.5402
 .576 + .92 
Negative sequence:
 .95 
Generator G1: I G1− 2 = ( j1.403 ) 

 .95 + .576 
= j 0.8734 per unit
 .576 
Transformer T1: IT 1− 2 = ( j1.403 ) 

 .576 + .95 
= j 0.5296 per unit
Contribution to fault from generator G1:
 I G′′1− A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I G1− B  = 1 a


 I G′′1−C  1 a
1  0  
j 0.0106





a   − j.8628  = 1.504∠ − 179.8&deg; per unit&times; 5.774
a 2   j.8734   1.504∠ − 0.2&deg; 
 0.0612∠90&deg; 
= 8.683∠ − 179.8&deg; kA
 8.683∠ − 0.2&deg; 
265
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Contribution to fault from transformer T1:
 I T′′1− A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I T 1− B  = 1 a
 I T′′1−C  1 a


1   0   − j 0.0106 
a   − j.5402  = 0.9265∠179.7&deg; per unit&times; 5.774
a 2   j.5296   0.9265∠0.33&deg; 
0.0612∠ − 90&deg; 
=  5.349∠179.7&deg;  kA
 5.349∠0.33&deg; 
9.27 Bolted double-line to-ground fault at bus 1.
I1 =
=
VF
Z1 + Z 2 Z 0
1.0∠0&deg;
j (.3542 + .3586 1.3502 )
1.0∠0&deg;
j 0.6375
= − j1.569per unit
=
 Z2
I 0 = − I1 
 Z2 + Z0

.3586


 = j1.569 

 .3586 + 1.3502 

= j 0.3292 per unit
 Z0 
1.3502


I 2 = − I1 
 = j1.569 

 1.3502 + .3586 
 Z0 + Z2 
= j1.2394 per unit
 I ′′A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I B  = 1 a
 I C′′  1 a
 
1   j 0.3292  
0





a   − j1.569  = 2.482∠168.5&deg;  per unit&times; 5.774
a 2   j1.2394  2.482∠11.48&deg; 
0



= 14.33∠168.5&deg; kA
14.33∠11.48&deg;
Contributions to fault current.
Zero sequence:
Generator G1: I G1− 0 = 0
Transformer T1: IT 1− 0 = j 0.3292 per unit
266
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Positive sequence:
 .92

Generator G1: I G1−1 = − j1.569 

 .92 + .576 
= − j 0.9646 per unit
 .576 
Transformer T1: IT 1−1 = − j1.569 

 .576 + .92 
= − j 0.6039per unit
Negative sequence:
 .95 
Generator G1: I G1− 2 = j1.2394 

 .95 + .576 
= j 0.7716 per unit
 .576 
Transformer T1: IT 1− 2 = j1.2394 
 = j 0.4678 per unit
 .576 + .95 
Contribution to fault from generator G1:
 I G′′1− A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I G1− B  = 1 a


 I G′′1−C  1 a
1   0   − j 0.193 
a   − j.9646  = 1.507∠176.3&deg; per unit&times; 5.774
a 2   j.7716   1.507∠3.67&deg; 
 1.114∠ − 90&deg; 
= 8.701∠176.3&deg; kA
 8.701∠3.67&deg; 
Contribution to fault from transformer T1:
 I T′′1− A  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I T 1− B  = 1 a
 I T′′1−C  1 a


1   j 0.3292   j 0.1931 
a   − j 0.6039  = 1.010∠156.8&deg;  per unit&times; 5.774
a 2   j 0.4678  1.010∠23.17&deg;
 1.114∠90&deg; 
=  5.831∠156.8&deg;  kA
5.831∠23.17&deg;
9.28
I a = ( I 0 + I1 + I 2 ) = 0 I a′ = ( I 0′ + I1′ + I 2′ ) = 0
Also Vbb′ = Vcc′ = 0, or
V00′ 
1 1
V  = 1 1 a
 11′  3 
V22′ 
1 a 2
1  Vaa′  Vaa′ / 3
  

a 2   0  = Vaa′ / 3
a   0  Vaa′ / 3
267
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Which gives V00′ = V11′ = V22′ = 0
9.29
I b = I c = 0, or
I0 
1 1
  1
 I1  = 3 1 a
I2 
1 a 2
 
1   I a   I a / 3
  

a 2   0  =  I a / 3  I 0 = I1 = I 2
a   0   I a / 3
Similarly I 0′ = I1′ = I 2′ Also Vaa′ = (V00′ + V11′ + V22′ ) = 0
9.30 (a) For a single line-to-ground fault, the sequence networks from the solution of Pr. 9.10
are to be connected in series.
The sequence currents are given by
1
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
= 1.65∠ − 90&deg; pu
j ( 0.26 + 0.2085 + 0.14 )
The subtransient fault current is
I a = 3 (1.65∠ − 90&deg; ) = 4.95∠ − 90&deg; pu
Ib = Ic = 0
268
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The sequence voltages are given by Eq. (9.1.1):
V1 = 1∠0&deg; − I1 Z1 = 1∠0&deg; − (1.65∠ − 90&deg; )( 0.26∠90&deg; ) = 0.57 pu
V2 = − I 2 Z 2 = − (1.65∠ − 90&deg; )( 0.2085∠90&deg; ) = −0.34 pu
V0 = − I 0 Z 0 = − (1.65∠ − 90&deg; )( 0.14∠90&deg; ) = −0.23pu
The line-to-ground (phase) voltages at the faulted bus are
Vag  1 1
  
2
Vbg  = 1 a
  1 a
Vcg  
1   −0.23  
0





a   0.57  = 0.86∠ − 113.64&deg; pu
a 2   −0.34   0.86∠113.64&deg; 
(b) For a line-to-line fault through a fault impedance Z F = j 0.05, the sequence network
connection is shown below:
I1 = − I 2 =
1∠0&deg;
= 1.93∠ − 90&deg; pu
0.5185∠90&deg;
I0 = 0
The phase currents are given by (Eq. 8.1.20 ∼ 8.1.22)
I a = 0; I b = − I c = ( a 2 − a ) I1 = 3.34∠ − 180&deg; pu
The sequence voltages are
V1 = 1∠0&deg; − I1 Z1 = 1∠0&deg; − (1.93∠ − 90&deg; )( 0.26∠90&deg; )
= 0.5pu
V2 = − I 2 Z 2 = − ( −1.93∠ − 90&deg; )( 0.2085∠90&deg; )
= 0.4 pu
V0 = − I 0 Z 0 = 0
The phase voltages are then given by
Va = V1 + V2 + V0 = 0.9 pu
Vb = a 2V1 + aV2 + V0 = 0.46∠ − 169.11&deg; pu
Vc = aV1 + a 2V2 + V0 = 0.46∠169.11&deg; pu
Check: Vb − Vc = I b Z F = 0.17∠ − 90&deg;
269
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(c) For a double line-to-ground fault with given conditions, the sequence network
connection is shown below:
The reductions are shown below:
∴ I1 = 1∠0&deg; / 0.45∠90&deg; = 2.24∠ − 90&deg;
0.29


I 2 = − I1 
 = −1.18∠ − 90&deg;
 0.29 + 0.2585 
I 0 = −1.06∠ − 90&deg;
The sequence voltages are given by
V1 = 1∠0&deg; − I1 Z1 = 1∠0&deg; − ( 2.24∠ − 90&deg; )( 0.26∠90&deg; ) = 0.42
V2 = − I 2 Z 2 = − ( −1.18∠ − 90&deg; )( 0.2085∠90&deg; ) = 0.25
V0 = − I 0 Z 0 = − ( −1.06∠ − 90&deg; )( 0.14∠90&deg; ) = 0.15
The phase currents are calculated as
I a = 0; I b = a 2 I1 + aI 2 + I 0 = 3.36∠151.77&deg;;
I c = aI1 + a 2 I 2 + I 0 = 3.36∠28.23&deg;.
The neutral fault current is I b + I c = 3I 0 = −3.18∠ − 90&deg;.
The phase voltages are obtained as
Va = V1 + V2 + V0 = 0.82
Vb = a 2V1 + aV2 + V0 = 0.24∠ − 141.49&deg;
Vc = aV1 + a 2V2 + V0 = 0.24∠141.49&deg;
270
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9.31 (a) For a single line-to-ground fault at bus 3, the interconnection of the sequence networks
is shown below.
(See solution of Pr. 9.12)
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
1∠0&deg;
= − j1.82
j ( 0.199 + 0.175 + 0.175 )
 I a  1 1 1   − j1.82   − j 5.46 
  
2
a   − j1.82  =  0 
 I b  = 1 a
 I c  1 a a 2   − j1.82   0 
 
Sequence voltages are given by
V0 = − j 0.199 ( − j1.82 ) = −0.362; V1 = 1 − j 0.175 ( − j1.82 ) = 0.681;
V2 = − j 0.175 ( − j1.82 ) = −0.319
voltages are calculated as
The phase
Va  1 1 1   −0.362  
0

  




2
a   0.681  = 1.022∠238&deg;
Vb  = 1 a
Vc  1 a a 2   −0.319  1.022∠122&deg; 
 
(b) For a line-to-line fault at bus 3, the sequence networks are interconnected as shown
below:
I1 = − I 2 =
1∠0&deg;
= − j 2.86
j 0.175 + j 0.175
271
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Phase currents are then
 I a  1 1 1   0   0 
  
2
a   − j 2.86  =  −4.95
 I b  = 1 a
 I c  1 a a 2   j 2.86   4.95 
 
The sequence voltages are
V0 = 0; V1 = V2 = I1 ( j 0.175 ) = 0.5
Phase voltages are calculated as
Va  1 1 1   0   1.0 
  
2
a   0.5 =  −0.5
Vb  = 1 a
Vc  1 a a 2   0.5  −0.5
 
(c) For a double line-to-ground fault at bus 3, the sequence network interconnection is
shown below:
Sequence currents are calculated as
I1 =
1∠0&deg;
= − j 3.73
j 0.175 +  j 0.175 ( j 0.199 ) / ( j 0.175 + j 0.199 ) 
0.199
( j3.73) = j1.99
0.175 + 0.199
0.175
I0 =
( j3.73) = j1.75
0.175 + 0.199
Phase currents are given by
I2 =
 I a  1 1
  
2
 I b  = 1 a
 
 I c  1 a
1   j1.75  
0





a   − j 3.73 =  5.6∠152.1&deg; 
a 2   j1.99   5.6∠27.9&deg; 
The neutral fault current is I b + I c = 3I 0 = j 5.25
Sequence voltages are obtained as
V0 = V1 = V2 = − ( j1.75 )( j 0.199 ) = 0.348
272
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Phase voltages are then
Va  1 1 1   0.348  1.044 
  
2
a   0.348  =  0 
Vb  = 1 a
Vc  1 a a 2   0.348   0 
 
(d) In order to compute currents and voltages at the terminals of generators G1 and G2, we
need to return to the original sequence circuits in the solution of Prob. 9.12.
Generator G1 (Bus 4):
For a single line-to-ground fault, sequence network interconnection is shown below:
From the solution of Prob. 9.31(a), I f = − j1.82
1
I f = − j 0.91
2
Transforming the Δ of (j0.3) in the zero-sequence network into an equivalent Y of (j0.1),
and using the current divider,
0.15
I0 =
( − j1.82 ) = − j 0.62
0.29 + 0.15
From the circuit above, I1 = I 2 =
273
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Phase currents are then
 I a  1 1 1   − j 0.62  2.44∠ − 90&deg;
  
2
a   − j 0.91 =  0.29∠90&deg; 
 I b  = 1 a
2
 
 I c  1 a a   − j 0.91  0.29∠90&deg; 
Sequence voltages are calculated as
V0 = − ( − j 0.62 )( j 0.14 ) = −0.087; V1 = 1 − j 0.2 ( − j 0.91) = 0.818;
V2 = − j 0.2 ( − j 0.91) = −0.182
Phase voltages are then
Va  1 1 1   −0.087   0.549∠0&deg; 
  
2
a   0.818  =  0.956∠245&deg; 
Vb  = 1 a
2
 
Vc  1 a a   −0.182   0.956∠115&deg; 
Generator G2 (Bus 5):
From the interconnected sequence networks and solution of Prob. 9.31,
1
I f = − j1.182; I1 = I 2 = I f = − j 0.91; I 0 = 0
2
Recall that Y – Δ transformer connections produce 30&deg; phase shifts in sequence
quantities. The HV quantities are to be shifted 30&deg; ahead of the corresponding LV
quantities for positive sequence, and vice versa for negative sequence. One may
however neglect phase shifts. Since bus 5 is the LV side, considering phase shifts,
I1 = 0.91∠ − 90&deg; − 30&deg; = 0.91∠ − 120&deg;;
I 2 = 0.91∠ − 90&deg; + 30&deg; = 0.91∠ − 60&deg;
Phase currents are then given by
 I a  1 1 1  
0
 1.58∠ − 90&deg; 
  


2
a   0.91∠ − 120&deg;  = 1.58∠ + 90&deg;
 I b  = 1 a
2
 
0

 I c  1 a a   0.91∠ − 60&deg;  
Positive and negative sequence voltages are the same as on the G1 side:
V1 = 0.818; V2 = −0.182; V0 = 0;
With phase shift
V1 = 0.818∠ − 30&deg;
V2 = 0.182∠210&deg;
Phase voltages are calculated as
Va  1 1
  
2
Vb  = 1 a
 
Vc  1 a
1 
0
  0.744∠ − 42.2&deg;


a   0.818∠ − 30&deg; =  0.744∠222.2&deg; 
a 2   0.182∠210&deg;   1.00∠90&deg; 
274
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9.32 (a) Refer to the solution of Prob. 9.13.
The negative sequence network is the same as the positive sequence network without
the source.
The zero-sequence network is shown below considering the transformer winding
connections:
For the single line-to-ground fault
At bus 3 through a fault impedance Z F = j 0.1 ,
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
1∠0&deg;
j ( 0.22 + 0.22 + 0.35 + 0.3 )
= − j 0.9174
Fault currents are
 I a  1 1
  
2
 I b  = 1 a
 I c  1 a
 
1   I 0   − j 2.7523
 

a   I1  = 
0


a 2   I 2  
0
275
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(b) For a line-to-fault at bus 3 through a fault impedance of j0.1,
I0 = 0
I1 = − I 2 =
1
= − j1.8519
j ( 0.22 + 0.22 + 0.1)
Fault currents are then
 I a  1 1
  
2
 I b  = 1 a
 I c  1 a
 
1 
0
  0 


a   − j1.8519  =  −3.2075
a 2   j1.8519   3.2075 
(c) For a double line-to-ground fault at bus 3 through a common fault impedance to ground
Z F = j 0.1 ,
I1 =
1∠0&deg;
j 0.22 ( j 0.35 + j 0.3 )
j 0.22 +
j 0.22 + j 0.35 + j 0.3
= − j 2.6017
I2 =
1 − ( j 0.22 )( − j 2.6017 )
I0 = −
j 0.22
= j1.9438
1 − ( j 0.22 )( − j 2.6017 )
j 0.35 + j 0.3
= j 0.6579
Fault phase currents are then
 I a  1 1
  
2
 I b  = 1 a
 
 I c  1 a
1   j 0.6579  
0





a   − j 2.6017  =  4.058∠165.93&deg;
a 2   j1.9438   4.058∠14.07&deg; 
Neutral fault current at bus 3 = I b + I c = 3 I 0 = 1.9732∠90&deg;
276
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9.33 Positive sequence network of the system is shown below:
Negative sequence network is same as above without sources.
The zero sequence network is shown below:
Using any one of the methods/algorithms, sequence Z BUS can be obtained.
(1)
Z BUS1 = Z BUS 2
(1)  j 0.1437
(2)  j 0.1211
=
(3)  j 0.0789

(4)  j 0.0563
(1)
Z BUS 0
(1)  j 0.16
(2)  0
=
(3)  0

(4)  0
(2)
(3)
j 0.1211
j 0.0789
j 0.1696
j 0.1104
j 0.1104
j 0.1696
j 0.0789
j 0.1211
(2)
(3)
(4)
0
0
j 0.08
j 0.08
j 0.08
j 0.58
0
0
0 
0 
0 

j 0.16 
(4)
j 0.0563
j 0789 
j 0.1211

j 0.1437 
Choosing the voltage at bus 3 as 1∠0&deg; , the prefault current in line (2) – (3) is
I 23 =
P − jQ 0.5 ( 0.8 − j 0.6 )
=
= 0.4 − j 0.3 pu
V3∗
1∠0&deg;
Line (2) – (3) has parameters given by
Z1 = Z 2 = j 0.15; Z 0 = j 0.5
277
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Denoting the open-circuit points of the line as p and p′ , to simulate opening, we need to
develop the Th&eacute;venin-equivalent sequence networks looking into the system between points
p and p′ .
Before any conductor opens, the current I mn in phase a of the line (m) – (n) is positive
sequence, given by
I mn =
Vm − Vn
Z1
Z pp′1 = −
Z12
Z Th ,mn,1 − Z1
; Z pp′ 2 =
− Z 22
− Z 02
; Z pp′ 0 =
ZTh ,mn,2 − Z 2
Z Th ,mn,0 − Z 0
To simulate opening phase a between points p and p′ , the sequence network connection is
shown below:
To simulate opening phases b and c between points p and p′ , the sequence network
connection is shown below:
278
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In this Problem
− j ( 0.15 )
− Z12
=
=
Z 22 1 + Z 33 1 − 2 Z 23 1 − Z1 j 0.1696 + j 0.1696 − 2 ( j 0.1104 ) − j 0.15
2
Z pp′1 = Z pp′ 2
= j 0.7120
− ( j 0.5 )
− Z 02
=
+ Z 330 − 2 Z 230 − Z 0 j 0.08 + j 0.58 − 2 ( j 0.08 ) − j 0.5
2
Z pp′ 0 =
Z 22 0
=∞
Note that an infinite impedance is seen looking into the zero sequence network between
points p and p′ of the opening, if the line from bus (2) to bus (3) is opened. Also bus (3)
would be isolated from the reference by opening the connection between bus (2) and bus (3).
(a) One open conductor:
Z pp′1 Z pp′ 2
( j 0.712 )( j 0.712 )
Va 0 = Va1 = Va 2 = I 23
= ( 0.4 − j 0.3 )
Z pp′1 + Z pp′ 2
j ( 0.712 + 0.712 )
= 0.1068 + j 0.1424
ΔV3 1 = ΔV3 2 =
Z 32 1 − Z 33 1
Z1
Va1 =
j 0.1104 − j 0.1696
( 0.1068 + j 0.1424 )
j 0.15
= −0.0422 − j 0.0562
ΔV30 =
Z 32 0 − Z 330
Z0
Va 0 =
j 0.08 − j 0.58
( 0.1068 + j 0.1424 )
j 0.5
= −0.1068 − j 0.1424
ΔV3 = ΔV30 + ΔV31 + ΔV32 = −0.1068 − j 0.1424 − 2 ( 0.0422 + j 0.0562 )
= −0.1912 − j 0.2548
Since the prefault voltage at bus (3) is 1∠0&deg; , the new voltage at bus (3) is
V3 + ΔV3 = (1 + j 0 ) + ( −0.1912 − j 0.2548 )
= 0.8088 − j 0.2548 = 0.848∠ − 17.5&deg; pu
(b) Two open conductors:
Inserting an infinite impedance of the zero sequence network in series between points p
and p′ of the positive-sequence network causes an open circuit in the latter. No power
transfer can occur in the system. Obviously, power cannot be transferred by only one
phase conductor of the transmission line, since the zero sequence network offers no
return path for current.
279
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9.34
Va = 0; Vb = Vc ; I b + I c = 0
Sequence currents are given by
1
1
1
I 0 = I a ; I1 =  I a + ( a − a 2 ) I b  ; I 2 =  I a + ( a 2 − a ) I b 
3
3
3
One can conclude that I1 + I 2 = 2 I 0
Sequence network connection to satisfy the above:
Sequence voltages are obtained below:
1
1
V1 = ( a + a 2 ) Vb  = − Vb
3
3
1
1
V2 = ( a + a 2 ) Vb  = − Vb
3
3
1
2
V0 = ( 2Vb ) = Vb
3
3
Thus V1 = V2 and V1 + V2 + V0 = 0
The sequence network interconnection is then given by:
280
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9.35 (a) Following Ex. 9.2 of the text:
I1 =
1∠0&deg;
= − j 6.67; I 2 = 0; I 0 = 0
j 0.15
V0 = V1 = V2 = 0
I a = 6.67∠ − 90&deg;; I b = 6.67∠150&deg;; I c = 6.67∠30&deg; ←
Va = Vb = Vc = 0 ( Bolted 3-phase fault ) ←
(b) Following Ex. 9.3 of the text
1∠0&deg;
I 0 = I1 = I 2 =
j ( 0.15 + 0.15 + 0.2 )
= − j2
I a = 3 ( − j 2 ) = − j 6; I b = I c = 0 ←
V0   0   j 0.2
  
 
V1  = 1∠0&deg; −  0
 
V2   0   0
0
j 0.15
0
0  − j2 
0   − j 2 
j 0.15  − j 2 
 −0.4 
=  0.7 
 −0.3 
Va  1 1
  
2
Vb  = 1 a
 
Vc  1 a
1   −0.4  
0





a   0.7  = 1.11∠233&deg;  ←
a 2   −0.3  1.11∠125&deg; 
(c) Following Ex. 9.4 of the text:
I1 = − I 2 =
1∠0&deg;
j ( 0.15 + 0.15 )
= − j 3.333
I0 = 0
281
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(
)
I b = − j 3 ( − j 3.333 ) = −5.773
 ←
I c = 5.773; I a = 0

V1 = V2 = I1 ( j 0.15 ) = 0.5; V0 = 0
Va  1 1
  
2
Vb  = 1 a
Vc  1 a
 
1   0   1.0 
a   0.5 =  −0.5 ←
a 2   0.5  −0.5
(d) Following Ex. 9.5 of the text:
1∠0&deg;
0.15 &times; 0.2 

j 0.15 +
0.15 + 0.2 

= − j 4.242
I1 =
0.2


I 2 = ( j 4.242 ) 

 0.2 + 0.15 
= j 2.424
 0.15 
I 0 = ( j 4.242 ) 
 = j1.818
 0.2 + 0.15 
 I a  1 1
  
2
 I b  = 1 a
 I c  1 a
 
1   j1.818  
0





a   − j 4.242  = 5.5∠118.2&deg; ←
a 2   j 2.424   5.5∠61.8&deg; 
V0 = V1 = V2 = − j1.818 ( j 0.2 ) = 0.364
Va  1 1 1  0.364  1.092 
  
2
a   0.364  =  0  ←
Vb  = 1 a
Vc  1 a a 2   0.364   0 
 
Worst fault: 3-phase fault with a fault current of 6.67 pu ←
9.36 The positive-sequence per-phase circuit is shown below:
∗
= 1; I LOAD = 1.02∠ − 10&deg; prior to the fault
E = 1∠0&deg; + j 0.1(1.02∠ − 10&deg; ) = 1.023∠5.64&deg;
282
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With a short from bus 2 to ground, i.e. with switch closed,
1.023∠5.64&deg;
= 5.115∠ − 84.36&deg; ←
I FAULT =
j 0.2
9.37 (a) E1 = 1∠0&deg; + (1∠0&deg; )( j 0.1) = 1 + j 0.1
E2 = 1∠0&deg; − (1∠0&deg; )( j 0.15 ) = 1 − j 0.15
With switch closed,
E
1 + j 0.1
= 1 − j10
I1 = 1 =
j 0.1
j 0.1
I2 =
E2
1 − j 0.15
=
= −1 − j 6.67
j 0.15
j 0.15
I = I1 + I 2 = − j16.67 ←
(b) Superposition:
Ignoring prefault currents
E1 = E2 = 1∠0&deg;
I1 =
1∠0&deg;
1∠0&deg;
= − j10; I 2 =
= − j 6.67
j 0.1
j 0.15
I = I1 + I 2 = − j16.67
I1 = I1 FAULT + I1 LOAD = − j10 + 1 = 1 − j10
I 2 = I 2 FAULT + I 2 LOAD = − j 6.67 + (−1) = −1 − j 6.67
I = I FAULT + I LOAD = − j16.67 ←
Same as in part (a) ←
9.38
I1−1 =
VF
1.0∠0&deg;
=
= − j8.333 per unit
Z11−1
j 0.12
 I1′′a  1 1
 ′′  
2
 I1b  = 1 a
 I1′′c  1 a
 
1  0
 8.333∠ − 90&deg;


a  8.333∠ − 90&deg;  = 8.333∠150&deg;  per unit
 8.333∠30&deg; 
a 2   0
Using Eq (9.5.9) with k = 2 and n = 1:
V2 − 0   0   0

 
 
V2 −1  = 1∠0&deg; −  0
V2 − 2   0   0


V2 ag  1 1

 
2
V2 bg  = 1 a

 1 a
V2 cg  
0
j 0.08
0
0  0   0 
0   − j8.333 = 0.3333 per unit
j 0.08   0   0 
1   0  0.3333∠0&deg; 
a  0.3333 = 0.3333∠240&deg;  per unit
a 2   0  0.3333∠120&deg; 
283
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9.39
I1− 0 = I1−1 = I1− 2 =
Z11− 0
VF
1.0∠0&deg;
=
+ Z11−1 + Z11− 2 j ( 0.10 + 0.12 + 0.12 )
= − j 2.941per unit
 I1′′a  1 1
  
2
 I1′′b  = 1 a
 
 I1′′c  1 a
1   − j 2.941  − j8.824 
a   − j 2.941 =  0  per unit
a 2   − j 2.941  0 
Using Eq (9.5.9) with k = 2 and n = 1:
V2 − 0   0  0

 
 
V2 −1  = 1∠0&deg; − 0
V2 − 2   0  0


V2 ag  1 1

 
2
V2 bg  = 1 a

 1 a
V2 cg  
9.40
I1−1 = − I1− 2 =
0
j.08
0
0   − j 2.941  0 
0   − j 2.941 =  0.7647  per unit
j.08   − j 2.941  −0.2353
1   0  0.5294∠0&deg;





a   .7647  = 0.9056∠253.0&deg; per unit
a 2   −.2353 0.9056∠107.0&deg; 
VF
1.0∠0&deg;
=
Z11−1 + Z11− 2 j ( .12 + .12 )
= − j 4.167 per unit
 I1′′a  1 1
  
2
 I1′′b  = 1 a
 
 I1′′c  1 a
1  0  
0





a   − j 4.167  =  7.217∠180&deg; per unit
a 2   + j 4.167   7.217∠0&deg; 
Using Eq (9.5.9) with k = 2 and n = 1:
V2 − 0   0   0

 
 
V2 −1  = 1∠0&deg; −  0
V2 − 2   0   0


V2 ag  1 1

 
2
V2 bg  = 1 a


V2 cg  1 a
9.41
I1−1 =
0
j 0.08
0
0  0   0 
0   − j 4.167  =  0.6667  per unit
j 0.08   j 4.167   0.3333 
1  0  
1.0





a  .6667  = 0.5774∠210&deg; per unit
a 2  .3333  0.5774∠150&deg; 
VF
1.0∠0&deg;
=
Z11−1 + Z11− 2 // Z11− 0 j ( 0.12 + 0.12 // 0.10 )
= − j 5.729 per unit
 0.10 
I1− 2 = ( + j 5.729 ) 
 = j 2.604 per unit
 0.22 
 0.12 
I1− 0 = ( + j 5.729 ) 
 = j 3.125per unit
 0.22 
284
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 I1′′a  1 1 1   j 3.125  
0

 ′′  




2
a   − j 5.729  = 8.605∠147.0&deg; per unit
 I1b  = 1 a
2
 
 I1′′c  1 a a   + j 2.604   8.605∠33.0&deg; 
Using Eq (9.5.9) with k = 2 and n = 1:
V2 − 0   0   0

 
 
V2 −1  = 1.0∠0&deg; −  0
V2 − 2   0   0


V2 ag  1 1

 
2
V2 bg  = 1 a


V2 cg  1 a
0
j.08
0
0   j 3.125   0 
0   − j 5.729  = 0.5417  per unit
j.08   j 2.604   0.2083
1  0  
0.750





a  − .5417  = 0.4733∠217.6&deg; per unit
a 2  .2083  0.4733∠142.4&deg; 
[Note: For details on “formation of Z bus one step at a time”, please refer to edition 1 or 2 of the text.]
9.42 (a) Zero sequence bus impedance matrix:
Step (1): Add Z b = j 0.10 from the reference to bus 1(type 1)
Z bus-0 = j 0.10 per unit
Step (2): Add Z b = j 0.2563 from bus 1 to bus 2 (type 2)
 0.10 0.10 
Z bus − 0 = j 
 per unit
 0.10 0.3563
Step (3): Add Z b = j 0.10 from the reference to bus 2 (type 3)
0.1 
 0.1
j  .10 
Z bus − 0 = j 
−


 [.10.3563] =
 0.1 0.3563 .4563 .3563
.07808 .02192 
j

.02192 .07808 
Step (4): Add Z b = j 0.1709 from bus 2 to bus 3 (type 2)
 0.07808 0.02192 0.02192 
Z bus − 0 = j  0.02192 0.07808 0.07808  per unit
 0.02192 0.07808 0.24898 
Step (5): Add Z b = j 0.1709 from bus 1 to bus 3 (type 4)
.07808+

= j  .02192
 .02192
.02192 .02192 − 

Z bus − 0
.07808 .07808 
.07808 .24898 
 .05616 
j 
−
−.05616  [.05616 − .05616 − .22706 ]

.45412
 −.22706 
Z bus − 0
0.05 
 0.07114 0.02887

= j  0.02887 0.07114
0.05  per unit
 0.05
0.05
0.13545
285
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Positive sequence bus impedance matrix:
Step (1): Add Z b = j 0.28 from the reference to bus 1 (type1)
Z bus −1 = j [ 0.28] per unit
Step (2): Add Z b = j 0.08544 from bus 1 to bus 2 (type 2)
.28 
.28
Z bus −1 = j 
 per unit
.28 .36544 
Step (3): Add Z b = j 0.3 from the reference to bus 2 (type 3)
.16218 .12623
.28 
.28
j  .28 
Z bus −1 = j 
−
.28 .36544 ] = j 
[




.12623 .16475
.28 .36544  .66544 .36544 
Step (4): Add Z b = j.06835 from bus 2 to bus 3 (type 2)
 0.16218 0.12623 0.12623
Z bus −1 = j  0.12623 0.16475 0.16475 per unit
 0.12623 0.16475 0.2331 
Step (5): Add Z b = j.06835 from bus 1 to bus 3 (type 4)
.16218 .12623 .12623
 +.03595 
j 


Z bus −1 = j .12623 .16475 .16475 −
−.03852 
.21117 
.12623 .16475 .2331 
 −.10687 
[.03595 − .03852 − .10687]
Z bus −1
.15606 .13279 .14442 
= j .13279 .15772 .14526  per unit
.14442 .14526 .17901
Step (6): Add Z b = j (.4853 //.4939) = j 0.2448 from the reference to bus 3 (type 3)
.15606 .13279 .14442 
.14442 
j 


Z bus −1 = j .13279 .15772 .14526  −
.14526 

.42379
.14442 .14526 .17901
.17901
[.14442 .14526 .17901]
 0.1068 0.08329 0.08342 
Z bus −1 = j  0.08329 0.1079 0.08390  per unit
0.08342 0.08390 0.10340 
Negative sequence bus impedance matrix:
Steps (1) – (5) are the same as for Z bus −1 .
286
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Step (6): Add Z b = j (.5981//.4939) = j 0.2705 from the reference bus to bus 3 (type 3)
Z bus − 2
.15606 .13279 .14442 
.14442 
j 


= j .13279 .15772 .14526  −
.14526  [.14442 14526 17901]
.44951 
.14442 .14526 .17901
.17901
Z bus − 2
 0.1097 0.08612 0.08691
= j  0.08612 0.11078 0.08741 per unit
 0.08691 0.08741 0.10772 
(b) From the results of Problem 9.42(a), Z11− 0 = j 0.07114, Z11−1 = j 0.1068 , and
Z11− 2 = j 0.1097 per unit are the same as the Thevenin equivalent sequence impedances
at bus 1, as calculated in Problem 9.2. Therefore, the fault currents calculated from the
sequence impedance matrices will be the same as those calculated in Problems 9.3 and
9.14–9.17.
9.43
I1−1 =
VF
1.0 ∠0&deg;
=
= 5.0∠ − 90&deg; per unit
Z11−1
j 0.20
 I1′′a  1 1 1  0
 5 ∠ − 90&deg;
 ′′  


 

2
 I1b  = 1 a a  5 ∠ − 90&deg;  = 5 ∠150&deg;  per unit
2
 
  5 ∠30&deg; 
 I1′′c  1 a a  0
Using (9.5.9) with k = 2 and n = 1:
V2 − 0   0
0
 0 0
 0
 0 

 




 

V2 −1  = 1.0 ∠0&deg;  −  0 j 0.10 0
  − j 5.0  =  0.50  per unit
V2 − 2   0
  0 0
  0 
j 0.10  0


V2 ag  1 1 1   0   0.50 ∠0&deg; 

 

 

V1bg  = 1 a 2 a  0.50  =  0.50 ∠240&deg;  per unit

 
2
 

V2 cg  1 a a  0  0.50 ∠120&deg; 
9.44
I1− 0 = I1−1 = I1− 2 =
Z11− 0
VF
1.0 ∠ 0&deg;
=
= − j 2.0 per unit
+ Z11−1 + Z11− 2 j ( 0.10 + 0.2 + 0.2 )
 I1′′a  1 1 1   − j 2  6.0 ∠ − 90&deg;
 ′′  

 
 per unit
2
0
 I1b  = 1 a a   − j 2  = 

 I1′′c  1 a a 2   − j 2  
0

 
V2 − 0  0
0
 0 0
  − j 2  0


 







V2 −1  = 1.0 ∠0&deg; −  0 j 0.10 0
  − j 2  =  0.80  per unit
V2 − 2  0
 0 0
j 0.10   − j 2   −0.20 


287
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V2 ag  1 1 1  0
 0.60 j 0


 





2
V2 bg  = 1 a a  0.80  =  −0.30 − j 0.866  per unit


2
V2 cg  1 a a   −0.20   −0.3 + j 0.866 
9.45
I1−1 = − I1−2 =
VF
1.0 ∠0&deg;
=
= 2.5 ∠ − 90&deg; per unit
Z11−1 + Z11− 2 j ( 0.2 + 0.2 )
 I1′′a  1 1 1  0
  0 

  

 
2
 I1′′b  = 1 a a   − j 2.5  =  −2.5 3  per unit
 I1′′c  1 a a 2   + j 2.5  +2.5 3 
 


V2 − 0  0
0
 0 0
 0   0 

 


  − j 2.5  =  0.75 per unit
V2 −1  = 1.0 ∠0&deg; −  0 j 0.10 0

 



j 0.10   + j 2.5 0.25
 0 0
V2 − 2  0
V2 ag  1 1 1  0   1.0


 





2
V2 bg  = 1 a a  0.75 =  −0.50 − j 0.433  per unit

 
2
 

V2 cg  1 a a  0.25  −0.50 + j 0.433
9.46
I1−1 =
VF
1.0 ∠0&deg;
=
= 3.75∠ − 90&deg; per unit
Z11−1 + Z11− 2 // Z11− 0

0.20 )( 0.10 ) 
(
j  0.20 +

0.30


 0.10 
I1− 2 = ( 3.75∠ + 90&deg; ) 
 = 1.25 ∠90&deg; per unit
 0.30 
 0.20 
I1− 0 = ( 3.75∠ + 90&deg; ) 
 = 2.50 ∠90&deg;
 0.30 
 I1′′a  1 1 1   j 2.50  
0

 ′′  





2
 I1b  = 1 a a   − j3.75 =  −4.330 + j1.25 per unit
 I1′′c  1 a a 2   j1.25   +4.330 + j1.25
 
V2 − 0  0
0
 0 0
  j 2.50  0


 







V2 −1  = 1.0 ∠0&deg; −  0 j 0.10 0
  − j 3.75 =  0.625 per unit
V2 − 2  0
 0 0
j 0.10   j1.25  0.125


V2 ag  1 1 1   0
  0.75


 





2
V2 bg  = 1 a a  0.625 =  −0.375 − j 0.433  per unit

 
2
 

V2 cg  1 a a  0.125  −0.375 + j 0.433
288
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9.47 Zero sequence bus impedance matrix:
Step (1): Add Z b = j 0.10 from the reference to bus 1 (type 1) Z bus − 0 = j 0.10 per unit
Step (2) : Add Z 6 = j 0.60 from bus 1 to bus 2 (type 2)
0.10 0.10 
Z bus − 0 = j 
 per unit
0.10 0.70 
Step (3): Add Z b = j 0.10 from the reference to bus 2 (type 3)
0.10 0.10 
 0.0875 0.0125
j  0.10  [ 0.10 0.70]
−
= j
Z bus − 0 = j 




0.10 0.70  0.80  0.70 
 0.0125 0.0875
Step (4): Add Z b = j 0.40 from bus 2 to bus 3 (type 2)
Z bus − 0
 0.0875 0.0125 0.0125
= j  0.0125 0.0875 0.0875 per unit
 0.0125 0.0875 0.4875
Step (5): Add Z b = j 0.40 from bus 1 to bus 3 (type 4)
Z bus − 0
0.0875
= j 0.0125
0.0125
0.08158
= j 0.01842
0.050
0.0125 0.0125
 0.075  [0.075 −0.075 −0.475]
j 

−0.075
0.0875 0.0875 −
0.95 
 −0.475
0.0875 0.4875
0.01842 0.050 
0.08158 0.050  per unit
0.050
0.250 
Positive sequence Bus Impedance Matrix:
Step (1): Add Z b = j 0.25 from the reference to bus 1 (type 1)
Z bus −1 = j 0.25 per unit
Step (2): Add Z b = j 0.20 from bus 1 to bus 2 (type 2)
0.25 0.25
Z bus −1 = j 
 per unit
0.25 0.45
Step (3): Add Z b = j 0.35 from the reference to bus 2 (types)
0.25 0.25
0.1719 0.1094
j 0.25 [0.25 0.45]
−
= j
Z bus −1 = j 




0.8
0.25 0.45
0.45
0.1094 0.1969
Step (4): Add Z b = j 0.16 from bus 2 to bus 3 (type 2)
0.1719 0.1094 0.1094


Z bus −1 = j 0.1094 0.1969 0.1969 per unit
0.1094 0.1969 0.3569
289
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Step (5): Add Z b = j 0.16 from bus 1 to bus 3 (type 4)
0.1719 0.1094 0.1094
 0.0625  [0.0625 − 0.0875 − 0.2475]
−j 


− 0.0875
Z bus −1 = j 0.1094 0.1969 0.1969
0.47 
0.1094 0.1969 0.3569
− 0.2475
0.1636 0.1210 0.1423
= j 0.1210 0.1806 0.1508 per u nit
0.1423 0.1508 0.2266
Step (6): Add Z b = j (0.5786  0.4853) = j 0.2639 from the reference to bus 3 (type 3)
0.1636 0.1210 0.1423
0.1423 [0.1423 0.1508 0.2266]
j


0.1508
Z bus −1 = j 0.1210 0.1806 0.1508 −

0.4905 
0.1423 0.1508 0.2266
0.2266
0.1223 0.0773 0.0766
= j 0.0773 0.1342 0.0811 per uni t
0.0766 0.0811 0.1219
Negative Sequence Bus Impedance Matrix: Steps (1)–(5) are the same as for Z bus −1 . Step (6):
Add Z b = j(0.5786  .5981) = j 0.2941 from the reference to bus 3 (types 3).
0.1636 0.1210 0.1423
0.1423 [0.1423 0.1508 0.2266]
j


0.1508
Z bus −1 = j 0.1210 0.1806 0.1508 −

0.5207 
0.1423 0.1508 0.2266
0.2266
0.1247 0.0798 0.0804
= j 0.0798 0.1369 0.0852
0.0804 0.0852 0.1280
9.48 From the results of Problem 9.47, Z11− 0 = j 0.08158, Z11−1 = j 0.1223 and Z11− 2 = j 0.1247
per unit are the same as the thevenen equivalent sequence impedances at bus 1 as calculated
in Problem 9.4(b). Therefore the fault currents calculated from the sequence impedance
matrices will be the same as those calculated in problems 9.4(c) and 9.19(a) through 9.19(d).
9.49 Zero sequence bus impedance matrix:
Step (1): Add Z b = j 0.24 from the reference to bus 1(type 1)
Z bus − 0 = j [ 0.24 ] per unit
Step (2): Add Z b = j 0.6 from bus 1 to bus 2 (type 2)
0.24 0.24 
Z bus − 0 = j 
 per unit
0.24 0.84 
290
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Step (3): Add Z b = j 0.6 from bus 2 to bus 3 (type 2)
Z bus − 0
 0.24 0.24 0.24 
= j  0.24 0.84 0.84  per unit
 0.24 0.84 1.44 
Step (4): Add Z b = j 0.10 from the reference to bus 3 (type 3)
Z bus − 0
.24 .24 .24 
 .24 
j 


= j .24 .84 .84  −
.84  [.24 .84 1.44]
1.54 
.24 .84 1.44 
1.44 
Z bus − 0
 0.2026 0.1091 0.01558 
= j  0.1091 0.3818 0.05455 per unit
 0.01558 0.05455 0.09351
Step (5): Add Z b = j 0.6 from bus 2 to bus 4 (type 2)
Z bus − 0
 0.2026 0.1091 0.01558 0.1091 
 0.1091 0.3818 0.05455 0.3818 
 per unit
= j
 0.01558 0.05455 0.09351 0.05455


 0.1091 0.3818 0.05455 0.9818 
Step (6): Add Z b = j 0.1333 from the reference bus to bus 4 (type 3)
Z bus − 0
.2026 .1091 .01558
.1091 .3818. .05455
= j
.01558 .05455 .09351

.1091 .3818 .05455
.1091 
 .1091 



.3818 
j  .3818 
−
[.1091 .3818 .05455 .9818]
.05455 1.1151 .05455



.9818 
 .9818 
Z bus − 0
 0.1919 0.07175 0.01024 0.01304 
 0.07175 0.2511 0.03587 0.04564 
 per unit
= j
 0.01024 0.03587 0.09084 0.006521


 0.01304 0.04564 0.006521 0.1174 
Positive sequence bus impedance matrix can be obtained as:
 0.2671 0.1505 0.0865 0.0980 
 0.1505 0.1975 0.1135 0.1286 
 per unit
Z bus −1 = j 
 0.0865 0.1135 0.1801 0.0739 


0.0980 0.1286 0.0739 0.2140 
Negative sequence bus impedance matrix:
291
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Steps (1)–(4) are the same as for Z bus −1
Step (5): Add Z b = j 0.3 from the reference bus to bus 3 (type 3)
Z bus − 2
.64
.64
= j
.64

.64
.64 .64 .64 
 .64 



.84 .84 .84 
j  .84 
−
[.64 .84 1.04 .84]
.84 1.04 .84  1.34 1.04 



.84 .84 1.04 
 .84 
Z bus − 2
.3343
.2388
= j
.1433

.2388
.2388 .1433 .2388 
.3134 .1881 .3134 
per unit
.1881 .2328 .1881

.3134 .1881 .5134 
Step (6): Add Z b = j 0.3733 from the reference to bus 4 (type 3)
Z bus − 2
.3343
.2388
= j
.1433

.2388
Z bus − 2
 0.2700
 0.1544
= j
 0.09264

 0.1005
.2388
.3134
.1881
.3134
.1433
.1881
.2328
.1881
.2388 
.2388



.3134 
j .3134 
−
[.2388 .3134 .1881 .5134]
.1881 .8867 .1881



.5134 
.5134 
0.1544 0.09264 0.1005 
0.2026 0.1216 0.1319 
per unit
0.1216 0.1929 0.07919 

0.1319 0.07919 0.2161 
9.50 From the results of Problem 9.49, Z11− 0 = j 0.1919, Z11−1 = j 0.2671 , and Z11− 2 = j 0.2700 per
unit are the same as the Thevenin equivalent sequence impedances at bus 1, as calculated in
Problem 9.6. Therefore, the fault currents calculated from the sequence impedance matrices
are the same as those calculated in Problems 9.7, 9.21–9.23.
9.51 Zero sequence bus impedance matrix: Working backwards from bus 4:
Step (1): Add Z b = j 0.1 from the reference bus to bus 4 (type 1)
4
Z bus − 0 = [ j 0.1] 4 per unit
Step (2): Add Z b = j 0.5251 from bus 4 to bus 3 (type 2)
Z bus − 0
3
4
0.6251 0.1 3
= j
per unit
0.1 4
 0.1
292
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Step (3): Add Z b = j 0.5251 from bus 3 to bus 2 (type 2)
Z bus − 0
2
3
4
1.1502 0.6251 0.1 2
= j  0.6251 0.6251 0.1 3 per unit
 0.1
0.1
0.1 4
Step (4): Add Z b = j 0.2 from bus 2 to bus 1 (type 2)
Z bus − 0
1
2
3
4
1.3502 1.1502 0.6251 0.1 1
1.1502 1.1502 0.6251 0.1 2
 per unit
= j
0.6251 0.6251 0.6251 0.1 3


0.1
0.1
0.1 4
 0.1
Step (5): Add Z b = j 0.1 from the reference to bus 5 (type 1)
1.3502 1.1502 0.6251 0.1 0 
1.1502 1.1502 0.6251 0.1 0 


Z bus − 0 = j  0.6251 0.6251 0.6251 0.1 0  per unit


0.1
0.1
0.1 0 
 0.1
 0
0
0
0 0.1
Positive sequence bus impedance matrix can be obtained as:
 0.3542
 0.2772

Z bus −1 = j  0.1964

 0.1155
 0.0770
0.2772 0.1964 0.1155 0.0770 
0.3735 0.2645 0.1556 0.1037 
0.2645 0.3361 0.1977 0.1318  per unit

0.1556 0.1977 0.2398 0.1599 
0.1037 0.1318 0.1599 0.1733 
Negative sequence bus impedance matrix:
Steps (1) – (5) are the same as for Z bus −1
Step (6): Add Z b = j 0.23 from the reference bus to bus 5 (type 3)
Z bus − 2
.576
.576

= j .576

.576
.576
.576 
 .576 

 .776 
.776 

j 
 .986  [.576 .776 .986 1.196 1.296]
.776 .986 .986 .986  −
 1.526 

.776 .986 1.196 1.196 
1.196 
1.296 
.776 .986 1.196 1.296 
.576 .576 .576
.776 .776 .776
293
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Z bus − 2
 0.3586
 0.2831

= j  0.2038

 0.1246
 0.08682
0.2831 0.2038 0.1246 0.08682 
0.3814 0.2746 0.1678 0.1170 
0.2746 0.3489 0.2132 0.1486  per unit

0.1678 0.2132 0.2586 0.1803 
0.1170 0.1486 0.1803 0.1953 
9.52 From the results of Problem 9.51 Z11− 0 = j1.3502, Z11−1 = j 0.3542, and Z11− 2 = j 0.3586 per
unit are the same as the Thevenin equivalent sequence impedances at bus 1, as calculated in
Problem 9.9. Therefore, the fault currents calculated from the sequence impedance matrices
are the same as those calculated in Problem 9.10, 9.24–9.27.
9.53 (a) &amp; (b)
Either by inverting YBUS or by the building algorithm Z BUS can be obtained as
(1)
(1)  j 0.0793
(2)  j 0.0558
= (3)  j 0.0382

(4)  j 0.0511
(5)  j 0.0608
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
j 0.0608 
j 0.0605 
Z BUS
j 0.0664 j 0.0875 j 0.0720 j 0.0603 

j 0.0630 j 0.0720 j 0.2321 j 0.1002 
j 0.0605 j 0.0603 j 0.1002 j 0.1301
(c) Thevenin equivalent circuits to calculate voltages at bus (3) and bus (5) due to fault at
bus (4) are shown below:
j 0.0558
j 0.1338
j 0.0382
j 0.0664
j 0.0511
j 0.0630
Simply by closing 8, the subtransient current in the 3-phase fault at bus (4) is given by
1.0
= − j 4.308
I ′′f =
j 0.2321
The voltage at bus (3) during the fault is
V3 = V f − I ′′f Z 34 = 1 − ( − j 4.308 )( j 0.0720 ) = 0.6898
The voltage at bus (5) during the fault is
V5 = V f − I ′′f Z 54 = 1 − ( − j 4.308 )( j 0.1002 ) = 0.5683
294
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Currents into the fault at bus (4) over the line impedances are
0.6898
From bus (3):
= − j 2.053
j 0.336
From bus (5):
0.5683
= − j 2.255
j 0.252
Hence, total fault current at bus (4) = − j 4.308pu
9.54 The impedance of line (1)–(2) is Z b = j 0.168 .
Z BUS is given in the solution of Prob. 9.53.
The Th&eacute;venin equivalent circuit looking into the system between buses (1) and (2) is shown
below:
Z kk ,Th = j 0.168 +
( j 0.0235)( − j 0.09 ) + j 0.0558 = j 0.2556
j ( 0.0235 − 0.09 )
∴ Subtransient current into line-end fault I ′′f = 1/ j 0.2556 = − j3.912 pu
295
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9.55 (a)
Negative-sequence network is same as above without sources.
(1)
Z BUS1 = Z BUS 2
(1)  j 0.1437
(2)  j 0.1211
=
(3)  j 0.0789

(4)  j 0.0563
(1)
(2)
(2)
(3)
j 0.1211
j 0.0789
j 0.1696
j 0.1104
j 0.1104
j 0.1696
j 0.0789
j 0.1211
(3)
(4)
j 0.0563 
j 0.0789 
j 0.1211 

j 0.1437 
(4)
(1)  j 0.19
0
0
0 

(2)  0
0 
j 0.08 j 0.08
Z BUS 0 =
(3)  0
0 
j 0.08 j 0.58


(4)  0
0
0
j 0.19 
(b) For the line-to-line fault, Th&eacute;venin equivalent circuit:
Upper case A is used because fault is in the HV-transmission line circuit.
1∠0&deg;
= − j 2.9481
I fA 1 = − I fA 2 =
j 0.1696 + j 0.1696
I fA = I fA 1 + I fA 2 = 0
I f B = a 2 I fA 1 + aI fA 2 = −5.1061 + j 0 = 855∠180&deg; A
I f C = − I f B = 5.1061 + j 0 = 855∠0&deg; A
296
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100,000
= 167.35A
3 &times; 345
Symmetrical components of phase-A voltage to ground at bus (3) are
 Base current in HV transmission line is
V3 A 0 = 0; V3 A 1 = V3 A 2 = 1 − ( j 0.1696 )( − j 2.9481) = 0.5 + j 0
Line-to-Ground voltages at fault bus (3) are
V3 A = V3 A 0 + V3 A 1 + V3 A 2 = 0 + 0.5 + 0.5 = 1∠0&deg;
V3 B = V3 A 0 + a 2V3 A 1 + aV3 A 2 = 0.5∠180&deg;
V3C = V3 B = 0.5∠180&deg;
Line-to-line voltages at fault bus (3) are
345
V3, AB = V3 A − V3 B = 1.5∠0&deg; = 1.5 &times;
= 299∠0&deg; kV
3
V3, BC = V3 B − V3C = 0
V3,CA = V3C − V3 A = 1.5∠180&deg; = 299∠180&deg; kV
Avoiding, for the moment, phase shifts due to Δ − Y transformer connected to machine
2, sequence voltages of phase A at bus (4) using the bus-impedance matrix are
calculated as
V4 A0 = − Z 430 I fA0 = 0
V4 A1 = V f − Z 431 I fA1 = 1 − ( j 0.1211)( − j 2.9481) = 0.643
V4 A2 = − Z 432 I fA 2 = − ( j 0.1211)( j 2.9481) = 0.357
Accounting for phase shifts
V4 a 1 = V4 A 1∠ − 30&deg; = 0.643∠ − 30&deg; = 0.5569 − j 0.3215
V4 a 2 = V4 A 2 ∠30&deg; = 0.357∠30&deg; = 0.3092 + j 0.1785
V4 a = V4 a 0 + V4 a 1 + V4 a 2 = 0.8661 − j 0.143 = 0.8778∠ − 9.4&deg;
Phase-b voltages at terminals of machine 2 are
V4 b 0 = V4 a 0 = 0
V4 b 1 = a 2V4 a 1 = 0.643∠240&deg; − 30&deg; = −0.3569 − j 0.3215
V4 b 2 = aV4 a 2 = 0.357∠120&deg; + 30&deg; = −0.3092 + j 0.1785
V4 b = V4 b 0 + V4 b 1 + V4 b 2 = −0.8661 − j 0.143 = 0.8778∠ − 170.6&deg;
For phase C of machine 2,
V4 c 0 = V4 a 0 = 0
V4 c 1 = aV4 a 1 = 0.643∠90&deg;; V4 c 2 = a 2V4 a 2 = 0.357∠ − 90&deg;
V4 c = V4 c 0 + V4 c 1 + V4 c 2 = j 0.286
297
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Line-to-line voltages at terminals of machine 2 are given by
20
V4,ab = V4 a − V4 b = 1.7322 + j 0 = 1.7322 &times;
= 20∠0&deg; kV
3
V4,bc = V4 b − V4 c = −0.8661 − j 0.429 = 0.9665∠ − 153.65&deg; = 11.2 kV ∠ − 153.65&deg;
V4,ca = V4 c − V4 a = −0.8661 + j 0.429 = 0.9665∠153.65&deg; = 11.2 kV ∠153.65&deg;
(c) For the double line-to-line fault, connection of Th&eacute;venin equivalents of sequence
networks is shown below:
I fa1 =
1∠0&deg;
= − j 4.4342
j 0.1437 ( j 0.19 )
j 0.1437 +
j ( 0.1437 + 0.19 )
Sequence voltages at the fault are
V4 a1 = V4 a 2 = V4 a 0 = 1 − ( − j 4.4342 )( j 0.1437 ) = 0.3628
I fa 2 = j 4.4342
j 0.19
= j 2.5247
j ( 0.1437 + 0.19 )
I fa 0 = j 4.4342
j 0.1437
= j1.9095
j ( 0.1437 + 0.19 )
Currents out of the system at the fault point are
I fa = I fa 0 + I fa 1 + I fa 2 = 0
I fb = I fa 0 + a 2 I fa 1 + aI fa 2 = −6.0266 + j 2.8642 = 6.6726∠154.6&deg;
I fc = I fa 0 + aI fa 1 + a 2 I fa 2 = 6.0266 + j 2.8642 = 6.6726∠25.4&deg;
Current I f into the ground is
I f = I fb + I fc = 3I fa 0 = j 5.7285
a-b-c voltages at the fault bus are
V4 a = V4 a 0 + V4 a 1 + V4 a 2 = 3V4 a 1 = 3 ( 0.3628 ) = 1.0884
V4 b = V4 c = 0
V4,ab = V4 a − V4 b = 1.0884; V4,bc = V4 b − V4 c = 0;
V4,ca = V4 c − V4 a = −1.0884
298
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Base current =
100 &times; 103
3 &times; 20
= 2887 A
∴ I fa = 0; I fb = 19.262∠154.6&deg; kA; I fc = 19.262 ∠25.4&deg; kA
I f = 16.538∠90&deg; kA
Base line-to-neutral voltage in machine 2 is 20 / 3 kV
∴V4,ab = 12.568∠0&deg; kV; V4,bc = 0; V4,ca = 12.568∠180&deg; kV
9.56 (a)
Z BUS 1 and Z BUS 2 are same as in the solution of Prob. 9.51. however, because the
transformers are solidly grounded on both sides, the zero-sequence network is changed
as shown below:
For the single line-to-ground fault, series connection of the Th&eacute;venin equivalents of the
sequence networks is shown below:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Z BUS 0
(1)  j 0.1553
(2)  j 0.01407
=
(3)  j 0.0493

(4)  j 0.0347
j 0.1407
j 0.0493
j 0.1999
j 0.0701
j 0.0701
j 0.1999
j 0.0493
j 0.1407
j 0.0347 
j 0.0493 
j 0.1407 

j 0.1553 
(b) I fA0 = I fA1 = I fA 2
=
1∠0&deg;
j ( 0.1696 + 0.1696 + 0.1999 )
= − j1.8549
I fA = 3I fA0 = − j 5.5648 = 931∠270&deg; A
 Base current in HV trans. line is
100,000
= 167.35A
3 &times; 345
Phase-a sequence voltages at bus (4), terminals of machine 2, are
V4 a 0 = − Z 430 I fA 0 = − ( j 0.1407 )( − j1.8549 ) = −0.2610
V4 a1 = 1 − ( j 0.1211)( − j1.8549 ) = 0.7754  = V f − Z 431 I fA1 
V4 a 2 = − ( j 0.1211)( − j1.8549 ) = −0.2246  = − Z 432 I fA2 
299
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Note: Subscripts A and a denote HV and LV circuits, respectively, of the Y-Y connected
transformer. No phase shift is involved.
V4 a  1 1
  
2
V4 b  = 1 a
V4 c  1 a
 
1   −0.2610   0.2898 + j 0
 0.2898∠0&deg;







a   +0.7754  =  −0.5364 − j 0.866  = 1.0187∠ − 121.8&deg; 
a 2   −0.2246   −0.5364 + j 0.866  1.0187∠121.8&deg; 
Line-to-ground voltages of machine 2 in kV are: (Multiply by 20
3)
V4 a = 3.346∠0&deg; kV; V4 b = 11.763 ∠ − 121.8 kV; V4 c = 11.763∠121.8&deg; kV
Symmetrical components of phase-a current are
V
0.2610
Ia0 = − 4a0 =
= − j 6.525
jX 0
j 0.04
I a1 =
V f − V4 a1
Ia2 = −
jX ′′
=
1.0 − 0.7754
= − j1.123
j 0.2
V4 a 2 0.2246
=
= − j1.123
jX 2
j 0.2
The phase-c currents in machine 2 are calculated as
I c = I a 0 + aI a1 + a 2 I a 2
= − j 6.525 + a ( − j1.123 ) + a 2 ( − j1.123 )
= − j 5.402
Base current in the machine circuit is
100 &times; 103
3 ( 20 )
= 2886.751A
∴ I c = 15,594 A
9.57 Using equations (9.5.9) in (8.1.3), the phase “a” voltage at bus k for a fault at bus n is:
Vka = Vk -0 + Vk -1 + Vk -2
= VF − ( Z kn -0 I n − 0 + Z kn −1 I n −1 + Z kn − 2 I n 2 )
For a single line-to-ground fault, (9.5.3),
VF
I n − 0 = I n −1 = I n − 2 =
Z nn − 0 + Z nn −1 + Z nn − 2 + 3Z F
Therefore,


Z kn − 0 + Z kn −1 + Z kn − 2
Vka = VF 1 −

 Z nn − 0 + Z nn −1 + Z nn − 2 + 3Z F 
The results in Table 9.5 for Example 9.8 neglect resistance of all components (machines,
transformers, transmission lines). Also the fault impedance Z F is zero. As such, the
impedance in the above equation all have the same phase angle (90 ), and the phase “a”
voltage Vka therefore has the same angle as the prefault voltage VF , which is zero degrees.
Note also that pre-fault load currents are neglected.
300
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Note, the PowerWorld problems in Chapter 9 were solved ignoring the effect of the Δ − Y
transformer phase shift [see Example 9.6]. An upgraded version of PowerWorld Simulator is
available from www.powerworld.com/gloversarma that (optionally) allows inclusion of this
phase shift.
9.58 During a double line-to-ground fault the bus 2 voltage on the unfaulted phase rises to 1.249
per unit.
9.59
9.60 For a line-to-line fault the magnitude of the per unit fault currents are 32.507 for a bus 1
fault, 15.967 for a bus 2 fault, 49.845 for a bus 3 fault, 38.5 for a bus 4 fault, and 30.851 for
a bus 5 fault. All values are lower than for the single line-to-ground case, except at bus 2 it
is slightly higher.
9.61 For a double line-to-ground fault the magnitude of the per unit fault currents are 59.464 for
a bus 1 fault, 11.462 for a bus 2 fault, 72.844 for a bus 3 fault, 75.908 for a bus 4 fault, and
51.648 for a bus 5 fault. All values are higher than for the single line-to-ground case, except
at bus 2 the DLG current is somewhat lower.
9.62 For the Example 9.8 case with a second line between buses 2 and 4, the magnitude of the
per unit fault currents for a single line-to-ground fault are 46.302 for a bus 1 fault, 18.234
for a bus 2 fault, 64.440 for a bus 3 fault, 56.347 for a bus 4 fault, and 42.792 for a bus 5
fault. All values are higher than for the Example 9.8 case since the extra line decreases the
overall system impedance. However, the change is really only significant for the bus 2 fault.
9.63 For the Example 9.8 case with a second generator added at bus 3, the magnitude of the per
unit fault currents for a single line-to-ground fault are 48.545 for a bus 1 fault, 14.74 for a
bus 2 fault, 119.322 for a bus 3 fault, 73.167 for a bus 4 fault, and 46.817 for a bus 5 fault.
All values are higher than for the Example 9.8 case since the extra generator provides an
additional source of fault current. The change is most dramatic for the bus 3 fault since the
fault current is not limited by the step-up transformer. Of course, if a second generator were
added at a location, undoubtedly a second step-up transformer would also be added.
301
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9.64 For a fault at the PETE69 bus the magnitude of the per unit fault current is 15.743.
The amount supplied by each of the generators is given below. During the fault 18 buses
have their “a” phase voltages below 0.75 per unit. None of the “b” or “c” phases are below
0.75 per unit.
Number of
Bus
Name of Bus
Phase Cur
A
Phase Cur
B
Phase Cur
C
Phase Ang
A
Phase Ang
B
Phase Ang
C
14
WEBER69
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00
0.00
0.00
28
JO345
1.73423
1.01826
1.91003
−49.26
−145.70
98.75
28
JO345
1.73423
1.01826
1.91003
−49.26
−145.70
98.75
31
SLACK345
3.02473
1.63361
3.02777
−62.98
−168.53
85.71
44
LAUF69
2.20862
0.31806
0.32153
−98.18
−150.41
−6.48
48
BOB69
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00
0.00
0.00
50
RODGER69
1.04501
0.34603
0.39853
−73.47
−133.62
83.58
53
BLT138
2.60139
1.11685
2.31735
−76.81
166.12
77.78
54
BLT69
7.55322
3.56570
1.81247
−95.61
−108.37
−99.90
9.65 For a fault at the TIM69 bus the magnitude of the per unit fault current is 10.298.
The amount supplied by each of the generators is given below. During the fault 11 buses
have their “a” phase voltages below 0.75 per unit. None of the “b” or “c” phases are below
0.75 per unit.
Number
of Bus
Name of Bus
Phase Cur
A
Phase Cur
B
Phase Cur
C
Phase Ang
A
Phase Ang
B
Phase Ang
C
14
WEBER69
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00
0.00
0.00
28
JO345
1.69709
1.05349
1.87390
−46.74
−144.43
99.41
28
JO345
1.69709
1.05349
1.87390
−46.74
−144.43
99.41
31
SLACK345
2.99146
1.66554
2.99366
−61.53
−167.62
86.15
44
LAUF69
2.05014
0.51165
0.36353
−98.23
−131.93
−45.64
48
BOB69
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00
0.00
0.00
50
RODGER69
0.75872
0.38021
0.37731
−64.33
−134.86
87.71
53
BLT138
1.95108
1.25207
1.88933
−62.05
−173.73
79.94
54
BLT69
4.01092
2.66657
0.88044
−86.90
−114.05
−108.19
302
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Chapter 10
System Protection
10.1 Using Eq. (10.2.1):
1
345 &times; 103
V′ = V =
= 115 V (line-to-line)
3000
n
S3φ
600. &times; 106
I=
=
= 1004 A
3 VLL
3 ( 345 &times; 103 )
( )
From Eq. (10.2.2), Ie = 0 for zero CT error. Then, from Figure 10.7:
I ′ + Ie = I ′ + 0 =
1
 5 
I =
 (1004 )
n
 1200 
I ′ = 4.184 A
10.2 (a) Step (1) – I′ = 10 A
Step (2) – From Figure 10.7,
E ′ = ( Z ′ + Z B ) I ′ = ( 0.082 + 1)(10 ) = 10.82 V
Step (3) – From Figure 10.8, Ie = 0.6 A
Step (4) – From Figure 10.7,
 100 
I =
 (10 + 0.6 ) = 212 A
 5 
(b) Step (1) –• I′ = 13 A
Step (2) – From Figure 10.7,
E ′ = ( Z ′ + Z B ) I ′ = ( 0.082 + 1.3 )(13 )
= 18.0 V
Step (3) – From Figure 10.8, Ie = 1.8 A
Step (4) – From Figure 10.7,
 100 
I =
 (13 + 1.8 ) = 296 A
 5 
303
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(c)
I′
I
5.
105.
8.
168.
10.
212.
13.
296.
15.
700.
(d) With a 5-A tap setting and a minimum fault-to-pickup ratio of 2, the minimum relay trip
current for reliable operation is I′min = 2 &times; 5 = 10 A. From (a) above with I′min = 10 A,
I min = 212 A . That is, the relay will trip reliably for fault currents exceeding 212 A.
10.3 From Figure 10.8, the secondary resistance Z ′ = 0.125 Ω for the 200:5 CT.
(a) Step (1) – I′ = 10 A
Step (2) – E = ( Z ′ + Z B ) I ′ = ( 0.125 + 1)(10 ) = 11.25 V
Step (3) – From Figure 10.8, Ie = 0.18 A
 200 
Step (4) – I = 
 (10 + 0.18 ) = 407.2 A
 5 
(b) Step (1) – I′ = 10 A
Step (2) – E = ( Z ′ + Z B ) I ′ = ( 0.125 + 4 )(10 ) = 41.25 V
Step (3) – From Figure 10.8, Ie = 1.5 A
 200 
Step (4) •– I = 
 (10 + 1.5 ) = 460 A
 5 
(c) Step (1) – I′ = 10. A
Step (2) – E = ( Z ′ + Z B ) I ′ = ( 0.125 + 5 )(10 ) = 51.25 V
Step (3) – From Figure 10.8, Ie = 30 A
 200 
Step (4) – I = 
 (10 + 30 ) = 1600 A
 5 
304
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10.4 Note error in printing: VT should be PT.
(a) N1 N 2 = 240,000 120 = 2000 1
∴Vab = 230,000∠0&deg; 2000 = 115∠0&deg;
Vbc = 230,000∠ − 120&deg; 2000 = 115∠ − 120&deg;
Vca = − (Vab + Vbc ) = − (115∠ − 60&deg; ) = 115∠ + 120&deg;
(b) Vab = 115∠0&deg;; but now Vbc = −115∠ − 120&deg; = 115∠60&deg;
∴Vca = − ( Vab + Vbc ) = 199∠150&deg;
The output of the PT bank is not balanced three phase.
10.5 Designating secondary voltage as E2, read two points on the magnetization curve (Ie, E2) =
(1, 63) and (10, 100).
The nonlinear characteristic can be represented by the so-called Frohlich equation
E2 = ( AI e ) ( B + I e ) , using that
63 =
A
10 A
and 100 =
B +1
B + 10
Solve for A and B : A = 107 and B = 0.698
For parts (a) and (b), Z T = ( 4.9 + 0.1) + j ( 0.5 + 0.5 ) = 5 + j1
= 5.099∠11.3&deg; Ω
(a) The CT error is the percentage of mismatch between the input current (in secondary
terms) denoted by I 2′ and the output current I 2 in terms of their magnitudes:
CT error =
I 2′ − I 2
I 2′
&times; 100
ET = I 2′ ZT = 4 ( 5.099 ) = 20.4
I e = 20.4
25 + 1 + 107 ( 0.698 + I e )  = 0.163 (by iteration)
2
From Frohlich’s equation
E2 =
0.163 (107 )
= 20.3
0.698 − 0.163
E
20.3
I2 = 2 =
= 3.97
ZT 5.099
CT error =
0.03
= 0.7%
4
305
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(b) For the faulted case
ET = 12 ( 5.099 ) = 61.2 V; I e = 0.894 A (by iteration)
E2 = 60.1 V; I 2 = 60.1 5.099 = 11.78 A
CT error =
0.22
&times; 100 = 1.8%
12
(c) For the higher burden, Z T = 15 + j 2 = 15.13∠7.6&deg; Ω
For the given load condition, ET = 4 (13.13) = 60.5 V
I e = 0.814 A; E2 = 57.6 V; I 2 =
∴ CT error =
57.6
= 3.81 A
15.13
0.19
&times; 100 = 4.8%
4
(d) For the fault condition, ET = 181.6 V; I e = 9.21 A;
E2 = 99.5 V; I 2 =
99.5
= 6.58 A
15.13
∴ CT error =
5.42
&times; 100 = 45.2%
12
Thus, CT error increases with increasing CT current and is further increased by the high
terminating impedance.
10.6 Assuming the CT to be ideal, I2 would be 12 A; the device would detect the 1200–A primary
current (or any fault current down to 800 A) independent of Z L .
(a) In the solution of Prob. 10.5(b), I2 = 11.78 A.
Therefore, the fault is detected.
(b) In Prob. 10.5 (d), I2 = 6.58 A.
The fault is then not detected. The assumption that the CT was ideal in this case would
have resulted in failing to detect a faulted system.
10.7 (a) The current tap setting (pickup current) is Ip = 1.0 A.
I ′ 10
=
= 10. From curve &frac12; in Figure 10.12
Ip 1
toperating = 0.08 s
I ′ 10
=
= 5. Interpolating between curve 1 and curve 2 in Figure 10.12, toperating = 0.55 s
(b)
Ip 2
(c)
I ′ 10
=
= 5. From curve 7, toperating = 3 s
Ip 2
306
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(d)
I ′ 10
=
= 3.33 From curve 7, toperating = 5.2 s
Ip 3
(e)
I ′ 10
= &lt; 1 . The relay does not operate. It remains in the blocking position.
I p 12
10.8 From the plot of I′ vs I in Problem 10.2(c), I ′ = 14.5 A.
I ′ 14.5
=
= 2.9
5
Ip
From curve 4 in Figure 10.12, toperating = 3.7 s
10.9 (a) τ = RC = 1 s
v0 = 2 (1 − e − t ) ; at t = Tdelay, V0 = 1
∴1 − e− Tdelay = 0.5 or eTdelay = 2
Thus Tdelay = ln 2 = 0.693 s
(b) τ = RC = 10s
v0 = 2 (1 − e− t 10 ) ; at t = Tdelay, V0 = 1
∴ eTdelay
10
= 2 or Tdelay 10 = ln 2
Thus Tdelay = 6.93 s
The circuit time response is sketched below:
10.10 From the solution of Prob. 10.5(b), I2 = Irelay = 11.78 A
I relay
I pickup
=
11.78
= 2.36 corresponding to which, from curve 2, Toperating = 1.2 s
5
10.11 (a) For the 700. A fault current at bus 3, fault-to-pickup current ratios and relay operating
times are:
B3:
I 3′ fault
TS 3
=
700 ( 200 / 5 )
3
=
17.5
= 5.83
3
307
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From curve &frac12; of Figure 10.12, toperating3 = 0.10 seconds. Adding the breaker operating
time, primary protection clears this fault in (0.10 + 0.083) = 0.183 seconds.
I 2′ fault 700 ( 200 / 5 ) 17.5
=
=
= 3.5
B2 :
5
5
TS 2
From curve 2 in Figure 10.12, toperating2 = 1.3 seconds. The coordination time interval
between B3 and B2 is (1.3 − 0.183) = 1.12 seconds.
(b) For the 1500-A fault current at bus 2:
B2:
I 2′ fault
TS 2
=
1500 ( 200 / 5 )
5
=
37.5
= 7.5
5
From curve 2 of Figure 10.12, toperating2 = 0.55 seconds. Adding the breaker operating
time, primary protection clears this fault in (0.55 + 0.083) = 0.633 seconds.
B1:
I1′fault
=
TS1
1500 ( 400 / 5 )
5
=
18.75
= 3.75
5
From curve 3 of Figure 10.12, toperating1 = 1.8 seconds. The coordination time interval
between B2 and B1 is (1.8 − 0.633) = 1.17 seconds.
Fault-to-pickup ratios are all &gt; 2.0
Coordination time intervals are all &gt; 0.3 seconds.
10.12 First select current Tap settings (TSs). Starting at B3, the primary and secondary CT currents
IL3 =
I L′ 3 =
SL 3
V3 3
=
9 &times; 106
34.5 &times; 103 3
= 150.6 A
150.6
= 3.77 A
( 200 / 5)
From Figure 10.12, select 4-A TS3, which is the lowest TS above 3.77 A.
IL2 =
I L′ 2 =
( SL 2 + SL 3 ) = ( 9.0 + 9.0 ) &times; 106
34.5 &times; 103 3
V2 3
= 301.2 A
301.2
= 3.77 A
( 400 / 5)
Again, select 4-A TS2 for B2.
I L1 =
I L′ 1 =
SL1 + SL 2 + SL 3
V1 3
=
( 9 + 9 + 9 ) &times; 106
34.5 &times; 103 3
= 451.8A
451.8
= 3.77
( 600 / 5)
308
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Again select a 4 A TS1 for B1. Next select Time Dial Settings (TDSs). Starting at B3, the
largest fault current through B3 is 3000 A, for the maximum fault at bus 2 (just to the right
of B3). The fault to pickup ratio at B3 for this fault is
I 3′ fault
=
TS 3
3000 ( 200 / 5 )
= 18.75
4
Select TDS = 1 2 at B3, in order to clear this fault as rapidly as possible. Then from curve &frac12;
in Fig. 10.12, toperating3 = 0.05 s. Adding the breaker operating time (5 cycles = 0.083 s),
primary protection clears this fault in 0.05 + 0.083 = 0.133 s.
For this same fault, the fault-to-pickup ratio at B2 is
I 2′ fault
TS 2
3000 ( 400 / 5 )
=
37.5
= 9.4
4
=
4
Adding B3 relay operating time, breaker operating time, and 0.3 s coordination interval,
(0.05 + 0.083 + 0.3) = 0.433 s, which is the desired B2 relay operating time. From Figure
10.12, select TDS2 = 2.
Next select the TDS at B1. The largest fault current through B2 is 5000 A, for the maximum
fault at bus 1 (just to the right of B2). The fault-to-pickup ratio at B2 for this fault is
I 2′ fault
TS 2
=
5000 ( 400 / 5 )
4
=
62.5
= 15.6
4
From curve 2 in Fig. 10.12, the relay operating time is 0.38 s. Adding the 0.083 s breaker
operating time and 0.3 s coordination time interval, we want a B1 relay operating time of
(0.38 + 0.083 + 0.3) = 0.763 s. Also, for this same fault,
I1′ fault
TS1
=
5000 ( 600 / 5 )
4
From Fig. 10.12, select TDS1 = 3.5.
TS
Breaker
Relay
B1
CO-8
4
B2
CO-8
4
B3
CO-8
4
=
41.66
= 10.4
4
TDS
3.5
2
&frac12;
Solution Problem 10.7
10.13 For the 1500-A fault current at bus 3, fault-to-pickup current ratios and relay operating times
are:
B3:
I 3′ fault
TS 3
=
1500 ( 200 / 5 )
4
=
37.5
= 9.4
4
From curve &frac12; of Figure 10.12, toperating3 = 0.08 s. Adding breaker operating time, primary
relaying clears this fault in 0.08 + 0.083 = 0.163 s.
B2:
I 2′ fault
TS 2
=
1500 ( 400 / 5 )
4
=
18.75
= 4.7
4
309
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From curve 2 in Fig. 10.12, toperating2 = 0.85 s. The coordination time interval between B3 and
B2 is (0.85 − 0.163) = 0.69 s.
B1:
I1′fault
TS1
1500 ( 600 / 5 )
=
=
4
12.5
= 3.1
4
From curve 3.5 in Fig. 10.12, toperating1 = 2.8 s. The coordination time interval between B3 and
B1 is (2.8 − 0.163) = 2.6 s.
For the 2250-A fault current at bus 2, fault-to-pickup current ratios and relay operating times
are:
B2:
I 2′ fault
TS 2
=
2250 ( 400 / 5 )
4
28.13
= 7.0
4
=
From curve 2 in Fig. 10.12, toperating2 = 0.6 s.
Adding breaker operating time, primary protection clears this fault in (0.6 + 0.083) = 0.683
s.
B1:
I1′fault
TS1
=
2250 ( 600 / 5 )
4
=
18.75
= 4.7
4
From curve 3.5 in Fig. 10.12, toperating1 = 1.5 s. The coordination time interval between B2 and
B1 is (1.5 − 0.683) = 0.82 s.
Fault-to-pickup ratios are all &gt; 2.0
Coordination time intervals are all &gt; 0.3 s
10.14 The load currents are calculated as
I1 =
4 &times; 106
3 (11 &times; 103 )
= 209.95A; I 2 =
= 131.22 A; I 3 =
6.75 &times; 106
3 (11 &times; 103 )
2.5 &times; 106
3 (11 &times; 103 )
= 354.28 A
The normal currents through the sections are then given by
I 21 = I1 = 209.95 A; I 32 = I 21 + I 2 = 341.16 A; I S = I 32 + I 3 = 695.44 A
With the given CT ratios, the normal relay currents are
i21 =
209.95
341.16
695.44
= 5.25 A; i32 =
= 8.53 A; iS =
= 8.69 A
200
/
5
200
/
5
(
)
(
)
( 400 / 5)
310
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Now obtain CTS (Current Tap Settings) or pickup current in such a way that the relay does
not trip under normal currents. For this type of relay, CTS available are 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, and
12 A. For position 1, the normal current in the relay is 5.25 A; so choose (CTS)1 = 6 A.
Choosing the nearest setting higher than the normal current. For position 2, normal current
being 8.53 A, choose (CTS)2 = 10 A. For position 3, normal current being 8.69 A, choose
(CTS)3 = 10 A. Next, select the intentional delay indicated by TDS, time dial setting. Utilize
the short-circuit currents to coordinate the relays.
The current in the relay at 1 on short circuit is iSC1 =
2500
= 62.5A expressed as a
( 200 / 5)
multiple of the CTS or pickup value,
iSC1
62.5
=
= 10.42
(CTS )1 6
Choose the lowest TDS for this relay for fastest action.
Thus ( TDS )1 =
1
2
Referring to the relay characteristic, the operating time for relay 1 for a fault at 1 is obtained
as T11 = 0.15 s.
To set the relay at 2 responding to a fault at 1, allow 0.15 for breaker operation and an error
margin of 0.3 s in addition to T11.
Thus T21 = T11 + 0.1 + 0.3 = 0.55 s
Short circuit for a fault at 1 as a multiple of the CTS at 2 is
iSC1
62.5
=
= 6.25
(CTS )2 10
From the characteristics for 0.55 s operating time and 6.25 ratio,
(TDS)2 = 2
Now, setting the relay at 3:
For a fault at bus 2, the short-circuit current is 3000 A, for which relay 2 responds in a time
T22 calculated as
iSC 2
3000
=
= 7.5
(CTS )2 ( 200 / 5)10
For (TDS)2 = 2, from the relay characteristic, T22 = 0.5 s. Allowing the same margin for relay
3 to respond for a fault at 2, as for relay 2 responding to a fault at 1,
T32 = T22 + 0.1 + 0.3 = 0.9s
311
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The current in the relay expressed as a multiple of pickup is
iSC 2
3000
=
= 3.75
(CTS )3 ( 400 / 5 )10
Thus, for T3 = 0.9 s, and the above ratio, from the relay characteristic
(TDS)3 = 2.5
Note: Calculations here did not account for higher load starting currents that can be as high
as 5 to 7 times rated values.
10.15 (a) Three-phase permanent fault on the load side of bus 3.
From Table 10.7, the three-phase fault current at bus 3 is 2000 A. From Figure 10.19,
the 560 A fast recloser opens 0.04 s after the 2000 A fault occurs, then recloses &frac12; s later
into the permanent fault, opens again after 0.04 s, and recloses into the fault a second
time after a 2 s delay. Then the 560 A delayed recloser opens 1.5 s later. During this
time interval, the 100 T fuse clears the fault. The delayed recloser then recloses 5 to 10
s later, restoring service to loads 1 and 2.
(b) Single line-to-ground permanent fault at bus 4 on the load side of the recloser. From
Table 10.7, the IL-G fault current at bus 4 is 2600 A. From Figure 10.19, the 280 A fast
recloser (ground unit) opens after 0.034 s, recloses &frac12; s later into the permanent fault,
opens again after 0.034 s, and recloses a second time after a 2 s delay. Then the 280 A
delayed recloser (ground unit) opens 0.7 s later, recloses 5 to 10 s later, then opens
again after 0.7 s and permanently locks out.
(c) Three-phase permanent fault at bus 4 on the source side of the recloser. From Table
10.7, the three-phase fault at bus 4 is 3000 A. From Figure 10.19, the phase overcurrent
relay trips after 0.95 s, thereby energizing the circuit breaker trip coil, causing the
breaker to open.
4000
= 66.9 A ; max. fault current = 1000 A; min. fault current = 500 A
3 ( 34.5 )
(a) For this condition, the recloser must open before the fuse melts. The maximum clearing
time for the recloser should be less than the minimum melting time for the fuse at a
current of 500 A. Referring to Fig. 10.43, the maximum clearing time for the recloser is
(b) For this condition, the minimum clearing time for the recloser should be greater than the
maximum clearing time for the fuse at a current of 1000 A. Referring to Fig. 10.43, the
minimum clearing time is about 0.056 s.
10.17 (a) For a fault of P1, only breakers B34 and B43 operate; the other breakers do not operate.
B23 should coordinate with B34 so that B34 operates before B23 (and before B12, and
before B1). Also, B4 should coordinate with B43 so that B43 operates before B4.
(b) For a fault of P2, only breakers B23 and B32 operate; the other breakers do not operate.
B12 should coordinate with B23 so that B23 operates before B12 (and before B1). Also
B43 should coordinate with B32 so that B32 operates before B43 (and before B4).
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(c) For a fault of P3, only breakers B12 and B21 operate; the other breakers do not operate.
B32 should coordinate with B21 so that B21 operates before B32 (and before B43, and
before B4). Also, B1 should coordinate with B12 so that B12 operates before B1.
(d)
Fault Bus
Operating Breakers
1
B1 and B21
2
B12 and B32
3
B23 and B43
4
B4 and B34
10.18
(a) For a fault at P1, breakers in zone 3 operate (B12a and B21a).
(b) For a fault at P2, breakers in zone 7 operate (B21a, B21b, B23, B24a, B24b).
(c) For a fault at P3, breakers in zone 6 and zone 7 operate (B23, B32, B21a, B21b, B24a,
and B24b).
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10.19 (a)
314
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(b)
Scheme
Ring Bus
Breaker- and &frac12;, Double Bus
Double Breaker, Double Bus
Breakers that open for fault on Line 1
B12 and B14
B11 and B12
B11 and B21
Scheme
Ring Bus
Breaker- and &frac12;, Double Bus
Double Breaker, Double Bus
Lines Removed for a Fault at P1
Line 1 and Line 2
None
None
Scheme
Breakers that open for a Fault on Line
1 with Stuck Breaker
B12, B14 and either B23 or B34
B11, B12 and either B13 or B22
B11, B21 and all other breakers on bus
1 or bus 2.
(c)
(d)
Ring Bus
Breaker- and &frac12;, Double Bus
Double Breaker, Double Bus
10.20 (a) Z ′ =
V ( 4500 /1)  VLN  1
′
VLN
= LN
=

I L′
I L (1500 / 5 )  I L  15
Z
15
Set the B12 zone 1 relay for 80% reach of line 1–2:
Z r1 = 0.8 ( 6 + j 60 ) 15 = 0.32 + j 3.2 Ω secondary
Z′ =
Set the B12 zone 2 relay for 120% reach of line 1–2:
Z r 2 = 1.2 ( 6 + j 60 ) 15 = 0.48 + j 4.8 Ω secondary
Set the B12 zone 3 relay for 100% reach of line 1–2 and 120% reach of line 2–3:
Z r 3 = 1.0 ( 6 + j 60 ) 15 + 1.2 ( 5 + j 50 ) 15 = 0.8 + j8.0 Ω secondary
500


∠0&deg;

1
 VLN   1 
3
 = 13.7∠25.8&deg; Ω
Z′ = 
  = 
−1
 I L   15   1.4∠ − cos 0.9  15




Z ′ exceeds the zone 3 setting of (0.8 + j8.0) = 8.04 ∠84.3&deg; Ω for B12. Hence, the
impedance during emergency loading lies outside the trip region of this 3-zone mho
relay (see Figure 10.29 (b)).
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10.21 (a) For the bolted three-phase fault at bus 4, the apparent primary impedance seen by the
B12 relay is:
Z apparent =
V1 V1 − V2 + V2 (V1 − V2 ) V2
=
=
+
I12
I12
I12
I12

Z12
Z apparent = Z12 +
V2
I12
Using V2 = Z 24 I 24 and I 24 = I12 + I 32 :
Z 24 ( I12 + I 32 )
I 
= Z12 + Z 24 +  32  Z 24 which is the desired result.
I12
 I12 
(b) The apparent secondary impedance seen by the B12 relay. For the bolted three-phase
fault at bus 4 is:
Z apparent = Z12 +
′
Z apparent
=
′
Z apparent
=
Z apparent
( nV / nI )
 I 32 
 ( 6 + j80 )
 I12 
( 3 + j 40 ) + ( 6 + j80 ) + 
=

 I 32
9 + 6 
 I12

( nV / nI )


 I 32
  + j 120. + 80 

 I12

( nV / nI )



Ω
where nV is the VT ratio and nI is the CT ratio. Also, the B12 zone 3 relay is set with a
secondary impedance:
Zr 3 =
( 3 + j 40 ) + 1.2 ( 6 + j80 ) = 10.2 + j136 Ω secondary
( nV / nI )
( nV / nI )
316
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′
′
Comparing Z r 3 with Z apparent
, Z apparent
exceeds Z r 3 when ( I 32 / I12 ) &gt; 0.2 . Hence
′
Z apparent
lies outside the trip region for the three-phase fault at bus 4 when
(I
10.22 Rr =
32
(2
/ I12 ) &gt; 0.2 ; remote backup of line 2–4 at B12 is then ineffective.
(1)
2
2
2
+ 0.8
2
)
= 0.431 p.u.; X r =
(1)
(2
2
2
0.8
+ 0.82 )
= 0.1724 p.u.
The X–R diagram is given below:
Based on the diagram, Z S can be obtained analytically or graphically:
Z S = Z L + Z r = ( 0.1 + 0.431) + j ( 0.3 + 0.1724 )
= 0.7107∠41.66&deg;
 0.1724 

 0.431 
δ = θ S − θr = 41.66&deg; − tan −1 
= 41.66&deg; − 22&deg;
= 19.66&deg;
10.23 (a) Given the reaches,
Zone 1: Z r = 0.1 &times; 80% = 0.08;
Zone 2: 0.1 &times; 120%
= 0.12;
Zone 3: 0.1 &times; 230% = 0.25
In the view of the system symmetry, all six sets of relays have identical settings.
(b) It should be given in the problem statement that the system is the same as Prob. 9.11.
VLN base =
230
100
= 133 kV; I L base =
= 251 A
3
0.23 3
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The equivalent instrument transformer’s secondary quantities are
 115 
 5 
Vbase = 133 
 = 115 V; I base = 251 400  = 3.14 A
133




∴ Z base = 115 / 3.14 = 36.7 Ω
∴ The settings are (by multiplying by 36.7)
Zone 1: 2.93 Ω; Zone 2: 4.40 Ω; Zone 3: 9.16 Ω
(c) The operating region for three zone distance relay with directional restraint as per the
arrangement of Fig. 10.50 is shown below:
Locate Point X on the diagram.
Comment on line breaker operations:
B31: Fault in Zone 1; instantaneous operation
B32: Directional unit should block operation
B23: Fault in Zone 2; delayed operation
B31 should trip first, preventing B23 from tripping.
B21: Fault duty is light. Fault in Zone 3, if detected at all.
B12: Directional unit should block operation.
B13: Fault in Zone 2; just outside of Zone 1; delayed operation
Line breakers B13 and B31 clear the fault as desired. In addition, breakers B1 and B4
must be coordinated with B13 so that the trip sequence is B13, B1, and B4 from fastest
to slowest. Likewise, B13, B31, and B23 should be faster than B2 and B5.
10.24 For a 20% mismatch between I1′ and I 2′ , select a 1.20 upper slope in Figure 10.34. That is:
2+k
= 1.20
2−k
Solving, k = 0.1818
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10.25 (a) Output voltages are given by
V1 = jX m I1 = j5 ( − j16 ) = 80 V
V2 = jX m I 2 = j 5 ( − j 7 ) = 35 V
V3 = jX m I 3 = j 5 ( j 36 ) = −180 V
V4 = jX m I 4 = j 5 ( − j13) = 65 V
∴V0 = V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 = 80 + 35 − 180 + 65 = 0
Thus there is no voltage to operate the voltage relay VR. For the external fault on line 3,
voltages and currents are shown below:
(b) Moving the fault location to the bus, as shown below, the fault currents and
corresponding voltages are indicated. Now V0 = 80 + 35 + 50 + 65 = 230 V and the
voltage relay VR will trip all four line breakers to clear the fault.
319
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(c) By moving the external fault from line 3 to a corresponding point
(i) On Line 2
Here V0 = 80 − 195 + 50 + 65 = 0
VR would not operate.
(ii) On Line 4
This case is displayed below:
Here V0 = 80 + 35 + 50 − 165 = 0
VR would not operate.
10.26 First select CT ratios. The transformer rated primary current is:
I1 rated =
5 &times; 106
= 250 A
20 &times; 103
From Table 10.2, select a 300 : 5 CT ratio on the 20 kV (primary) side to give
I1′ = ( 250 )( 5 / 300 ) = 4.167 A at rated conditions. Similarly:
I 2 rated =
5 &times; 106
= 577.4 A
8.66 &times; 103
Select a 600 : 5 secondary CT ratio so that I 2′ = ( 577.4 )( 5 / 600 ) = 4.811 A at rated
conditions.
320
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Next, select relay taps to balance currents in the restraining windings. The ratio of currents
in the restraining windings is:
I 2′ 4.811
=
= 1.155
I1′ 4.167
The closest relay tap ratio is T2′ / T1′ = 1.10 .
The percentage mismatch for this tap setting is:
% Mismatch =
( I1′ / T1′) − ( I2′ / T2′ ) &times; 100 =
( I2′ / T2′ )
 4.167   4.811 
 5  −  5.5 

 
 &times; 100
 4.811 
 5 


= 4.7%
10.27 Connect CTs in Δ on the 500 kV Y side, and in Y on the 345 kV Δ side of the transformer.
Rated current on the 345 kV Δ side is
I a rated =
500. &times; 106
= 836.7 A
345. &times; 103 3
Select a 900 : 5 CT ratio on the 345 kV Δ side to give Ia′ = ( 836.7 )( 5 / 900 ) = 4.649 A at
rated conditions in the CT secondaries and in the restraining windings.
Similarly, rated current on the 500 kV Y side is
I A rated =
500 &times; 106
= 577.4 A
500 &times; 103 3
Select a 600 : 5 CT ratio on the 500 kV Y side to give I A′ = ( 577.4 )( 5 / 600 ) = 4.811 A in the
500 kV CT secondaries and I ′AB = 4.811 3 = 8.333 A in the restraining windings.
Next, select relay taps to balance currents in the restraining windings.
I ′AB 8.333
=
= 1.79
I a′
4.649
′ Ta′ = 1.8
The closest tap ratio is TAB
For a tap setting of 5 : 9 . The percentage mismatch for this relay tap setting is:
% Mismatch =
( I ′AB / TAB′ ) − ( Ia′ / Ta′ ) &times; 100 = (8.333 / 9 ) − ( 4.649 / 5) &times; 100
( Ia′ / Ta′ )
( 4.649 / 5)
= 0.4%
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10.28 The primary line current is
15 &times; 106
= 262.43 A (say I p )
3 ( 33 &times; 103 )
The secondary line current is 262.43 &times; 3 = 787.3 A (say I r )
 5 
The CT current on the primary side is ip = 262.43 
 = 4.37 A
 300 
 5 
The CT current on the secondary side is is = 787.3 
 3 = 3.41 A
 2000 
[Note:
3 is applied to get the value on the line side of Δ-connected CTs.]
The relay current under normal load is
ir = ip − is = 4.37 − 3.41 = 0.96 A
With 1.25 overload ratio, the relay setting should be
ir = 1.25 ( 0.96 ) = 1.2 A
10.29 The primary line current is I p =
30 &times; 106
= 524.88 A
3 ( 33 &times; 103 )
Secondary line current is I s = 3I p = 1574.64 A
 5 
The CT current on the primary side is I1 = 524.88 
 = 5.25 A
 500 
 5 
And that on the secondary side is I 2 = 1574.64 
 3 = 6.82 A
 2000 
Relay current at 200% of the rated current is then
2 ( I 2 − I1 ) = 2 ( 6.82 − 5.25 ) = 3.14 A
10.30 Line currents are: I Δ =
15 &times; 106
= 262.44 A
3 ( 33 &times; 103 )
IY =
15 &times; 106
= 787.3 A
3 (11 &times; 103 )
If the CT’s on HV-side are connected in Y, then the CT ratio on the HV-side is
787.3 / 5 = 157.46
(
)
Similarly, the CT ratio on the LV-side is 262.44 5 / 3 = 757.6
322
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Chapter 11
Transient Stability
11.1 (a) ωsyn = 2π 60 = 377 rad/s
2
p
ωmsyn = ωsyn =
2
4
(b) KE = H Srated = 6 (500 &times; 106 ) = 3.0 &times; 10 9 joules
(c) Using (11.1.16)
α=
Pa p.u.ωsyn
2 H ω pu
αm =
2H
ωsyn
ω pu (t ) ∝ (t ) = Pa p.u. (t )
500
2π 60
= 500
(2) (6)(1)
2
2
α = ( 31.416 ) = 15.708 rad/s2
4
P
11.2 Using (11.1.17)
J=
2 H Srated
ω 2 msyn
=
(2)(6) ( 500 &times; 106 )
(188.5)
2
= 1.6886 &times; 10 5 kgm 2
11.3 (a) The kinetic energy in ft-lb is:
KE =
1  WR 2  2
ω m ft- lb
2  32.2 
 2π 
(b) Using ωm = 
 ( rpm )
 60 
KE =
1
2
 WR 2   2π

 32.2   60 (rpm) 


 
2
KE = 2.31 &times; 10 −4 (WR 2 ) (rpm)2
ft- lb &times;
1.356 joules
ft- lb
joules
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Then from (11.1.7):
H=
( 2.31 &times; 10−4 )(WR 2 ) ( rpm )
Srated
2
per unit-seconds
( 2.31 &times; 10−4 )( 4 &times; 106 ) ( 3600 )
H=
800 &times; 106
2
= 14.97 per unit − seconds
11.4 Per unit swing equations
ω pu (t ) d 2δ (t )
= Pmpu (t ) − Pepu (t ) = Papu (t )
2H
ωsyn dt 2
Assuming ω pu (t ) ≈ 1 →
2 H d 2δ ( t )
= Papu (t )
wsyn dt 2
2(5) d 2δ (t )
= 0.7 − (0.40)(0.70) = 0.42 (i.e. a 60% reduction to 0.4)
2π 60 dt 2
dδ (0)
Initial Conditions: δ (0) = 12&deg; = 0.2094 rad;
=0
dt
Integrating twice and using the above initial conditions:
dδ (t )
= 15.83 t + 0
dt
δ (t ) = 7.915 t 2 + 0.2094
At t = 5 cycles = 0.08333 seconds
δ (5 cycles) = 7.915 (0.08333)2 + 0.2094
δ (5 cycles) = 0.2644 rad = 15.15&deg;
11.5
H=
so
J ωm2 syn
1
2
Srated
H 50
; ωmsyn =
2
(2π f )
p
502
 5
= H60 2 = H60  
60
6
2
11.6 (a) ωsyn = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 60 = 377 rad/s
2
p
2
 16 
ωm syn = ωsyn = 
(b) H = 1.5 p.u.-s
3
d 2 δ (t )
ω p.u. (t )
= pm pu (t ) − pe pu (t )
2π 60
dt 2
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(c) δ (0) = 10 &deg; = 0.1745 rad;
dδ (0)
=0
dt
3 d 2 δ (t )
= 0.5 for t ≥ 0
(2π 60) dt 2
dδ (t )  2π 60 
=
t + 0
dt
 6 
 2π 60  2
δ (t ) = 
 t + 0.1745
 12 
At t = 3 cycles = 0.05 seconds
2
 2π 60 
 (0.05) + 0.1745
12


δ (0.05) = 
= 0.0960 rad = 5.5 &deg;
11.7
KEgen = H Srated = (3) (100 &times; 106 ) = 3 &times; 108 joules
1
MV 2
2
To equal the energy stored in the generator
KEgen = Wkinetic
For a moving mass Wkinetic =
V=
V=
2 ( KE gen )
M
2 ( 3 &times; 108 joules )
80,000 kg
= 86.60
m
miles
= 193.72
s
hour
11.8
(a) P =
Vt Vbus
X
sin δ t

sin δ t =
( 0.8 )( 0.22 ) = 0.167619
( P )( X )
=
(Vt )(Vbus ) (1.05)(1.0 )
δ t = sin −1 ( 0.167619 ) = 9.65&deg;
I =
Vt − Vbus 1.05 ∠9.65&deg; − 1.0 ∠0&deg;
=
jX
j 0.22
I =
0.03514 + j 0.1760
= 0.81579∠ − 11.291&deg;
j 0.22
S = Vt I * = (1.05 ∠9.65&deg; )( 0.81579 ∠11.291&deg; ) = 0.85658∠20.941&deg;
S = 0.80 + j 0.306 Q = Im S = 0.306 per unit
325
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(b) E ′ = Vbus + j ( X d′ + X ) I = 1.0∠0&deg; + j ( 0.3 + 0.22 )( 0.81579∠ − 11.291&deg; )
E ′ = 1.0 ∠0&deg; + 0.4242∠78.709&deg;
E ′ = 1.160∠21.01&deg; per unit
(c)
P=
E ′ Vbus
(1.160 )(1.0 ) sin δ
sin δ =
( X d′ + X )
0.3 + 0.22
P = 2.231sin δ per unit
11.9 Circuit during the fault at bus 3:
where E ′ = 1.160∠δ is determined in Problem 11.8.
The Thevenin equivalent, as viewed from the generator internal voltage source, shown here,
is the same as in Figure 11.9
P=
(1.160 )( 0.333)
E ′ VTh
sin δ =
sin δ = 0.8279sin δ per unit
0.4666
xTh
11.10
XTh = X34 + X 45  ( X 42 + X25 ) + X15
= 0.01 + 0.025  (0.01 + 0.05) + 0.02
= 0.0514 Ω
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11.11
XTh = X34 + X 45  ( X 42 + X25 )
= 0.01 + 0.025  (0.05 + 0.10)
= 0.03143 Ω
11.12
P=
E ′ VBUS
(1.2812 )(1.0 ) sin δ = 1.8303sin δ
sin δ =
0.70
X eq
 1 
 2.4638 
 1 
δ1 = sin −1 
 1.8303 
δ 0 = sin −1 
δ1 = 0.5780
δ2
(1.0 − 1.8303 sin δ ) dδ = δ =0.5780 (1.8303sin δ − 1) dδ = A2
δ = 0.4179
A1 = 
0
1
( 0.5780 − 0.4179 ) + 1.8303 ( cos 0.5780 − cos 0.4179 ) = 1.8303 ( cos.5780 − cos δ 2 )
− (δ 2 − 0.5780 )
1.8303cos δ 2 + δ 2 = 2.0907
Solving iteratively (Newton-Raphson) δ 2 = 0.7439 rad = 42.62&deg;
327
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11.13
δ1 = 0.4964 rad (From Example 11.4)
A1 = 
δ1 = 0.4964
δ 0 = 0.4179
1.0 dδ = 
δ2
δ1 = 0.4964
( 2.1353sin δ − 1.0 ) dδ
( 0.4964 − 0.4179 ) = 2.1353 ( cos0.4964 − cos δ 2 ) − (δ 2 − 0.4964 )
2.1353cos δ 2 + δ 2 = 2.2955
Solving iteratively using Newton Raphson with δ 2 (0) = 0.60 rad
δ 2 ( i + 1) = δ 2 (i) + [ −2.1353sin δ 2 (i ) + 1]
−1
[2.2955 − 2.1353cos δ 2 (i) − δ 2 (i)]
i
0
1
2
3
4
δ2
0.60
0.925
0.804
0.785
0.7850
δ 2 = 0.7850 rad = 44.98&deg;
11.14 Referring to Figure 11.8, the critical clearing time occurs when the accelerating area, A1 , is
equal to the decelerating area, A3, in which the maximum value of d is determined from the
post-fault curve.
1 − 2.1353sin δ max = 0 → δ max = 2.654rad = 152.1&deg;
To determine the clearing time, first solve for the critical clearing angle. The post fault
curve is the same as in problem 11.13, so we have
A1 = 
δ cr
δ 0 = 0.4179
1.0 dδ = 
δ max = 2.654
δ cr
( 2.1353sin δ − 1.0 ) dδ
(δ cr − 0.4179 ) = 2.1353 ( cos δ cr − cos (2.654) ) − ( 2.654 − δ cr )
0.3496 = 2.1353cos δ cr → δ cr = 1.4063rad = 80.58&deg;
Then we can solve for tcr as in Example 11.5
tcr =
4H
(1.4063 − 0.4179 ) = 0.1774 sec = 10.6 cycles
(2π 60)(1.0)
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11.15 If gen 3 X d′ = 0.24 on a 800 MVA base, then it is 0.03 on a 100 MVA base.
(a) Xeq = 0.02 + [0.025  0.15] + 0.04 = 0.0814
*
 3.00 
I =
 = 3 ∠ 0 E ′ = 1.0 + j 0.0814.3 ∠ 0
 1∠ 0 
E ′ = 1 + j 0.2442 = 1.0294∠13.7 &deg;
(b) The faulted network is
{
Xeq = 0.03 + 0.01 + 0.1  0.025 + (0.02  0.05)
= 0.0682
0.0357 0.1
Veq = 1∠0 ⋅
⋅
= 0.5130∠0
0.0557 0.125
}
1.0294 ⋅ 0.513
sin δ
0.0682
= 7.742sin δ
Pe 2 =
Once the fault is cleared, the network becomes
1.0294 ⋅ 1
sin δ
0.085
= 12.11sin δ
Pe3 =
329
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11.16 The system has no critical clearing angle because
π
δ P
− Pe2 sin δ = Accelerating area
m
0
δ 0 = 13.7 &deg; = 0.239 rad
=3 (π − 0.239) − Pe 2 cos δ
π
0.239
with Pe 2 = 7.742
→ 3 (2.9026) + 7.742 ⋅ (− 1 − 0.971) = − 6.551
is less than zero
11.17
dx
= − x,
dt
x (0) = 10, Δ t = 0.1
dx(t )
Δt
dt
x (0.1) = 10 + (− 10)(0.1) = 9
(a) x (t + Δ t) = x(t ) +
x (0.2) = 9 + (− 9)(0.1) = 8.1
x (0.3) = 8.1 + (− 8.1)(0.1) = 7.29
x (0.4) = 7.29 + (− 7.29)(0.1) = 6.561
x (0.5) = 6.561 + (− 6.561)(0.1) = 5.9049
(b) x (0) = x(0) +
dx(0)
Δ t = 10 + (− 10)(0.1) = 9
dt
dx (0)
= −9
dt
(
)
 dx (t ) + dx ( t ) 
dt
dt 
x (t + Δ t ) = x (t ) + 
Δt


2


(−10 + (−9)) 0.1 = 9.05
x(0.1) = 10 +
( )
2
11.18
t
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
x
9
8.145
7.371225
6.670959
6.037218
5.463682
x
10
9.05
8.19025
7.412176
6.7080195
6.0707577
dx1
= x2
dt
dx2
= − x1
dt
x1 (0) = 1.0 Δ t = 0.1
x2 (0) = 0
330
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(a)
dx1 (0)
Δ t = 1.0 + 0 (0.1) = 1.0
dt
dx (0)
x2 (0.1) = x2 (0) + 2 Δ t = 0 − 1.0 (0.1) = − 0.1
dt
x1 (0.2) = 1 + (− 0.1)(0.1) = 0.99
x1 (0.1) = x1 (0) +
x2 (0.2) = (− 0.1) + (− 1) (0.1) = − 0.2
x1 (0.3) = 0.99 + (− 0.2) (0.1) = 0.97
x2 (0.3) = − 0.2 + (− 0.99)(0.1) = − 0.299
&iquest;
0
x1
1.0
x2
0
 dx 
(b) x1 = x1 +  1  Δ t
 dt 
 dx 
x2 = x2 +  2  Δ t
 dt 
1
1.0
− 0.1
dx1
= x2
dt
dx2
= − x1
dt
2
3
0.99
0.97
− 0.2
− 0.299
 dx1 (t ) +
x1 (t + Δ t) = x1 (t ) +  dt
2


dx1 ( t )
dt
 dx2 ( t ) +
x2 (t + Δ t) = x2 (t ) +  dt
2



 Δt


dx2 (1)
dt

 Δt


x1 (0) = 1.0 + (0) (0.1) = 1.0
x2 (0) = 0 + (− 1.0)(0.1) = − 0.1
 dx1 (0) + dx1 (0) 
dt
 Δt
x1 (0.1) = x1 (0) +  dt


2


 0 + (− 0.1) 
= 1.0 + 
 (0.1) = 0.995
2


 − 1.0 + (− 1.0) 
x2 (0.1) = 0 + 
 (0.1) = − 0.1
2


dx1 (0)
= − 0.1
dt
dx2 (0)
= − 1.0
dt
t
0
0.1
x1
1
0.994
x2
− 0.1
− 0.1995
x1
1
0.995
x2
0
− 0.1
0.2
0.3
0.978428
0.956936
− 0.25773
− 0.31753
0.980025
0.95915
− 0.159725
− 0.22161
331
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11.19
H = 20 sec p.u.
D = 0.1 p.u
100 MVA base
(a) Xeq = 0.0375 + (0.09  0.09) = 0.0825
 400 
 100 
P
 ∠0 &deg; = 4.0∠0 &deg;
∠ − cos−1 ( pf ) = 
I=
(1.0)(1.0)
Vbus ( pf )
E ′ = E ′∠ δ = Vbus + jX eq I
= 1.0 ∠ 0 &deg; + j 0.0825(4∠0 &deg;)
= 1 + j 0.33
= 1.053∠18.2629 &deg;
(b)
dδ t
= ωt − ωsyn
dt
dδ
dωt Papuωsyn ωsyn − D dtt
=
=
2 Hω pu
2 H ap.u.
dt
 1   dδ t 
Papu 1.0 − 0 − 
 

 ωsyn   dt 
dδ t
Δ t = δ t + Δ t ωt − ωsyn
dt
dδ t 

ωsyn − 0 dt 
dωt
Δt = ωt + Δt 
ωt +Δ t = ωt +
2 Hω pu . 
dt




1
Δt =
= 0.01667 s
60
ω0 = ωsyn = 2π 60 = 377
(c) δ t +Δt = δ t +
(
)
δ 0 = 18.2629 &deg; = 0.3187 rad from (a).
δ 0.01667 = 0.3187 + (377 − 377)(0.01677) = 0.3187
377 − 0.1(0)
 = 377.015711
 2(20)(1) 
= 0.3187 + (0.01667)(377.015711 − 377) = 0.334411 rad = 19.16&deg;
ω0.01667 = 377 + (0.01667) 
δ 0.0333
377 − 0.1(0.015711)
2(20)(1)


ω0.0333 = 377.015711 + 10.01667 
332
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11.20 The critical clearing time for a sold fault midway between buses 1 and 3 is about 0.18
seconds. Below is a plot of the generator rotor angle with the fault cleared at 0.18 seconds.
11.21 The critical clearing time for a solid fault midway between buses 1 and 2 is about 0.164
seconds. Below is a plot of the generator rotor angle with the fault cleared at 0.164 seconds.
11.22 (a) By inspection:
Ybus
0
0
0
 −30 20 10
 20 −30
0 10
0
0 

 10
0 −50
0
40
0
= j

0 −50
40
0
 0 10
 0
0 40 40 −100 20 


0
0
0
20 −20 
 0
333
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 1
 ′
 jX d1

(b) Y22 =  0


 0

 −1
 jX ′
 d1

 0

Y12 =  0

 0

 0

 0

0
1
jX d′ 2
0
0
−1
jX d′2
0
0
0
0

0 
 − j5
0
0 
 

0  =  0 − j10
0  p.u.

 0
0
− j10 
1 
jX d′3 

0 

  j 5.0
0   0
 
 0
0  = 
0
0  
0

0  
 0
−1 

jX d′3 
0
j10
0
0
0
0
0 
0 
0 
 p.u.
0 
0 

j10 
3.0 − j 2.0
= 3 − j2
12
2 − j 0.9
=
= 2 − j 0.9
12
= 1 − j 0.3
0
0
0
j 20
j10
− j35


0
0
0
j10
 j 20 − j 40
 j10
0 (3 − j 2)
0
0
j 40
Y11 = 

0 (2 − j 50.9)
0
j10
j 40
 0
 0
j 40
j 40 (1 − j100.3)
j 20
0


j 20 − j30
0
0
0
 0
11.23 (a) By inspection with line 3-5 open:
Ybus
0
0
0 
 −30 20 10
 20 −30 0
10
0
0 

 10
0 −10 0
0
0 
= j

10
0 −50 40
0 
 0
 0
0
0
40 −60 20 


0
0
0
20 −20 
 0
334
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3.0 − j 2.0
= 3.0 − j 2.0 p.u.
(1.0)2
2.0 − j 0.9
=
= 2.0 − j 0.9p.u.
(1.0)2
1.0 − j 0.3
=
= 1.0 − j 0.3p.u.
(1.0)2
 − j 35 j 20
 20 − j 40

Y11 =  j10
0

j10
 0
 0
0

0
 0
(
1/ jX d′
1

Y22 =  0

 0

 j5

0
0
Y12 = 
0
0

 0
)
0
j10
0
0
0
0
j10
0
0
j10
0
0
0
0
( 2 − j 50.9 )
0
j 40
0
0
j 40
0
( 3 − j12 )
0
(
1/ jX d′2
0
(1 − j60.3)
j 20
0 
0 
0 

0 
j 20 

− j 30 

0
0 
  − j 5.0

= 0
0
0  per unit
− j10
 
 0
0
− j10 
1/ jX d′3  

0
)
(
)
0 

0 
0 
 per unit
0 
0 

j10
(b) Ybus is same as 11.22.
0
0
0
j 20
j10
− j35


0
0
0
j10
 j 20 − j30
 j10
0 − j 50
0
0
j 40
Y11 = 
 per unit
0 (2 − j 50.9)
0
j10
j 40
 0
 0
0
j 40
j 40 (1 − j100.3)
j 20


0
0
0
j 20 − j30
 0
Y12 and Y22 are the same as Problem 11.22 and 11.23 (a).
11.24 The critical clearing time is 0.383 seconds using a time step of 0.01 seconds for the
simulation.
335
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11.25 The critical clearing time for a fault on the line between buses 44 and 14 for the Example
11.9 case with the fault occurring near bus 14 is about 0.584 seconds. Below is a plot of the
generator angles with this clearing time.
11.26 (a) I =
1.0
∠0 &deg; = 1.0∠&deg;
(1.0)(1.0)
VT = 1.0∠0 &deg; + j 0.22(1∠0 &deg;)
= 1 + j 0.22
= 1.0239 ∠ 12.4070 &deg;
E = 1.0239∠12.407 &deg; + j (2.0)(1∠0 &deg;)
= 1 + j 2.22
= 2.4166∠65.556 &deg;
δ = 65.556 &deg;
Vd  0.9104 − 0.4138  1.0  0.8194
 =

=

Vq  0.4138 0.9104  0.22 0.6109
I d  0.9104 − 0.4138 1.0 0.9104
 =
  = 

Iq  0.4138 0.9104   0 0.4138
Eq′ = Vq + Ra I q + X d I d = 0.61409 + (0)(0.4138) + (0.3)(0.9104)
= 0.88721
Ed′ = Vd + Ra I d − xa I a = 0.8194 + 0 − (0.5)(0.4138)
= 0.6125
336
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 dEq 
E fd = Td 
 + ( X d − X d′ ) I d + Ed
 dt 
= 0 + (2.1 − 0.3)(0.9104) + 0.88721
= 2.5259
(b) The critical clearing time is 0.228 seconds using a time step of 0.01 seconds for the
simulation.
11.27 Using a time step of 0.01 seconds for the simulation, the critical clearing time is 0.340 sec.
This is faster than the critical clearing time of Problem 11.24 by 0.043 seconds.
11.28 X ′ = X a +
X1 X m
(0.17)(3.8) = 0.2297 p.u.
= 0.067 +
X1 + X m
(0.17 + 3.8)
X = X a + X m = 3.867 p.u.
T0′ =
I=
X1 + X m
(0.17 + 3.8) = 0.85 s
=
ω 0 R1
(2π 60)(0.0124)
1.0
∠ 0&deg; = 1 ∠ 0&deg;
(1.0)(1.0)
Vt = 1 ∠ 0 &deg; + ( j 0.22)(16 &deg;) = 1 + j 0.22
Vr = Er′ − Ra Ir + X ′Ii
= 0.8475 − (0.013)(0.8433) + (0.2297)(0.7119) = 1.0
Vi = E1′ − Ra Ii − X ′Ir
= 0.4230 − (0.013)(0.7119) + (0.2297)(0.8433) = 0.22
dEr′
1
= (2π 60)(− 0.0129)(0.4230) −
(0.8475 − (3.867 − 0.2297)(0.7119) = 0
0.85
dt
dEi′
1
= − (2π 60)(− 0.0129)(0.8475) −
(0.4230 + (3.867 − 0.2297)(0.8433)) = 0
0.85
dt
(b)
337
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11.29 pf =
1
= 0.9766
1 + 0.222
1.0
P
I=
∠ − cos−1 ( pf ) =
∠ − cos−1 (0.9766)
Vbus ( pf )
(1.0)(0.9766)
2
VT = 1.0 + ( j 0.22)(1 − j 0.215)
= 1.0473 + j 0.22
= 1.0702∠11.863 &deg;
I sore = I −
VT
(1.0473 + j022)
= (1 − j 0.215) +
jXeq
j 0.8
= 1.275 − j1.524
I p + jI q = (1.275 − j1.524)(1∠ − 11.863 &deg;)
= 1.987∠ (− 50.084 − 11.863)
= 1.987∠ − 61.947 &deg;
= 0.934 − j1.754
Eq = − I q Xeq = (1.754)(0.8)
= 1.403
338
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Chapter 12
Power-System Controls
12.1 (a) The open-loop transfer function G(S) is given by
G (S) =
(b)
ka ke k f
(1 + Ta S )(1 + Te S ) (1 + T f S )
(1 + Ta S )(1 + Te S ) (1 + T f S )
Δe
1
=
=
ΔVref 1 + G ( S ) (1 + Ta S )(1 + Te S ) (1 + T f S ) + ka ke k f
For steady state, setting S = 0
ΔeSS =
or 1 + k = ( ΔVref )
SS
( ΔV )
ref
1+ k
SS
, where k = ka ke k f
ΔeSS
For the condition stipulated, 1 + k ≥ 100
or k ≥ 99
 G (S)

ΔVref ( S ) 
(c) ΔVt ( t ) = ‹−1 

 1 + G ( S )
The response of the system will depend on the characteristic roots of the equation
1 + G (S ) = 0
(i)
If the roots S1, S2, and S3 are real and distinct, the response will then include the
transient components A1eS1t , A2 eS2 t , and A3 e S3 t .
(ii) If there are a pair of complex conjugate roots S1, S2 ( = a &plusmn; jω ) , then the dynamic
response will be of the form Aeat sin (ω t + φ ) .
12.2 (a) The open-loop transfer function of the AVR system is
K G (S) H (S) =
=
KA
(1 + 0.1S )(1 + 0.4S )(1 + S )(1 + 0.05S )
500 K A
S + 33.5 S + 307.5 S 2 + 775 S + 500
4
3
339
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The closed-loop transfer function of the system is
Vt ( S )
Vref ( S )
=
25K A ( S + 20 )
S + 33.5 S + 307.5 S 2 + 775 S + 500 + 500 K A
4
3
(b) The characteristic equation is given by
1 + K G(S ) H (S ) = 1 +
500 K A
=0
S + 33.5S + 307.5S 2 + 775S + 500
4
3
Which results in the characteristic Polynomial Equation
S 4 + 33.5S 3 + 307.5S 2 + 775S + 500 + 500 K A = 0
The Routh-Hurwitz array for this polynomial is shown below:
S4
1
307.5
500 + 500KA
3
S
33.5
775
0
S2
284.365
0
500 + 500KA
0
0
S1
58.9KA − 716.1
0
S
500 + 500KA
From the S1 row, it is seen that KA must be less than 12.16 for control system stability;
also from the S0 row, KA must be greater than −1. Thus, with positive values of KA, for
control system stability, the amplifier gain must be
K A &lt; 12.16 .
For K = 12.16, the Auxiliary Equation from the S row is
2
284.365 S 2 + 6580 = 0 or S = &plusmn; j 4.81
That is, for K = 12.16, there are a pair of conjugate poles on the jω axis, and the
control system is marginally stable.
(c) From the closed-loop transfer function of the system, the steady-state response is
SVt ( S ) =
(Vt )SS = lim
S →0
KA
1+ KA
For the amplifier gain of KA = 10, the steady-state response is
(Vt )SS =
10
= 0.909
1 + 10
(Ve )SS = 1.0 − 0.909 = 0.091
12.3 System becomes unstable at about K a = 277. Anything with +/– about 10 of this answer
should be considered correct.
340
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12.4 The initial values are Vt = 1.0946 pu, and E fd = 2.913. The final values are with K a = 100,
Vt = 1.0958, E fd = 2.795; with K a = 200, Vt = 1.0952, E fd = 2.793; with K a = 50,
Vt = 1.0969, E fd = 2.799; with K a = 10, Vt = 1.1033, E fd = 2.827. The steady-state
relationship from Figure 12.3 is E fd = ( K a /K e ) * (Vref − Vt ) where Vref is determined by the
pre-fault conditions:
12.5 (a) Converting the regulation constants to a 100 MVA system base:
 100 
R1 new = 0.03 
 = 0.015
 200 
 100 
R2 new = 0.04 
 = 0.0133
 300 
 100 
R3 new = 0.06 
 = 0.012
 500 
Using (12.2.3):

1
1
1

β =
+
+
 = 225.0 per unit
 0.015 0.0133 0.012 
(b) Using (12.2.4) with ΔPref = 0 and ΔPm =
−150
p.u. = −1.5p.u .
100
−1.5 = −225.0 Δf
−1.5
p.u. = 6.6666 &times; 10−3 per unit = ( 6.6666 &times; 10 −3 ) ( 60 ) = 0.3999 Hz
−225.0
(c) Using (12.2.1) with ΔPref = 0 :
Δf =
 1 
−3
ΔPm1 = − 
 ( 6.6666 &times; 10 ) = − 0.4444 per unit = − 44.44 MW
0.015


 1 
−3
ΔPm 2 = − 
 ( 6.6666 &times; 10 ) = − 0.5012 per unit = − 50.12 MW
 0.0133 
 1 
−3
ΔPm 3 = − 
 ( 6.6666 &times; 10 ) = − 0.5555per unit = − 55.55 MW
0.012


12.6 (a) Using (12.2.4) with Δ pref = 0 and Δpm =
100
p.u. :
100
1.0 = −225.0Δf
Δf = − 4.4444 &times; 10 −3 per unit = − ( 4.4444 &times; 10 −3 ) ( 60 ) = − 0.2667Hz
341
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(b) Using (12.2.1) with Δ pref = 0 :
 1 
−3
ΔPm1 = − 
 ( − 4.4444 &times; 10 ) = 0.2963per unit = 29.63MW
 0.015 
 1 
−3
ΔPm 2 = − 
 ( − 4.4444 &times; 10 ) = 0.3333per unit = 33.33MW
0.0133


 1 
−3
ΔPm 3 = − 
 ( − 4.4444 &times; 10 ) = 0.3704 per unit = 37.04 MW
0.012


12.7 Using (12.2.1) with ΔPref = 0 : Δf = 0.005p.u.
 1 
ΔPm1 = − 
 ( 0.005 ) = − 0.3333per unit = − 33.33MW
 0.015 
 1 
ΔPm 2 = − 
 ( 0.005 ) = − 0.3759 per unit = −37.59 MW
 0.0133 
 1 
ΔPm 3 = − 
 ( 0.005 ) = − 0.4166 per unit = − 41.66 MW
 0.012 
12.8 Using (12.2.1) with ΔPref = 0 : Δf = −0.005p.u.
 1 
ΔPm1 = − 
 ( −0.005 ) = 0.3333per unit = 33.33MW
 0.015 
 1 
ΔPm 2 = − 
 ( −0.005 ) = 0.3750 per unit = 37.50 MW
 0.0133 
 1 
ΔPm 3 = − 
 ( −0.005 ) = 0.4167 per unit = 41.67 MW
 0.012 
12.9 (a) Using Rnew = Rold
Sbase( new )
Sbase( old )
R1( new ) = 0.04
1000
1000
= 0.08 pu; R2( new ) = 0.05
= 0.067 pu
500
750
The area frequency-response characteristic is given by
n
1
1
1
1
1
= +
=
+
= 27.5pu
R1 R2 0.08 0.067
k =1 Rk
β =
(b) The per-unit increase in load is 250 /1000 = 0.25
n
n
k =1
k =1

n
1
 k =1 Rk
( ΔPm )TOTAL =  ΔPmk =  ΔPref k −  

 Δf = ΔPref ( total ) − βΔf

342
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With ΔPref ( total ) = 0 for steady-state conditions,
Δf = −
1
β
ΔPm = −
1
( 0.25) = −9.091 &times; 10−3 pu
27.5
or Δf = −9.091 &times; 10 −3 &times; 60 = −0.545Hz .
12.10 Convert the R’s to a common MVA base (say 100 MVA). R1 = 100/500 * 0.04 = 0.008,
R2 = 100/1000 * 0.05 = 0.005, R3 = 100/750 * 0.05 = 0.00667. Then the total β = 1/R1 +
1/R2 + 1/R3 = 474.9 per unit. The per unit change in frequency is then (−250 /100)/
474.9 = − 0.00526 per unit = −0.316 Hz. Then changes in the generator outputs are
Pg1 = 0.00526 / 0.008 * 100 = 66 MW, Pg 2 = 0.00526 / 0.005 *100 = 105 MW, while
Pg 3 = 0.00526 / 0.00667 *100 = 79 MW.
12.11 Since all the R’s are the same, the total β is just the sum of the on-line generators’ MVA
values (neglecting the contingency bus 50 unit) divided by 100 MVA*0.05 which gives
1035/(100*0.05) = 207 per unit. The expected change in frequency for the loss of 42.1 MW
is (– 42.1/100)/207 = – 0.00203 per unit or – 0.1218 Hz, which closely matches the actual
(simulated) final frequency deviation of – 0.124 Hz. The reason the simulated is larger
because of a 0.5 MW increase in the system losses. With this loss changed included (i.e., a
loss of 42.6 MW) the analytic value becomes – 0.123 Hz. The plot of the bus frequency is
given below, with the lowest frequency occurring at about 59.652 Hz at about 3.2 seconds.
60
59.98
59.96
59.94
59.92
59.9
59.88
59.86
59.84
59.82
59.8
59.78
59.76
59.74
59.72
59.7
59.68
59.66
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
12.12 Changing the H values has no impact on the final frequency. The impact is the higher
system inertia causes a slower decline in system frequency. The plot of the bus frequency is
given below, with the lowest frequency now occurring at about 59.714 Hz at about 4.6
seconds.
343
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12.13 Using a 60 Hz base, the per unit frequency change is − 0.12/60 = − 0.002 p.u. Since all the
governor R values are identical (on their own base), the total MVA of the generation is
given by Δ P * R/Δf = (2800 * 0.05)/0.02 = 70,000 MW.
60
59.98
59.96
59.94
59.92
59.9
59.88
59.86
59.84
59.82
59.8
59.78
59.76
59.74
59.72
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
12.14 Adding (12.2.4) for each area with ΔPref = 0 :
ΔPm1 + ΔPm 2 = − ( β1 + β 2 ) Δf
400 = − ( 600 + 800 ) Δf  Δf =
−.400
= −0.2857 H z
.400
ΔPtie 2 = ΔPm 2 = − β 2 Δf = −800 ( −0.2857 ) = 228.57 MW
ΔPtie1 = −ΔPtie 2 = −228.57 MW
ACE2 = ΔPtie 2 + B f 2 Δf = 0
and
ΔPtie 2 = ΔPm 2
∴ΔPm 2 = ΔPtie 2 = − B f 2 Δf
and ΔPm1 = − β1Δf
Also ΔPm1 + ΔPm 2 = 400 MW
Solving the equations:
− ( β1 + B f 2 ) Δf = 400
Δf =
−400
= −0.2857Hz
600 + 800
344
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ΔPtie 2 = − ( 800 )( −0.2857 ) = 228.57 MW
ΔPtie1 = −ΔPtie 2 = −228.57 MW
Note: The results are the same as those in Problem 12.14. That is, LFC is not effective when
employed in only one area.
ACE1 = ΔPtie1 + B f 1Δf = 0
ACE2 = ΔPtie 2 + B f 2 Δf = 0
Adding ( ΔPtie1 + ΔPtie 2 ) + ( B f 1 + B f 2 ) Δf = 0
Therefore, Δf = 0 ; ΔPtie 1 = 0 and ΔPtie 2 = 0 .
That is, in steady-state the frequency error is returned to zero, area 1 picks up its own 400
12.17 (a) (12.15) LFC in area 2 alone.
ACE2 = ΔPtie 2 + B f 2 Δf = 0
∴ΔPm 2 = ΔPtie 2 = − B f 2 Δf
and ΔPm1 = − β1Δf
Also ΔPm1 + ΔPm 2 = −300
Solving: − ( β1 + B f 2 ) Δf = −300
Δf =
300
= 0.2142 Hz
600 + 800
ΔPtie 1 = − ( 600 )( 0.2142 ) = −128.52MW
ΔPtie 2 = −ΔPtie 1 = 128.52 MW
(b) (12.16) LFC employed in both areas 1 and 2.
ACE1 = ΔPtie1 + B f 1Δf = 0
ACE2 = ΔPtie 2 + B f 2 Δf = 0
(
)
Adding: ( ΔPtie1 + ΔPtie 2 ) + B f1 + B f 2 Δf = 0
Thus Δf = 0 ΔPtie1 = 0 and ΔPtie 2 = 0
345
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12.18 (a) The per-unit load change in area 1 is
ΔPL1 =
187.5
= 0.1875
1000
The per-unit steady-state frequency deviation is
ΔWSS =
−ΔPL1
−0.1875
=
= −0.005
 1
  1
 ( 20 + 0.6 ) + (16 + 0.9 )
+ D2 
 + D1  + 
 R1
  R2

Thus, the steady-state frequency deviation in Hz is
Δf = ( −0.005 )( 60 ) = −0.3Hz
and the new frequency is f = f0 + Δf = 60 − 0.3 = 59.7 Hz .
The change in mechanical power in each area is
ΔPm1 = −
ΔW
−0.005
=−
= 0.1pu = 100 MW
R1
0.05
ΔPm 2 = −
ΔW
−0.005
=−
= 0.08 pu = 80 MW
R2
0.0625
Thus area 1 increases the generation by 100 MW and area 2 by 80 MW at the new
operating frequency of 59.7 Hz.
The total change in generation is 180 MW, which is 7.5 MW less than the 187.5 MW
load change because of the change in the area loads due to frequency drop.
The change in area 1 load is ΔW ⋅ D1 = ( −0.005 )( 0.6 ) = −0.003 pu or −3.0 MW , and the
change in area 2 load is ΔW ⋅ D2 = ( −0.005 )( 0.9 ) = −0.0045 pu or −4.5 MW. Thus, the
change in the total area load is −7.5MW. The tie-line power flow is
 1

ΔP12 = ΔW 
+ D2  = −0.005 (16.9 ) = −0.0845pu
 R2

= −84.5MW
That is, 84.5 MW flows from area 2 to area 1. 80 MW comes from the increased
generation in area 2, and 4.3MW comes from the reduction in area 2 load due to
frequency drop.
(b) With the inclusion of the ACE5 , the frequency deviation returns to zero (with a settling
time of about 20 seconds). Also, the tie-line powerchange reduces to zero, and the
increase in area 1 load is met by the increase in generation ΔPm1 .
346
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12.19
dC1
= 15 + 0.1 P1 = λ
dP1
dC 2
= 20 + 0.08 P2 = λ
dP2
P1 + P2 = 1000
−1  P1   −15 
0.1 0

  

0.08 −1  P2  =  −20 
0
1
1
0   λ  1000 
P1 = 472.2 MW, P2 = 527.8 MW, λ = 62.2 \$/MWh
Total cost = \$41,230/hr
12.20 Since the unlimited solution violates the P2 limit constraint, P2 = 500 MW, which means
P1 = 500 MW. The system lambda is determined by the unlimited unit = 15 + 0.1* 500 =
\$65/MWh. Total cost is \$41,300/hr.
12.21
dC1
= 15 + 0.1 P1 = λ
dP1
dC2
= 0.95 ( 20 + 0.08P2 ) = λ
dP2
P1 + P2 = 1000
0
−1  P1   −15 
0.1
 0 0.076 −1  P  =  −19 

 2 

 1
1
0   λ  1000 
P1 = 454.5 MW, P2 = 545.5 MW, λ = 60.5 \$/MWh
Total cost = \$41,259/hr

dC1  1

12.22
dP1  1 − ∂PL

∂P1


dC2  1

dP2  1 − ∂PL

∂P2



15 + 0.1P1
=
= 60.0
 1 − 4 &times; 10−4 P1 − 4 &times; 10−4 P2




20 + 0.08P2
=
= 60.0
 1 − 6 &times; 10−4 P2 − 4 &times; 10−4 P1


(
)
(
)
347
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Rearranging the above two equations gives
( 0.1 + 0.024 ) P1 − (0.024)P2 = 45
( 0.08 + 0.036 ) P2 − (0.024)P1 = 40
Solving gives P1 = 447.6, P2 = 437.4, Plosses = 19.15 MW, Pload = 865.85 MW,
Total cost = \$34,431/hr
12.23 For N = 2, (12.4.14) becomes:
2
2
2
PL =   Pi Bij Pj =  Pi ( Bi1 P1 + Bi 2 P2 )
i =1 j =1
i =1
= B P + B12 P1 P2 + B21 P1 P2 + B22 P2 2
2
11 1
Assuming B12 = B21 ,
PL = B11P12 + 2 B12 P1P2 + B22 P2 2
∂PL
= 2 ( B11P1 + B12 P2 )
∂P1
∂PL
= 2 ( B12 P1 + B22 P2 )
∂P2
Also, from (12.4.15):
i =1
2
∂PL
= 2  B1 j Pj = 2 ( B11P1 + B12 P2 )
j =1
∂P1
i=2
2
∂PL
= 2  B2 j Pj = 2 ( B21P1 + B22 P2 )
j =1
∂P2
= 2 ( B12 P1 + B22 P2 )
which checks.
12.24 Choosing Sbase as 100 MVA (3-Phase),
α1 = ( S3φ base ) 0.01 = 100; α 2 = 40
2
β1 = ( S3φ base ) 2.00 = 200; β 2 = 260
γ 1 = 100
; γ 2 = 80
In per unit, 0.25 ≤ PG1 ≤ 1.5;0.3 ≤ PG 2 ≤ 2.0;0.55 ≤ PL ≤ 3.5
λ1 =
∂ς 1
∂ς 2
= 200 PG1 + 200; λ2 =
= 80 PG 2 + 260
∂PG1
∂PG 2
Calculate λ1 and λ2 for minimum generation conditions (Point 1, in Figure shown below).
Since λ2 &gt; λ1 , in order to make λ ’s equal, load unit 1 first until λ1 = 284 which occurs at
PG1 =
284 − 200
= 0.42 (Point 2 in Figure)
200
348
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Now, calculate λ1 and λ2 at the maximum generation conditions:
Point 3 in Figure, now that λ1 &gt; λ2 , unload unit 1 first until λ1 is brought down to λ1 = 420
which occurs at
PG1 =
420 − 200
= 1.10 (Point 4 in Figure)
200
Notice that, for 0.72 ≤ PL ≤ 3.1 , it is possible to maintain equal λ ’s. Equations are given by
λ1 = λ2 ; 200 PG1 + 200 = 80 PG 2 + 260; and PG1 + PG 2 = PL
These linear relationships are depicted in the Figure below:
For PL = 282 MW = 2.82 pu, PG 2 = 2.82 − PG1 ;
PG1 = 0.4 PG 2 + 0.3 = 1.128 − 0.4 PG1 + 0.3
1.4 PG1 = 1.428 or PG1 = 1.02 = 102 MW
PG 2 = 2.82 − 1.02 = 1.8 = 180 MW
Results are tabulated in the table given below:
Table of Results
Point
PG1
1
2
3
4
0.25
0.42
1.50
1.10
PG 2
0.30
0.30
2.00
2.00
PL
0.55
0.72
3.50
3.10
λ1
250
284
500
420
λ2
284
284
420
420
349
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12.25 (To solve the problem change the Min MW field for generator 2 to 0 MW). The minimum
value in the plot above occurs when the generation at bus 2 is equal to 180MW. This value
corresponds to the value found in Example 12.8 for economic dispatch at generator 2
(181MW).
12.26 To achieve loss sensitivity values that are equal the generation at bus 2 should be about 159
MW and the generation at bus 4 should be about 215 MW. Minimum losses are 7.79 MW.
The operating cost in Example 12.10 is lower than that found in this problem indicating that
minimizing losses does not usually result in a minimum cost dispatch. The minimum loss
one-line is given below.
20 MW
1.05 pu
1
20 MW
A
MVA
3
5 MW
slack
103 MW
0.99 pu
25.8 MW
0.0000 24 MW
AGC ON
A
104 MW
A
78 MW
29 Mvar
MVA
4
1.00 pu
7 MW
147 MW
39 Mvar
215.0 MW
-0.0003
OFF AGC
A
MVA
A
A
MVA
MVA
MVA
25 MW
5 MW
1.04 pu
38 MW
A
7 MW
93 MW
2
39 MW
20 Mvar
MVA
89 MW
5
159.0 MW
-0.0001
OFF AGC
0.96 pu
127 MW
39 Mvar
Total Hourly Cost:
6437.97 \$/h
392.0 MW
MW Losses:
Marginal Cost (\$/MWh):
At Min Gen \$/MWh
7.79 MW
350
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12.27 To achieve loss sensitivity values that are equal the generation at bus 2 should be about 230
MW and the generation at bus 4 should be at its maximum limit of 300 MW. Minimum
losses are 15.38 MW. The minimum loss one-line is given below.
29 MW
28 MW
A
1.05 pu
1
MVA
3
143 MW
0.98 pu
33.9 MW
0.0000 35 MW
AGC ON
5 MW
slack
A
145 MW
A
4
MVA
A
97%
A
300.0 MW
-0.0055
OFF AGC
MVA
MVA
36 MW
5 MW
1.04 pu
1.00 pu
11 MW
206 MW
55 Mvar
A
MVA
110 MW
41 Mvar
MVA
53 MW
A
11 MW
133 MW
2
55 MW
27 Mvar
MVA
125 MW
5
230.3 MW
0.0000
OFF AGC
0.92 pu
178 MW
55 Mvar
Total Hourly Cost:
9404.56 \$/h
548.8 MW
MW Losses:
Marginal Cost (\$/MWh):
At Min Gen \$/MWh
15.38 MW
12.28 The line between buses 2 and 5 reaches 100% at a load scalar of about 1.68; above this
value the flow on this line is constrained to 100%, causing the additional load into bus 5 to
increase the flow on the line between buses 4 and 5. This line reaches its limit at a load
scalar of 1.81. Since both lines into bus 5 are loaded at 100%, no additional load can be
brought into the bus without causing at least one of these lines to be overloaded. The plot of
the bus 5 MW marginal cost is given below.
351
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12.29 The OPF solution for this case is given below, with an operating cost of 16,091.6 \$/hr. The
marginal cost at bus UIUC69 is 41.82 \$/hr. Increasing the UIUC69 MW load from 61 to 62
MW increases the operating cost to \$16,132.80, an increase of \$41.2, verifying the marginal
cost. Similarly at the DEMAR69 bus the marginal cost is 17.74 \$/hr; increasing the load
from 44 to 45 MW increases the operating cost by \$17.8. Note, because of convergence
tolerances the manually calculated changes may differ slightly from the marginal cost
values.
SLA CK34 5
A
MVA
A
MVA
Total Cost: 16091.6 \$/h
1.02 pu
1.02 pu
sla ck
TIM34 5
A
A
MVA
MVA
A
SLA CK138
1.01 pu
A
39 8 MW
72 Mvar
RA Y34 5
MVA
RA Y138
A
1 .0 3 pu
A
MVA
MVA
TIM13 8
1.0 0 pu
A
3 3 MW
1 3 Mvar
A
A
15.9 Mvar
MVA
MVA
1 .0 2 pu
TIM69
1.02 pu
1.02 pu
RA Y69
37 MW
17 MW
3 Mvar
A
PA I6 9
1.01 pu
MVA
MVA
1 8 MW
5 Mvar
MVA
A
13 Mvar
MVA
A
A
2 3 MW
7 Mvar
1.01 pu
MVA
GROSS6 9
A
A
MVA
FERNA 6 9
MVA
MORO13 8
MVA
HISKY6 9
MVA
A
12 MW
5 Mvar
WOLEN69
A
4 .8 Mvar
MVA
0.99 pu
A
PETE69
MVA
DEMA R69
58 MW
40 Mvar
HA NNA H69
51 MW
15 Mvar
1.00 pu
0.99 pu
A
MVA
0.99 pu
MVA
99%
6 0 MW
1 2 Mvar
MV A
36 MW
10 Mvar
A
A
MVA
15 MW
5 Mvar
A
MVA
A
7 .3 Mvar
1.01 pu
MVA
1 .0 0 pu
PA TTEN6 9
MVA
MVA
A
MVA
1.01 pu
LA UF69
1.02 pu
A
4 9 MW
1 6 Mvar
23 MW
6 Mvar
A
MVA
WEBER69
2 2 MW
1 5 Mvar
14 MW
45 MW
0 Mvar
10 MW
5 Mvar
A
MVA
1 .02 pu
1.01 pu
ROGER69
2 Mvar
1 4 MW
3 Mvar
MVA
LA UF13 8
1.00 pu
A
A
1.00 pu
0 .0 Mvar
1.02 pu
SA VOY69
BUCKY13 8
JO13 8
3 8 MW
2 Mvar
A
JO34 5
MVA
A
MVA
1 .01 pu
A
A
MVA
MVA
15 MW
60 Mvar
A
1.02 pu
SHIMKO69
7.4 Mvar
A
BLT6 9
1.0 1 pu
MVA
HA LE69
LYNN138
14 MW
4 Mvar
MVA
MVA
1.00 pu
A
A
MVA
13 Mvar
A
A
33 MW
10 Mvar
MVA
56 MW
0 MW
0 Mvar
BLT13 8
3 6 Mvar
A MA NDA 6 9
BOB6 9
24 MW
45 Mvar
A
1 2.6 Mvar
MVA
61.0 MW
MVA
1 5 MW
3 Mvar
1.00 pu
1 .0 2 pu
MVA
A
A
A
MVA
MVA
A
MVA
A
A
MVA
0.99 pu
UIUC69
MVA
MVA
BOB13 8
A
44.0 MW
12 Mvar
28 .8 Mvar
1 4.3 Mvar
0.99 6 pu
A
1 .0 0 pu
2 0 MW
8 Mvar
1.00 pu
HOMER69
1 .0 1 pu
2 1 MW
7 Mvar
A
A
SA VOY138
15 0 MW
1 M
MVA
A
12.30 The Hannah69 LMP goes above \$40/MWh when the area load multiplier is 1.48. The
associated one-line for this operating condition is shown below.
SLACK345
A
33%
MVA
A
48%
MVA
sla ck
A
A
63%
1.01 pu
79%
MVA
27 MW
7 Mvar
1.02 pu
MVA
1.02 pu
MVA
RAY69
65%
MVA
A
MVA
A
Hourly Cost=25400.9 \$/h
100%
MVA
29 MW
12 Mvar
A
34%
MVA
0.97 pu
DEMAR69
79.9 MW
27.8 Mvar
UIUC69
0.98 pu
MVA
87%
54 MW
15 Mvar
40%
89 MW
18 Mvar
MVA
MVA
23%
1.01 pu
56 MW
40 Mvar
0.99 pu
A
75%
MVA
0.98 pu
35 MW
9 Mvar
A
78%
33 MW
22 Mvar
10 MW
5 Mvar
MVA
1.01 pu
MVA
MVA
21 MW
ROGER69
3 Mvar
21 MW
4 Mvar
BUCKY138
A
30%
MVA
SAVOY69
1.02 pu
A
80 MW
18 Mvar
JO138
JO345
38%
MVA
A
33%
MVA
91%
PATTEN69
66 MW
0 Mvar
WEBER69
LAUF138
0.99 pu
A
A
0.98 pu
MVA
0.99 pu
MVA
A
50%
LAUF69
MVA
23 MW
7 Mvar
A
70%
A
7.0 Mvar
0.98 pu
20.3 Mvar
10%
MVA
110 MW
60 Mvar
A
86%
A
A
MVA
A
7.1 Mvar
A
14%
BLT69
0.99 pu
MVA
MVA
1.02 pu
SHIMKO69
MVA
MVA
0.99 pu
A
HALE69
MVA
MVA
A
56%
34%
A
67%
21 MW
5 Mvar
29%
BLT138
0.98 pu
MVA
A
49 MW
14 Mvar
MVA
LYNN138
18 Mvar
A
88%
AMANDA69
37%
0.98 pu
BOB69
83 MW
16 MW
20 Mvar
A
86 MW
54 Mvar
MVA
0.97 pu
23 MW
5 Mvar
MVA
MVA
45 Mvar
MVA
38%
A
38%
0.973 pu
MVA
1.00 pu
A
180 MW
MVA
A
41%
A
A
59%
MVA
MVA
A
75%
22%
0.97 pu
12.3 Mvar
A
67%
A
A
MVA
66 MW
18 Mvar
22 Mvar
13.6 Mvar
A
41%
BOB138
56%
86 MW
60 Mvar
HANNAH69
Hannah69 LMP: 40.29 \$/MWh
A
4.6 Mvar
0.98 pu
0.98 pu
PETE69
WOLEN69
0.99 pu
31 MW
10 Mvar
MVA
HISKY69
20 Mvar
FERNA69
MVA
45%
A
58%
MVA
91%
A
MORO138
A
62%
A
GROSS69
1.00 pu
MVA
MVA
55 MW
25 MW
4 Mvar
A
PAI69
1.00 pu
41%
34 MW
10 Mvar
1.03 pu
28%
A
79%
15.7 Mvar
MVA
TIM69
HOMER69
MVA
A
MVA
49 MW
19 Mvar
A
65%
MVA
18 MW
7 Mvar
40%
RAY138
29%
TIM138
A
65%
1.02 pu
A
SLACK138
MVA
1.00 pu
A
0.97 pu
11%
A
63%
MVA
TIM345
A
480 MW
157 Mvar
RAY345
1.02 pu
1.00 pu
A
A
SAVOY138
52%
150 MW
12 Mvar
56%
MVA
A
71%
MVA
MVA
150 MW
12 Mvar
A
49%
MVA
1.02 pu
A
1.03 pu
56%
MVA
352
&copy; 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter 13
Transmission Lines: Transient Operation
13.1 From the results of Example 13.2:
x E
x


 + U −1  t + − 2τ 
v 2
v


E
x
E
x




i ( x, t ) =
U −1  t −  −
U −1  t + − 2τ 
v
Z
v
2 Zc
2




c
V ( x, t ) =
E

U −1  t −
2

For t = τ / 2 =
l
:
2v
3 
l


x− l
−x


E
 τ E
2
V  x,  = U −1  2
 + U −1 

2
2
v
2
v










3 
l


 2−x E
 x − 2l 
E
 τ
i  x,  =
U −1 
U −1 
−

 2  2 Zc
 v  2 Z c
 v 




353
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For t = τ =
V ( x ,τ ) =
l
:
v
E
E
E
l−x E
 x −l 
l−x
 x −l 
U −1 
U −1 
U −1 
 + U −1 
 i ( x ,τ ) =
−

2
2 Zc
 v  2
 v 
 v  2 Zc
 v 
For t = 2τ =
V ( x ,2τ ) =
2l
:
w
E
E
 2l − x  E
x
 2l − x  E
x
U −1 
U −1 
U −1  
 + U −1   i ( x, 2τ ) =
−
2
2 Zc
 v  2
v
 v  2 Zc
v
13.2 From Example 13.2 Γ R = 1 and Γ S = 0
E
S2
Then from Eqs (13.2.10) and (13.2.11),
For a ramp voltage source, EG ( S ) =
x

S  − 2τ  
 E  1   − Sx
V ( x , S ) =  2   e v + e  v  
 S  2  

x

S  − 2τ  
  1   −vSx
v

−
e
e



  2 Zc  

Taking the inverse Laplace transform:
E
I ( x, S ) =  2
S
E
x E
x



U −2  t −  + U −2  t + − 2τ 
v
2
 v 2


E
x E
x



i ( x, t ) =
U −2  t −  −
U −2  t + − 2τ 
v
2 Zc
 v  2 Zc


V ( x, t ) =
354
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At the center of the line, where x = l / 2 ,
l  E
 τ E
 3τ 
V  , t  = U −2  t −  + U −2  t − 
2 
2  2
 2 2

E
l 
 τ E
 3τ 
i  ,t  =
U −2  t −  −
U −2  t − 
2 
 2  2 Zc
 2  2 Zc

13.3 From Eq (13.2.12) with Z R = SLR and Z G = Z c :
SL R
−1 S −
Zc
ΓR ( S ) =
=
SLR
+1 S +
Zc
Zc
LR
Zc
LR
ΓS ( S ) = 0
Then from Eq (13.2.10) with EG ( S ) =


S−

− Sx
E  1  v 
V ( x, S ) =   e + 
S  2 

S+



Zc
LR
Zc
LR
E
S


  x − 2τ  
 eS  v  






Using partial-fraction expansion
 Sx 


−
E  e v  −1
2  S  vx − 2τ  

e
+ +
V ( x, S ) = 
2 S

 S S + Ze 




LR 



Taking the inverse Laplace transform:
V ( x, t ) =
−1  x

 t + − 2τ  
E
x E
x



U −1  t −  +  −1 + 2e LR | Zc  v   U −1  t + − 2τ 
2
v
 v  2 



355
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At the center of the line, where x = l :
2
 3 

 t− τ  
2 
−


 LR | Z c 


l  E
 τ E
 3τ 
 U
−1 + 2e 
V  , t  = U −1  t −  +
−1  t −



2
2
2
2
2 









13.4
Γ R = 0; EG ( S ) =
E
S
From Eq (13.2.10)


E  Z c / LG   − Sxv 
 e 
V ( x, S ) = 
Z c  
S

S+

LG 
Using partial fraction expansion:


1
1  − Sxv
e
V ( x, S ) = E  −
 S S + Zc 

LG 
Taking the inverse Laplace transform,
 t−x / v 


− 
x


V ( x , t ) = E 1 − e  LG / Zc   U −1  t − 
 v


At the center of the line, where x = l / 2 :
t −τ / 2 )
−(


l 
V  , t  = E 1 − e LG / Zc  U −1 ( t − τ / 2 )
2 


356
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13.5
1
−1
ΓS = 3
= −0.5
1
+1
3
4 −1
ΓR =
= 0.6
4 +1
EG ( S ) =
E
S
x

 − Sx
S − 2τ 

  e v + 0.6e  v  
E 1 

V ( x, S ) = 

S  1 + 1  1 − ( 0.6 )( −0.5 ) e −2 Sτ
 3 
x

 − Sx
S  − 2τ  
3E  e v + 0.6e  v  
V ( x, S ) =

4S  1 + 0.3e −2 Sτ


V ( x, S ) =
x

S  − 2τ  
3E  − Sxv
2
v
 1 − 0.3e −2 Sτ + 0.3
e
0.6
e
+
( ) e−4Sτ 


4S 

V ( x, S ) =
x

x

x

− S  + 2τ 
s  − 2τ 
S  − 4τ 
3E  − Sxv
 e + 0.6e  v  − 0.3e  v  − 0.18e  v 
4S 
+0.09e
V ( x, t ) =
3E  
U −1  t −
4  
x

− S  + 4τ 
v

+ 0.054e
x

S  − 6τ 
v




x
x


 + 0.6U −1  t + − 2τ 
v
v


x
x




−0.3U −1  t − − 2τ  − 0.18U −1  t + − 4τ 
v
 v



x
x



 
+0.09U −1  t − − 4τ  + 0.054U −1  t + − 6τ  
v
 v


 
357
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At the center of the line, where x =
l
:
2
 l  3E 
 τ
 3τ
V  ,t  =
U −1  t −  + 0.6U −1  t −

2
2  4 
 2


 5 
 − 0.3U −1  t − 2 τ 



 7τ 
 9τ 
 11τ  
−0.18U −1  t −  + 0.09U −1  t −  + 0.054U −1  t −

2 
2 
2  



1
&times; 10 −6
L
3
13.6 (a) Z c =
=
=100. Ω
1
C
&times; 10 −10
3
V=
τ=
1
LC
=
1
1
−6  1
−10 
 3 &times; 10  3 &times; 10 



= 3.0 &times; 108 m/s
l 30 &times; 103
=
= 1 &times; 10−4 S = 0.1 ms
v 3 &times; 108
ZG
−1
Zc
=0
(b) Γ S =
ZG
+1
Zc
ZR (S) =
R ( SL )
SL + R
EG ( S ) =
=
100
S
RS
100 S
=
R S + 50,000.
S+
L
ZR (S )
S
−1
−1
Zc
−50,000
S + 50,000
ΓR ( S ) =
=
=
S
ZR (S )
2 S + 50,000
+1
+1
S + 50,000
Zc
ΓR ( S ) =
−25,000.
per unit
S + 25,000.
358
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(c) Using (13.2.11) with x = l (receiving end)
25000 − Sτ 
 100 / S   − Sτ
I R ( S ) = I ( l, S ) = 
e +
e 


S + 25000
 200  

IR (S ) =
 − Sτ 1  1 1
1 1
25000
−1
 − Sτ
e
 +
e =  + +
2  S S ( S + 25000 ) 
2  S S S + 25000 
IR (S ) =
1 2
−1
 − Sτ
+
e

2  5 S + 25000 
iR ( t ) =
13.7 (a)
L
2 &times; 10 −6
=
= 400 Ω
C
1.25 &times; 10 −11
Zc =
w=
− ( t −τ )

1
−3
 2 − e 0.04&times;10  U −1 ( t − τ ) A
2

1
LC
τ=
=
1
( 2 &times; 10 )(1.25 &times; 10 )
−6
−11
= 2.0 &times; 108
m
s
l 100. &times; 103
=
= 5 &times; 10−4 S = 0.5ms
v
2 &times; 108
ZG
−1
Z
100
= 0 EG ( S ) =
(b) Γ S = c
ZG
S
+1
Zc
Z R ( S ) = SLR +
1
SC R
L R = 100 &times; 10 −3 H
C R = 1 &times; 10 −6 F
ZR (S)
L
1
−1
S R +
−1
Zc
Z c SC R Z c
ΓR ( S ) =
=
L
1
ZR (S)
S R +
+1
+1
Z
SC
Zc
c
R Zc
Zc
1
S+
LR
LRCR
S 2 − 4 &times; 103 S + 1 &times; 10 7
ΓR ( S ) =
= 2
Z
1
S + 4 &times; 103 S + 1 &times; 10 7
S2 + c S +
LR
LR C R
S2 −
359
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(c) Using (13.2.10) with x = l (receiving end)
VR ( S ) =
100  400   − Sτ  S 2 − 4 &times; 103 S + 1 &times; 10 7  − Sτ 
e 

 e +  2
3
7 
S  400 + 400  
 S + 4 &times; 10 S + 1 &times; 10 

 1 ( S − 2000 + j 2449.5 )( S − 2000 − j 2449.5 )  − Sτ
VR ( S ) = 50  +
e
 S S ( S + 2000 + j 2449.5 )( S + 2000 − j 2449.5 ) 
1 1
 − Sτ
− j1.633
+ j1.633
VR ( S ) = 50  + +
e
+

 S S S + 2000 + j 2449.5 S + 2000 − j 2449.5 
2

−3.266 ( 2449.5 )
VR ( S ) = 50  +
 e − Sτ
2
2
 S ( S + 2000 ) + ( 2449.5 ) 
− ( t −τ )


0.5
VR ( t ) = 50 2 − 3.266e &times;10−3 sin ( 2449.5 )( t − τ )  U −1 ( t − τ )


13.8 (a)
Zc =
w=
τ=
L
0.999 &times; 10 −6
=
= 299.73 Ω
C
1.112 &times; 10 −11
1
LC
=
1
( 0.999 &times; 10−6 )(1.112 &times; 10−11 )
= 3.0 &times; 108
m
s
l 60. &times; 103
=
= 1.9998 &times; 10−4 S = 0.2 ms
v 3.0 &times; 108
ZG
−1
Z
(b) Γ S = c
=0
ZG
+1
Zc
EG ( S ) =
 1 
RR 

 SC R  = (1/ C R )
ZR =
1
1
RR +
S+
SC R
RR C R
E
S2
RR = 150. Ω
C R = 1 &times; 10 −6 F
360
&copy; 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
 1 


 Z cCR  − 1
ZR
1
−1
S+
Z
RR C R
ΓR = c
=
ZR
 1 
+1


Zc
 Z cC R  + 1
S + 1/ Rx C R
 1
1 
−S − 
−

RRC R Z cC R  −S − 3.330 &times; 103

per unit
ΓR =
=
 1
1  S + 1.0003 &times; 10 4
S +
+

 RR C R Z c C R 
(c) Using (13.2.10) with x = 0 (sending end)
V ( 0, S ) = VS ( S ) =
(d)
E  1    −S − 3.33 &times; 103
1 +
S 2  2    S + 1.0003 &times; 10 4
 −2 Sτ 
e 


VS ( S ) =
E 1
−S − 3.33 &times; 103
e −2 Sτ
 2 + 2
S ( S + 1.0003 &times; 10 4 )
2S



VS ( S ) =
E  1  −0.333 −6.67 &times; 10 −5
6.67 &times; 10 −5  −2 Sτ 
e 
+
+
 2 +
2
S
S + 1.0003 &times; 10 4 
2 S  S

VS ( t )
=
− ( t − 2τ )



E 
−3
−5
−5
tU −1 ( t ) −  0.333 ( t − 2τ ) + 6.69 &times; 10 − 6.67 &times; 10 e 0.1&times;10  U −1 ( t − 2τ ) 
2 



361
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13.9
362
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13.10
363
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13.11
364
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13.12
13.13
For a voltage wave VA + arriving at the junction:
KVL :
VA + + VA− = VB+
KCL : I A+ + I A− = I B+ +
(1)
+
B
V
RJ
 1
VA+ VA− VB+ VB+
1  VB+
−
=
+
= VB+ 
+
=
Zc Z
Z c RJ
 Z c RJ  Z eq
where Z eq =
(2)
RJ Z c
RJ + Z c
365
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Solving (1) and (2):


VA− = 




−1 
Zc
V + = Γ V +
AA A
Z eq
 A
+ 1 
Zc

Z eq
  Z eq  
 2

Z
+
VB =   c   VA+ = Γ BAVA+
 Z eq

+1 

 Zc



Since Line Sections A and B have the same characteristic impedance Z c , Γ BB = Γ AA and
Γ AB = Γ BA .
τ=
 100 &times; 103 1
=
= ms
w
3 &times; 108
3
366
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13.14 For a voltage wave VA+ arriving at the junction from line A,
KVL VA+ + VA− = VB+
(1)
+
C
V =V
(2)
VB+ = VD+
(3)
+
B
KCL
I A+ + I A− = I B+ + I C+ + I D+
VA+ VA− VB+ VC+ VD+
−
=
+
+
Z A Z A Z B ZC Z D
(4)
Using Eqs (2) and (3) in Eq (4):
 1
VA+ VA−
1
1  VB+
−
= VB+ 
+
+
=
ZA ZA
 Z B ZC Z D  Z eq
Where Z eq = Z B // ZC // Z D =
(5)
1
1
1
1
+
+
Z B ZC Z D
Solving Eqs (1) and (5):
VA −
Z eq


−1 

ZA
 V + = Γ AAVA +
=
 ( Z eq / Z A ) + 1  A




Also VC + = ΓCAVA +
VD + = Γ DAVA +
SLG
−1
Zc
S − Z c / LG
=
13.15 Γ S ( S ) =
SLG
S + Z c / LG
+1
Zc
Zc
E
V1 ( S ) = 
S  SLG + Z c
 2 ( Z eq / Z A ) 
 VA + = Γ BAVA +
VB + = 
 ( Z eq / Z A ) + 1 
ΓCA = Γ DA = Γ BA
1
−1
−3
ΓR = 4
=
1
5
+1
4

1

 − 1
E
=

Z
S

S+ c

LG







367
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For 0 ≤ t ≤ 5τ :
 3
 −3 9 
V ( l, S ) =  1 −  V1 ( S ) e − Sτ + 
+  Γ S ( S ) V1 ( S ) e − S (3τ )
 5
 5 25 

2 E  1
1
V ( l, S ) =
−
Z
5 S
S+ c

LG



 S − Z c / LG  Z c / LG  − S (3τ )
 e − Sτ − 6 E  1  

e
25  S   S + Z c / LG  S + Z c / LG 




2 E  1
1
V ( l, S ) =
−
Z
5 S
S+ c

LG





2 Z c / LG
1
6
E
1
 e − Sτ +
−
−

2
Z
25  S

c

Zc 
S
+

LG  S + L 


G 




 − S (3τ )
e



Taking the inverse Laplace transform:
− ( t −τ )
2E 
LG / Z c
1 − e
V ( l, t ) =
5 
− ( t − 3τ )
− t − 3τ

2 ( t − 3τ ) L( / Z ) 
6E 
LG / Zc
 U −1 ( t − τ ) +
1 − e
e G c  U −1 ( t − 3τ )
−



25
L
/
Z
G
c



13.16 (a)
Z G = 100 Ω
Z c = 400 Ω
E = 100 kV


 Zc / 2 
 200 
V1 ( t ) = E U −1 ( t ) 
 = 100 
 U −1 ( t )
 200 + 100 
 Zc + ZG 
 2

V1 ( t ) = 66.67 U −1 ( t ) kV
368
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ZG
−1
Zc / 2 )
(
(b) Γ S =
=
ZG
+1
( Zc / 2 )
100
−1
1
200
=−
100
3
+1
200
Γ R = −1
(c)
(d)
400
−1
1
=
13.17 (a) Γ S = 200
400
3
+1
200
Γ AA
300
−1 1
= 200
=
300
5
+1
200
Γ BB
200
−1
1
300
=
=−
200
5
+1
300
100
−1
1
Γ R = 300
=−
100
2
+1
300
Γ BA
 300 
2

200  6
= 
=
300
5
+1
200
Γ AB
 200 
2

300  4
= 
=
200
+1 5
300
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(b) Voltage
1
1
1
Γ S = Γ AA = Γ BB = −
3
5
5
6
4
Γ BA = Γ AB =
5
5
ΓR = −
1
2
At t = 0, the 10 kA pulsed current source at the junction encounters 200 // 300 = 120 Ω.
Therefore the first voltage waves, which travel on both the cable and overhead line, are
pulses of width 50 μs and magnitude 10 kA&times; 120 Ω = 1200 kV ,
V1 ( S ) =
E
(1 − e−TS ) E = 1200. kV T = 50.μ s
S
(c)
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13.18
Nodal Equations: Note that τ = 0.2 ms and Δt = 0.02 ms
0.02 Vk ( t ) = 10 − I k ( t − 0.2 )
0.011Vm ( t ) = I m ( t − 0.2 ) − I L ( t − 0.02 )
Solving:
Vk ( t ) = 50.0 10 − I k ( t − 0.2 ) 
(a)
Vm ( t ) = 90.909  I m ( t − 0.2 ) − I L ( t − 0.02 ) 
(b)
Dependent current sources:
Eq (12.4.10)
Eq (12.4.9)
2
Vm ( t )
100
2
I m ( t ) = I k ( t − 0.2 ) +
Vk ( t )
100
I k ( t ) = I m ( t − 0.2 ) −
I L ( t ) = I L ( t − 0.02 ) +
(c)
(d)
Vm ( t )
(e)
500
Equations (a) – (e) can now be solved iteratively by digital computer for time
t = 0, 0.02, 0.04 ms . Note that I k ( ) and I m ( ) on the right hand side of
Eqs (a) – (e) are zero during the first 10 iterations while their arguments ( ) are negative.
Eq (12.4.14)
371
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13.19
Nodal Equations:
1 1

V1 ( t ) = 200  − U −1 ( t − 0.1) − I1 ( t − .1667 ) 
4 4

(a)
V2 ( t ) = 133.33  I 2 ( t − .1667 ) − I 3 ( t − .1667 ) 
(b)
V3 ( t ) = V2 ( t )
(c)
V4 ( t ) = 0
(d)
Dependent current sources:
 2 
Eq (12.4.10) I1 ( t ) = I 2 ( t − .1667 ) − 
 V2 ( t )
 400 
(e)
 2 
Eq (12.4.9) I 2 ( t ) = I1 ( t − .1667 ) + 
 V1 ( t )
 400 
(f)
 2 
Eq (12.4.10) I 3 ( t ) = I 4 ( t − .1667 ) − 
 V4 ( t )
 400 
(g)
 2 
Eq (12.4.9) I 4 ( t ) = I 3 ( t − .1667 ) + 
 V3 ( t )
 400 
(h)
372
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Equations (a) – (h) can be solved iteratively for t = 0, Δt ,2 Δt  where Δt = 0.03333ms .
I1 ( ) , I 2 ( ) , I 3 (
iterations.
)
and I 4 (
) on the right hand side of Eqs (a) – (h) are zero for the first 5
13.20
E = 100.kV
Z G = Z c = 400. Ω
Δt = 100.μ s
( 2LR / Δt ) = 2000. Ω
= 500.μ s
 Δt

 2C R

 = 50. Ω

Nodal equations:
 1

1 
0
0
+


1



− I k ( t − 500 )
 400 400 
 V t  

(
)
4

 k  

1
1 
−1


 Vm ( t )  =  I m ( t − 500 ) − I L ( t − 100 ) 
0
 400 + 2000 
2000







  Vc ( t )   I L ( t − 100 ) + I C ( t − 100 ) 
−
1
1
1



0


 50 + 2000  

2000




Solving:
1

Vk ( t ) = 200  − I k ( t − 500 ) 
4

Vm ( t )  334.7 8.136   I m ( t − 500 ) − I L ( t − 100 ) 


=

 Vc ( t )  8.136 48.98   I L ( t − 100 ) + IC ( t − 100 ) 
373
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Current sources:
 2 
(12.4.9) I m ( t ) = I k ( t − 500 ) + 
 Vk ( t )
 400 
 2 
(12.4.10) I k ( t ) = I m ( t − 500 ) − 
 Vm ( t )
 400 
(12.4.14) I L ( t ) = I L ( t − 100 ) +
1
Vm ( t ) − VC ( t ) 
1000 
 1 
(12.4.18) IC ( t ) = − IC ( t − 100 ) +   VC ( t )
 25 
t
Vk
Vm
VC
Im
Ik
IL
IC
μs
kV
kV
kV
kA
kA
kA
kA
0
50.0
0
0
0.25
0
0
0
100
50.0
0
0
0.25
0
0
0
200
50.0
0
0
0.25
0
0
0
300
50.0
0
0
0.25
0
0
0
400
50.0
0
0
0.25
0
0
0
500
50.0
83.68
2.034
0.25
0.2398
0.0816
0.0814
600
50.0
57.69
0.25
374
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13.21
E = 100. kV Z G = Z c = 299.73 Ω RR = 150 Ω
 = 25. Ω
Δt = 50.μ s ↑= 200.μ s  Δt

 2C R 
Writing nodal equations:
 1

1 
0
t


 299.73 + 299.73 



  Vk ( t )  =  2.9973 − I k ( t − 200 ) 




1
1   Vm ( t )  
 1
0
+
+
 I m ( t − 200 ) + I C ( t − 50 ) 


 299.73 150. 25. 

 

Solving:
Vk ( t ) = 50.t − 149.865 I k ( t − 200 )
Vm ( t ) = 19.999  I m ( t − 200 ) + I C ( t − 50 ) 
Current sources:
(12.4.9)
(12.4.10)
(12.4.18)
 2 
I m ( t ) = I k ( t − 200 ) + 
 Vk ( t )
 299.73 
 2 
I k ( t ) = I m ( t − 200 ) − 
 Vm ( t )
 299.73 
 1 
I C ( t ) = − I C ( t − 50 ) + 
 Vm ( t )
 12.5 
t
Vk
Vm
Im
Ik
IC
μs
kV
kV
kA
kA
kA
0
0.0
0
0
0
0
50
0.0025
0
1.66 &times; 10 −5
0
0
100
0.0050
0
3.33 &times; 10 −5
0
0
150
0.0075
0
5.0 &times; 10 −5
0
0
200
0.0100
0
6.67 &times; 10 −5
0
0
250
0.0125
3.32 &times; 10 −4
8.34 &times; 10 −5
1.43 &times; 10 −5
2.66 &times; 10 −5
300
0.0150
1.20 &times; 10 −3
10.0 &times; 10 −5
2.53 &times; 10 −5
6.94 &times; 10 −5
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13.22
Nodal Equations:
−1
10
V1 ( t )   0.1767 −0.1667  


 =  −0.1667 0.1767  

V2 ( t )  
  − I 2 ( t − 0.2 ) 
−1
V3 ( t )   0.1767 −0.1667   I 3 ( t − 0.2 ) 
 

=

V4 ( t )   −0.1667 0.1677   − I L ( t − 0.02 ) 
(a )
(b)
(c )
(d )
Dependent current sources:
Eq (13.4.10)
 2 
I 2 ( t ) = I 3 ( t − 0.2 ) − 
 V3 ( t )
 100 
( e)
Eq (13.4.9)
 2 
I 3 ( t ) = I 2 ( t − 0.2 ) + 
 V2 ( t )
 100 
(f)
Eq (13.4.14)
I L ( t ) = I L ( t − 0.02 ) +
V4 ( t )
500
(g)
Equations (a) – (g) can be solved iteratively for t = 0, Δt ,2 Δt  where Δt = 0.02ms . I 2 (
and I 3 (
)
)
on the right hand side of Eqs (a) – (g) are zero for the first 10 iterations.
13.23 (a) The maximum 60-Hz voltage operating voltage under normal operating conditions is
1.08 115/ 3 = 71.7 kV From Table 13.2, select a station-class surge arrester with 84kV MCOV. This is the station-class arrester with the lowest MCOV that exceeds
71.7kV, providing the greatest protective margin and economy. (Note: where additional
economy is required, an intermediate-class surge arrester with an 84-kV MCOV may be
selected.)
(
)
376
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(b) From Table 13.2 for the selected station-class arrester, the maximum discharge voltage
(also called Front-of-Wave Protective Level) for a 10-kA impulse current cresting in
0.5 μs ranges from 2.19 to 2.39 in per unit of MCOV, or 184 to 201 kV, depending on
arrester manufacturer. Therefore, the protective margin varies from
( 450 − 201) = 249kV to ( 450 − 184 ) = 266kV .
Note. From Table 3 of the Case Study for Chapter 13, select a variSTAR Type AZE
station-class surge arrester, manufactured by Cooper Power Systems, rated at 108kV
with an 84-kV MCOV. From Table 3 for the selected arrester, the Front-of-Wave
Protective Level is 313kV, and the protective margin is therefore (450–313) = 137kV or
137/84 = 1.63 per unit of MCOV.
13.24 The maximum 60-Hz line-to-neutral voltage under normal operating conditions on the HV
side of the transformer is 1.1 345 / 3 = 219.1kV . From Table 3 of the Case Study for
Chapter 13, select a VariSTAR Type AZE station-class surge arrester, manufactured by
Cooper Power Systems, with a 276-kV rating and a 220-kV MCOV. This is the type AZE
station-class arrester with the lowest MCOV that exceeds 219.1 kV, providing the greatest
protective margin and economy. For this arrester, the maximum discharge voltage (also
called Front-of-Wave Protective Level) for a 10-kA impulse current cresting in 0.5 μs is
720kV. The protective margin is (1300 – 720) = 580 kV = 580/220 = 2.64 per unit of
MCOV.
(
)
377
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Chapter 14
Power Distribution
14.1 See Figure 14.2. Yes, laterals on primary radial systems are typically protected from short
circuits. Fuses are typically used for short-circuit protection on the laterals.
14.2 The three-phase, four-wire multigrounded primary system is the most widely used primary
distribution configuration. The fourth wire in these Y-connected systems is used as a neutral
for the primaries, or as a common neutral when both primaries and secondaries are present.
Usually the windings of distribution substation transformers are Y-connected on the primary
distribution side, with the neutral point grounded and connected to the common neutral
wire. The neutral is also grounded at frequent intervals along the primary, at distribution
transformers, and at customers’ service entrances. Sometimes distribution substation
transformers are grounded through an impedance (approximately one ohm) to limit short
circuit currents and improve coordination of protective devices.
14.3 See Table 14.1 for a list of typical primary distribution voltages in the United States [1–9].
The most common primary distribution voltage is 15-kV Class, which includes 12.47, 13.2,
and 13.8 kV.
14.4 Reclosers are typically used on (a) overhead primary radial systems (see Figure 14.2) and on
(c) overhead primary loop systems (see Figure 14.7). Studies have shown that the large
majority of faults on overhead primaries are temporary, caused by lightning flashover of line
insulators, momentary contact of two conductors, momentary bird or animal contact, or
momentary tree limb contact. As such, reclosers are used on overhead primary systems to
reduce the duration of interruptions for these temporary faults. Reclosers are not used on
primary systems that are primarily underground, because faults on underground systems are
usually permanent.
14.5 See Table 14.2. Typical secondary distribution voltages in the United States are 120/240 V,
single-phase, three-wire for Residential applications; 208Y/120V, three-phase, four-wire for
Residential/Commercial applications; and 480Y/277V, three-phase, four-wire for
Commercial/Industrial/High-Rise applications.
Secondary networks provide a high degree of service reliability and operating flexibility.
They can be used to supply high-density load areas in downtown sections of cities. In
secondary network systems, a forced or scheduled outage of a primary feeder does not result
in customer outages. Because the secondary mains provide parallel paths to customer loads,
secondary cable failures usually do not result in customer outages. Also, each secondary
network is designed to share the load equally among transformers and to handle large motor
starting and other abrupt load changes without severe voltage drops.
379
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Secondary networks are expensive. They are typically used in high-density load areas where
revenues justify grid costs.
14.7 As stated in Section 14.3, more than 260 cities in the United States have secondary
networks. If one Googles “secondary electric power distribution networks United States,”
one of the web sites that appears in the Google list is:
Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources in Secondary...
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are
registered service marks of the Electric ... SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
OVERVIEW. Power System Design and Operation ... Printed on recycled paper in the
United States of America ... mydocs.epri.com/docs/public/000000000001012922.pdf
The following is stated on Page 2-5 of the above-referenced publication:
“Major cities, such as New York, Seattle, and Chicago have extensive distribution network
systems. However, even smaller cities, such as Albany or Syracuse, New York, or
Knoxville, Tennessee, have small spot or grid networks in downtown areas.”
14.8 (a) At the OA rating of 40 MVA,
I OA,L =
40
(13.8 &times; √ 3)
= 1.673 kA per phase
Similarly,
I FA, L =
50
(13.8 &times; √ 3)
I FOA L =
65
= 2.092 kA per phase
(13.8 &times; √ 3)
= 2.719 kA per phase
(b) The transformer impedance is 8% or 0.08 per unit based on the OA rating of 40 MVA.
Using (3.3.11), the transformer per unit impedance on a 100 MVA system base is:
 100 
Z transformerPUSystem Base = 0.08 
 = 0.20 per unit
 40 
(c) For a three-phase bolted fault, using the transformer OA ratings as the base quantities,
Isc3ϕ =
VF
Z transformerPU
=
1.0
= 12.5 per unit = (12.5 )(1.673 )
( 0.08 )
= 20.91 kA/phase
Note that in (c) above, the OA rating is used to calculate the short-circuit current,
because the transformer manufacturer gives the per unit transformer impedance using
the OA rating as the base quantity.
380
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14.9 (a) During normal operations, all four transformers are in service. Using a 5% reduction
to account for unequal transformer loadings, the summer normal substation rating is
1.20 &times; (30 + 33.3 + 33.3 + 33.3) &times; 0.95 = 148 MVA. With all four transformers in
service, the substation can operate as high as 148 MVA without exceeding the summer
normal rating of 120% of each transformer rating.
(b) The summer allowable substation rating, based on the single-contingency loss of one
of the 33.3 MVA transformers, would be 1.5 &times; (30 + 33.3 + 33.3) &times; 0.95 = 137 MVA.
Each of the three transformers that remain in service is each allowed to operate at
150% of its nameplate rating for two hours (reduced by 5% for unequal transformer
loadings), which gives time to perform switching operations to reduce the transformer
loading to its 30-day summer emergency rating. However, from the solution to (c),
the 30-day summer emergency rating of the substation is 119.3 MVA. Since it is
assumed that a maximum reduction of 10% in the total substation load can be
achieved through switching operations, the summer allowable substation rating is
limited to 119.3/0.9 = 132.6 MVA. Note that, even though the normal summer
substation rating is 148 MVA, it is only allowed to operate up to 132.6 MVA, so that
in case one transformer has a permanent outage: (1) the remaining in-service
transformers do not exceed their two-hour emergency ratings; and (2) switching can
be performed to reduce the total substation load to its 30-day emergency rating.
(c) Based on the permanent loss of one 33.3-MVA transformer, the 30-day summer
emergency rating of the substation is 1.3 &times; (30 + 33.3 + 33.3) &times; 0.95 = 119.3 MVA. When
one transformer has a permanent failure, each of the other three transformers can operate
at 130% of their rating for 30 days (reduced by 5% for unequal transformer loadings),
which gives time to replace the failed transformer with a spare that is in stock.
14.10 Based on a maximum continuous current of 2.0 kA per phase, the maximum power through
each circuit breaker at 12.5 kV is 12.5 &times; 2.0 &times; √3 = 43.3 MVA. The summer allowable
substation rating under the single-contingency loss of one transformer, based on not exceeding
the maximum continuous current of the circuit breakers, is 43.3 &times; 3 &times; 0.95 = 123.4 MVA.
Comparing this result with the summer allowable substation rating of 132.6 MVA
determined in Problem 14.9(b), we conclude that the circuit breakers limit the summer
allowable substation rating to 123.4 MVA.
–1
14.11 (a) The power factor angle of the load is θL = cos (0.85) = 31.79&deg;. Using Figure 2.5, the
QL = SLsin(θL) = 10 &times; sin (31.79&deg;)
= 5.268 Mvar absorbed
Also, the real power absorbed by the load is SL &times; p.f. = 10 &times; 0.85 = 8.5 MW
Similarly, the power factor angle of the source is θS = cos–1(0.90) = 25.84&deg;. The real
power delivered by the source to the load is 8.5 MW, which is unchanged by the shunt
capacitors. Using Figure 2.5, the source reactive power is:
P 
 8.5 
QS = SS sin (θS ) =  S  sin (θ S ) = 
 sin (25.84&deg;)
 0.90 
 p.f. 
= 4.117 Mvar delivered
381
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The reactive power delivered by the shunt capacitors is the load reactive power minus
the source reactive power:
QC = QL − QS = 5.268 − 4.117 = 1.151 Mvar
–1
(b) The power factor angle of the load is θL = cos (0.90) = 25.84&deg;. Using Figure 2.5, the
QL = SL sin (θ L ) = 10 &times; sin ( 25.84&deg; )
= 4.359 Mvar absorbed
Also, the real power absorbed by the load is SL &times; p.f. = 10 &times; 0.90 = 9.0 MW
Similarly, the power factor angle of the source is θS = cos–1(0.95) = 18.19&deg;. The real
power delivered by the source to the load is 9.0 MW, which is unchanged by the shunt
capacitors. Using Figure 2.5, the source reactive power is:
P 
 9.0 
QS = SS sin (θ S ) =  S  &times; sin (θS ) = 
 sin(18.19&deg;)
 0.95 
 p.f. 
= 2.958 Mvar delivered
The reactive power delivered by the shunt capacitors is the load reactive power minus
the source reactive power:
QC = QL − QS = 4.359 − 2.958 = 1.401 Mvar
(c) Comparing the results of (a) which requires 1.151 Mvar to increase the power factor
from 0.85 to 0.90 lagging; and (b) which requires 1.401 Mvar (22% higher than 1.151
Mvar) to increase the power factor from 0.90 to 0.95 lagging; it is concluded that
improving the high power-factor load requires more reactive power.
14.12 (a) Without the capacitor bank, the total impedance seen by the source is:
1
Z TOTAL = RLINE + jX LINE +
1
Z TOTAL = 3 + j 6 +
Z TOTAL = 3 + j 6 +
+
1
1
1
1
+
40 j 60
1
33.333
= 3 + j6 +
0.03
33.69&deg;
−33.69&deg;
Z TOTAL = 3 + j 6 + 27.74 + j18.49 = 30.74 + j 24.49 =
39.30
Ω/phase
38.54&deg;
(a1) The line current is:
I LINE =
VSLN
Z TOTAL
 13.8 
1.05 
 /0&deg; 0.2129
√3 

=
=
kA/phase
−38.54&deg;
 39.30 
 38.54&deg; 


382
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(a2) The voltage drop across the line is:
Z
 0.2129 
VDROP = LINE = (3 + j 6) 

I LINE
 −38.54&deg; 
 6.708  0.2129 
=


 63.43&deg;  −38.54&deg; 
1.428
kV
24.89&deg;
| VDROP | = 1.428 kV


 13.8 
1.428
 −
= VSLN − Z LINE I LINE = 1.05 
 √ 3  24.89&deg;


 0&deg; 
= 8.366 − (1.295 + j 0.60010 ) = 7.071 − j 0.6010
=
7.096
kVLN
−4.86&deg;
|VLOAD | = 7.096 √ 3 = 12.29 kVLL
(a4) The real and reactive power delivered to the three-phase load is:
=
= 3.776 MW
40
=
= 2.518 Mvar
60
(a5) The load power factor is:


 Q 
 2.518  
p.f. = cos  tan −1    = cos  tan −1 
  = 0.83 lagging
P
 
 3.776  


(a6) The real and reactive line losses are:
PLINELOSS3ϕ = 3I LINE 2 RLINE = 3(0.2129)2 (3) = 0.408 MW
QLINELOSS3ϕ = 3 I LINE 2 X LINE = 3(0.2129)2 (6) = 0.816 Mvar
(a7) The real power, reactive power, and apparent power delivered by the distribution
substation are:
PSOURCE3ϕ = PLOAD3ϕ + PLINELOSS3ϕ = 3.776 + 0.408 = 4.184 MW
QSOURCE3ϕ = QLOAD3ϕ + QLINELOSS3ϕ = 2.518 + 0.816 = 3.334 Mvar
SSOURCE3ϕ = √ (4.1842 + 3.3342 ) = 5.350 MVA
383
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(b) With the capacitor bank in service, the total impedance seen by the source is:
1
Z TOTAL = RLINE + jX LINE +
1
1
1
+
−
1
1
1
1
+
−
40 j60 j60
1
43.42
Z TOTAL = 3 + j6 +
= 43 + j6 =
Ω /phase
0.025
7.94&deg;
(b1) The line current is:
 13.8 
1.05 
 0&deg;
VSLN
0.1927
√3 

=
=
I LINE =
kA/phase
− 7.94&deg;
Z TOTAL
43.42
7.94 &deg;
(b2) The voltage drop across the line is:
Z TOTAL = 3 + j6 +
1.293
 6.708   0.1927 
VDROP = Z LINE I LINE = 
=
kV



 63.43&deg;   − 7.94&deg;  55.49&deg;
| VDROP | = 1.293 kV
1.293
 13.8 
VLOAD = VSLN − Z LINE I LINE = 1.05 
 /0&deg; − 55.49&deg;
√
 3 
= 8.366 − (0.7325 + j1.065) = 7.633 − j1.065
7.707
=
kVLN
−7.94&deg;
|VLOAD | = 7.707 √ 3 = 13.35 kVLL
(b4) The real and reactive power delivered to the three-phase load is:
=
= 4.455 MW
40
3(7.707)2
=
= 2.970 Mvar
60
(b5) The load power factor is:


 Q 
 2.970 
p.f. = cos tan − 1   = cos tan −1 
 = 0.83 lagging
 P 
 4.455 


(b6) The real and reactive line losses are:
PLINELOSS3ϕ = 3I LINE 2 RLINE = 3(0.1927)2 (3) = 0.3342 MW
QLINELOSS3ϕ = 3 I LINE 2 X LINE = 3(0.1927)2 (6) = 0.6684 Mvar
(b7) The reactive power delivered by the shunt capacitor bank is:
3(7.707)2
QC =
=
= 2.970 Mvar
XC
60
384
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(b8) The real power, reactive power, and apparent power delivered by the distribution
substation are:
PSOURCE3ϕ = PLOAD3ϕ + PLINELOSS3ϕ = 4.455 + 0.3342 = 4.789 MW
QSOURCE3ϕ = QLOAD3ϕ + QLINELOSS3ϕ − QC = 2.970 + 0.6684 − 2.97
= 0.6684 Mvar
SSOURCE3ϕ = √ (4.7892 + 0.66842) = 4.835 MVA
(c) Comparing the results of (a) and (b), with the shunt capacitor bank in service, the real
power delivered to the load increases by 18% (from 3.776 to 4.445 MW) while at the
same time:
• The line current decreases from 0.2129 to 0.1927 kA/phase
• The real line losses decrease from 0.408 to 0.334 MW
• The reactive line losses decrease from 0.816 to 0.668 Mvar
• The voltage drop across the line decreases from 1.428 to 1.293 kV
• The reactive power delivered by the source decreases from 3.334 to 0.6684 Mvar
• The load voltage increases from 12.29 to 13.35 kVLL
The above benefits are achieved by having the shunt capacitor bank (instead of the
distribution substation) deliver reactive power to the load.
14.13 (a) Using all the outage data from the Table in (14.7.1) – (14.7.4):
342 + 950 + 125 + 15 + 2200 + 4000 + 370
4500
= 1.7782 interruptions/year
SAIFI =
(14.4 &times; 342) + (151.2 &times; 950) + (89.8 &times; 125)
+ (654.6 &times; 15) + (32.7 &times; 2200) + (10053 &times; 4000) + (40 &times; 370)
SAIDI =
4500
SAIDI = 8992.966 minutes/year = 149.88 hours/year
CAIDI =
SAIDI 8992.966
=
= 5057.34 minutes/year = 84.289 hours/year
SAIFI
1.7782
8760 &times; 4500 − [(14.4 &times; 342) + (151.2 &times; 950)
+ (89.8 &times; 125) + (654.6 &times; 15) + (32.7 &times; 2200)
+ (10053 &times; 4000) + (40 &times; 370)]/60
ASAI =
8760 &times; 4500
ASAI = 0.98289 = 98.289%
(b) Omitting the major event on 11/04 2010 and using the remaining outage data from the
table in (14.7.1) – (14.7.4):
342 + 950 + 125 + 15 + 2200 + 370
SAIFI =
= 0.889 interruptions/year
4500
(14.4 &times; 342) + (151.2 &times; 950) + (89.8 &times; 125)
+ (654.6 &times; 15) + (32.7 &times; 2200) + (40 &times; 370)
SAIDI =
4500
SAIDI = 56.966 minutes/year
385
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CAIDI =
SAIDI
56.966
=
= 64.079 minutes/year
SAIFI
0.889
8760 &times; 4500 − [(14.4 &times; 342) + (151.2 &times; 950)
+ (89.8 &times; 125) + (654.6 &times; 15) + (32.7 &times; 2200) + (40 &times; 370)]/60
8760 &times; 4500
ASAI = 0.99989 = 99.989%
ASAI =
Comparing the results of (a) and (b), the CAIDI is 84.289 hours/year including the major
event versus 64.079 minutes/year or 1.068 hours/year excluding the major event.
14.14 Using the outage data from the two tables, and omitting the major event:
200 + 600 + 25 + 90 + 700 + 1500 + 100
+ 342 + 950 + 125 + 15 + 2200 + 370
2000 + 4500
SAIFI = 1.110 interruptions/year
SAIFI =
SAIDI = [(8.17 &times; 200) + (71.3 &times; 600) + (30.3 &times; 25) + (267.2 &times; 90)
+ (120 &times; 700) + (10 &times; 1500) + (40 &times; 100) + (14.4 &times; 342)
+ (151.2 &times; 950) + (89.8 &times; 125) + (654.6 &times; 15)
+ (32.7 &times; 2200) + (40 &times; 370)]/[2000 + 4500]
SAIDI = 428,568.3/6500 = 65.934 minutes/year
SAIDI 65.934
CAIDI =
=
= 59.400 minutes/year
SAIFI
1.110
ASAI = [8760 &times; 6500 − 428,568.3/60]/[8760 &times; 6500] = 0.99987 = 99.987%
14.15 The optimal solution space is rather flat around a value of 0.066 MW for total system losses.
The below system solution represents an optimal (or near optimal) solution.
1_TransmissionBus
138 kV
1.050 tap
3.3 MW
-0.4 Mvar
A
MVA
13.8 kV
1.050 pu
2
4com
Residential: 0.60
Commercial: 0.55
Industrial: 0.80
MVA
1.048 pu
A
MVA
5ind
1.1 Mvar
6com
MVA
1.046 pu
A
0.0 Mvar
1.044 pu
A
MVA
9com
0.55 MW
1.041 pu
10res
0.27 Mvar
A
MVA
1.038 pu
0.0 Mvar
0.80 MW
0.48 Mvar
A
0.55 MW
0.27 Mvar
1.045 pu
3
MVA
0.55 MW
0.22 Mvar
1.047 pu
MVA
Case Losses: 0.066 MW
A
1.00 pu
1.050 tap
3.2 MW
0.3 Mvar
A
0.60 MW
0.18 Mvar
1.1 Mvar
0.0 Mvar
A
MVA
11res
1.037 pu
0.60 MW
0.18 Mvar
A
7res
1.035 pu
1.046 pu
MVA
1.036 pu
1.1 Mvar
A
A
MVA
0.60 MW
0.18 Mvar
MVA
8ind
13ind
0.80 MW
0.48 Mvar
12res
0.80 MW
0.48 Mvar
0.60 MW
0.18 Mvar
386
&copy; 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
14.16 Initial losses are 0.082 MW. When the bus tie breaker is closed the losses increase to
0.124 MW. This increase is due to circulating reactive power between the two transformers.
The losses can be reduced by balancing the taps; opening some of the capacitors can also
help reduce losses. The below system solution has reduced the losses to 0.053 MW. Again
the solution space is flat so there are a number of near optimal solutions that would be
acceptable.
1_TransmissionBus
138 kV
1.025 tap
2.9 MW
-0.2 Mvar
A
MVA
13.8 kV
1.024 pu
2
4com
1.00 pu
1.025 tap
2.8 MW
-0.2 Mvar
A
A
MVA
MVA
3
1.024 pu
Case Losses: 0.053 MW
A
A
MVA
Residential: 0.60
Commercial: 0.55
Industrial: 0.80
MVA
1.022 pu
0.55 MW
0.22 Mvar
A
1.021 pu
5ind
MVA
1.0 Mvar
6com
MVA
0.55 MW
0.27 Mvar
7res
1.018 pu
MVA
0.55 MW
0.27 Mvar
A
MVA
1.022 pu
0.0 Mvar
0.60 MW
0.18 Mvar
0.0 Mvar
1.019 pu
A
10res
0.80 MW
0.48 Mvar
A
9com
1.022 pu
1.1 Mvar
A
MVA
11res
1.022 pu
0.60 MW
0.18 Mvar
A
1.025 pu
1.017 pu
1.0 Mvar
MVA
1.023 pu
0.0 Mvar
A
A
MVA
MVA
8ind
0.60 MW
0.18 Mvar
13ind
12res
0.60 MW
0.00 MW
0.00 Mvar
0.80 MW
0.48 Mvar
0.18 Mvar
14.17 Because of the load voltage dependence, the total load plus losses are minimized by
reducing the voltages to close to the minimum constraint of 0.97 per unit. Again, the
solution space is quite flat, with an optimal (or near optimal) solution shown below with
total load + losses of 9.882 MW (versus a starting value of 10.644 MW).
1_TransmissionBus
138 kV
0.981 tap
4.9 MW
-0.2 Mvar
A
MVA
13.8 kV
0.979 pu
2
4com
Residential: 1.00
Commercial: 1.00
Industrial: 1.00
0.975 pu
A
MVA
5ind
0.9 Mvar
6com
MVA
0.971 pu
A
MVA
A
MVA
9com
0.98 MW
0.975 pu
10res
0.49 Mvar
A
MVA
0.972 pu
0.0 Mvar
0.97 MW
0.58 Mvar
A
0.97 MW
0.49 Mvar
0.9 Mvar
3
0.980 pu
MVA
0.971 pu
MVA
A
0.97 MW
0.39 Mvar
0.972 pu
1.00 pu
0.987 tap
4.9 MW
0.4 Mvar
A
0.97 MW
0.29 Mvar
0.9 Mvar
0.9 Mvar
A
MVA
11res
0.971 pu
0.97 MW
0.29 Mvar
A
7res
0.971 pu
0.971 pu
A
MVA
0.971 pu
0.9 Mvar
A
MVA
MVA
0.97 MW
0.29 Mvar
8ind
13ind
0.97 MW
0.58 Mvar
12res
0.97 MW
0.58 Mvar
0.97 MW
0.29 Mvar
387
&copy; 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
```