Introduction to Mexican Culture THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION HISTORICAL EVENTS BEFORE THE REVOLUTION 1810 – 1821 Independence War 1835 – 1836 Texas War of Independence 1839 – 1843 Yucatan Secession. The Yucatan region attempted to break away from Mexico. 1846 – 1847 US – Mexican war 1847 Yucatan Rebellion THE PORFIRIATO 1876 – 1911 Porfirio Díaz was president (except between 1880 – 1884 when Manuel González ruled). Although the Porfiriato was a prosperous period, large social differences intensified. 1899 – 1904 Yaqui Indian war Eight Yaqui Indian chiefs demanded Mexican withdrawal from the Sinaloa region. THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1910 – 1920 Riots and violence persisted until 1934 when president Lázaro Cárdenas implemented the reforms of the 1917 Constitution and ended more than 20 years of violence. UPRISING Francisco Madero was the leader of the Antireeleccionistas. In 1908,Porfirio Díaz was unsure about running for president for the seventh time. Madero announced his candidacy, but Díaz changed his mind and imprisoned him and declared himself president after a very dubious election process. UPRISING After being released from prison, Madero led a non successful revolt in Chihuahua; however the news had a great impact on different parts of Mexican territory. Pascual Orozco and Pancho Villa rebelled against the government in the North and Emiliano Zapata in the south. MADERO’S REGIME Each revolucionario had its own agenda. In 1911, they forced Porfirio Díaz to resign and acknowledged Madero as a President ; however, there was no unity and Madero’s regime was a failure since its start. MADERO’S REGIME The land reform was the leitmotiv of the revolution. Zapata was the first one to turn against Madero claiming that Madero was slowing down the land reform process. THE US CONSPIRACY FOR HUERTA The USA Government thought Madero may become a threat for US business in the Mexican territory. The US conspired against Madero and supported Victoriano Huerta, who arrested Madero. Madero was assassinated in 1913 and Huerta became president. CARRANZA BECOMES PRESIDENT Villa, Alvaro Obregón and Venustiano Carranza opposed to Huerta’s cruel regime and forced him into exile in 1914. As usually among caudillos, Carranza declared himself president against Villa’s will. After a very violent period, Zapata, Villa, Obregón, and Carranza held a convention where they all agreed upon supporting Eulalio Gutiérrez as interim president because of Villa and Carranza’s rivalry. GUTIERREZ BECOMES PRESIDENT Obregón changed his mind and re-allied himself with Carranza turning his back to Villa and Zapata. Villa and Zapata lost ground blaming Woodrow Wilson’s government for supporting Carranza. Villa took retaliation against the US by killing 17 American citizens in American border towns in 1916. CARRANZA’S SECOND TERM Carranza was president again leading the writing of the 1917 Constitution. The Constitution conferred him dictatorial powers, and the right to confiscate land. The 1917 Constitution sought to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church. OBREGON BECOMES PRESIDENT. Carranza remained in power by eliminating those who opposed to his regime. Emiliano Zapata was assassinated in 1919. Carranza was killed when fleeing the capital in 1920. Obregón became president. Villa was assassinated in 1923. THE 1917 CONSTITUTION The revolution ended in 1920, but the next 14 years were characterized by social and political unrest. The Constitution invested Mexico's congress and state legislatures with the power for dismantling the great estates, forcing large landlords to sell their lands in many installments. The main goal was to eliminate the traditional landlordism in order to modernize agriculture. Outright confiscation of land was to take place only if an owner refused to comply. Post-revolutionary governments have implemented successive contradictory land-reform policies. OUTCOMES OF THE 1917 CONSTITUTION… provided labor with an eight-hour working day, a minimum wage, an annual vacation of at least fifteen days, compensation with dismissals, a right to strike. abolished child labor. limited foreigners’ agricultural property. excluded foreigners from owning property on the US and Mexico’s border and at seacoast zones. OUTCOMES OF THE 1917 CONSTITUTION… took primary schooling away from the Catholic Church, making primary education in secular schools compulsory. called for elections every six years. Carranza won the first elections and was inaugurated president on May 1rst, 1917. IMPLICATIONS OF THE REVOLUTION Changed the way society perceived women. Was the foundation for modernizing the economy. Impacted on the Arts (literature, music, painting, cinema). Provided Mexicans with a sense of identity. Inspired other land reforms in Latin America. REFERENCES Ulloa, Berta. (1996). La lucha armada (19111920) en Historia General de México. Vol.2, pp. 1073 – 1182. México, D.F.: El Colegio de México. McCaa, Robert. “Los millones desaparecidos: el costo humano de la revolución mexicana.” Trans. José Rodolfo Gutiérrez Montes. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 19.2 (Summer 2003). 6 Mar. 2008 <http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/costo_huma no_revolucion_mexicana.pdf>.