RELATORÍA DESCRIPTIVA Presentado por: MARIA FERNANDA RODRIGUEZ LÓPEZ- ID000686271 -NRC 7684 Profesor: LUIS YEPES Asignatura: TEORIA, ETICA Y CLINICA DINÁMICA CORPORACION UNIVERSITARIA MINUTO DE DIOS UNIMINUTO-SECCIONAL BELLO FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS HUMANAS Y SOCIALES PSICOLOGÍA BELLO 2019 -AUTHORS: Pooja S.Tandon, Melanie Klein, Brian E. Saelens, Dimitri A. Christakis, Amanda J.Marchese, Liliana Lengua. -TITLE: Short term impact of physical activity vs. sedentary behavior on preschoolers' cognitive functions - REFERENCE: Tandon, P., Klein, M., Saelens, B., Christakis, D., Marchese, A., y Lengua, L. (2018). Short term impact of physical activity vs. sedentary behavior on preschoolers' cognitive functions. Mental Health and Physical Activity. Recuperado de https://wwwsciencedirect-com.ezproxy.uniminuto.edu/science/article/pii/S1755296617302132 -KEYWORDS: Physical activity, Early learning, Active play, Child care, Executive function. -DEVELOPED THEME: There is evidence in school-age children that physical activity enhances cognitive performance, but experimental evidence of this relationship in early childhood is lacking. This study's aims were to test if active versus sedentary time differentially influences preschoolers' short-term executive functioning. -EXPLICIT CONCEPTS OR THEORETICAL CATEGORIES DEVELOPED: Sedentary Conditions Active conditions Inhibitory control Executive functioning -PROBLEM QUESTION: Does physical activity versus sedentary behavior differentially influence the short-term executive functioning of preschoolers? -CENTRAL AUTHOR'S THESIS: •1: Three year olds had higher behavioral inhibitory control after sedentary time in one task. •2: Ipad based executive function tasks were easy to administer and comparable to behavioral tasks. •3: Short-term Executive functioning of preschoolers was generally similar after sedentary versus active conditions. ARGUMENTS OF EACH THESIS: •1: According to Tandon, P., Klein, M., Saelens, B., Christakis, D., Marchese, A., y Lengua, L. (2018). In the Bear / Dragon task, a measure of inhibitory control, we found a statistically higher score after the sedentary condition compared to the physically active condition, 3-year-old children had statistically significant higher scores after sedentary behaviors. In terms of the findings where younger preschoolers, on average, performed better on one inhibitory control task after sedentary time, one explanation could be that after a physically active period, younger children are more prone to carry over over-active behavioral responses leading to more errors on certain cognitive tasks. (p.19) •2: According to Tandon, P., Klein, M., Saelens, B., Christakis, D., Marchese, A., y Lengua, L. (2018). Both the NIH Toolbox and the Early Years Toolbox now offer standardized and relatively easy to administer options for collecting executive function outcomes in preschoolers and could be included in studies focused on promoting physical activity in young children to broaden the research base on this topic. Our analyses found that the iPad based measures from both toolboxes were well correlated with the in-person tasks, and suggests that these measures are generally assessing overlapping constructs. Comparison of these executive function tasks between in-person and two common iPad based toolboxes is a unique contribution of this study.(p.20) •3: According to Tandon, P., Klein, M., Saelens, B., Christakis, D., Marchese, A., y Lengua, L. (2018). Seventy-three children (mean age = 4.2 years, 45% girls) participated. Accelerometry confirmed 70% MVPA time for the active condition and 90% sedentary time for the sedentary condition. Short-term executive functioning was generally similar in preschoolers after sedentary versus physically active periods. Given the other known benefits of physical activity, active play promotion should be supported in early childhood education settings. (p.17) ANALYSIS BY THE READER OF THE THEORETICAL PROPOSALS OF THE TEXT There is compelling evidence in school-aged children that physical activity enhances cognitive performance, academic achievement and psychosocial functioning, in addition to promoting a wide range of health benefits.(Educating the Student Body: Taking Physical Activity and Physical Education to School, 2013; Hillman, Castelli, & Buck, 2005). There is emerging evidence that physical activity in early childhood is also associated with better cognitive outcomes (Carson et al., 2015; Tandon et al., 2016). However, the majority of studies in these recent reviews were cross-sectional or longitudinal, and there is minimal experimental evidence of the relationship between physical activity and cognitive performance in preschoolers. A suggested barrier to increasing physical activity in early childhood education settings has been the idea that parents, child care providers, and/or policy makers do not recognize the potential benefits of physical activity for cognitive development and therefore deprioritize it as a learning activity in preschool(Copeland, Sherman, Kendeigh, Kalkwarf, & Saelens, 2012). Most preschoolers are not meeting recommendations for daily physical activity and one U.S. study found that for 88% of child care time, children were not presented with opportunities for active play (Tandon, Saelens, & Christakis, 2015). Studying the relationship between physical activity and early learning could support earlier opportunities for physical activity interventions, which could confer a range of benefits to children's health, development, and well-being. .