Örgütsel Davranış Araştırmaları Dergisi
Journal Of Organizational Behavior Research
Cilt / Vol.: 4, Sayı / Is.: S2, Yıl/Year: 2019, Kod/ID: 91S2497
1 Assistant
Professor of Business Administration, Department of Business Administration Faculty of Literature and
Humanities, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
2 M.A. of Executive Management, Faculty of Pardis Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran.
3 M.A of Business Management, Department of Business Management, Faculty of Management, Rasht Branch,
Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.
*Corresponding Author:
Email: [email protected]
The current research aimed at investigating the effect of organizational commitment on the employees` performance with
the mediating role of organizational happiness. The statistical population included employees working in the ministry of
education of Ardabil. Due to the boundaries of the sample, census method was utilized. Data were collected among 280
employees. The data has been collected through sending the questionnaires, whose questions were extracted from Allen
and Meyer’s Three-Component Organizational Commitment Scale, Chen, et al.`s questionnaire of organizational
commitment performance and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ). In order to analyze the data, the SEM
technique and LISREL software were used. The research results showed that there was a significant correlation between
organizational commitment and employee performance, and organizational happiness also affected employees`
performance. Moreover, the positive effect of organizational commitment on organizational happiness was confirmed in
relation to the correlation between organizational commitment and organizational happiness. In addition, the relative
mediator role of organizational happiness regarding the relation between organizational commitment and employees
performance was confirmed.
Keywords: Organizational commitment, Employees` performance, Organizational happiness, The Ministry of Education.
Employees` good performance and effectiveness are one of the keys to the success of
organizations. That is why the successful organizations of the world are trying to identify and
manage the factors affecting employees behavior, and achieve this success accordingly (Abu
al-Ala'i, 2017). Therefore, employees of an organization, as intangible assets and strategic
capitals of the organization, directly affect organization`s performance and productivity
(Kaplan and Norton, 2008). One of the intangible factors affecting employees performance is
their organizational commitment, which is a strong motivational source for enhancing
employees performance and convincing them to continue working under difficult situations
such as stress and work-related pressures (Carlos et al., 2014). Organizational commitment is
a link between an individual and organization affecting various investments, such as wages,
Geliş tarihi/Recieved: 03.011.2018 – Kabul tarihi/Accepted: 19.02.2019 – Yayın tarihi/Published: 21.05.2019
2 Örgütsel Davranış Araştırmaları Dergisi
Journal of Organizational Behavior Research
Cilt / Vol.: 4, Sayı / Is.: S2, Yıl/Year: 2019, Kod/ID: 91S2479
retirement and social relationships (Lambert et al., 2015). Creating organizational
commitment necessitates the creation and constant psychological maintenance among
organization`s employees. (Vujičić, et al., 2015). On the other hand, Dehaghi (2012) has
mentioned happiness in his study, as a factor affecting managers` commitment. Happiness
could be considered as the high ratio of emotions and positive sensations to negative ones.
Uchida et al., defined positive excitements and psychological behaviors as the descriptors of
happiness. Nastaran Boroujeni et al., in their recent research, investigated the relationship
between happiness and organizational commitment regarding teenage sport employees. They
indicated a positive and significant relationship between employees` happiness and their
dependency and commitment to the organization. Surprisingly, when employees are happy in
the working environment, they are more creative and responsible (Gavin and Mason, 2004).
Since the Ministry of Education, as one of the educational organization, has been considered as
one of the most important organizations of every society, and the administrators of education
are individuals as the source of social, political, economic and cultural changes, there would be
no doubt on the fact that dynamic and effective education would bring growth and
development for every society. As a result, paying attention to its issues, and trying to identify
and improve its key factors affecting its success or failure, are among the responsibilities of
researchers. Meanwhile, manager`s attention to employees are of utmost priority. Considering
the vital and key role of this organization in developing and improving the country, this
organization is in need of having decent and skilled managers as well as farsighted employees
(Majidian Fard and Rahimian, 2018). The current research investigated the relationship
between organization commitment and employees` performance as well as the effect of
organizational happiness on these two variables. According to the aforementioned issues, the
research question would be as following: Is there a significant correlation between
organizational commitment dimension and employees` performance?
Organizational commitment is an attitude regarding employees` faithfulness to the
organization, which is a constant process. Reilly and Chatman (1986), defined organizational
commitment as the emotional support and adherence of the organization to the its goals and
values, away from its instrumental values (a means for achieving other goals). On the other
hand, different definitions have been presented for performance. What is common in all these
definitions, is the way duties and responsibilities are done. In a definition, some have defined
human performance as the productivity of the work. Morhen and Griffen believed that
performance has a concept beyond data and product, which is a set of behaviors related to the
job that people show by themselves. Holton and Bates stated that performance is a multidimensional structure, whose evaluation is different depending on various factors. Most of the
researchers believed that performance is a multi-dimensional factor, whose most important
factors include contextual performance and task performance (Befort and Hattrup, 2003).
Task performance includes the behaviors involved in activities related to the organization's
transformation and maintenance, such as product production, management of subordinates,
provision of services, and selling goods. Contextual performance has been defined as a
behavior that is based on the psychology, social and organizational context of work (Gellaty
and Georgy, 2000). Organizational happiness is another aspects affecting the commitment and
performance of employees. When defining happiness, it could be said that happiness results
from human judgment about how to live a life. This judgment is not imposed from the outside,
rather it is an internal affair being affected by positive emotions (Dadgar et al., 2016, as cited
in Argyle, 2003).
Winhoven (2013) believed that happiness refers to the individual's judgment of the degree to
which the quality of his life is desirable. Happiness is a vital factor when creating
organizational relationships between employees, which finally develops organizational
commitment of employees. In most of the researches, the employees` performance has been
considered as one of the significant indexes when measuring the organizational performance
(Johari, 2009).
A study by Suliman and Iles (2000) investigated the relationship between the three dimensions
of organizational commitment with performance. Their results showed that only the emotional
and normative commitment dimension of the power contained the clearness of the
In their research, Olivia et al. (2010) pointed out that performance goals of the organization
were related only to emotional commitment. Mohammad Riyaz Khan (2010) concluded that
there was a positive correlation between all three dimensions of organizational (affective,
normative, and continuance) commitment and employees` performance. Bahremand and
Nazari (2015) found out that there was a positive correlation between the organizational
commitment and employees` performance. Rahman et al. (2015) concluded that all aspects of
organizational commitment had a significant and positive correlation with job performance.
Accordingly, the main research hypothesis was as the following:
H1: Organizational commitment affects employees` performance.
Moreover, in their research, Bagheri and Tavalli (2011), concluded that eployees`
organizational commitment could positively affect the job performance and increase the
ffectiveness and productivity of the organization.
Vedadi et al. (2013) also indicated that there was a significant and inverse correlation between
organizational commitment and its (affective, normative, and continuance) dimensions with
the quitting of employees. Boroujeni and Asadi (2014) concluded that they would increase the
efforts of organizations for promoting employees` morale and increasing their happiness,
dependency to the organization and their commitment and efforts to improve the performance
of the organization. Moeini (2016)`s results showed that there was a negative and significant
correlation between inadequate mental status and happiness. Accordingly, the second
hypothesis has been presented as follows:
H2: Organizational commitment affects employees’ organizational happiness.
The results of the research conducted by Mollazehi (2014) showed that there was a significant
correlation between organizational justice and organizational climate with organizational
commitment. Hosseinpour and Esmaeili (2016) found that there was a negative and significant
correlation between the total organizational happiness scale and subcomponents of selfconcept, life satisfaction, psychological preparedness, aesthetic feeling, self-efficacy, and hope
with burnout. Allameh (2016) results showed the impact of organizational culture on
employee performance. Therefore, the third hypothesis of the research was as follows:
H3: Organizational happiness affects employees` performance.
Field (2011) `s results indicated a positive relationship between happiness and emotional
organizational commitment. She ultimately considered happiness as a predictor of an
emotional organization`s commitment. Lachander and Rajib (2015) indicated that there was a
4 Örgütsel Davranış Araştırmaları Dergisi
Journal of Organizational Behavior Research
Cilt / Vol.: 4, Sayı / Is.: S2, Yıl/Year: 2019, Kod/ID: 91S2479
strong relationship between organizational commitment of employees and increasing the
quality of staff services. Thomas and Feldman (2011) found that organizational commitment
was investigated as an affirmation of the relationship between organizational commitment and
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Araujo-Lopez (2015) believed that employees`
understandings in an organization could provide significant contributions to organizations and
ultimately would have a special impact on the performance. Kundu (2017) showed that
employees' perception of labor diversity could affect organizational performance. Arménio
Rego et al. (2017) argued that happiness played a mediating role in the relationship between
organizational virtues and organizational commitment, and they play a positive and significant
role between organizational virtues and organizational commitment. Accordingly, the fourth
research hypothesis was as follows:
H4: Organizational happiness has a mediating role between organizational commitment and
employee performance.
Riyaz Khan (2010) believed that one of the ways to improve performance is to improve the
organizational commitment of employees. In fact, the basis of the conceptual model of the
present research has been based on the work of Riyaz Khan. In this study, the performance
variable is the dependent variable, and the organizational commitment id the independent
variable, and organizational happiness is the mediating variable. The current research aimed
at identifying the relationship between organizational commitment and employees` of the
Ministry of Education`s performance with the mediating role of organizational happiness as
the following model:
Figure 1. The research`s conceptual model of Chen et al. (2005), organization commitment
(Alan and Meyer, 1991) and Riyaz Khan (2010)
Since nowadays, education, as a social institution responsible for educating people in the
community, has been emphasized by the community of people, authorities and scholars. They
all believe that the development of a country depends on the cultivation of knowledgeable and
responsible people (Johnson, 2003). On the other hand, research has shown that
organizational commitment has a positive relationship with performance (Shiuan et al., 2003).
This issue is of utmost importance in organizations such as the Ministry of Education, which
has many responsibilities and referees. According to the abovementioned explanations in
relation to the sample and the method of the present research`s sampling, it should be said
that: in the present study, the statistical population included Ardabil`s Educational employees
working in the two regions of 1 and 2, whose overall employees include almost 7000
individuals. As the subject of the research was investigating official employees of these regions,
the statistical population of the study included 280 individuals, which were provided to the
researcher through staff department of the organization. Due to the smallness of the statistical
population, and the fact that it was possible to investigate the population, rather than sampling
method, census method was utilized. Methodologically, this research was descriptiveanalytical and correlational, which is placed in field studies research in respect to its
observance and control degree. Since the researcher explored the variable in their normal way,
this research was applied in terms of its purpose. Data collection was also carried out through
library and filed methods. Regarding field method, a questionnaire was utilized for completing
the data. The research questionnaire consisted of two main sections: the first section included
questions about some of the most important demographic features including gender, age,
education and years of service records. The second section was derived from standard
questionnaires (Allan and Meyer’s Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)) and the
performance questionnaire of Chen et al. as well as the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire
(OHQ) developed by Oxford University. Table 1 shows the arrangement of questions of the
research questionnaire.
Table 1: The arrangement of the questions in the research questionnaire
Number of questions
Employee`s performance
Organizational happiness
After completing the designed questionnaire based on the 5-point Likert scale, ranging from
strongly agree, agree, no idea, disagree, and strongly disagree; and applying a series of
amendments done by faculty members, content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed. In
the next step, obtaining the necessary permits from the educational organization, the
participants were asked to complete the questionnaire. The method used to analyze the data
was quantitative methods in the form of descriptive and inferential statistics. The next step was
to analyze the data using the method of structural equation modeling. Data analysis in this
study was done with the help of LISREL software and structural equation modeling. In this
study, two convergent and divergent validity criteria were used to examine the validity of the
questionnaire. If the correlation between factor loadings be high, the questionnaire would have
convergent validity. If the correlation between tests that measure different attributes be low,
tests would have divergent validity. In the divergent narrative, the difference between the
6 Örgütsel Davranış Araştırmaları Dergisi
Journal of Organizational Behavior Research
Cilt / Vol.: 4, Sayı / Is.: S2, Yıl/Year: 2019, Kod/ID: 91S2479
indices of a structure and other construct indexes has been compared in the model. (Bulut et
al., 2017)
Before evaluating the validity and reliability of the questionnaire and testing the conceptual
model of the research, an analysis of the demographic characteristics of the respondents was
presented in this section. Among the 280 participants of the study, 82.1 % of the respondents
(230 individuals) were male and 17.9 % (50 individuals) were female. People having 31 to 40
years of age and below 20 years, respectively constituted the majority and minority of the
respondents with 52.5 % and 0 %. 60% of the respondents had BA/BS degrees, while PhD
respondents were only 1.1% of the total number. Largest and smallest experience groups had
11-20 years with 48.9% and less than 5 years with 6.4%, respectively.
Before using correlations tests, the normality of the data distribution had to be assured.
Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to analyze the normality of data distribution. In case of
normality, parametric tests were used, otherwise nonparametric tests should be applied. The
results indicated that the significance level of all variables were more than 0.05. Thus, it could
be concluded that variables had normal distribution. This means that parametric tests were
As it was mentioned in the research methodology section, the validity and reliability of the
research questionnaire should be evaluated before testing the model, drawing conclusions, and
confirming or rejecting the hypotheses. There are various methods to evaluate the fitness of the
measurement model. However, the most comprehensive method involves the use of partial
least squares (PLS), in which the fitness of measurement models are evaluated based on three
criteria of construct validity, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and reliability. Table 2
shows the results of this test, including factor loadings and t-student statistic values. In order to
ensure content validity, every question was prepared by studying various information sources
and then was adjusted using the opinions of the supervisors and research consultants and
several other professors being expert on the subject of validity.
Table 2. Results of confirmatory factor analysis
Main variable
Observed variable/ Question
Emotional commitment
Normative commitment
Consistent commitment
I would be happy to spend the rest of my career in
this organization
I enjoy talking to other people about the
organization where I work.
I really feel that this organization’s problems are
my own.
I think I can easily find interest in another
organization as much as I like this one.
coefficient statistic Loadings
In the organization where I work, I do not feel
myself as a “family” member.
I do not have much emotional attachment to this
This organization means a lot to me personally.
I feel that all aspects of life are under my control.
My time is arranged in a way that I can do
anything that I want.
Therefore, all items of the questionnaire for this research were evaluated by exploratory factor
analysis. Factor loading coefficients confirmed that the variance between the construct and its
measures was greater than the variance of the error in measuring the construct and the
reliability of that model was acceptable. Two values of 0.4 (Hulland, 1999) and 0.5 (Rivard
and Huff, 1988) have been proposed for accepting factor loadings. In this study the standard
value for factor loading was considered equal to 0.5. The results of Table 2 showed that for all
items, factor loading values were greater than the standard level of 0.5 and the values of the
Student's t statistic were greater than 1.96 at 95% confidence level. Therefore, considering the
reported values, the appropriateness of the questions and their ability to measure the variables
of the research was confirmed and it can be claimed that the items in the research
questionnaire had construct validity. In addition to construct validity, discriminant validity has
also been investigated. In addition, reliability was also examined by Cronbach's alpha
coefficient. In this study, composite reliability was used to measure convergent validity. The
results of evaluating different measures of validity and reliability have been shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Discriminant Validity, Convergent Validity, and Reliability
Average of the Variance Composite Reliability
Extracted (AVE)
Coefficient (CR)
Organizational Commitment
Organizational Happiness
Employee Performance
Variable (construct)
Cronbach's Alpha
According to Table 3 and the standard values of the intended measures, it can be concluded
that discriminant validity, convergent validity, and reliability have been established for all the
research variables and the research measurement models were desirable. According to Table 3,
the AVE value was greater than 0.5. Therefore, the research measures had good construct
validity and the composite reliability coefficient was also greater than 0.6, indicating strong
In this stage, the AVE criterion was specifically used to evaluate the convergent validity (CV),
which were acceptable when compared with values. This showed an appropriate validity of
the results. After confirming the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, to investigate the
relationship between variables, structural equation model was utilized. The results of
estimating the model and testing research hypotheses have been displayed separately in figures
2, 3 and table 4.
8 Örgütsel Davranış Araştırmaları Dergisi
Journal of Organizational Behavior Research
Cilt / Vol.: 4, Sayı / Is.: S2, Yıl/Year: 2019, Kod/ID: 91S2479
Figure 2. Standard path coefficient values
Figure 3. Student’s t-statistic values
The results of testing research hypothesis have been shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Testing research hypothesis
Organizational Organizational
P value
Student’s t
The results of table 4 indicated that the value of path coefficient in the first hypothesis was
0.70, indicating the positive effect of organizational commitment on employees’ performance.
The value of t-statistics equaled to 4.90, which was more than the limit value of 1.96. As a
result, it can be assumed with at least 95% confidence that organizational commitment had a
significant effect on employee performance. In the second hypothesis, in which the
relationship between organizational commitment and organizational happiness has been
investigated, the standard path coefficient was equal to 0.60, which indicated the positive
effect of organizational commitment on organizational happiness. It can be seen that the value
of the t statistic was approximately 2.36, which was more than the 1.96 limit value. As a
result, it can be assumed with at least 95% confidence that organizational commitment had a
significant effect on organizational happiness. In the third hypothesis, the relationship between
organizational happiness and employee performance have been examined. The values of the
standard path coefficient was equal to 0.72 which indicated the positive effect of
organizational happiness on employee performance. It can be seen that the value of t statistic
was approximately 2.86, which was greater than the 1.96 limit value. As a result, it can be
assumed with at least 95% confidence that organizational happiness had a significant effect on
employee performance. The fourth hypothesis examined the effect of organizational
commitment and employee performance as a mediator on organizational happiness. To test
this hypothesis, direct and indirect effects have been utilized. The results have been indicated
in table 5.
Table 5. Direct and indirect effects
Effect of commitment of performance through happiness
Effect of commitment on happiness
Effect of happiness on performance
Direct effect Indirect effect
As it was shown in previous hypotheses, organizational commitment variable having the
standard path coefficient of 0.60, had a significant positive effect on the organizational
happiness variable. Given the significance of effect of direct path of organizational happiness
on employees` performance, it could be accepted that organizational happiness variable act as
a relative mediator variable when investigating the effect of organizational commitment on
employees` performance.
In this study, X2, Root Mean Square of Residuals (RMR), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI), Adjusted
Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI),
Incremental Fit Index (IFI), and the very important measure of Root Mean Square Error of
Approximation (RMSEA) were used in order to assess the fitness of the structural part. The
ratio of Chi-square over the degree of freedom (x / df) was highly dependent on the sample
size, and for large samples the Chi-square quantity increased more than it can be attributed to
the falsity of the model. The root square index is an approximation. In good models, this index
is 5% or less. A model with a 10% or higher index is poorly fitted. The GFI and AFGI criteria
represent a measure of the relative amount of variances and covariances explained by the
model. Both of these criteria vary between zero and one, whereas values closer to one indicate
a better goodness of fit for the model. The GFI and AFGI values for this model were 0.98 and
0.86 (greater than 0.8), which confirmed the results of the Chi-square test. Root Mean Square
10 Örgütsel Davranış Araştırmaları Dergisi
Journal of Organizational Behavior Research
Cilt / Vol.: 4, Sayı / Is.: S2, Yıl/Year: 2019, Kod/ID: 91S2479
of Residuals indicated that the difference between the elements of the matrix observed in the
sample group and the elements of the estimated or predicted matrices, assumed the correctness
of the model. RMR values closer to zero indicated a better fitness for the model. The RMR value
in this research was equal to (0.045), which indicated the proper explanation of covariance.
To assess whether a particular model was good in comparison with other possible models for
explaining a set of observed data, Normed Fit Index (NFI), Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI),
Incremental Fit Index (IFI), and Comparative Fit Index (CFI) were used. In this model, their
values were 0.88, 0.92, 0.88, and 1, respectively, which suggested a fairly good fitness for the
model. Finally, to determine if the model combined fitness and efficiency, the Root Mean
Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was used as a very powerful indicator, which was
zero percent for this model, indicating the proper fitness and good research design.
Education as a governmental organization provides various services including the
improvement of educational system`s role, development of educational communications,
constant educational activities, development of learning knowledge, increasing skills and
others. Therefore, analyzing the job performance of employees can set the ground for
increasing their effectiveness and productivity. The aim of the current study was investigating
the effect of organizational commitment on employees` performance with the mediating role of
organizational happiness among those working in the main office of the Ministry of Education.
Accordingly, the relationship between organizational commitment and employees`
performance was investigated. In the first hypothesis, in which the relationship between
organizational commitment and employee performance was addressed, the first hypothesis was
confirmed. Therefore, the results of the present study confirmed the results of the research by
Riyaz Khan (2010). The results of the present study ultimately showed that only the
dimensions of emotional and normative commitment could explain the performance. The
results of this study were also consistent with the findings of Orovin et al. (1990), Ilz and
Soleiman (2000), Olivia et al. (2010), Bunchu et al. 2014), Bahremandi and Nazari (2015), as
well as Rahman et al. (2015). It seems that by creating special conditions for individuals and
by applying learning theories, one can influence productivity, absenteeism, staff delays, quality
of work and, in general, employee performance.
In the second hypothesis, the relationship between organizational commitment and
organizational happiness was investigated. Thus, this hypothesis was also confirmed. This was
consistent with the results reported by Bagheri, Tulayi (2011), Vedadi et al. (2013), Borujeni
and Asadi (2014) and Moeini (2016). These research findings showed that happy people
performed better than others, mentally and physically. Therefore, the adoption of policies to
increase employee happiness could increase organizational commitment and improve
organizational performance.
Regarding the third hypothesis, the relationship between organizational happiness and
employee performance was examined. Therefore, the third hypothesis was also confirmed. This
finding was consistent with the results of the studies by Shamsoddini and Mohammad Jani
(2014), Molazehi (2014) Hosseinpour, Esmaeili (2015), Allameh (2016). Researchers have
identified happiness as an effective factor in the organizational productivity of managers.
The fourth hypothesis examined the effect of organizational commitment and organizational
happiness as mediator on employee performance. This hypothesis was also confirmed, which
was in line with the findings reported by Feldman (2011), Field (2011), Lachandar, Rajib
(2015) Araújo, Lopes (2015), Kundu (2017), Arménio et al. (2017). Since the direct path of
influence of organizational happiness variable on employee performance was significant, it
can be concluded that the organizational happiness variable mediated the effect of
organizational commitment variable on employee performance.
It is suggested that organizations especially the Education and Training Administration create a
sense of competition among their employees through performance appraisals and feedbacks,
by encouraging outperforming employees. It was observed that emotional commitment had a
direct relationship with performance, thus organization should take steps toward developing
the current status and should try to increase the emotional commitment. Employees
involvement in organizational purposes makes them more emotionally committed. Regarding
the normative commitment dimension, organizations could increase employee loyalty by
consistent encouragement and rewarding. Based on the results of the commitment dimension,
it is recommended that organizations increase employee attachment by offering various
programs. Education and Training Administration staff have a modest sense of happiness in
their organization. Since it has been observed, organizational happiness is directly related to
commitment. Increasing organizational happiness may be achieved by creating happier spaces
with more room, as well as by giving dignity to employees, which is an aspect that has
unfortunately been neglected in recent years. On the other hand, the present study showed
that attention to performance was in a favorable state, however.To increase the organizational
commitment and subsequently improve performance using the role of happiness as mediator,
the following suggestions have been presented:
1. Using job enrichment methods
2. Transparent organizational promotion of the employees
3. Creating a sense of trust between employees and organizations through transparency
about organizational procedures and processes.
4. Establishing face-to-face communication between managers and staff
5. Rewarding and encouraging family members of staff, for example outperforming
In this section, the limitations and constraints that the researcher encountered during the
research process have been mentioned that were identified during conducting the research,
and could be the basis for future research by other researchers. It is suggested that further
research be carried out about the relationship between organizational commitment and
different leadership styles. Since the present study faced limitations such as small sample size,
it is suggested that a larger sample size be investigated. In this research, only 2 items were used
to measure performance, hence it is suggested that more items be used to measure this
variable. Among the limitations of this research the followings are also included: the limitation
of findings to the Education and Training Administration in Ardebil province and the lack of
generalizability to other education departments, the existence of uncontrolled variables and
their possible effects on the results cannot be refuted. Variables such as political, economic,
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