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Summary chapter 9 - Moises Morel

Summary about chapter 9 ​
Facilitating Complex Thinking
Moises Morel
Mireya Romero
Facilitating Complex Thinking
Knowing when to challenge, and when to support, when to pause and ask, and when to move
on ahead—when to consolidate a student’s learning, and when to nudge the student forward,
these are questions about instructional strategies which facilitate complex learning, either
directly or indirectly.
In this summary we`ll consider three somewhat complex forms of thinking that are
commonly pursued in classroom learning: (1) critical thinking, (2) creative thinking, and (3)
Critical thinking requires skill at analyzing the reliability and validity of information, as well
as the attitude or disposition to do so. Educators have suggested a variety of specific
cognitive skills as contributing to critical thinking. In one study, for example, the researcher
found how critical thinking can be reflected in regard to a published article was stimulated by
annotation—writing questions and comments in the margins of the article (Liu, 2006). Also
the metacognition, this means strategies for thinking about thinking and for monitoring the
success and quality of one’s own thinking.
How best to teach critical thinking?
Critical thinking takes on a different form in each learning context. Its details and appearance
vary among courses and teachers.
Creative thinking
Creativity is the ability to make or do something new that is also useful or valued by others
(Gardner, 1993). The “something” can be an object, a skill, or an action.
The are two types of creative thinking, the first is creative thinking, the generation of ideas
that are new as well as useful, productive, and appropriate. The second is that creative
thinking can be stimulated by teachers’ efforts. Teachers can, for example, encourage
students’ divergent thinking—ideas that are open-ended and that lead in many directions
(Torrance, 1992; Kim, 2006). Divergent thinking is stimulated by open-ended
questions—questions with many possible answers, such as the following:
Another way of teaching critical thinking is using problem-solving. Problem-solving is the
analysis and solution of tasks or situations that are complex or ambiguous and that pose
difficulties or obstacles of some kind (Mayer & Wittrock, 2006). Problem solving happens in
classrooms when teachers present tasks or challenges that are deliberately complex and for
which finding a solution is not straightforward or obvious.
Problems vary in how much information they provide for solving a problem, as well as in
how many rules or procedures are needed for a solution. A well-structured problem provides
much of the information needed and can in principle be solved using relatively few clearly
understood rules. An ill-structured problem has the converse qualities: the information is not
necessarily within the problem, solution procedures are potentially quite numerous, and a
multiple solutions are likely (Voss, 2006).
"The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for
existing."—Albert Einstein
Educational Psychology,second edition/Kelvin Seifert and Rosemary Sutton-2009