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Cartel peletizadora vert. V5

The Sixth International Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology and Engineering
Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, México. November 5 to 9 , 2018
- And –
Design of a prototype with low environmental impact for the manufacture of pellets from lignocellulose waste
J. C. Paredes Rojas , B. Bravo Diaz
, S. M. García Solares , A. Flores Vela , F. J. Márquez Rocha
In Mexico, the wood industry generates tons of organic residues, which are not used and become a waste that causes enormous social, environmental and health problems in the nearby communities. From the
The selection of the material for the matrix and the rollers was stainless steel, this is because the sawdust or inorganic material that processed the pelletizer carries some humidity, also when doing the data collec-
waste generated during the wood production process, you will find the crust, sawdust and some cuts. This biomass is an energy vector that can be basic in our society, from the energy and environmental point of
tion and information is the one that is used more frequently for this type of process. (Trujillo) Subsequently, the calculations were started by determining the pressure that the roller must carry to be able to compact
view, as well as for the socioeconomic development of rural areas. That is why, in recent years, the industry of biomass production, in particular the manufacture of pellets and brickets, has experienced a great
the biomass and generate the pellets. The pressure that we will use will be 145 MPa. These data were obtained from the compilation of several articles and later analysed to obtain the pressure to use, as well as
boom on a global scale. In order to contribute to the reduction of the problems generated by the residues of the wood industry in our country, a prototype was designed for the manufacture of brickets made from
from some experiments already carried out. For the compaction pressure of the roller, the information of the study carried out by Yadong Li and Henry Liu in the year 2000 was used.
biomass. A technological development was designed applying one of the eight eco-design strategies, these are:
To calculate the compaction force of the roller, we have the following equation 1:
FC_RODILLO is the compaction force of the roller,
PRODILLO is the roller pressure
ADADO is the area of the pellet die.
In the literature, it was investigated that to determine the force and pressure of the die, we have:
A force of 1200N is proposed since FR must be less than FC_RODILLO
For calculating the pressure of the compressed material against the wall of the container.
Source: self made
"D" is the diameter of the pellet,
The biomass pellet market is considered as a thermal fuel method, has experienced a significant increase in recent years. In 2008, the main source of energy was oil, followed by natural gas. Renewables in Mexico
"μ" is the coefficient of friction between wood and steel,
have a 10% share, where hydroelectricity represents 4.5% and biomass (firewood and cane bagasse) reaches 5%, while wind and geothermal energy participated with the rest. (O. M. Cerutti, 2011). The number of
sawmills installed in Mexico is estimated at 1,250. Most are small sawmills with an average daily production of less than 20,000 pt (94 m3r). Sawmills are located mainly in states with high forest resource quality,
"l" is the length of or long of the pellet and
mainly in Durango, Chihuahua, Michoacán, Jalisco, Oaxaca and Guerrero (FAO, 2005). The productivity of the sawmills is generally low. The coefficient of sawing at the national level fluctuates between 45-60%
and most of the sawmills rarely work for 6 months. In communal sawmills, there are frequent inefficiencies related to the administration and lack of training of the workers.
Keywords: alternative energy, biomass, eco-design, pelletizing machine.
P0 is the pressure of the compressed material against the wall of the container .
For the contact length, it was started by analyzing the way to have the largest possible contact area without damaging the walls of the container. As a first step, it is to determine the diameter of the roller so that later it can be related to the length of the roller. The analysis was as follows: In Figure 3, the circle shows an inscribed box where the colored rectangles are the rollers, this analysis applies to both 2 and 4 rollers. Lat-
Installed Capacity of Biomass generation by State (2014)
er a second circle is drawn in which it is intended to save even more space since some dead areas are generated. This new circle makes the design even more efficient since the area occupied by the rollers is
Fig. 3. Design of the flat matrix
The results are summarized in the following table 1, the design of the vertical flat-bed pelletizing machine was designed in three main sections: The roller section, where it is designed in stainless steel 304 because
it is a material of high hardness , mechanical resistance, stainless, among other characteristics, the technical characteristics of pressure, force, diameters and lengths were designed based on current regulations.
The flat die was designed in 304 stainless steel due to the mechanical properties such as its high hardness, impact and tensile strength, the design was compared with commercial pelletizing machine designs, the
sizing of the flat die: diameter, thickness and number of holes, are shown in table 1. For the main axis was determined the diameter, length and revolutions, the results are shown in table 1.
Table 1. Technical characteristics of design
Rollers (MATERIAL: Stainless steel 304)
Rollers pressure
145 MPa
Rollers strength
1.395 KN
Rollers diameter
.399 m
Length / width rollers
.189 m
Matrix (MATERIAL: Stainless steel 304)
Matrix diameter
.88 m
The objective of the present article is the vertical machine of the flat matrix, for the sustainable management of the natural resources, the technology for the manufacture of pellets of high quality, as well as the offer
Matrix Thickness
.035 m
to the society of a renewable fuel within the reach of the communities rural areas of Mexico. This prototype is an alternative sustainable development for rural microenterprises in our country that,
Number of holes
Eje principal (MATERIAL SAE 1020 o 1040)
despite being rich in a wide variety of 100% renewable biomass resources,
Theoretical framework
Shaft diameter
.065 m
Shaft length
450 RPM
Source: self made
The present research work incorporates the eco-design methodology. Eco-design is a design process that takes into account the environmental impacts in all stages of the design and product development process, to achieve products that generate the minimum possible environmental impact throughout their life cycle (Capuz et al. ., 2004). Brezet and van Hemel (1997) have proposed the so-called Wheel of Eco-design
Strategies, which includes 33 principles of ecological design grouped into eight strategies. This tool is a generation of design alternatives for the engineer or designer to absorb the environmental problems of their
products (van Hemel and Cramer, 2002). Schematically, this methodology consists of the following:
Source: self made
Types of pelletizing machines
Fig. 4. Design and modeling of the flat matrix pelletizing machine
There are two main types of pelletizing machines; flat matrix and annular matrix. The flat matrix is initially used for small and medium production. The annular matrix pelletizer is the machinery for high production.
The flat matrix consists of a structure of 4 rollers that move around a fixed vertical axis, which is placed in a horizontal matrix that works stationary or rotating. The movement of the rollers compresses the granules
of the biomass through the holes in the matrix. The speed of the coating of the contact point of the flat die and the rollers is different along the radial, affecting the quality of the granules and the same wear of the
roller and the die. See the figure 1 (Castaldo, D. 2014).
A vertical flat-bed pelletizing machine was designed and modeled to produce high quality pellets. The European standard CEN / TS 14961 and / or equivalents were taken as reference. Said norm establishes the
The ring matrix pelletizer (circular) consists of a ring with several holes and two to three rollers. Initially, the mill works as a rotary roller model. Together with the rotating ring die, the biomass is extracted from the
holes and moulded into a cylinder, so that the next process immediately manages to cut the biomass with a certain length just outside the ring see figure 2. (Trujillo, 2010).
normative criteria for dimensioning pellets. The vertical flat pelletizing machine design was designed in three main sections: The roller and flat die section are designed in 304 stainless steel because it is a material
of high hardness, mechanical resistance, stainless, among other mechanical properties As: high hardness, resistance to impact and traction, the design was compared with commercial pelletizing machine designs.
For the main axis the material that was chosen is the SAE 1040 because it is a carbon refining steel widely used in the automotive industry and forging products. It is used in parts of machines that require hardness
and tenacity: cranks, bolts, bolts, gears, couplings. Diameter, length and revolutions were determined.
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Fig. 1. Vertical pelletizing machine with flat die. Source: Inderfor S.A
Fig. 2. Mechanism and process diagram of an annular matrix pelletizer
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SENER. (2009). Balance nacional de energía 2008. México, D.F.: Subsecretaria de planeación energética y desarrollo tecnológico.
Trujillo, J. E. (2010). Diseño de una maquina pelletizadora en base a la disponibilidad de residuos madereros de la ciudad de cuenca para su aprovechamiento energètico. Ecuador: Universidad Politècnica