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ANSI AWWA C208-12 FAB DE TUB

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ANSI/AWWA C208-12
(Revision of ANSI/AWWA C208-07)
The Authoritative Resource on Safe Water®
AWWA Standard
©
Dimensions for
Fabricated Steel
Water Pipe Fittings
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SM
Effective date: Nov. 1, 2012.
First edition approved by AWWA Board of Directors Jan. 26, 1959.
This edition approved June 10, 2012.
Approved by American National Standards Institute Aug. 21, 2012.
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AWWA Standard
This document is an American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard. It is not a specification. AWWA standards describe
minimum requirements and do not contain all of the engineering and administrative information normally contained in specifications. The AWWA standards usually contain options that must be evaluated by the user of the standard. Until each optional
feature is specified by the user, the product or service is not fully defined. AWWA publication of a standard does not constitute
endorsement of any product or product type, nor does AWWA test, certify, or approve any product. The use of AWWA standards
is entirely voluntary. This standard does not supersede or take precedence over or displace any applicable law, regulation, or
codes of any governmental authority. AWWA standards are intended to represent a consensus of the water supply industry that
the product described will provide satisfactory service. When AWWA revises or withdraws this standard, an official notice of
action will be placed on the first page of the Official Notice section of Journal - American Water Works Association. The action
becomes effective on the first day of the month following the month of Journal - American Water Works Association publication
of the official notice.
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An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. An American
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Caution Notice: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approval date on the front cover of this standard indicates
completion of the ANSI approval process. This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. ANSI
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eISBN-13, electronic: 978-1-61300-188-2
eISBN-10, electronic: 1-61300-188-6
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information or retrieval system, except in the form of brief excerpts or
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Copyright © 2012 by American Water Works Association
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ISBN-13, print: 978-1-58321-892-1
ISBN-10, print: 1-58321-892-0
Committee Personnel
John L. Luka, Chair
General Interest Members
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R.J. Card, Manufacturing Consultant, Sugar Hill, Ga.
A. Collins, JCM Industries, Nash, Texas
R.R. Collins, JCM Industries, Nash, Texas
K. Couture, American SpiralWeld Pipe Company, Birmingham, Ala.
D. Dechant, Manufacturing Consultant, Aurora, Colo.
A. Fletcher, Tyco Water, Southbank, Australia
B.D. Keil, Northwest Pipe Company, Portland, Ore.
J.L. Luka, American SpiralWeld Pipe Company, Columbia, S.C.
R.N. Satyarthi, Baker Coupling Company Inc., Los Angeles, Calif.
D. Seals, JCM Industries, Nash, Texas
K.L. Shaddix, Smith-Blair Inc., Texarkana, Texas
B. Simpson, American SpiralWeld Pipe Company, Birmingham, Ala.
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(AWWA)
The Standards Committee on Steel Pipe, which developed this standard, had the following personnel at the time of approval:
John H. Bambei Jr., Chair
Dennis Dechant, Vice-Chair
John Luka, Secretary
General Interest Members
W.R. Brunzell, Brunzell Associates Ltd., Skokie, Ill.
R.J. Card, Lockwood Andrews & Newnam Inc., Sugar Hill, Ga.
R.L. Coffey, HDR Engineering Inc., Omaha, Neb.
H.E. Dunham, MWH Inc., Bothell, Wash.
S.N. Foellmi, Black & Veatch Corporation, Irvine, Calif.
R.L. Gibson, Freese and Nichols Inc., Fort Worth, Texas
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(AWWA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
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The Steel Water Pipe-Manufacturers Technical Advisory Committee (SWPMTAC) Task Group
on C208, which developed this revision, had the following personnel at the time:
©
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
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(AWWA)
(AWWA)
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Producer Members
S.A. Arnaout, Hanson Pressure Pipe Inc., Dallas, Texas
H.H. Bardakjian, Consultant, Glendale, Calif.
R.R. Carpenter, American SpiralWeld Pipe Company, Birmingham, Ala.
D. Dechant, Dechant Infrastructure Service, Aurora, Colo.
W.B Geyer, Steel Plate Fabricators Association, Lake Zurich, Ill.
B.D. Keil, Northwest Pipe Company, Pleasant Grove, Utah
J.L. Luka,* American SpiralWeld Pipe Company, Columbia, S.C.
R.D. Mielke,* Northwest Pipe Company, Raleigh, N.C.
J. Olmos, Ameron International, Rancho Cucamonga, Calif.
G.F. Ruchti,* Steel Plate Fabricators Association, Punta Gorda, Fla.
D. Walker, Tnemec Company Inc., Oakville, Ont.
J.A. Wise, Canus International Sales Inc., Surrey, B.C.
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(AWWA)
(MSS)
(AWWA)
(SPFA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
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(AWWA)
(SPFA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
User Members
G.A. Andersen, New York City Bureau of Water Supply, Little Neck, N.Y.
J.H. Bambei Jr., Denver Water, Denver, Colo.
B. Cheng, Metro Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C.
R.V. Frisz, US Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo.
* Alternate
† Liaison, nonvoting
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(AWWA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
(USBR)
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M.B. Horsley,* Horsley Engineering, Overland Park, Kansas
J.K. Jeyapalan, Pipeline Consultant, New Milford, Conn.
R.A Kufaas, Norske Corrosion & Inspection Services, Surrey, B.C.
J.L. Mattson, Corrosion Control Technologies, Sandy, Utah
W.J. Moncrief,* HDR Engineering Inc., San Diego, Calif.
E.N. Olson,† Standards Council Liaison, Brown and Caldwell, Gold Hill, Ore.
R. Ortega,* Lockwood Andrews & Newnam, Houston, Texas
E.S. Ralph,† Standards Engineer Liaison, AWWA, Denver, Colo.
A.E. Romer, AECOM, Newport Beach, Calif.
J.R. Snow,* MWH Americas Inc., Denver, Colo.
H.R. Stoner, Consultant, North Plainfield, N.J.
C.C. Sundberg, CH2M HILL, Issaquah, Wash.
W.R. Whidden, Woolpert, Orlando, Fla.
G. George, Tacoma Water, Water Supply Section, Tacoma, Wash.
T.J. Jordan, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, LaVerne, Calif.
M. McReynolds,* Metropolitan Water District of Southern California,
La Mirada, Calif.
G. Oljaca,* Metro Vancouver, Burnaby, B.C.
G.P. Stine, San Diego County Water Authority, San Diego, Calif.
N.A. Wigner, Los Angeles Department of Water & Power, Los Angeles, Calif.
J.V. Young, City of Richmond, Richmond, B.C.
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* Alternate
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(AWWA)
(AWWA)
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(AWWA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
(AWWA)
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Contents
All AWWA standards follow the general format indicated subsequently. Some variations from this
format may be found in a particular standard.
SEC.
PAGE
SEC.
Foreword
Introduction...................................... ix
I
I.A
Background....................................... ix
I.B
History.............................................. ix
I.C
Acceptance......................................... x
II
Special Issues...................................... x
III
Use of This Standard.......................... x
5
Verification..................................... 15
6
Delivery.......................................... 15
©
Figures
1A–1F Recommended dimensions
for water pipe fittings (except
elbows)....................................... 10
III.A Purchaser Options and Alternatives.... x
III.B Modification to Standard.................. xi
IV
Major Revisions................................. xi
V
Comments....................................... xii
Standard
PAGE
2A–2B
Recommended dimensions for
water pipe elbows....................... 11
2C–2D
Recommended dimensions for
water pipe elbows....................... 12
2E–2F
Recommended dimensions for
water pipe elbows....................... 13
3
Tangential outlet.............................. 14
4
Lateral less than 30º......................... 15
5
Reducing elbow................................ 16
1
General
1.1
Scope................................................. 1
1.2
Purpose.............................................. 2
1.3
Application......................................... 3
Appendix A............................................... 17
2
References......................................... 2
3
Definitions........................................ 2
Table
A-1 Dimensions of steel water
pipe fittings................................ 17
4
Requirements
4.1
Fittings............................................... 3
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Foreword
This foreword is for information only and is not a part of ANSI*/AWWA C208.
Introduction.
I.A. Background. Steel pipe has been used for waterlines in the United States
since the 1850s. With the development of the Bessemer process in 1855 and the openhearth process in 1861, steel, the strongest and most versatile refinement of iron,
became available for water pipe.
Available records disclose installations of steel water pipe as early as 1858. The
pipe was first manufactured by rolling steel sheets or plates into shape and riveting the
seams. This method of fabrication continued with improvements into the 1930s. In
1905, lock-bar pipe was introduced and, by 1930, had nearly supplanted riveted pipe.
By the early 1930s, both riveted and lock-bar methods were gradually phased out and
welding dominated the pipe-making process. As welding became more universal in
pipeline construction and manufacturing, varying steel shapes able to accommodate
pipeline hydraulics and locations became more prevalent. Over the years, rigid specifications have been developed and new product developments and improvements in
manufacturing techniques and processes have been established to ensure the purchaser
a product of high standards.
History. This standard was first proposed in 1955 to provide standard
I.B.
dimensions for steel water pipe fittings. It was approved as a “tentative” standard
on July 14, 1955. Revisions in the text were approved on Dec. 31, 1957, and were
incorporated in the fourth and later printings. The revisions consisted of the addition
of an explanatory paragraph, changes in the table for fittings for service in transmission
and distribution mains, and clarification of the figures detailing the various fittings.
The standard was approved without further revision on Jan. 26, 1959.
Revisions to the text were approved on June 21, 1983, and incorporated in the sixth
and later printings. These revisions include the following:
1. Addition of a foreword to provide the history of a standard and major
revisions.
2. Revision of Table 1, deleting 4-in. pipe size and extending pipe sizes to 144 in.
3. Revision of Table 2.
4. Expansion of Figure 3 to include sizes to 144 in.
©
* American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036.
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I.
5. Deletion of Table 4.
6. Deletion of alternate Table 3.
7. Deletion of Table 5.
8. Addition of reducing tees and deletion of smooth 90° elbow category from
Figure 1 and Table 1.
The information in Table 1 was changed from a tabular format to a formula format
in order to ascertain dimensions for tees, crosses, wyes, laterals, and reducers. A factor,
f, was introduced in the new Table 1 to facilitate the use of formulas for computing
fitting dimensions and provided formulas for elbow layout to facilitate the design of
elbows not tabulated.
Addendum C208-84 was approved on June 4, 1984. The addendum added a note
of caution to Tables 2A through 2D concerning hoop tension concentration in elbows
with a radius of less than 2.5D. ANSI/AWWA C208-83, including ANSI/AWWA
C208-84, was reaffirmed without revision on June 18, 1989. ANSI/AWWA C208-96
was approved by the Board of Directors on June 23, 1996. The major revision was to
clarify that the standard is a dimensional guide only and that design of fittings should
be in accordance with applicable sections of AWWA Manual M11. Table 2 was deleted
from the standard. ANSI/AWWA C208-01 was approved on June 17, 2001. ANSI/
AWWA C208-07 was approved on June 24, 2007. This edition of ANSI/AWWA C208
was approved on June 10, 2012.
I.C. Acceptance. This standard has no applicable information for this section.
II. Special Issues. This standard has no applicable information for this
section.
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III.A. Purchaser Options and Alternatives. The following information should be
provided by the purchaser.
1. Standard used—that is, ANSI/AWWA C208, Dimensions for Fabricated
Steel Water Pipe Fittings, of latest revision.
2. Type of fitting required (such as elbow, tee, reducer, wye, lateral, etc.).
3. Radius of elbows (such as 1D, 1.5D, 2.5D, or other).
4. Number of pieces or segments for elbows.
5. Design pressure and specifications for pipe to which the steel fitting will
connect (i.e., ANSI/AWWA C200, AWWA M11).
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III. Use of This Standard. It is the responsibility of the user of an AWWA
standard to determine that the products described in that standard are suitable for use
in the particular application being considered.
6. Type of end connection required (such as plain, beveled end for field butt
welding, bell or spigot for field lap welding, bell or spigot O-ring, and flanged or
mechanical coupling).
7. Submittal of shop detail and assembly drawings.
8. Special handling, inspection, or testing requirements.
9. Lining and coating required.
III.B. Modification to Standard. Any modification of the provisions, definitions,
or terminology in this standard must be provided by the purchaser.
IV. Major Revisions. Major changes made to the standard in this edition
include the following:
©
1. The standard was globally revised to become equation based rather than
table based to bring the standard in line with industry practice.
2. Sec. 4.1.1 of the standard under Fittings was revised to allow some constrainedend-type fittings to be provided subject to constructability.
3. Several of the variables in Sec. 4.1.2, Symbols, were modified in this section
and throughout the document based on the standardization of notation in all steel pipe
standards and manuals.
4. A new section, Sec. 4.1.3, was added presenting formula factors as linear
equations replacing the values previously included in Table 1.
5. Table 1 was relocated to a new appendix A and revised to reflect overall
dimensions only, which are based on a pipe outside diameter equal to the nominal
diameter.
6. In Sec. 4.1.6, Laterals, Case 1 (equal diameters), a note was added to address
laterals with deflection angles less than 30°.
7. Sec. 4.1.8, Wyes, was revised for clarity and to provide a clearer explanation
for the fitting configuration in Figure 1E.
8. Sec. 4.1.11.1 was rewritten to remove the allowance for miter-cut weld-spigot
ends and provide additional information on the angular cut for miter-cut bells.
9. Sec. 4.1.12.3, Fabricated elbows, was modified to remove repetitive equations and include one set of dimensional equations applicable to any radius elbow. An
additional item (7) was added to the section to identify the multiplier that yields elbow
radius and provides information on minimum values.
10. Figures 1D, 1E, 2C, 2D, 2E, and 2F were modified to reflect deletion of
incidental dimensions.
11. Figure 3 was modified to remove the flanged end and the reinforcing collar
to provide a more general example since other end configurations are possible.
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12. Figure 4 was modified to reflect the root lateral fitting in a more general
matter.
13. A new appendix A was added as a quick reference for dimensions.
V.
Comments. If you have any comments or questions about this standard,
please call AWWA Engineering and Technical Services at 303.794.7711, FAX at
303.795.7603, write to the department at 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO
80235-3098, or email at [email protected]
©
xii
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ANSI/AWWA C208-12
(Revision of ANSI/AWWA C208-07)
AWWA Standard
©
Dimensions for Fabricated
Steel Water Pipe Fittings
SECTION 1:
Sec. 1.1
Scope
General
This standard provides formulas to calculate overall dimensions of fittings for
steel water transmission and distribution facilities.
Many configurations of fittings are possible, and alternatives to this standard
may be agreed on between the purchaser and manufacturer. The fitting dimensions
shown in Figures 1 through 5 are the minimum dimensions for fittings with plain
ends. In practice, fittings are seldom provided as individual pieces as shown but
are shop fabricated into full or special lengths of pipe or fabricated into assemblies,
combining a number of fittings.
1.1.1 Conditions not covered in this standard. This standard is intended to
serve as a dimensional guide only. It is not a design standard for wall thickness,
pressure ratings, structural design, or hydraulic design. Reinforcement of fittings,
which may include increased wall thickness, collars, wrapper plates, or crotch
plates, is not described in this standard. The design of fittings should be performed
in accordance with the applicable section(s) in AWWA Manual M11, Steel Pipe:
A Guide for Design and Installation.
1
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2
AWWA C208-12
Sec. 1.2
Purpose
Sec. 1.3
Application
This standard or sections of this standard can be referenced in the purchaser’s
documents for dimensions for fabricated steel water pipe fittings. The stipulations
of this standard apply when this document has been referenced and then only to
dimensions for fabricated steel water pipe fittings.
©
SECTION 2:
References
This standard references the following documents. In their latest editions,
they form a part of this standard to the extent specified within the standard. In any
case of conflict, the requirements of this standard shall prevail.
ANSI*/AWWA C200—Steel Water Pipe, 6 In. (150 mm) and Larger.
ASME B16.9—Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings.
AWWA Manual M11—Steel Pipe: A Guide for Design and Installation.
SECTION 3:
Definitions
The following definitions shall apply in this standard:
1. Manufacturer: The party that manufactures, fabricates, or produces
materials or products.
2. Nominal diameter: The commercial designation or dimension by which
pipe is designated for simplicity.
3. Purchaser: The person, company, or organization that purchases any
materials or work to be performed.
* American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036.
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The purpose of this standard is to provide formulas for use in calculating the
general minimum requirements for the dimensions of fabricated steel water pipe
fittings.
Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings 3
SECTION 4:
Sec. 4.1
Requirements
Fittings
4.1.1 General. The formulas in this standard provide the flexibility to calculate dimensions for fittings of any size pipe, based on the outside diameter of the
pipe.
Values resulting from the formulas are general minimum dimensions of good
practice for fittings with plain ends or beveled ends for field welding. Alternative dimensions may be necessary for other types of joint connections, such as
mechanical couplings, bells, spigots, flanges, etc., or to maintain adequate distance
from a reinforcement collar to the pipe end. Other geometrically constrained ends,
such as flanged ends, may be acceptable when furnished with dimensions shorter
than those contained herein, subject to agreement of constructability between the
purchaser and manufacturer. See appendix A for a reference listing of select fitting
dimensions based on nominal pipe diameters.
4.1.2 Symbols. Symbols used in formulas and dimensions in this standard
are as follows:
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A = Length of tee or cross from centerline to end (Figures 1A, 1B, and
1C).
B = Length of reducing tee from centerline to end (Figure 1C).
d = Outside diameter of steel cylinder of a branch outlet of a reducing tee
or lateral of unequal diameter.
D = Nominal diameter of pipe.
Do = Outside diameter of steel cylinder.
DL = Outside diameter of steel cylinder of large end of a reducer
(Figure 1F).
DS = Outside diameter of steel cylinder of small end of a reducer
(Figure 1F).
D1 = Inside diameter of pipe at large end of reducing elbow (Figure 5).
D2, D4, D6, Dx = Intermediate inside diameter of right circular cone
segments of reducing elbow (Figure 5).
Dn = Inside diameter of pipe at small end of reducing elbow
(Figure 5).
F = Centerline length from the point of intersection of wye to the end of
the pipe (Figure 1E).
f Do = Formula factor corresponding to Do of a tee, lateral, wye, or elbow.
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AWWA C208-12
fd = Formula factor corresponding to d of a tee or lateral.
G = Centerline length of lateral from point of intersection of lateral to end
of run and end of leg (Figure 1D).
G1 = Short side centerline length of lateral from point of intersection of
lateral to end of run (Figure 1D).
Go = Centerline length of leg in unequal diameter lateral from point of
intersection of lateral to end of leg (Figure 1D).
Hy = Overall length of branch leg of wye from the point of intersection to
end (Figure 1E).
k = Scalar variable for elbow dimension calculations.
L = Centerline distance from the point of intersection of the elbow to the
end of the pipe (Figures 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F, and 4).
LL = Overall run length of a lateral (Figure 1D).
Lr = Length of a reducer (Figure 1F).
Lt = Length of tangential type outlet, centerline to end of pipe (Figure 3).
n = Number of angular divisions of reducing elbow (Figure 5).
ne = Diameter multiplier for elbow radius calculation.
P.C. = Geometric point of beginning curvature of centerline for reducing
elbow (Figure 5).
P.I. = Point of intersection.
P.T. = Geometric point of tangency of centerline for reducing elbow
(Figure 5).
R = Radius to centerline of elbow (Figures 2D, 2E, 2F, and 5).
r1 = Development radius for large end of reducing elbow
(Figure 5).
rn = Development radius for small end of reducing elbow
(Figure 5).
r3, r5, rx = Intermediate development radius of reducing elbow
(Figure 5).
S = Length of inside segment of fabricated elbow (Figures 2D, 2E, and
2F).
T = Elbow length from point of intersection to tangent line (Figures 2D,
2E, 2F, and 5).
Y3, Y5, Yx = Intermediate offset dimension of reducing elbow (Figure 5).
Z1 = Offset dimension for large end of reducing elbow (Figure 5).
Zn = Offset dimension for small end of reducing elbow (Figure 5).
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--`,`,`,`,```,```,,,,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
4
Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings 5
α = Angle developed between vertical centerline of pipe run and
intersection of outside diameter of top of outlet (Figure 3).
∆ = Total elbow or fitting deflection angle (Figures 1D, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D,
2E, 2F, 4, and 5).
φ = Miter-cut angle of reducing elbow (Figure 5).
θ = Angle of inclination of right circular cone (Figure 5).
ρ = Division angle of reducing elbow (Figure 5).
©
4.1.3 Formula factors. Dimensional formulas contained herein include factors to provide for adequate minimum clearance between various attributes of fabricated fittings. The factors represent good practice that will assist in maintaining the
roundness of pipe ends and are a function of the outside diameter of the pipe associated with the specific equation. The formulas for the factors are as follows:
f Do = 0.143Do + 5
fd = 0.143d + 5
4.1.4 Tee and cross. Minimum dimension A for a tee or a cross is calculated using the formula below. (Refer to Figures 1A and B.)
A = 0.5Do + ƒDo
4.1.5 Reducing tee and reducing cross. Minimum dimensions A and B for
a reducing tee or a reducing cross are calculated using the formulas below. (Refer
to Figure 1C.)
A = 0.5Do + ƒDo
B = 0.5d + ƒd
4.1.6 Lateral, Case 1 (equal diameters). Minimum dimensions G, G1, and
LL for a lateral of equal diameters and suitable for angle ∆ of 30° to 70° is calculated
using the formula below. (Refer to Figure 1D, Case 1 [equal diameters].) For an angle
∆ greater than 70°, use the formulas provided for a tee. (Refer to Figure 1A.) For a
required effective angle ∆ less than 30°, use a 30° or larger lateral with an elbow fabricated into the outlet of the lateral (see Sec. 4.1.6.1). (Refer to Figure 4.)
Do
G=
+ 2f Do
2tan(D/2)
(
)
G1 = (Do /2)tan(D/2) + f Do
LL = G + G1
4.1.6.1 Elbow fabricated into a lateral outlet. Due to design, manufacturing, and installation constraints, a lateral should not be furnished with branch
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6
AWWA C208-12
deflections less than 30°. When a lateral with a deflection angle less than 30° is
desired, a combination fitting resulting in the desired angular deflection can be
used. One configuration of such a fitting is shown in Figure 4, where the elbow
portion of the lateral branch yields a resultant angle less than 30° for the fitting as a
whole. Various combinations of lateral branch deflection and ∆ angles may be used
to yield the required effective deflection of less than 30°.
4.1.7 Lateral, Case II (unequal diameters). When the outlet diameter, d,
is less than Do, minimum dimensions G, Go, G1, and LL for a lateral suitable for
angle ∆ of 30° to 70° are calculated using the formulas below. (Refer to Figure 1D,
Case II [unequal diameters].) For angles greater than 70°, use the formulas provided for a tee. (Refer to Figure 1C.) For a required effective angle ∆ less than 30°,
use a 30° or larger lateral with an elbow fabricated into the outlet of the lateral (see
Sec. 4.1.6.1). (Refer to Figure 4.)
d
G = Do +
+ 2f Do
2tanD
2sinD
Do +
d
+ 2fd
Go =
2sinD
2tanD
©
G1* = d/(2sinD) – Do/(2tanD) + f Do
LL = G + G1
*Note: For unequal diameter laterals with small values of d, G1 may be negative. Therefore, the intersection of the centerlines of the outlet and run pipe will not
be within the minimum length LL .
4.1.8 Wye. Minimum dimensions F and Hy for a wye are calculated
using the formulas below. (Refer to Figure 1E for a wye with a 90° included
angle.) Other included angles from less than 90° to 30° may be used. When a
wye with an included angle less than 30° is desired, a combination wye with
elbow fitting resulting in the desired angle can be used. A wye configuration
such as this would be similar on each side to the lateral outlet with elbow combination shown in Figure 4. Various combinations of wye included angles and
elbow ∆ angles may be used to yield the desired deflection of less than 30°.
Where ∆ = the included angle of the fitting as defined in Figure 1E:
F=
Hy =
( ( ( (
Do
∆
+ f Do
tan
4
2
f Do
0.5Do
+
sin(D/2)
tan(D/2)
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Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings 7
4.1.9 Concentric and eccentric reducers. The minimum length of reducers,
Lr , is calculated by the following formula. (Refer to Figure 1F.)
Lr = 4 (DL – DS)
Note: If length must be less than the prior formula, consult AWWA Manual
M11 for design stress considerations.
4.1.10 Tangential outlet. The minimum length of a tangential outlet, Lt,
is calculated by the formulas below. (Refer to Figure 3.) Lt should be kept as short
as possible to avoid damage during shipping and handling but long enough to
allow for flange clearance. If necessary to enable the valve operator to clear the
outside diameter of the run pipe, a flanged spool should be used to extend the connection as required.
©
(
a = arccos 0.5Do – d
0.5Do
Lt = 0.5Do sina +
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(
fd
sina
4.1.11 Miter-cut end.
4.1.11.1 Welded lap joint. A small deflection angle can be taken in a
welded lap joint using a miter-cut bell end, provided that the following are maintained: bell and spigot diameter tolerances, joint formation dimensional requirements, and joint engagement dimensional requirements. To form a miter-cut bell,
the pipe end is miter cut, and then the bell is expanded square with the face of the
miter cut (see Figure 2B). The limit for the maximum miter-cut angle of a weld bell
is a function of design requirements and manufacturing constraints and cannot
be defined explicitly in this standard. Although historically a value of 5° has been
a good practice limit, the actual value can be larger or smaller depending on specific design and manufacturing parameters. It is recommended that the designer
consult manufacturers regarding the actual limit for specific design requirements.
4.1.11.2 Welded butt joint. A deflection angle can be taken in a welded
butt joint by miter-cutting one or both pipe ends, provided that the maximum
radial offset (misalignment) at any point around the resultant joint does not exceed
the maximum allowed by the governing purchaser’s documents, standard, or code
to which the joint will be welded (see Figure 2A). It may be impractical to miter
cut both pipe ends, but both pipe ends shall be properly prepared for butt welding.
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AWWA C208-12
4.1.12 Elbows.
4.1.12.1 Dimensions. In specifying dimensions of an elbow, the designer
should consider the hydraulic characteristics, space requirements, manufacturing
constraints, stress considerations, and cost–benefit ratio over the expected life of
the pipeline. The optimum radius for a fabricated elbow based on these considerations is 2.5 pipe outside cylinder diameters. This radius is recommended as a standard for water transmission lines where space requirements permit. For an elbow
in plant piping, where space is limited, a radius of less than 2.5Do may be used,
provided stress intensification factors are used. If the radius is less than 2.5Do, the
thickness of the shell must be calculated using the method outlined in the AWWA
Manual M11.
4.1.12.2 Wrought steel. In small diameters (6 in. to 24 in. [150 mm to
600 mm]), steel butt-welding fittings in accordance with ASME B16.9 conforming to ASTM A234 are available in schedules and grades suitable for the waterworks
service and are often an economical alternative to fabricated elbows. Larger fittings,
up to 48 in. (1,200 mm), may be advantageous for applications where space is limited
and the smaller footprint of the wrought steel fitting would be more appropriate.
(Steel butt-welding fittings are available in sizes less than 6 in. [150 mm]. For these
smaller fittings, the application of dimensions for 6-in. [150-mm] fittings would be
conservative.)
4.1.12.3 Fabricated elbows. The following guidelines for dimensioning
fabricated steel pipe elbows are recommended:
Referring to Figures 2C, 2D, 2E, and 2F,
1. R is the recommended elbow radius.
2. T is the tangent length of the elbow.
3. S is the elbow inside segment length. Minimum S = 1.5 in. (38 mm) or
6t, whichever is greater.
Note: This represents good practice to control welding stresses and dimensional tolerances.
4. Recommended maximum deflection angle is 22.5° per miter weld. The
maximum deflection angle should not exceed 30° per miter weld.
5. L is the minimum recommended length of the elbow leg.
Note: Depending on the size of the radius, L may be less than T.
6. Recommended two-, three-, four-, and five-piece elbows:
For D ≤ 22.5°, use two-piece elbow; k* = 1.
For 22.5° < ∆ ≤ 45°, use three-piece elbow; k* = 2.
©
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8
Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings 9
For 45° < ∆ ≤ 67.5°, use four-piece elbow; k* = 3.
For 67.5° < ∆ ≤ 90°, use five-piece elbow; k* = 4.
*Note: For any elbow configuration k = (number of elbow segments) – 1.
7. ne is the diameter multiplier for calculating the radius of an elbow. Recommended ne for water mains is 2.5. In instances where ne is less than 2.5, stress intensification factors need to be addressed as outlined in the AWWA Manual M11.
Values of ne shall not be less than that which achieves the minimum S value noted
above.
Where:
R = ne D o
©
S = Do (2ne – 1) tan [∆/(2k)]
L = ne Do tan[D/2] – Do (ne – 0.5)tan [∆/(2k)] + f Do
T = ne Do tan [∆/2]
Example: Given a 49.75-in. Do , three-piece, 45° elbow, with ne = 2.5.
22.5° < ∆ ≤ 45°, therefore, k=2
R = 2.5(49.75) = 124.375 in.
S = 49.75[2(2.5) – 1]tan{45/[2(2)]} = 39.6 in.
L = 2.5(49.75)tan(45°/2) – 49.75(2.5 – 0.5)tan{45°/[2(2)]} + 0.143(49.75) + 5 =
43.8 in.
T = 2.5(49.75)tan[45/2] = 51.5 in.
In certain applications, compound elbows and reducing elbows may be used.
See Figure 5 for geometric relationships of a reducing elbow. For computational
methods and formulas for compound pipe elbows, refer to AWWA M11.
Verification
This standard has no applicable information for this section.
SECTION 6:
Delivery
This standard has no applicable information for this section.
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SECTION 5:
10
AWWA C208-12
Do
d
Do
A
A
A
Do
Do
Do
A
A
B
A
Figure 1A Tee
A
©
Figure 1B Cross
Do
G
(Min ∆ = 30°).
∆
Do
B
Figure 1C Reducing Tee
d
Go
(Min ∆ = 30°).
∆
Do
G1
G
LL
Figure 1D Case I
Lateral (Equal Diameters)
∆ = 90°
Do
G1
G
LL
Figure 1D Case II
Lateral (Unequal Diameters)
Do
Lr
DL
Hy
Ds
F
Do
Figure 1E 90° Wye
Figures 1A–1F
Figure 1F Reducer
Recommended dimensions for water pipe fittings (except elbows)
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A
Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings 11
∆
Do
90
°
P.I.
∆
©
P.I.
∆
Figure 2B Miter-end cut—welded lap joint
Figures 2A–2B
Recommended dimensions for water pipe elbows
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Do
90
°
Figure 2A Miter-end cut—welded butt joint
12
AWWA C208-12
L
L
(To
eld
h fi
tc
ma
(To match field conditions)
s)
ition
d
con
Do
∆
©
P.I.
--`,`,`,`,```,```,,,,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Figure 2C Two-piece elbow (0° to 22.5°)
L*
(To match field conditions)
T
(T
o
m
at
ch
fie
ld
nd
co
L*
iti
on
s)
P.I.
T
∆
Do
S
∆
4
∆
2
∆
4
R
Figure 2D Three-piece elbow (more than 22.5° to 45°)
*NOTE: L may be less than T
Figures 2C–2D Recommended dimensions for water pipe elbows (continued)
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Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings 13
L*
(To match field conditions)
T
P.I.
con
ditio
ns)
Do
T
S
∆
∆
3 6
R
©
∆
3
6
∆
(To
m
atc
h
field
L*
∆
Figure 2E Four-piece elbow (more than 45° to 67.5°)
*NOTE: L may be less than T
L*
(To match field conditions)
T
P.I.
∆
S
∆
∆ 8
4
R
4
∆
T
∆ ∆
8 4
--`,`,`,`,```,```,,,,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
L*
(To match field conditions)
Do
Figure 2F Five-piece elbow (more than 67.5° to 90°)
*NOTE: L may be less than T
Figures 2E–2F
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Recommended dimensions for water pipe elbows (continued)
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14
AWWA C208-12
0.
5D
Lt
Figure 3 Tangential outlet
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--`,`,`,`,```,```,,,,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
d
0.5Do – d
o
©
Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings 15
L
L
∆
Do
See Figure 1D
*
©
30° min.
Do
*Butt joint not required
*but shown for dimensioning
See Figure 1D
See Figure 1D
Figure 4 Lateral less than 30°
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--`,`,`,`,```,```,,,,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Figure 4 Lateral less than 30° (See Figure 1D for specific dimensions of lateral of equal or unequal
diameters.)
AWWA C208-12
ρ
∆
n equal
divisions
T.
P.
P.
C.
R
16
r5
r3
D6
θ
Y3
n
Z
Y5
∆
T
Z1
D4
φ
D2
rn
r1
D
1
Dn
©
φ
Point of
Intersection
∆
θ
R
n
D1
Dn
= Angle of intersection
= Inclination of a right circular cone
= Radius of bend
= 2× the number of deflections
= Inside diameter of large pipe
= Inside diameter of small pipe
ρ= ∆
n
D1 – Dn
sin θ =
2(n – 2)R(tanρ)
D1
r1 =
2
Dn
rn =
2
--`,`,`,`,```,```,,,,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
rx = r1 – (x – 1)R(tanρ)(sinθ)
D1 – 2(x –1)R(tanρ)(sinθ)
Dx =
cosθ
Where x = number of divisions from
P.C. to point under consideration.
tanφ =
sin2ρ
cos2ρ + cosθ
Z1 =
r1(sinθ)
cos2ρ + cosθ
Zn =
rn(sinθ)
cos2ρ + cosθ
Yx =
rx(sinθ)
cosρ
T = Rtan
∆
2
Figure 5 Reducing elbow
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(150)
(200)
(250)
(300)
(350)
(400)
(450)
(500)
(550)
(600)
(750)
(900)
(1,050)
(1,200)
(1,350)
6 (65/ 8 OD)
8 (85/ 8 OD)
10 (103/ 4 OD)
12 (123/ 4 OD)
14
16
18
20
22
24
30
36
42
48
54
10
11
12
14
15
16
17
18
20
21
25
29
33
36
40
in.
(254)
(279)
(305)
(356)
(381)
(406)
(432)
(457)
(508)
(533)
(635)
(737)
(838)
(914)
(1,016)
(mm)
8
9
9
10
10
11
12
13
13
14
16
18
20
22
24
in.
F
(203)
(229)
(229)
(254)
(254)
(279)
(305)
(330)
(330)
(356)
(406)
(457)
(508)
(559)
(610)
(mm)
12
14
15
17
17
19
20
22
23
24
29
33
37
41
45
in.
Wye, 90°
(mm)
(305)
(356)
(381)
(432)
(432)
(483)
(508)
(559)
(584)
(610)
(737)
(838)
(940)
(1,041)
(1,143)
Hy
25
29
34
38
41
45
49
54
58
62
75
88
101
114
127
in.
(mm)
(635)
(737)
(864)
(965)
(1,041)
(1,143)
(1,245)
(1,372)
(1,473)
(1,575)
(1,905)
(2,235)
(2,565)
(2,896)
(3,226)
G
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
12
12
14
15
17
19
20
in.
G1
in.
32
37
42
47
50
55
59
65
70
74
89
103
118
133
147
(mm)
(178)
(203)
(203)
(229)
(229)
(254)
(254)
(279)
(305)
(305)
(356)
(381)
(432)
(483)
(508)
Equal Diameter Lateral, ∆ = 30°*
(mm)
(813)
(940)
(1,067)
(1,194)
(1,270)
(1,397)
(1,499)
(1,651)
(1,778)
(1,880)
(2,261)
(2,616)
(2,997)
(3,378)
(3,734)
LL
--`,`,`,`,```,```,,,,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
17
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(Continued on next page)
*Lateral dimensions given are for an equal diameter, 30° angle fitting. For an angle greater than 30° through 70°, see equations in Sec. 4.1.6. For angles greater than
70°, use dimension given for a tee.
1. A
ll dimensions based on outside diameter of pipe equal to nominal diameter, D, except dimensions for 12" nominal and smaller pipe, which are based on pipe
OD noted.
2. For elbow dimensions, see Sec. 4.1.11.3 and Figure 2.
3. Add additional length to these dimensions when necessary for flanged, mechanical couplings, or bell and spigot joints, or as needed to meet other design
conditions.
(mm)
A
D
in.
Tee or Cross
Dimensions of steel water pipe fittings (continued)
Nominal Diameter
Table A.1
APPENDIX A
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(1,650)
(1,800)
(1,950)
(2,100)
(2,250)
(2,400)
(2,550)
(2,700)
(2,850)
(3,000)
(3,150)
(3,300)
(3,450)
66
72
78
84
90
96
102
108
114
120
126
132
138
98
94
90
87
83
79
75
71
67
63
60
56
52
48
44
in.
(2,489)
(2,388)
(2,286)
(2,210)
(2,108)
(2,007)
(1,905)
(1,803)
(1,702)
(1,600)
(1,524)
(1,422)
(1,321)
(1,219)
(1,118)
(mm)
56
54
52
50
48
45
43
41
39
37
35
33
31
29
27
in.
F
(1,422)
(1,372)
(1,321)
(1,270)
(1,219)
(1,143)
(1,092)
(1,041)
(991)
(940)
(889)
(838)
(787)
(737)
(686)
(mm)
109
104
100
96
92
88
83
79
75
71
67
62
58
54
50
in.
Wye, 90°
(mm)
(2,769)
(2,642)
(2,540)
(2,438)
(2,337)
(2,235)
(2,108)
(2,007)
(1,905)
(1,803)
(1,702)
(1,575)
(1,473)
(1,372)
(1,270)
Hy
320
307
295
282
269
256
243
230
217
204
191
178
165
153
140
in.
(3,556)
(mm)
(8,128)
(7,798)
(7,493)
(7,163)
(6,833)
(6,502)
(6,172)
(5,842)
(5,512)
(5,182)
(4,851)
(4,521)
(4,191)
(3,886)
G
45
44
42
40
39
37
35
34
32
30
29
27
25
24
22
in.
G1
177
190
205
220
(610)
(635)
(686)
(737)
(1,143)
(1,118)
(1,067)
(1,016)
(991)
(940)
(889)
(864)
(813)
365
351
337
322
308
293
278
264
249
234
162
(559)
(762)
in.
(mm)
Equal Diameter Lateral, ∆ = 30°*
©
(mm)
(9,271)
(8,915)
(8,560)
(8,179)
(7,823)
(7,442)
(7,061)
(6,706)
(6,325)
(5,944)
(5,588)
(5,207)
(4,826)
(4,496)
(4,115)
LL
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*Lateral dimensions given are for an equal diameter, 30° angle fitting. For an angle greater than 30° through 70°, see equations in Sec. 4.1.6. For angles greater than
70°, use dimension given for a tee.
1. A
ll dimensions based on outside diameter of pipe equal to nominal diameter, D, except dimensions for 12" nominal and smaller pipe, which are based on pipe
OD noted.
2. For elbow dimensions, see Sec. 4.1.11.3 and Figure 2.
3. Add additional length to these dimensions when necessary for flanged, mechanical couplings, or bell and spigot joints, or as needed to meet other design
conditions.
(3,600)
(1,500)
60
144
(mm)
A
D
in.
Tee or Cross
Dimensions of steel water pipe fittings (continued)
Nominal Diameter
Table A.1
18
AWWA C208-12
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supply of water in North America and beyond. AWWA is the largest organization of water professionals in
the world. AWWA advances public health, safety, and welfare by uniting the efforts of the full spectrum
of the entire water community. Through our collective strength, we become better stewards of water for
the greatest good of people and the environment.
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