Subido por Daniel Augusto Criollo Leguizamo

FB 20 Manual

FB Battery Counterbalanced Forklift Truck
 Operation Manual
(Original Instruction)
Ningbo Ruyi Joint Stock Co.,Ltd
Add:656 North Taoyuan Road Ninghai,Zhejiang China
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ⅠSpecifications of Forklift Truck.....................................................................................4
ⅡDrive, Operation & Periodic Servicing of Forklift Truck...............................................5
1. Transport Of forklift truck..............................................................................................5
2.Storage Of forklift truck............................................................................................... 5
3.Precautions before operation........................................................................................5
4.Information of safety operation ...................................................................................5
5.Periodic Servicing........................................................................................................8
6.Lubrication system.......................................................................................................9
Ⅲ Construction,Principle,Adjustment and Maintenanceof Forklift Truck.....................9
1.Transmission System....................................................................................................9
2. Brake system……………………………………………………………………………………………………………13
3. Steering System……………………………………………………………………………………………………….23
4. Electric System…………………………………………………………………………………………………………28
5. Motor………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………42
6. Battery and Charger………………………………………………………………………………………………….47
7.Hydraulic system………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50
8. Lifting system…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..61
9. Maintenance of Electric Forklift Truck………………………………………………………………………….65
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XILIN 1~3.0 ton Battery Counterbalanced forklift truck is designed on the base of
advantages of some trucks made by domestic and foreign manufacturers and developed
in introduced technology from abroad.These trucks are all suited for handling and
stacking packed goods in stations,ports,goods yards and warehouses and used widely
in food processing,light and textile,mining industries and other factories,with some of
attachments fired,the trucks can be applied more and more.
These trucks feature a wide-visible hoisting system, full powered steering unit,
self-energizing brake,continuous speed control,overhead guard with opened port and
high quality motor battery, so they have a lot of advantages such as good performance,
easy operation,wide visibility of operator, flexible steering,reliable braking,powerful and
smooth power, low contamination to environment and beautiful contour.
This manual states the truck s specifications,operation,maintenance,service,
main assemblies, constructions and working principles so as to help operators to use the
trucks correctly and attain the highest functions.It is necessary to read over the manual
before they operate the trucks or service personnel serve these trucks.
The rules and notices in the manual should be abided seriously by all of relative
personnel to enable these trucks in optimized working state for long period and bring the
highest efficiency.
This manual content might not correspond with the actual condition because of the
improving of our products.Our products are subject to improvements and changes
without notice.
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EC Declaration of Conformity
according to the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC
following equipment: :
1.6t-3.0t Battery counterbalanced Forklift Truck
Type Designation /Trademark
FB16 FB20 FB25 FB30
Ningbo Ruyi Joint Stock Co., Ltd.
Manufacturers Address
:656 North Taoyuan Road, Ninghai, Zhejiang 315600, P.R.
Refer to in this declaration conforms with the following directive(s):
Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC
ISO/DIS 3691-1.3, ISO/DTS 3691-7, EN 1175-1
The company named above will keep on file for review the following technical documentation :
Operating and maintenance instructions
Technical drawings
Risk assessment
Description of measures designed to ensure conformity
Other technical documentation ,e.g. quality assurance measures for design and production
Name and address of the person (established in the Community) compiled the technical file:
Responsible for making this declaration is the :
Authorized representative established within the EU
Authorized representative established within the EU
(if applicable):
Company Name
:Jungheinrich hlorderstedt AG&co.KG
Person responsible for making this declaration
Name ,Surname
:Ye Gouyun
Position/ Title
Ningbo Ruyi
stamp and legal signature)
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I、 FB16、FB18、FB20、FB25、FB30 Standard specification
Load capacity
Load Center
Maximum lift Height
Free lift
Tilt Angle(F/B)
Maximum lift Speeds
Maximum down Speeds
Maximum Travel Speeds
Maximum Gradeability
Minimum.Turning radius
Minimum.Aisle width
2595+Add load width
3000 (the lifting height can be 6000mm according to
2845+Add load width
Overall Length
Overall Width
Overall height
Overall height fork raised(backrest)
Overall height
Fork: length X width
Lateral fork adjustment
Front overhang
Travel electromotor
Turning electromotor
Battery Voltage
Battery capacity
Battery weight
Travel Controller
Librate(uncertainty of measurement 0.5A)
Lift electromotor
acoustic noise
Whell base
Total Weight
Max. drawbar pull,laden/unladen
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II. Drive, Operation & Periodic Servicing of Forklift Truck
It is important that driving and managing persons for forklift
truck remember the principle of the “first safety” and
ensure the safety operation as the description of OPERATION & SERVICE MANUAL and OPERATOR’S MANUAL.
1. Transport of forklift trukc
It must be pay attention to the following items when you transport forklift trucks with container or trucks:
(1) Apply the parking brake.
(2) Fix the mast and the balance weight with steel wire. Wedge up all wheels.
(3) Sling point should be always at the positions specified in sling indes plate when holsting up the forklift truck.
2. Storage of forklift truck
(1) Lower the mast to the lowest position.
(2) Turn off the key switch, place the levers in the neutral position.
(3) Apply the parking brake.
(4) Wedge up the wheels.
(5) Charge the battery once a month.
3. Precautions before operation
(1) Check all the instrument.
(2) Check the tire inflation pressure.
(3) Check all the levers and pedals.
(4) Check the battery quantity in normal limit. Check for specific gravity and level of the electrolyte.
(5) Check for all the terminals and plugs.
(6) Check hydraulic oil, electrolyte and brake fluid for leakage.
(7) Check all connectors and fasteners for looseness.
(8) Check all the lamps and signals in normal state.
(9) Release the parking lever.
(10) Make trial of the mast for lifting, lowing and forward and backward tilting and the truck for steering and braking.
(11) The contamination level of the hydraulic oil should be lower than 12.
4. Information of safety operation
(1) The forklift truck belongs to special equipment. Only trained and authorized operator should be permitted to operate
and service the truck.
(2) Wear the safety guards, such as shoes, helmet, clothing gloves while operating the truck.
(3) When the distance between the gravity cenver of loads and the fork arms is 500mm, the Max. capacity is the rated
capacity. When the distance exceeds 500mm, the capacity should be based on the load chard. Handle only loads within
the allowable capacity of the truck. The goods handled should not exceed the rated capacity of the truck.
(4) Operate your truck on a hard ground. Operate on other ground, the lift capacity and travel speed must be deceased.
Wipe off the oil and grease from the floor.
(5) Preventive maintenance services should be done before or after using the truck. Anytime you find that the truck are
not funtioning properly, operation of the truck should be halted and check or repair the trouble.
(6) When operate one lever, pay attention not to shift another lever. Don’t operate the lever at any position out of the
driver seat.
(7) Don’t handle unfixed stacked goods. Be careful to bulky goods to be handled.
(8) If the truck is equipped with a load-handling attachment, it’s usage sphere will be more wide, but its allowable load
and stability is reduced. The attachment and special device is not to be diverted to any other purpose. It’s very
dangerous to rebuild the attachment.
(9) Fork can not be used to pull out any embedded goods, when necessary, the pulling forck should be estimated.
(10) Insert forks deeply under goods and make the loads distribute on the forks evenly. Don’t pick the loads with one
fork tip.
(11) When handling bulky loads which restrict your vision, operate the machine in reverse
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(12) When loading the goods, lower the forks to the floor. After the fork inserting atacked goods, the fork arms should
be in contact with the load. When traveling, raise the forks for 200mm-300mm from the floor.
(13) While mast’s lifting and descending, people are absolutely prohibited from standing under the lifting rack. Never
permit anyone to stand or walk under upraised forks.
(14) Load and unload goods, keeping the mast vertical and the truck is in braking state.
(15) During operation, pay attention to the performance and condition of macninery, hydraulic, electric and speed
(16) Turn on the key switch, select the position of directional switch, check the power steering operation and depress
the accelerator pedal softly.
(17) When the voltmeter voltage drops below 41V /67V(FB30)during operation, the battery will be charged or replace a
full charged battery.
(18) The goods handled should not exceed the rated capacity of the truck. Insert forks deeply under goods and make
the loads distribute on the forks evenly.
(19) The shift distance of control valve lever can control the speed of the lifting or descending of the goods. When the
goods are lifted or discended, the initial speed shouldn’t be too fast in either case.
(20) It is necessary to brake the truck before tilting the mast forward or backward. It’s also necessary to decelerate and
tilt forward slowly so as to prevent the goods from slipping off the rack.
(21) Tilt the mast of the high lift forklift truck as backward as possible when the truck works. Use minimum forward and
reverse tilt when loading and unloading. It is dangerous to travel or turn at high levels.
(22) On the high lift forklift truck with the lift more than 3m, it is noted that the goods on it should not fall down or the
protection measures be taken if necessary.
(23) The overhead guard used is strong enough to meet safety standard, and protect the operator from falling materials.
It’s very dangerous to dismantle or rebuild the overhead guard, because these conditions could lead to an accident.
(24) A load backrest shall be used as protection against back falling objects on the fork. It’s very dangerous to dismantle
or rebuild the overhead guard, because these conditions could lead to an accident.
(25) Load should be contacing with a load backrest. Do not handle the load whick an exceed height of a backrest. When
load go over the load backrest, there is a danger of load’s falling against operator.
(26) The stability of the truck is influenced by the wind-force during outside operation, you must motice specially.
(27) Be careful and slowly driving over a dock board or bradge-plate.
(28) Travel with load as low as possible and tilted back. Don’t brake abruptly to prvent the bulk from slipping off the
(29) The truck should be driven to the stacked goods at a low speed, at the same time, sharp and hard objects near the
goods must be paid much attention, otherwise, the tires is pricked.
(30) Pay attention to pedestrian, obstacle and bumpy road when driving. Pay attention to the clearance over the forklift
(31) Keep your head, hands, arms, feet and legs within the confines of the operator’s compartment. Never allow other
persons on the truck.
(32) Driving, turning and loading shall not be taken on a slope. It could cause turning sideways of the truck, it is very
dangerous. On a slop, drive the truck with load forward to ascend and backward to descend. When the truck gose down
on a slope, drive slowly with the brakes on. Make sure that the engine should not be shut down when traveling on a
(33) The starting, truning, driving, braking and stopping of the truck should be done smoothly. When steering on the
humid or low friction road, the truck should be decelerated.
(34) Operate the controls smoothly, don’t jerk the steering wheel. Avoid sudden stops, starts or turns. In the worse case,
the truck will turn over. In case of this, the driver must keep calm, jumping off the truck is forbidden. The driver must
hold tightly the control wheel with two hands, meanwhile, his body must incline in opposite direction of the truck turning
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(35) The unloaded forklift truck with attachment should be operated as a loaded truck.
(36) Check the chains periodically to make sure that good lubrication condition exists between the chain elements, the
degree of tightness between left and right chain is identical. If the variation value of the chain pitch exeeds 2 percent
standard value, it indicates that the chains have been worn excessively, replace it immediately.
(37) When replacing the chain, be sure to stop the truck.
(38) Don’t make a sudden braking when the truck traveling with loads.
(39) When leaving lower the forks on the ground and let the shift lever to neutral, cut down the electrick supply. Ift
parking on a grade is unavoidable, apply the parking brake and block the wheels.
(40) When tilting the mast forward or backward to the limit or lifting the fork to the maximum height, return the
directional switch lever to neutral.
(41) Don't adjust the control valve and relief valve at will to prevent the damage of hydraulic system and its components
because of excessive pressure passing them.
(42) Tires should be inflated according to the pressure valve specified in the mark plate of "Tire Pressure".
(43) Driving on the flat and solid road will make the truck slightly vibration. The vibration of the forklift truck fluctuates
according to environment condition.
(44) Users select "Lengthening fork" in order to carry widening loads. Pay much attention not to overload and observe
the allowable load and the capacity chart on the truck. Careful driving should be taken when traveling and turning.
(45) connect the forklift and tractive pole with a soft string, and the max hauling speed can’t exceed 3km/h
(46) When operating the machine, observe and follow all markings on the machine .after the maintaince , please check
all the labels and stickers are in good condition.
(47) The following requirements apply in these climatic conditions:
− Average ambient temperature for continuous duty: +25 °C;
− Maximum ambient temperature, short term (up to 1 h): +40 °C;
− Lowest ambient temperature for trucks intended for use in normal indoor conditions: +5 °C;
− Lowest ambient temperature for trucks intended for use in normal outdoor conditions: -20 °C;
− Altitude: up to 2 000 m;
(48) Unauthorized truck modification is not permitted.
(49) no modifications or alterations to a powered industrial truck, which may affect, for example, capacity,
stability or safety requirements of the truck, shall be made without the prior written approval of the original
truck manufacturer, its authorized representative, or a successor thereof. This includes changes affecting, for
example braking, steering, visibility and the addition of removable attachments. When the manufacturer or its
successor approve a modification or alteration, they shall also make and approve appropriate changes to
capacity plate, decals, tags and operation and maintenance handbooks.
(50) Only in the event that the truck manufacturer is no longer in business and there is no successor in the
interest to the business, the user may arrange for a modification or alteration to a powered industrial truck,
provided, however, that the user shall:
a) arrange for the modification or alteration to be designed, tested and implemented by an engineer(s)
expert in industrial trucks and their safety;
b) maintain a permanent record of the design, test(s) and implementation of the modification or alteration;
c.)approve and make appropriate changes to the capacity plate(s), decals, tags and instruction handbook;
d). affix a permanent and readily visible label to the truck stating the manner in which the truck has been
modified or altered together with the date of the modification or alteration, and the name and address of the
organisation that accomplished the tasks.
(51)Please do not tow a failed forklift, which must be handled by truck. Before checking for repair, it is forbidden to
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be moved.
5. Periodic servicing
(1) Essentials of servicing
a. Periodic inspections and servicing can make the forklift truck in good condition. Some critical components must be
replaced according to demands.
b. Use genuine parts only. Use genuine or recommended oil only.
c. If any damage or fault is found, the matter should be reported to the employee. Do not operate the truck until the
truck has been repaired completely.
d. Only trained and authorized serviceman shall be permitted to service the truck.
(2) Caution for starting
a. The amount of hydraulic oil: The oil level should be at the middle position between the upper and lower scale marks
of oil level meter.
b. Check if any leak or damage found on the piping joints, pumps and valves.
c. Check the traveling brakes: The free travel of brake pedal is 40mm, the clearance between the front floor and the
pedal should be bigger than 20mm.
d. Check the parking brake: The unload truck can park on the 20% grade ramp, when the parking lever is pulled to the
e. Check the meters, lights, switches and electrick wirings to see if they are properly in operation or not.
(3) Charging the battery
a. Please refer to Operation & Service Manual of Battery about the initial charging and normal charging of the battery.
b. When the voltage of the battery reduces to 41V or the voltage of each cell drops below 1.7V, the battery capacity
warner flushes, charge the battery or replace a full charged battery.
c. Measure the special gravity, level and temperature of the electrolyte.
d. After a battery is used, it should be charged immediately. In the use of the batteries, you should try to prevent them
from over discharging or being over charged. Either way will afftect their span of service time and functions.
Refer to Operation & Service Manual of Battery about charging method and maintenance.
(4) Recommended oil
Brand or code
Hydraulic oil
N32# or N46#
Gear oil
Brake fluid
Lubricant grease
DOT3 Compound brake fluid
3# Lithium base grease (drop point 170)
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6. Lubrication system
III. Construction, Principle, Adjustment and Maintenance
1. Transmission System
1.1 General description
The transmission system consists of a gear assembly, differential assembly and drive axle. With direct connection of the
drive gear and the drive motor, the travel speed of the truck can be changed with the speed of the motor, and the travel
direction can be changed with the rotation direction of the motor.
1.1.1. Gear assembly and differential assembly
Gear assembly is located between the drive axle and the drive motor. This device is utilized to reduce the speed,
increase the torque transmitted from the output shaft of the transmission land impart them to the differential. See Fig.
The differential is housed in the front potion of the case of the reducer, the front end of the case of the reducer is
connected with the axle housing. The differntial case is of splitting type. The differential includes two half-shft gears and
four planet gears. See Fig. 1-2.
1.1.2 Drive axle
The drive axle mainly consists of the housing, the wheel-hubs, the wheels. The housing is an integrally cast. The tire
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with the rim is fixed to the hub with studs and nuts. The power is transmitted to the half-shaft shrough the differential
and drives the front wheels through the hubs. Each hub is fixed on the housing with two tapered roll bearings, so that
the half-shafts bear only the torque transmitted to the hubs. In the inside of the hub there are oil seals to prevent water
and dust from entering or oil leakages. See Fig. 1-3.
The tires, rims and the pressure of the front wheel. See Table 1-1.
1. Ring gear
2. Planet gear
3.Gear shaft
4. Differential case
5. O-ring
6. Cover
7. Bearing
8. Reducer case
9. Bearing
10. Bearing seat
11. Bearing
12. Nut
13. Shim
14. Shim
15. Oil seal
16. Drive gear & shaft
17. Shim
18. Gear shaft
19. Bevel gear
20. Bearing
22. Lock washer
21. Bearing seat
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Fig. 1-2 Differential
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Fig. 1-3 Drive axle
1.2 Reassembly of wheel hub
(1) Fill the chamber of wheel hub with lubricting grease about 100cc, then fit the hub on the shaft.
(2) Screw down the hub nut to a torque of 1kg.m, then loosen it for 1/2 turn.
(3) Measure the torque value that the wheel hub starts rotation. When the torque valve measured is up to 5-15 kg.m,
screw down the hub nut.
(4) Screw down the locking nut and lock the locking pin.
(5) Reassembly of tire
Fix the drain tap and the cover on the tire, and screw down wheel-rim bolts.
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2. Brake system
2.1 General description
The brake system is the front two-wheel braking type consisting of a master cylinder, wheel brake and brake pedal
2.1.1 Brake pedal
The structure of the brake pedal is shown in Fig. 2-1.
Fig. 2-1 Brake pedal
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2.1.2 Master cylinder
The cylinder contains valve seat, check valve, return spring, primary cup, piston and secondary cup, which are all kept in
place with with a stop washer and a stop wire. The exterior of the cylinder is protected from dust by means of a rubber
dust cover. The piston is actuated through the push rod by operation of the brake pedal. As the brake pedal is pressed,
the push rod pushes the piston forwards. The brake fluid is the cylinder flows back to the reserve tank through the
return port until primary cup blocks up the return port. After the primary cup passes through the return port, the brake
fluid in the cylinder is pressurized and opens the check valve, flowing through the brake pipeline to the operating cylinder.
Thus, each operating cylinder piston is forced outwards. This brings the friction pieces on the brake shoes come into
contact with the brake drum and slows or stops the truck. Meanwhile, the cavity behind the piston is filled with brake
fluid let through the return port and inlet port. When the brake pedal is released, the piston is forced back by the return
spring. At the same time, the brake fluid in each operating cylinder is pressurized by the return spring, returning into the
master cylinder through the check valve. With the piston in its original position, the brake fluid in the master cylinder
flows into the reserve tank through the return port. The bake fluid in the brake pipelines and operating master has b
residual pressure proportioned to the set prssure of the check valve, which makes each operating cylinder piston cup
securely seated to prevent oil leakage and eliminates a possibility of air locking when the truck is sharply barked.
2.1.3 Wheel brake
The wheel brake is the internal expansion hydraulic type consisting of brake shoes, spring, operation cylinder and
adjuster, and backing plates.
Two wheel brakes are provided on each end of the front axle. The brake shoe, one end of it being connected to the
anchor pin and the other to the adjuster, is stressed on backing plate by the spring and spring pull rod. The primary shoe
is provides with the parking pull rod while the secondary shoe with the adjust lever of the clearance self-adjuster.
(1) The brake operation is as follows:
The primary and secondary shoes are respectively forded by a forced equal in value and contrary in direction each other,
by operation of the operating cylinder to bring the friction piece in contact with the brake drum. The primary shoe forces
the adjuster with the aid of friction force between the friction piece and the drum. Due to this, the adjuster pushes the
secondary shoe by the large force than that offered by operation of the operating cylinder. The sccondary shoe upper
end is forced strongly against the anchor pin, providing large braking force. See Fig. 2-3.
On the other hand, the braking operation in the truck’s reverse travel is perfomed in reverse order, but the braking force
is the same as that in the case of the truck’s forward travel. See Fig. 2-4.
(2) Parking brake
The parking brake is of machanical, internal expansion and built in the wheel brakes. It shares the brake shoes brake
drum with the wheel brake system. As the parking brake lever actuate, through the brake cables, parking pull rod which
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pushes, in turn, the parking push rod to the right with the aid of the pin as a fulcrum, forcing the secondary shoe against
the brake drum. See Fig. 2-5.
(3) Clearance self-adjuster
The clearance self-adjuster keeps appropriate clearance between the friction piece and brake drum. This adjuster,
however, actuates only when the truck is brake in reverse travel. It’s structure refers to Fig. 2-6.
Fig. 2-3 Braking operation
Fig. 2-4 Braking operation
In forward travel
in backward operation
Fig. 2-5 Parking brake
Fig. 2-6
▲ Motion of clearance self-adjuster
When the brake pedal is pressed in reverse travel, the brake shoes are expanded. As a result of
this, the secondary and primary shoes come into contact with the brake drum and rotate
together until the upper end of the primary shoe comes into contact with the anchor pin. On
the other hand, as the secondary shoe leaves the anchor pin, the section (A) of the adjusting
lever is relatively pulled and the section (B) of the adjuster lever descends, the descending
distance of the section (B) becomes further if the clearance between the friction piece and
brake drum is too large. This causes the adjuster to turn left and the adjusting to achieve. (see
Fig. 2-7).
Range of adjustable clearance:
Fig. 2-7
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2.1.4 Parking brake lever
The parking brake lever is of a cam type. The brake force can be adjusted with the adjuster on the end of the brake
Brake force adjustment:
When you turn the adjuster clockwise, the force increase, otherwise, when you turn the adjuster conterclockwise, the
force decreases. See Fig. 2-10.
Pull force: 20 to 30 kg.
▲ Pull force adjustment of lever (Fig. 2-10)
(1) Position of releasing the brake.
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(2) Pull the lever (point B) with 15-30Kg force, it can be pull to diagrammatic position. When the force is great, the point
A turns to right, on the contrary turns to left.
Fig. 2-10
▲ Switch adjustment: (see Fig. 2-11)
1. Loose the two lock nuts.
2. Pull the parking brake lever.
3. Turn the switch to make the clearance about 1mm.
4. Make sure that when you release the parking brake and pull the rod
again, the switch is “ON”.
Fig. 2-11 Parking brake lever
2.2 Maintenance of wheel brake
This paragraph covers the disassembly, reassembly and adjustment of the
wheel brake. The description here is mainly for 3t truck brake, the other
trucks brake are similar to it in general.
2.2.1 Wheel brake disassembly
(1) Remove the hold-down spring of secondary shoe. Remove the adjusting
lever, pole lever stopper and return spring for push rod. See Fig. 2-12.
(2) Remove two shoes return springs. See Fig. 2-13.
(3) Remove three hold-down springs. See Fig. 2-14.
Fig. 2-12
(4) Remove the primary and secondary shoes. At the same time, remove the adjuster spring. See Fig. 2-15.
(5) Remove the brake line from the wheel cylinder. Remove wheel cylinder mounting bolts and detach the wheel cylinder
from the backing plate. See Fig. 2-16.
(6) Remove the E-retainer for securing the parking brake cable to the backing plate. Remove the backing plate mounting
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bolts and detach the backing plate from the axle. See Fig. 2-17.
(7) Remove the boot and push the piston assembly out of the operating cylinder. See Fig. 2-18.
Fig. 2-13
Fig. 2-15
Fig. 2-16
Fig. 2-17
Fig. 2-18
2.2.2 Inspection of wheel brake
Inspection all parts to make sure if there’s any worn or damaged part.
If unsatisfactory, repair of replace with new one.
(1) Check the operation cylinder inner surface and the piston
periphery surface for rusting. Then, measure the clearance between
the piston and cylinder. (Fig. 2-19).
Specified clearance: 0.03-0.10mm
Maximum clearance: 0.15mm
Fig. 2-19
(2) Visually check the piton cup for damage or deformation. If unsatisfacory, replace with new one.
(3) Check the free length of the operation cylinder spring. If unsatisfactory, replace it.
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(4) Check the friction piece for thickneww to see if it is excessive worn. If
necessary, replace it. See Fig. 2-20.
Unit: mm
Specified thickness
Min. thickness
Fig. 2-20
(5) Check the condition of the brake drum inner surface. If any damage or excessive wear is found, repair by machining
or replace it . See Fig. 2-21.
Unit: mm
Specified thickness
Min. thickness
Fig. 2-21
2.2.3 Wheel brake reassembly
(1) Apply brake fluid to the piston and the piston cup, and reinstall the
spring, cup, the piston and the dust cover in this order.
(2) Install the operation cylinder on the backing plate.
(3) Install the backing plate on the front axle.
(4) Apply grease on the points indicated in Fig. 2-22, with care not to
contaminate the friction piece with grease.
a. Backing plate bearing surfaces
b. Anchor pin
c. Contact surfaces between brake shoe and spring seat
d. Parking pull rod pin
e. Surface of the screw of the adjuster and other rotating parts
(5) Install the brake cable assembly on the backing plate with an E-retainer.
(6) Install shoes on the backing plate with hold-down springs. Seel Fig. 2-23.
Fig. 2-22
(7) Put the spring on the parking push rod then install the rod on the shoe.
(8) Install the shoe guide plate on the anchor pin, and install the shoe return spring. See Fig. 2-24.
(9) Install the adjuster, adjuster spring, push rod and its return spring.
Pay attention to the following points:
a. Adjuster thread direction and its mounting direction.
b. Adjuster spring direction (Do not allow the adjuster gear teeth to contact with the spring).
c. Return spring direction of the push rod: Spring hoot at anchor pin side should be located at the opposite side to
push rod.
d. Make sure that the adjusting lever end is in contact with the adjuster gear teeth.
(10) Install the brake line on the operating cylinder.
(11) Measure the inner diameter of drum. Adjust the adjuster to obtain the difference needed between the drum inner
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diameter and the friction piece outer diameter. Specified difference: 1mm.
Fig. 2-23
Fig. 2-24
Fig. 2-25
Fig. 2-26
2.2.4 Operation test to clearance-self-adjuster
(1) Make the brake shoe diameter approach the specified mounting size, and pull the adjusting level with your finger
along the arrow marks as shown in Fig. 2-27 to turn the adjuster gear. When removing off your finger, the adjusting
lever should return to its original position without rotation of the adjuster gear.
Note: Even if the adjuster gear turn back along the adjusting lever motion when removing your finger, the adjuster will
still operate normally after it is built in the machine.
Fig. 2-27
(2) If the adjuster fails to do the above operation when the adjusting lever is pulled, proceed with the following
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a. Make sure that the adjusting lever, push rod and the return spring for push rod are securely installed.
b. Check the push rod return spring and adjuster spring for deterioration, and also check the adjuster gear for
rotating condition and undue wear or damage of the meshing section.
2.2.5 Brake pedal adjustment (see Fig. 2-28)
(1) Make the push rod short.
(2) Adjust the pedal to height with the stopper bolt.
(3) With the brake pedal pressed by the idle stroke of 10mm, pull the rod out until its front end comes into contact with
the master cylinder piston.
(4) Tighten the push rod locking nut.
▲ Brake switch adjustment
(a) After you adjust the height of the brake pedal, loose the lock nut of the brake switch.
(b) Pull the plug out to let the lead separate.
(c) Turn the switch to make the clearance about 1mm.
(d) Make sure that when you press the brake pedal the brake lamp light at the same time.
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2.2.6 Wheel brake troubleshooting
Poor braking
Noisy brake
Uneven braking
Soft or spongy
Probable cause
1. Fluid leaks from brake system
2. Maladjustment of brake shoe clearance
Adjust the adjuster
3. Brake overheating
4. Poor contact between drum and friction piece
5. Foreign matter adhered on friction piece
Repair or replace
6. Foreign metter mixed in brake fluid
Check brake fluid
7. Maladjustment of brake pedal (inching valve)
1. Hardened friction piece surface or foreign matter
adhered there
Repair or replace
2. Deformed backing plate or loose bolts
Repair or replace
3. Worn friction piece
Repair or replace
4. Worn friction piece
5. Loose wheel bearing
1. Oil-contaminated friction piece
Repair or replace
2. Maladjustment of brake shoe clearance
Adjust the adjuster
3. Malfunction of operation cylinder
Repair or replace
4. Shoe return spring deteriorated
5. Deflected drum
Repair or replace
1. Brake fluid leaks from system
2. Maladjustment of brake shoe clearance
Adjust the adjuster
3. Air mixed in brake sytem
Exhaust air
4. Maladjustment of brake pedal
3. Steering System
3.1 General description
The steering system consists of steering hand-wheel, a steering shaft, a powered steering unit, a steering pump, a
steering column and steering axle. The angle of the steering cloumn can be adjusted. See Fig. 3-1.
Fig. 3-1 Steering system
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3.1.1 Cycloid gear type powered steering unit (Fig. 3-2)
The powered steering unit can transmit the pressure oil from the flow-divider by metering to the steering cylinder in
terms of the rotating angle of the hand-wheel. When the steering pump stops running, a manpowered steering should
be adopted.
There is a relief valve on the powered steering unit. The pressure of the relief valve has been adjusted before the electric
fork lift trucks are distributed. Don’t adjust the pressure of the relief valve.
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3.1.2 Steering axle
The steering axle is of section-boxed welded construction type (Fig. 3-3). It includes axle body, steering cylinder, tie rods
and steering wheel. The steering axle is pivoted in the bearing seats bolts to the rear frame, thus causing the axle body
be able to oscillate around the axle. Left and right knuckles are positioned at two sides of the steering axle respectively.
The rear wheel hubs are fitted to the knuckle shafts through tapered roll bearing with oil seals keeping the grease in the
chambers of the hubs and the knuckles. The wheels with rims are bolted on the hubs.
The steering rim and the pressure of the steering wheel:
Truck model
Tire size
Rim size
3.50 D
4.33 R
Tire pressure
0.65 MPa
0.65 Mpa
Pressure of steering
5.5 MPa
6.3 Mpa
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(1) Steering knuckle
Both steering knuckles are fitted between the upper and the lower bushes through two king pins, thrust bearing and
shims. The king pin is locked on the steering knuckle with a lock pin. Both ends of the king pin are supported by needle
bearing which are pressed into the bushes. See Fig. 3-4.
Fig. 3-4 Knuckle
1. Thrust bearing
2. Knuckle
5. King pin
6. Needle bearing
3. Lock pin
7. Bushing
4. Shim
8. Support
(2) Steering cylinder
The steering cylinder is of double-action piston type. Both end of the piston rod are connected with steering knuckles
through connection rod. Left of right of the truck turning is achieved with the help of the left or right travel of the piston
rod driven by the pressure oil from the powered steering unit. See Fig. 3-5.
Fig. 3-5 Steering cylinder
1. Piston
2. Cylinder cover
3. Cylinder body
4. O-ring
5. Bearing ring
6. Sleeve
7. O-ring
8. Sleeve
9. Yx-ring
10. Gasket
11. Dust-ring
12. Bushing
13. Clip ring
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(3) Wheel hub
The rear wheel hubs are fitted to the knuckle shafts through two tapered roller bearings, the wheel with rims are bolted
on the hubs. There are oil seals keeping the grease in the hubs and the chambers of the knuckles between the outside
of the two tapered roller bearing. The degree of the bearing tightness is adjusted by the nut.
3.2 Adjustment and maintenance
3.2.1 Rear wheel bearing pre-load adjustment
(1) As shown in Fig. 3-6, fill up the chamber formed by wheel hubs, wheel hub bearing and wheel hub covers with
lubricating grease. Coat the lips of the oil seal with lubriction grease.
(2) Press the hub bearing into the hub and fit the hub on the knuckle shaft.
(3) Fit a flat washer and tighten a castle nut to a torque of 206-235 N.m
(21-24 kg.m) and loosen it, and then tighten it again to a torque of 9.8 N.m
(1 kg.m).
(4) To ensure firm installation of the hub, slightly knuckle at it with a
wooden hammer and in the meantime, rotate the hub for 3-4 turns.
(5) Tighten the castle nut and align one of its notches with a cotter pin hole
drilled in the steering knuckle.
(6) Again slightly knock at the hub with a wooden hammer and in this time,
rotate manually the hub for 3-4 turns to ensure its smooth rotation with a
specified torque of 2.94-7.8 N.m (0.3-0.8 kg.m).
(7) If the torque value necessary to rotate the hub is more than the
specified one above-mentioned, screw out the castle nut for 1/6 turn and
measure the torque value then.
Fig. 3-6 Pre-load adjustment
(8) When the torque value measured is up to the specified one, lock the castle nut with a cotter pin.
3.2.2 Wheel assembly
Install the inside rim and gasket inside the outside rim and assembly the outside rim and inside rim. Pay attention to the
following condition:
(1) Put the air valve rod in the notch of the rim and make it face outside.
(2) Make the tops of the rim bolts face outside.
(3) Don’t stand near the tire inflating air.
(4) When the tire pressure reaching 98Kpa (1kgf/cm2), knock the tire slightly to make the inner rim and gasket into the
Fig. 3-7 Wheel assembly
3.2.3 Inspect after reassembling the steering system
(1) Turning the steering hand-wheel right and left, inspect the steering power whether is smooth.
(2) Inspect connection of the hydraulic pipeline whether is correct by turning the steering hand-wheel right and left.
(3) Lift up the rear wheels and slowly turn the steering hand-wheel right and left several times to exhaust air from the
hydraulic pipeline and the steering cylinder.
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3.2.4 Steering system troubleshooting
Fail to turn hand-wheel
Difficult to turn
Truck’s snaking or moving
with oscillation
Excessive noise
Oil leakage
Analyses of Trouble
Pump damaged or breaking down
Hose or joint damaged or pipeline blocked
Clean or replace
The pressure of the relief valve is two low
Adjust the pressure
Air in steering oil circuit
Steering unit fail to recover due to spring piece
damaged or elasticity unsufficient
Exhaust air
Replace spring piece
Oil leakage in the steering cylinder
Inspect the seal of the piston
Spring damaged or elasticity insufficient
Too low oil level in the oil tank
Refill oil
Suction pipeline or oil filter blocked
Clean or replace
Seals of guide sleeve, pipeline or joint damaged
4. Electric System
4.1 General description
The electric system is composed of battery, drive motor, lift motor, steering motor, multifunctional controller system,
control switch, LCD combined instrument and lamps ets. See Fig. 4-1 and Fig. 4-2.
Fig. 4-1 Electric system
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Fig.4-2 Diagrams of traction controls (single control)
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Fig.4-2 Diagrams of traction controls (double control)
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Fig.4-2 Diagrams of traction controls (double control)
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4.1.1 Multifunctional control system
Multifunctional control system consists of separately excited motor controller, pump controller and contactor. Separately
excited motor controller is composed of controller and accelerator. (Fig. 4-3).
(1) SX transistor controller
SX transistor controller is introduced by GE using the advanced technology, it has the advantages as follows:
independently controlling the field and armature currents, the best attributes of both the series and the shunt wound
motors can be combined, it has high torque at low speed, a plug braking, thermal protector and battery protector etc.
(2) The accelerator is composed of start switch and potentiometer. When closing the start switch, the controller will
receive a starting signal. Actually the potentiometer is a precision adjustable resistor, it connect with a control pedal. (Fig.
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Fig. 4-3 Controller Assy
4.1.2 LED instrument
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Fig. 4-5
a. Direction for instrument use
(1) Voltmeter
It indicates voltage of the battery.
(2) Lamp switch & electric lock
Pull the lamp switch to the first “on” position, the front lamps and rear lamps are on. Pull the lamps switch to the second
“on” position, the headlights are on while the front lamps and rear lamps Keep on. Turn the key switch clockwise to
connect electric controller, the instrument circuit and the electric circuit are ready for work.
(3) Error code display
When the electric controller is in trouble, a specific code displays, it can afford serviceman fault information.
(4) Battery quantity normal
When turn the key switch, this light is on, meaning working stated is normal.
(5) Battery quantity under lower limit warning
Light on when the battery quantity is below 40V, at the same time, lift supply circuit protection relay action.
(6) Right turning signal
(7) Brake signal
(8) Width lamp indication light
(9) Drive state signal
(10) Backing signal
(11) Short light
(12) Headlights
(13) Left turning signal
(14) Electric controller hour meter
(15) Working hour meter
b. Lighting and signal device
They indlude all kinds of illuminating lamps, signal lamps, horn and buzzer, etc.
Headlight: 35W
Front combination lamp (truning/front): 21W/8W
Rear combination lamp (truning/rear/backing): 21W(red) / 8W(red) / 10W(white)
Warning lamp: 21W (optional)
4.2 Brief explanation for operation
(1) Starting
There is a starting protection circuit in the control box for the forklift truck. You have to shift the direction switch in
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neutral before you start the engine. Otherwise, you can not start the engine.
Turn the key switch clockwise to the firest “on ” position, the instrument circuit and the firing circuit are ready for work.
After the engin starting, push the direction switch forward (that is in forward gearshift), then pedal accelerator, the
forklift truck runs faster and you can begin to work. When pull the direction switch backward (that is in reverse
gearshift), the backing lamp is on and the buzzer sounds.
(2) Lamp switch
Pull the lamp switch to the first “on” position, the front lamps and rear lamps are on. Pull the lamps switch to the second
“on” position, the headlights are on while the front lamps and rear lamps keep on.
(3) Turning signal
Pull the truning switch backward, the left turning lamps flash. Push the turning switch forwards, the right turing lamps
(4) Brake signal
When you pedal brake, the brake lamps (red) in the rear combination lamps are on.
(5) Backing signal
When you need to reverse the forklift truck, pull the direction switch backward and transmission is in reverse gear. Then
the backing lamps (white) in the rear combination lamps are on and the buzzer sounds.
Harness drawing: Fig 4-6 – Fig. 4-10.
Fig. 4-6 Instrument harness
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Fig. 4-7 Cabinet harness
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Fig. 4-8 Instrument harness
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Fig. 4-9 Rear overhead guard harness
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4.3 General troubleshooting instructions
If mis-operation of the vehicle occurs, a status code will be displayed on the display. With the status code number, follow
the procedures outlined in the status code instruction sheets to determine the problem. Traction status code:
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4.4 Maintenance essentials
▲ Periodic inspection of controller
Be sure to disconnect the battery plug and wait for two minutes when inspecting the electric system.
1. Inspection of electric parts.
Inspection tool
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★ Note:
Loose bolts and nuts installed on the controller terminal will cause heat and damage. If it has existed, you must polish
the side with abrasive paper and tighten them. In addition, disconnect of the plugs will cause abnormal action. And
check the terminal which are loosen and the cable which is damaged.
2. Inspection of fuse
When the current of the main circuit is higher than the standard, fusing fuse protect controller against damaging or
Part name
Fuse for travel
Fuse for load
Fuse for PS
(1) Inspection of fuse for travel (F1)
① Turn the measure meter to voltage, connect negative pole with negative terminal of the controller.
② Connect positive pole with top terminal and bottom terminal of the F1 fuse to measure voltage.
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Voltmeter (key switch is on)
Measure port
Bottom terminal
Top terminal
Battery voltage
Bad (replace fuse)
Battery voltage
(2) Inspection of fuse for load (F2)
① Turn the measure meter to voltage, connect negative pole with negative terminal of the controller.
② Connect positive pole with top terminal and bottom terminal of the F2 fuse to measure voltage.
Voltmeter (key switch is on)
Measure port
Bottom terminal
Top terminal
Battery voltage
Bad (replace fuse)
Battery voltage
(3) Inspection of fuse for load (F3)
① Turn the measure meter to voltage, connect negative pole with negative terminal of the controller.
② Connect positive pole with top terminal and bottom terminal of the F3 fuse to measure voltage.
Voltmeter (key switch is on)
Measure port
Bottom terminal
Top terminal
Battery voltage
Bad (replace fuse)
Battery voltage
5. Motor
5.1 General description
Main parameter of motor
Traction motor
Rated power
Rated voltage
Rated current
Lifting motor
Rated power
Rated voltage
Rated current
Steering motor
Rated power
Rated voltage
Rated current
1.5-1.8t forklift truck
2.0t forklift truck
2.5t forklift truck
3.0t forklift truck
5kw (an hour)
7kw (an hour)
7kw (an hour)
10.2kw (an hour)
6.3kw (fifteen minutes)
8.2kw (fifteen minutes)
8.6kw (fifteen minutes)
10kw (fifteen minutes)
0.8kw (thirty minutes)
0.8kw (thirty minutes)
0.8kw (thirty minutes)
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5.1.1 Traction motor
Traction motor is installed on reduction box.
Rotation status of the motor detected by two sensors transmits to the controller.
5.1.2 Lifting motor
Lifting motor is installed on the left side of frame. See Fig. 5-1 and Fig. 5-2.
Lift relay and controller assembled in the counterweight control start and stop of the lifting motor.
5.2 Maintenance essentials
5.2.1 Traction motor
(1) Maintenance when driving
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(2) Maintenance when stopping
(3) Periodic checking
Periodic checking must be done according to the following list. But at thick dust or high humidity place, adding check
frequency is necessary.
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▲ Inspecting Essentia
During periodic checks, please abide by the following essentials.
1. Select a clean and dry place.
2. When disassembling, taking notes on the order of disassemble is necessary. Put the screws and washers into a
prepared box.
3. When disassembling or assembling parts sush as trestle, strike at it slightly with a wood hammer. If strike with a metal
hammer, the trestle may be broken.
4. Don’t damage the parts during operation. Make the stator coil and bearing far away from water, dust or sand.
5. It’s necessary to clean and check after finishing disassembling. If find parts lack or damaged, replenish or replace at
6. Wipe the coil with cloth or soft brush instead of hard material or gasoline, petroleum and other solvent.
7. Dry the coil when the insulating resistance is too low. Heat the coil to 80℃-90℃ until the resistance more than 1MΩ.
8. Check if the bolts are loosen and tighten them.
9. Please refer to the fourth item about bearing inspection.
10. When the paint has discolor or come off, antirust treatment or repaint is necessary.
11. Tighten the terminals securely.
12. After assembling, check carefull for and residual parts and if the screws are loosen. Before trial operation, rotate the
shaft with hands, check for any abnormality.
13. Select a place away from moisture, dust, alkaline or other harmful gax for storing motor. Smear antirust oil on the
ends of the shaft and wrap with oil paper.
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(4) Bearing inspection
The service life of the bearing varies with the load and driving condition. If the bearing was observed high tempreature
of abnormal noise, replace if immediately.
Sealed bearing is of effective lubrication because it is sealed high quality lithium grease, its structure also can prvent the
dust from entering.
Operation time
More than 12 hours everyday
During 8 to 12 hours everyday
Check frequency
Once three years
Once every six years
Expecially at thick dust or harmful gas place, adding check frequency is necessary.
▲ Assemble bearing
Assemble bearing with steel pipe or retainer. See Fig. 5-3.
Fig. 5-3
▲ Disassemble bearing
Disassemble bearing with special dismantler. See Fig. 5-4.
Fig. 5-4
5.2.2 Lifting motor
(1) Ball bearing
If the bearing has abnormal noise or firing, disassembly the bearing from the shaft.
When disassembling, use a small dismantler. The bearing disassembled can not be used.
When assembling a new bearing, give a force on the inner circle of the bearing with a barrel appliance.
(2) Measure insulating resistance
Connect negtive pole of the meter with motor bedplate, positive pole with either of the two terminals, the measure value
should more than 5MΩ.
(3) Periodic checking of brush and brush spring
The line marked on the electric brush indicates wearing limit. When roughness is excessive, replace it.
Measure the tesion of the brush spring with spring balance meter.
(4) Rectifier inspection
Rectifier is the most important part of the motor. If oil or foreign matter adhered on it, it will cause electric brush
excessive roughness and weaken the efficiency of the rectifier. Clean it with compressed air or dry cloth.
Polish up the roughness of the rectifier surface with 500# or 600# sand paper.
Maintaining rectifier need special mechanical tool, so you’d better call qualified serviceman.
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▲ Reference value of inspection
6. Battery and Charger
6.1 Genearal description
Performance parameter
1.6t, 1.8t, 2.0t
Electrolyte ensity
Intelligent control, three phase alternating-current stabilivolt charger
Rated power
Appropriate battery capacity
6.1.1 Battery
The shell of the battery is a steel plate box, 48V /80V battery consists of 24/40 series cells (2V). See Fig. 6-1.
Fig. 6-1 Battery
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▲ Use of battery
In the use of the batteries, you should try to prevent them from over discharging. It will affect their span of service time
and functions. (See Fig. 6-2)
Depth of discharge can be obtained by measuring the density. (See Fig. 6-3).
Check electrolyte every ten days. If electrolyte is insufficient, make up distilled water before charging.
Fig. 6-2 Ralation between discharge depth and service life
Fig. 6-3 Decrease in density
6.1.2 Charger
Charger consists of controller, power block and transformer.
It adopts intelligent closed cycle control, it can display the status of charge and fault, and can measure the battery
Charger panel
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48V/65A 48V/80A 80V/65A
1. When connect to power and turn switch on, “power” indication light on.
2. When the battery quantity is full, “full” indication light is on.
3. When the charger has trouble, “error display” (3) indication light is on and “DC.FIND” displays on the display window.
4. When the battery need charging, press “equilibrium” button and connect power, the indication light (4) is on and
“--JH--” displays on the display window.
6.2 Charge the battery
Each time after a battery is used, it should be charged immediately. If it is left idle long without charging, the plates will
get sulphatized. As a result, the battery will become less functional. When the battery is seldon used, it is necessary to
charge the batteries once a month.
Don’t place the discharged battery which hasn’t been charged in time more than a day.
Measure the density when the discharging quantity is thought very weak, the density is below 1.26, it is necessary to
charge the battery.
When it is charged frequently, that is properly over charging, it’s life will be shorten.
6.2.1 Precaution when charging
(1) If the temperature of electrolyte is above 50℃ before charge, it is necessary to leave the battery idle for a period of
time, not until the battery is cool can it be charged.
(2) Overcharging or over discharging could make the temperature of electolyte go up. When charging the battery,
hydrogen gas is occurred. Open the battery cover under charging.
▲ Density conversion
The density of electrolyte varies with its temperature according to the following formula:
S25=St+0.0007 (t-25)
In this formula, when S25 refers to the standard temperature the density of the eletrolyte is (g/cm3).
St- When the temperature is t, the actual density of the electrolyte is (g/cm3)
0.0007 is the coefficient in the conversion of different temperatures.
t- When the density is being measured, the temperature of the electrolyte is degree.
When the battery capacity lamp displays on the liquid crystal displayer, please charge in time according to the following
a. Park the truck at reserved place. Turn off the key switch and connect the battery.
b. Confirm that the input power of the charger is 220V/50Hz, the switch capacity must more than 30A, and the charger
must match with the battery.
c. The minimum quantity of electrolyte should be kept, the level of the electrolyte must high than guide plate 15-25mm.
d. Correct connect the plug of the battery with relevant charger.
e. Turn on the switch, the charger displays current system’s version, the voltage of battery and the maximum current of
charging. The charger begins to give an automatic test.
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f. After testing, the charger enters the charging program. Vltage, current, charging hour and ampere-hour charged are
displayed in turn.
g. When the full indicator flashes, the battery capacity is full. Now, the floating current of the charger is 1-3A.
h. After testing, turn off the switch, disconnect the battery plug from the charger.
i. Before using the forklift truck, measure the specific gravity of electrolyte.
Temperature of electrolyte
Specific gravity of electrolyte
(2) Charge
After operation, suggest charging make ues of intervals, charging procedure refers to dairy charging.
(3) Equal charging
After over discharging, make up of distilled water or measure the density and temperature of the electrolyte, if not meet
the standard, equal charing is necessary. Equal charging should be doen by observing the flollowing order:
After operating by the same method with daily operating, press “equal” charging function button, the “equal” indictor
flushes and “--JH--”appreas. When the battery is full charged, press the “equal” button again. The charger returns to
normal condition.
7. Hydraulic system
7.1 General description
The hydraulic system consists of lift pump, steering pump, control valve, lift cylinder, tilt cylinder and hydraulic lines. Lift
pump is driven by lift motor. Steering pump is driven by steering motor.
Main pump
Steer pump
Control valve
Lift cylinder
Tilt cylinder
Steer cylinder
Hydraulic oil amount
Gear pump
Drive type
Connect with motor
Gear pump
Drive type
Connect with motor
Setting pressure
Single-action piston type with cut-off valve
Bore dia.
Outer dia.
1495mm (lifting height is 3000mm)
Dual-action piston type
Bore dia.
Outer dia.
Dual-action piston type
Bore dia.
Outer dia.
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7.1.1 Control valve
The control valve consists of four valve housing, two spools, one relief valve. The four valve housings are assembled
together with three bolts and nuts. The tilt spool valve contains a tilt lock valve. See Fig. 7.1
Fig. 7.1 Control valve
(1) Operation of the control valve
The control valve is operated by the levers. All the levers are mounted on the one linking shaft and the linking shaft is
fitted on the cabinet through a bracket. The levers operate the spools through the linking rod.
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Fig. 7-2 Operation of the control valve
▲ Install the valve switch
Press reel of the valve switch into 0.8±0.1mm, make the reel and the camshaft keep identical center.
(2) Setting pressure of the main relief vlave
Do not adjust the pressure of the main relief valve at will. If the pressure is different with standard value, according to
the measure method specified in JB/T3300, specialized serviceman first loose the lock nut, and then adjust the
adjusting screw. When you trun the screw left, the pressure gose down. When you turn the screw righ, the pressure
gose up. After you get the pressure that you need, screw down the lock nut.
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7.1.2 Lift cylinder
The lift cylinder is of single-action piston type. It consists of primarily of cylinder body, piston rod, piston and cylinder
head. The bottom of the cylinder is connected with the cylinder supporter of the outer mast by bolts and pin, while its
top (i.e. piston rod head) is connected with the upper beam of the outer mast.
The piston, fastened to the piston rod with spring wire is fitted with oil seals and wearing on its outer periphery.
At the bottom of the lift cylinder is cut-off valve, which operates when the high-pressure hose bursts for any reason to
prevent the load from droping abruptly.
Fig. 7-4 Lift cylinder
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▲ Cut-off valve action
There is a cut-off valve that operates when the high-pressure hose bursts for any reason to prevent the load from
dropping down abruptly at the bottom of the lift cylinder (Fig. 7-5). The oil from the lift cylinder flows through small
holes in the circumference of the cut-off valve spool and produce a pressure difference between two chambers. As the
pressure difference as result of passing the holes is smaller than the spring force so that the cut-off valve spool won’t
move. If the high-pressure hose bursts, the pressure difference will be big enough to overcome the spring force, causing
the spool to move until the holes on the circumference on the spool are blocked up and allowing only a small amount of
oil to flow through the holes at the spool end to let the forks descend at low speed.
At working
7.1.3 Flow regulator valve
The flow regulator valve, located in the lift cylinder circuit limit the descending speed of loaded forks, has the
construction shown in Fig. 7-6.
When the lift spool is placed in the “lift” position, the oil from the control vlave flows through the oil chambera A and B,
oil holes C, D, E and F, and the chamber G to the lift cylinder without any regulation. When the lift spool is placed in the
“down” position, the oil passes the orifice plate and a pressure difference B, the pressure difference overcomes the force
of the spring and moves the valve core right, thus the oil flow being decreased by narrowing of the hole D and C, and
reduces the oil flow passing through the orifice plate.
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7.1.4 Tilt cylinder
The tilt cylinder is of double-acting type. Each truck has two tilt cylinders that are installed on two side of the frame with
pin while their piston rod ends are connected with the outer mast.
The tilt cylinder consists primarily of piston, piston rod, cylinder body, cylinder base, guide sleeve and seals. The piston,
welded to the piston rod, is fitted with two Yx-rings and one wear ring on its circumference. A bushing press-fitted to the
inner side of the guide sleeve supports the piston rod. The guide sleeve is screwed into the cylinder body.
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When the tilt lever is pushed forward, the high-pressure oil enters into the cylinder body from the cylinder tail, moving
the piston forward and causing the mast assembly to tilt forward until 6 degrees. When the tilt lever is pulled backward,
high prssure oil enters into the cylinder body from the guider sleeve and moves the piston backward, tilting the mast
assembly backward until 12 degrees.
7.1.5 Oil tank
The oil tank is located on the right box body. There are an inlet filter in the oil tank and a return filter in the return oil
▲ Replace filter
1. Loose the drain plug and discharge oil.
2. Clean the oil tank board and loose the screw.
3. Remove the inlet pipe and outlet pipe.
4. Remove the oil tank board.
5. Remove the return filter, replace new filter.
6. Remove the inlet filter, replace new filter.
7. Remove the oil gasket, replace new one and smear sealant (Three Bood 400#).
8. Install the oil tank board, connect the inlet pipe and outlet pipe.
7.1.6 Hydraulic oil circuit (See Fig. 7-9)
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7.2 Maintenance
7.2.1 Maintanance of main pump
(1) Disassembly
Before disassembly the pump, put the removed parts on the paper or cloth. Don’t damage the parts.
(a) Hold the pump in a vice by lightly clamping the flange section.
(b) Remove bolts 11, pump cover 5, pump body 1. (Fig. 7-16).
(c) Remove lining plate 6, driving gear 2 and driven gear 3.
(d) Remove seal ring 7 and ring 8 from the front and rear covers.
If you don’t want to replace the seal ring, don’t remove it from the front cover.
(2) Inspection
The disassembled parts except rubber parts should be washed with light oil.
(a) Pump body inspection (Fig. 7-10))
If the scraping trace is up to 1/2 long of the inner periphery it indicates that the bearing and gear shaft are subject to
excessive were, replace the pump body.
(b) Lining plate inspection (Fig. 7-11)
Inspect the contact surface of the lining plate. If the surface is worn or its thickness in smaller than the specified value,
replace the lining plate. Specified thickness: 4.94mm.
(c) Front and rear cover (Fig. 7-12)
If the inner surface of bushings discolored, replace.
(d) InspectFig.
the driving
gear andpipe-line
the driven gear. If they are worn, replace them. If the dimension D is smaller than the
7-9 Hydraulic
specified value, replace a pare. (Fig. 7-13)
(e) Replace seal rings, bushing, rings, oil seals and snap rings as require.
(3) Reassembly
(a) Install a new seal ring and a new ring on the front cover of pump.
Hydraulic system General
(b) Install the lining plate on the groove of the front cover, don’t confuse the inlet oil port and the outlet oil port.
(c) Install the driving gear and the driven gear on the front cover.
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(d) Install the lining plate on the side of the gear, don’t confuse the inlet oil port and the outliet oil port.
(e) Install a new seal ring and a new ring on the groove of the rear cover. (Fig. 7-14)
(f) Install the rear cover on the pump body, don’t confuse the inlet oil port and the outlet oil port. (Fig. 7-15)
(g) Tighten up the connecting bolts with a specified torque of 9 to 10 kg.m after all.
1.Pump body
2. Driving gear
3. Driven gear
4. Front cover
5. Rear cover
6.Lining plate
7.Seal ring
8. Ring
9. Oil seal
10. Snap ring
11. Bolt
12. Washer
(4) Trial run
After installing the gear pump in the truck, check it reassembled for specified performance and do the running-in for it.
If the pump’s gear are seized or internal parts worn excessively, you should renew the hydraulic oil and filters or
strainers or clean them. The trial run procedures are as follows:
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(a) Install the gear pump in the truck. Then install a pressure gauge in pressure inspection port of the control valve.
(b) Loose the adjustment screw of the relief valve and run the pump at 500 to 1000 rpm for ten minutes. The oil
pressure should be lower than 10 kg/cm2.
(c) Increase the speed of the pump to 1500 to 2000 rpm for ten minutes.
(d) Without the charge of the speed in step, increase the pressure to 20 to 30 kg/ cm2 and run the pump for five minutes.
Then increase the pressure to 175 kg/ cm2. Each circuit works for five minutes and then renew the return filter.
During the increase of the pressure, observe the charge of oil temperature and pump body surface temperature and
working voice. If the oil temperature or pump body surface temperature is excessively high, discharge the pump to
adjust the temperature.
(e) After the trial run, measure the flow amount through lift speed with the pressure of 175 kg/ cm2 of the relief valve.
7.2.2 Troubleshooting
If the hydraulic system occurs trouble, find out the possible cause according to the following tables and repaire it.
(1) Control valve
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(2) Main pump
8. Lifting system
8.1 General deicription
The load system is of two-stage. It consists of the inner mast, the outer mast and the lift bracket.
8.1.1 Inner and outer mast (Fig. 8-1 and Fig. 8-2)
The inner and outer mast both are welded parts. The bottom of outer mast is connected with drive axle.
The outside middle of outer mast is connected with the frame by tilt cylinders. The mast assembly can be tilted forward
and backward by operating tilting cylinders.
The outer mast has C-shaped cross section. The outer mast fixed with main roller and side rollers on the top of it.
The inner mast has J-shaped cross section. It fixed with main rollers and side rollers at the bottom of it.
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Fig. 8-1 Inner and outer mast (1-1.5t)
Fig. 8-2 Inner and outer mast (2-2.5t)
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8.1.2 Lift bracket
The lift bracket moves up and down smoothly along the channel of the inner mast with main rollers. The main roller is
fixed on the axis of the main roller by snap ring. And the axis of the main roller is welded on the lift bracket. But the side
roller is assembled on the lift bracket with bolts. Main rollers sustain the longitudinal load. And side roller sustain the
transverse loads. When forks reach its maximum height, the upper pair of main rollers will come out from the inner mast
top. (Fig. 8-4, Fig. 8-4).
Fig. 8-3 Lift bracket (1-1.5t)
Fig. 8-4 Lift bracket (2-2.5t)
8.2 Adjustment of lifting system
8.2.1 Adjust lift cylinder (Fig. 8-5)
It must readjust stroke of the lift cylinder when the lift cylinder, the inner mast or the outer mast is replaced. As
(1) Place piston rod heads into the upper beam of the inner mast without shims.
(2) Ensure that two lift cylinders are lifted at the same time when the mast
ascended the ultimately stroke.
(3) If they not lifted synchromously, add shims between the upper beam of the
inner mast and the piston rod head which reaches the lift cylinder’s ultimately
stroke in movement. The shims’ thickness is 0.2mm or 0.5mm.
(4) Adjust the tightness of lift chains.
8.2.2 Adjust lift bracket’s height
(1) The truck should be stopped on horizontal ground. And ensure the masts erect.
Fig. 8-5
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(2) Lower the forks on the ground, adjust the set nut of tiie-in on the upper of chains to assures the distance A between
main rollers and the lift bracket. (Fig. 8-6)
(3) Make the mast assembly tilt backward when forks descended the ground, adjust the pulling force of lift chains and
let the tightness of lift chains be equal.
Type of forklift
8.2.3 Replacing rollers of the lift bracket
(1) Place a salver on the forks and make the forklift stop on the horizontal ground.
(2) Make the forks and salver descend to the ground.
(3) Take down tie-in on top of the chains. And take out chains from sheave.
(4) Make the inner mast rise. (Fig. 8-8①)
(5) The forklift can be reversed when the lift bracket disengaged from the outer mast. (Fig. 8-8②)
(6) Replacing main roller.
(a) Take apart all of snap ring from the lift bracket and take out main rollers.
(b) Fit the new main roller (the same type as the old one) on the lift bracket and fastened with snap ring.
8.2.4 Replacing roller of mast
(1) Take apart the fork bracket from the inner mast, then replace the main roller follows the way as 8.2.3.
(2) Park the truck on the horizontal ground and lift up the front-wheel 250-300mm from the ground. (Fig. 8-9)
(3) Pull parking brake level fully, and use a wedge to make back-wheel stationary.
(4) Take apart bolts which fastened lift cylinders and the inner mast. Hang up the inner mast without losing shims of the
piston rod heads carefully.
(5) Take aparts bolts which jointed lift cylinders and the bottom of outer mast and take apart the oil-pipe between two
lift cylinders without loosing the nipple.
(6) Main roller on the upper outer mast will be showed on the top of the inner mast as soon as main rollers were taken
apart from bottom of the inner mast after laying down the inner mast.
(7) Replace main rollers.
a. Take apart the upper main rollers without losing shims.
b. Fit the new main roller and shims together on the outer mast.
(8) Hang up the inner masts and lit all rollers in the inner mast.
(9) Assembly the lift cylinder and the lift bracket as disassembly contrarily.
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Fig. 8-8
Fig. 8-9
9. Maintenance of Electric Forklift Truck
During operating the forklift truck, it is necessary to operate carefull and adjust timely, service and maintenance to make
the forklift truck keep in good condition.
(1) Replace gear oil in the differential and reducer after the new truck working for 100 hours.
(2) Readjust the clearance of the driving and driven gear in the reducer after new truck working for 200 hours.
(3) Maintain the motor, eletric controller and battery accroding to their manuals.
(4) Check all plugs once a month.
(5) Don’t wash the truck with a water syringe. Outdoor using the truck in rainy day is forbidden.
(6) Clean the dust of photoelectric coupler of the hydraulic motor switch.
(7) Clean and dry the surface of the battery and often remove dust.
(8) Periodic maintenance must be done according to the following list after using the forklift truck.
Period (hrs)
Bearing, steer wheel
Replace grease
Bearing, drive wheel
Replace grease
Steering link lever
Replace grease
Parking brake lever
Add grease
Pin, foot brake
Add grease
Drive axle
Replace gear oil
Braking oil
Whenever necessary
Pin, tilting cylinder
Add lubricating oil
King pin of knuckle
Replace grease
Hydraulic tan and filter
Hydraulic oil
Lift chain
If damaged,
replace it
Switch, hydraulic motor
Clean photoelectric coupler
Brush, traction motor
Brush, hydraulic motor
Brush, P.S. motor
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Maintenance card:
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Client feedback:
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