Subido por Adrian Farinelli Hernandez

Charango Cavour

Anuncio
:A8=6G6C<D
1
:A8=6G6C<D
:GC:HID86KDJG6G6B6ND
EL CHARANGO
Hjk^YV!XdhijbWgZhnYZhkZcijgVh
3
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
&gV# :Y^X^‹c/&.-%
'YV# :Y^X^‹c/'%%&
(gV# :Y^X^‹c/'%%(
)iV# :Y^X^‹c/'%%:hegde^ZYVY^ciZaZXijVaYZa6jidg
9Ze‹h^idAZ\VaC§)"&".(,"%&
>H7C/.,-"...%*",.")-"'
;didh/:gcZhid8Vkdjg
DigVh/BZcX^dcVYVh
9^V\gVbVX^‹cZ>begZh^‹c/
:Y^X^dcZh8^bV
>begZhdZc7da^k^V
Eg^ciZY^c7da^k^V
4
:A8=6G6C<D
EG:H:CI68>ÓC
:h cZXZhVg^d [dbZciVg idYV YZg^kVX^‹c fjZ k^ZcZ YZ aV
^ckZhi^\VX^‹c YZ XjVafj^Zg ZaZbZcid YZa eVig^bdc^d XjaijgVa YZ
jcejZWad#
AV dWgV :A 8=6G6C<D! hj k^YV XdhijbWgZh n YZhkZcijgVh!
YZa Zm^b^d X]VgVc\j^hiV :GC:HID 86KDJG 6G6B6ND! Zh jc
VedgiZXjaijgVabVhVaV^ckZhi^\VX^‹cbjh^Xda‹\^XVnVa[da`adgZ
Wda^k^VcdedgaVh^c[dgbVX^dcZhfjZZcZaaVhZ^cXajnZc#
H^ZcYdXdcdXZYdgYZa^chigjbZcidkjZaXVidYdZaYZiVaaZfjZ
adVXdbeVŠV!ZcaVhe{\^cVhYZZhiZh^c\jaVga^WgdfjZaVZbegZhV
EgdYjXX^dcZh ¹8>B6¸ hZ Zcdg\jaaZXZ Zc egZhZciVg Va eWa^Xd
aZXidg ^ciZgZhVYd! Zc jcV digV ZY^X^‹c fjZ VaXVcoV adh X†gXjadh
egZdXjeVYdh edg aV ^ckZhi^\VX^‹c YZa [da`adgZ Wda^k^Vcd n aV
Y^[jh^‹cYZaVXjaijgVZc\ZcZgVa#
8VgbZad8dgo‹cB#
EGD9J88>DC:H¸8>B6¸
5
:A8=6G6C<D
:A8=6G6C<D
:a X]VgVc\d Zh Za b{h lVaVnX]d n WjaaVc\jZgd YZ ZhiV i^ZggV# I^ZcZ jcV
bZbdg^V^c"XgZ"^"WaZfjZaZ]Vg†Vi^ijWZVgVab^hbdXZggdfjZ]Vk^hideVhVgVa
i^Zbed#
:aX]VgVc\dejZYZhZgjcfj^gfj^cX]dVafjZaZ]VcbViVYdeVgVfjZk^kV
XVciVcYdidYdadfjZhZci^bdh!dZhZahVjXZaadg‹cVaZ\gVcYdVaVhbjai^ijYZh#
6kZXZh!hZadXdc[jcYZXdcZaV\“^iVXg^hiVa^cVfjZWV_VedgadheZŠVhXdh!d
XdcZaXVcidcVk^YZŠdYZadheV_Vg^idh#:hX]^fj^i^id!X]^aa‹cdjc?VX]ºVaVXdXdc
\jhVcZgV!eZgdYZjcVcdWaZoVedYZgdhV!jcVYZhjh\gVcYZhXjVa^YVYZh#
:hVaX]VgVc\j^idVafjZZaY^VWadadiZbeaVeVgVfjZXVciZX]»jcijcfj^h
n k^aaVcX^Xdh Va C^Š^id 9^dh! n Zh cjZhigd HZŠdg fjZ hZ YZaZ^iV ZhXjX]{cYdad
ZcidcVgY^VWaVYVh!bVaVk^YVhnYdXidgX^idh#
8]VgVc\d eVeVX^id! lVl^iV YZ eZX]dh! aad`»VaaV WVcY^Yd! bVZhigd
eViV^eZggd#
8]VgVc\d eZaVY^c\d! c^Š^id k^Z_d# 8j{cidh eZchVg{c fjZ iZ Ydb^cVc! h^c
hdheZX]VgfjZicdhYdb^cVhVcdhdigdh#
:A6JIDG
7
:A8=6G6C<D
DG><:C9:A8=6G6C<D
:aX]VgVc\di^ZcZhjdg^\ZcZcaVVci^\jVk^]jZaV
YZbVcdYZ*XjZgYVhYdWaZh!XdgY‹[dcdZheVŠda
^cigdYjX^YdVaV6b‚g^XVYjgVciZaVXdadc^VnfjZ
ZcZhV‚edXV!h#MK>!ZhiVWVZchjVed\Zd#
AV k^]jZaV YZ bVcd! ZheZX^Z YZ \j^iVggV! iZ"
c†V*!+n,XjZgYVhYdWaZhVÃcVYVhVajc†hdcd!
VYZb{hhZegZhZciVWVZc(iVbVŠdh[jcYVbZciV"
aZh/ZaeZfjZŠdV\jYd!ZabZY^VcdcdgbVanZa
\gVcYZ\gVkZ#9ZhYZZah#MKVah#MK>>>![jZbjn
cdidg^dZaXjai^kdYZZhiZ^chigjbZcidZc:heVŠV#
HZh^gk^ZgdcYZ‚a!adhhVadcZhYZaVXdgiZ!aVha^ijg"
\^Vh gZa^\^dhVh n aVh bVc^[ZhiVX^dcZh YZ XVg{XiZg
edejaVg#
6eg^cX^e^dhYZaXdadc^V_Z!aVk^]jZaVYZbVcd
YZ * XjZgYVh YdWaZh! hZ ZhiVWaZX^‹ Zc bjX]Vh
gZ\^dcZhYZacjZkdbjcYd!Vh†Zc7da^k^VY^daj\Vg
Va cVX^b^Zcid YZ bjX]dh XdgY‹[dcdh aaVbVYdh
\Zc‚g^XVbZciZ¸X]VgVc\dh¹!fjZ]dnhZegZhZciV/
Xdc Y^hi^cidh cdbWgZh! kVg^dh iVbVŠdh! cbZgd
YZXjZgYVh!Y^kZghVhXV_VhYZgZhdcVcX^V!Y^hi^cidh
bdYdh YZ VÃcVg n \ZcZgVabZciZ Xdc * XjZgYVh
YdWaZh# :c ZhiV \gVc Y^kZgh^YVY YZ iZh^ijgVh fjZ
egZhZciV cjZhigd X]VgVc\d hZ ejZYZc VegZX^Vg
c†i^YVbZciZadh(iVbVŠdhYZaVk^]jZaVYZbVcd
Vihuela de mano s. XVII
YZ X^cXd XjZgYVh YdWaZh/ ¸eZfjZŠdh! bZY^Vcdh
n \gVcYZh¹# :cigZ adh eZfjZŠdh X^iVbdh Va X]VgVc\d"i^ed Y^[jcY^Yd V c^kZa
bjcY^VanVdigdhXdgY‹[dcdhaVi^cdVbZg^XVcdh#
9
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
9ZaVb^hbVbVcZgV!ZcZah#MK>hZZcXdcigVWVZck^\ZcX^VaV¸\j^iVggV¹
) XjZgYVh YdWaZh bjn hZbZ_VciZ V aV ¸k^]jZaV YZ bVcd¹ hj egd\Zc^idgV!
Y^[ZgZcX^{cYdhZ c^XVbZciZ edg Za cbZgd YZ XjZgYVh YdWaZh VÃcVYVh Va
jc†hdcd0hZYZX†Vk^]jZaVYZbVcddY^gZXiVbZciZ¸k^]jZaV¹XjVcYdiZc†V*!+
n,XjZgYVhYdWaZhnZcigZhiVbVŠdhZaZbZciVaZh0eZgdXjVcYdZa^chigjbZcid
ZbeaZVWV)XjZgYVhYdWaZhhZYZcdb^cVWVh^beaZbZciZ¸\j^iVggV¹!aVXjVaiZc†V
¸jch‹adiVbVŠd¹na^\ZgVbZciZb{heZfjZŠVfjZaV\j^iVggVVXijVa#EZchVbdh
fjZVaVŠVY^gjcVXjZgYVYdWaZVaV\j^iVggVYZ)‹gYZcZhh#MK>>!dXVh^dcVgdc
Xdc[jh^dcZh^ggZeVgVWaZhdWa^\VcYdVaVk^]jZaVYZbVcdYZ*‹gYZcZhVVYdeiVg
jcVYdWaZcdb^cVX^‹c/\j^iVggVn$dk^]jZaV!nVaVVci^\jV\j^iVggVYZ)‹gYZcZh
VhjYZhVeVg^X^‹c#
VIHUELAS.- Guitarras del siglo XVI al XVIII en el Museo Instrumental del Palacio de Hofburgo de Viena (Austria),
cuya dinastía de los Habsburgo reinó en españa del 1512 a 1700. Los tres cordófonos más pequeños que se aprecian
en la parte inferior, son vihuelas de mano pequeñas, a sus extremos están las vihuelas de mano medianas, los otros
cordófonos de la parte superior son vihuelas de mano grandes, popularizandose con el nombre de guitarras en los
siglos XVII y XVIII.
AVk^]jZaVYZbVcdYZ*XjZgYVhYdWaZhbVcijkdhjXdcXZeX^‹cnk^\ZcX^V
]VhiVÃcZhYZah#MK>>>0ZciVcidfjZVaÃcVa^oVgZah#MK>!aVhk^]jZaVhYZbVcd
YZ + n , XjZgYVh YdWaZh XVnZgdc Zc jc aZiVg\d iZbedgVa! gZVeVgZX^ZcYd Zc
10
:A8=6G6C<D
:heVŠVVÃcZhYZah#MK>>>#HZ\ccjZhigVeZgXZeX^‹c!aVVYVeiVX^‹cYZahZmid
dgYZcedgjcaVYdnedgdigdYZahZmidnh‚ei^bdgZVa^oVYVedgZaEVYgZ7Vh^a^d!
h‹adVWg^‹ZaXVb^cdeVgVZagZidgcdYZVa\jcVbVcZgVVaVhVci^\jVhk^]jZaVh
YZ+n,‹gYZcZh#6aedXdi^Zbed!aVk^]jZaVYZbVcdYZ+XjZgYVhYdWaZhYZa
h#MK>>>!hj[g^‹aVigVch[dgbVX^‹cYZhjhXjZgYVhYdWaZhVhZcX^aaVhedh^W^a^iVcYd!
Za dg^\Zc YZ aV ¸VXijVa \j^iVggV ZheVŠdaV¹0 YZa b^hbd bdYd! aV k^]jZaV YZ +
‹gYZcZhYZVbWja‹edg7da^k^V]VhiVaVhZ\jcYVb^iVYYZah#MMXdcZacdbWgZ
YZ¸\j^iVggVgZfj^ciVYV¹#?ja^{c8‚heZYZhZcZaHjeaZbZcidA^iZgVg^d!AVGVo‹c!
YZa&+YZdXijWgZ&.)./,!ZhXg^WZ°¸\j^iVggV!^chigjbZcidYZZ_ZXjX^‹cY^[†X^a
nfjZ!XjVcYdi^ZcZZcXdgYVYjgVYdWaZ!h^gkZeVgVadhXdcX^Zgidh#Hjhig^cdhhdc
bjnhjVkZhnbZa‹Y^XdhnZaeV†h]VgZX^W^YdaVk^h^iVYZVa\jcdhVgi^hiVh!YZ
gZXjZgYd^bWdggVWaZ¹#
CjZhigV^cfj^ZijYXdbddWhZgkVYdgYZiZhi^bdc^dhfjZegZhZciVaV^Xdcd"
\gV[†VnhdWgZidYdaV^chigjbjh^Xd\gV[†VZm^hiZciZZc6b‚g^XVneVgi^XjaVgbZciZ
Zc7da^k^V!cdheZgb^iZZk^YZcX^VgfjZaVk^]jZaVYZbVcdnaV\j^iVggV^cXjgh^d"
cVgdcZcZaXdci^cZciZVbZg^XVcdYjgVciZZah#MK>!XVYVXjVaedghjaVYd!h^c
[jh^dcVghZ!c^gZZbeaVoVghZ!YVcYdaj\VgVaVZm^hiZcX^VYZbjX]dhXdgY‹[dcdh
VbZg^XVcdh#
AV¸\j^iVggV¹)‹gYZcZhVa^c\gZhVgVacjZkdbjcYdh#MK>!iVbW^‚c[jZ
VYdeiVYVedgadh^cY†\ZcVhYZcjZhigV6b‚g^XVYVcYddg^\ZcV¸digdhXdgY‹[dcdh
VbZg^XVcdh¹! eVg^ZciZh YZa X]VgVc\d! fjZ idbVgdc VXZcidh n Zhi^adh YZ adh
ejZWadhYdcYZhZZhiVWaZX^‹#
Kdak^ZcYdVaVk^]jZaVYZbVcd!edYZbdhYZhXg^W^gaVXdbdjc^chigjbZcid
YZ XjZgYVh YZ [dcYd eaVcd eVgZX^Yd V aV \j^iVggV VXijVa! XjnV WdXV aV
XVgVXiZg^oVWV hj gdhZiV XZcigVa Xdc Ãa^\gVcVh# whiV V hj kZo! hZ dg^\^cV Zc aV
Vci^\jV ¸k^]jZaV YZ VgXd¹ VciZXZhdgV YZa k^da†c bjn XdcdX^YV YjgVciZ adh
h^\adh M>>> Va MK>0 YZ Vaa† kV igVch[dgb{cYdhZ Zc jcV hZg^Z YZ ^chigjbZcidh
ejahVYdh nV hZV bZY^VciZ eaZXigdh ¸k^]jZaV YZ eZŠdaV¹ d Y^gZXiVbZciZ Xdc
adhYZYdh¸k^]jZaVYZbVcd¹#6h†aV]^hidg^Vbjh^XVa!hdhi^ZcZ/¸JcVbjZhigV
YZ aV bh^XV YZa WV^aZ XdgiZhVcd ZheVŠda V ÃcZh YZa h^\ad MK n eg^cX^e^dh
YZa MK> Zh aV gZ[Zg^YV V aV YVcoV XdgiZhVcV ZheVŠdaV YZ aV ‚edXV! fjZ Zc Za
XVcX^dcZgdYZaeVaVX^dhZ^cXajn‹jcVYVcoVVaiVeVgVigZhk^]jZaVhYZVgXd¹#
AVbh^XVegd[VcV^chigjbZciVaZcadhh^\adhMKnMK>/(&,!(&-#:caVdWgV
X^iVYViVbW^‚cZcXdcigVbdhadh^\j^ZciZ/¸AVÄdgVX^‹cYZaVgiZk^]jZa†hi^XdYZ
aV‚edXVYZadhGZnZh8Vi‹a^XdhhZeZg[ZXX^dc‹Vcb{hYjgVciZZagZ^cVYdYZ
8VgadhKn;Za^eZ>>!adhk^]jZa^hiVheg^cX^eVaZhXdcdX^YdhVXijVabZciZ[jZgdc
hZgk^YdgZhYZaVb^hbVXVhVgZVadW^ZcYZeg‹XZgZh†ci^bVbZciZgZaVX^dcVYdh
XdcZaaV¹>W^YZb/(&-#
6a XdbZcoVg Za h^\ad MK> ZcXdcigVbdh Zc :heVŠV jcV a^iZgVijgV bjn ZaV"
WdgVYV eVgV k^]jZaV YZ bVcd! ¸adh k^]jZa^hiVh VaiZgcVgdc Zc hjh a^Wgdh aVh
11
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
[VciVh†Vh! eVkVcVh! i^Zcidh n \VaaVgYVh
YZ ^ckZcX^‹c egde^V! Xdc adh k^aaVcX^"
Xdh!gdbVcXZh!hdcZidh!XVcX^dcZh!Zc"
YZX]Vh! bVYg^\VaZh n ZchVaVYVh! YZ aV
a†g^XVXVhiZaaVcdedgij\jZhVZ^iVa^VcVn
[gVcXZhV Xdc bdaYZh i†e^Xdh n Vji‹Xid"
cdh¹>W†YZb/(&-#
:cigZ adh b{h \gVcYZh Xdbedh^idgZh
YZ aV bh^XV eVgV K^]jZaV YZ bVcd hZ
YZhiVXVgdcAjnhB^a{c&*(*!B^\jZaYZ
;jZcaaVcVk^]jZa^hiVYZ;Za^eZ>>!Aj^hYZ
CVgk{Zo&*(-!:cg^fjZYZKVaYZggVbV!
KVaaVYda^Y &*)-0 Xdci{cYdhZ Xdc jc
^bedcZciZ cbZgd YZ igVchXg^eX^dcZh!
Vh†XdbddWgVhYZeda^[dc†VkdXVaeVgV
jcVkdo!XdcVXdbeVŠVb^ZcidYZZhiZ
^chigjbZcid# ¸Adh YdXjbZcidh YZ aV
8VcX^aaZg†VGZVanaVhcdi^X^VhZhe^\VYVh
ZcadhVgX]^kdhYZaVhXVhVhhZŠdg^VaZh!
YZbjZhigVc fjZ aV k^]jZaV YZ bVcd
n Za aVY [jZgdc h^bjai{cZVbZciZ
egVXi^XVYVh Zc :heVŠV# 6 eZhVg YZ Zaad Maestro José Miguel Moreno, España
Primer Encuentro Internacional del Charango.
V Y^[ZgZcX^V YZ adh gZhiVciZh eV†hZh 1997 (La Paz)
ZjgdeZdh aV k^]jZaV [jZ Za ^chigjbZcid
ZheVŠdai†e^XdnZaegZY^aZXidYZadhVgi^hiVhZheVŠdaZh¹>W^YZb(&,"(&-#:aaVY
ZheVŠdaZheVaYVeaVcV[jZXVnZcYdZcYZhjhd!edgfjZgZXdgYVWVVaV\gZhdgZ
^ckVhdg{gVWZfjZhZ^cigdYj_dVaVEZc†chjaV>W‚g^XVedgbjX]dhh^\adh#
:cadhVgX]^kdhYZaV8VhVYZ8dcigViVX^‹cYZHZk^aaVVeVgZXZ^c[dgbVX^‹c
hdWgZ ^chigjbZcidh bjh^XVaZh YZ XjZgYV ZcigZ Zaadh aV k^]jZaV YZa ejZWad n aV
\j^iVggVfjZZgVc[{X^aZhYZigVchedgiVg]VhiVZacjZkdbjcYd#¸:hiV^c[dgbVX^‹c
YZiVaaVYVaVZcXdcigVbdhZcaVhgZaVX^dcZhYZbVg^cZgdh!eVhV_ZgdhnbZgXVYZg†Vh
YZhXVg\VYVhedgadhWVgXdhfjZcdhk^h^iVWVc#:a&.YZhZei^ZbWgZYZ&*&'!Zc
aV 8VgVWZaV HVci^V\d Za XdcigVbVZhigZ 6adchd YZ 7jZcVŠd YZXaVgV! ZciZ digdh
Vgi†Xjadh!¸jcVk^]jZaVeZfjZŠV¹#:c&*&'n&*&,hZgZ\^higVZa^c\gZhdVaV^haV
YZ&-k^]jZaVh!&-bVodhYZXjZgYVhnjcV\j^iVggV#whiVaaZ\‹ZcZacVk†dHVc
?jVcZa&&YZY^X^ZbWgZYZ&*&+naVYZXaVg‹ZaeVhV_Zgd?jVcBVgi†c#:cigZaVh
k^]jZaVh^cigdYjX^YVhZhiVWVc^cXaj^YVh/¸&k^]jZaVk^Z_V¹!¸+k^]jZaVheZfjZŠVh¹
n¸)k^]jZaVhX]^XVh¹#:aI^eaZEjZgidgg^fjZŠd!'%%'/'+#
EdgidYdadZmejZhid!ZhcZXZhVg^d^ch^hi^gfjZZaX]VgVc\dcdi^ZcZdg^\ZcZc
aVbVcYda^cV!c^ZcZaaVYZheVŠda!iVbedXdZcaV\j^iVggVYZ)‹gYZcZh#
12
:A8=6G6C<D
A6HK>=J:A6H:C6BwG>86
9ZhYZ Za YZhXjWg^b^Zcid YZ 6b‚g^XV Zc &).' n YjgVciZ Za aVg\d egdXZhd
YZ aV Xdcfj^hiV n Xdadc^oVX^‹c! aV bh^XV n adh ^chigjbZcidh igVchedgiVYdh
XdggZhedcY^Zgdc iVbW^‚c Zc \gVc bZY^YV Va hZaad YZ adh Xdcfj^hiVYdgZh# AV
:heVŠVYZah#MK>hZXVgVXiZg^oVWVedgjcVg^fjZoVXjaijgVaVXjbjaVYVfjZ\^gVWV
Zc idgcd V aV eda^[dc†V gZa^\^dhV n egd[VcV YZa XVcX^dcZgd bjh^XVa XdgiZhVcd0
eg^cX^eVabZciZ[jZYZhVggdaaVYdZak^aaVcX^Xd!Xdbedh^X^‹cYZXVg{XiZgbZa‹Y^Xd
XdcVXdbeVŠVb^ZcidYZk^]jZaV!eVgVhda^hiVh!XdgdhZ^chigjbZcidh#
:cadhjbWgVaZhYZah#MK>ZhiVWVcegZhZciZhZc:heVŠV(i^edhYZk^]jZaVh/aV
k^]jZaVYZVgXdZheZX^ZYZk^da†cfjZhZidXVWVXdcVgXd!aVk^]jZaVYZeZŠdaV
ZheZX^ZYZ\j^iVggVfjZhZidXVWVXdceaZXigdnaVk^]jZaVYZbVcdZheZX^ZYZ
\j^iVggVfjZhZidXVWVY^gZXiVbZciZXdcadhYZYdh#
AV¸k^]jZaVYZVgXd¹iZc†V(XjZgYVhh^beaZh!ZhiZ^chigjbZcidVa^c\gZhVgV
aV6b‚g^XVAVi^cV!iVbW^‚chZVhZci‹ZcaVhY^[ZgZciZhXjaijgVh#6XijVabZciZ!
hjhYZhXZcY^ZciZhY^gZXidhhZegZhZciVcXdcadhcdbWgZh\Zc‚g^XdhYZ/¸k^da†c
X]VbjaV¹ Zc B‚m^Xd0 ¸gVWZa¹ Zc 8]^aZ n ¸gZWZX¹! ¸X]^X]ZŠd¹ n ¸VndgZd¹ Zc
7da^k^V gZ\^‹c VcY^cV! X]VfjZŠV n VbVo‹c^XV! XdgY‹[dcdh YZ ( XjZgYVh Zc
egdXZhdYZZmi^cX^‹cYZhYZÃcZhYZah#MM0]VhiV]dncdZm^hiZcbh^XdhfjZ
i^ZcYVcVgZhXViVgadYZaVWVcYdcdVafjZZhiVhdbZi^Yd#AV^Xdcd\gV[†VWda^k^VcV
egZhZciVjcXjVYgdYZHVc;gVcX^hXdHdaVcdYZVjidgVc‹c^bd[ZX]VYVZc&,'%
h# MK>>> Xdc jcV k^]jZaV YZ VgXd YZ + XjZgYVh# BjhZd CVX^dcVa 8VhV YZ aV
BdcZYVEdidh†#
IVbW^‚c Zh ^bedgiVciZ YZhiVXVg Za VedgiZ YZ aV ¸k^]jZaV YZ eZŠdaV¹ YZ *
XjZgYVhYdWaZhfjZhZidXVWVXdc¸eaZXigd¹!ZheZX^ZYZ\j^iVggVfjZiZc†VkVg^dh
iVbVŠdhXjndhYZhXZcY^ZciZhhZegZhZciVc]dnZcbjX]dheV†hZhVbZg^XVcdh
Xdc Va\jcVh kVg^VciZh Zc hjh XV_Vh n Zc Za cbZgd YZ XjZgYVh! eZgd Xdc aV
b^hbV XVgVXiZg†hi^XV Zc Za ¸jhd YZa eaZXigd¹ n Zc aV ZheZX^Va^YVY YZ ejciZd#
:cigZ‚hidhZhi{c/:cEJ:GIDG>8DZa¸i^eaZYda^ZciZ¹*XjZgYVhh^beaZh!X#k#
XjZgYVk^WgVciZ(,Xb#!Za¸XjVigdejZgidgg^fjZŠd¹Xdc*XjZgYVhYdWaZh!X#k#
*'Xb#k$\#ZhiZXdgY‹[dcdXjVcYdiZc†V(XjZgYVhYdWaZhadaaVbVWVc¸igZh¹!
XjVcYdiZc†V)XjZgYVhYdWaZhadaaVbVWVc¸XjVigd¹n]dnfjZi^ZcZ*XjZgYVh
YdWaZhaZh^\jZcaaVbVcYd¸XjVigd¹!iVbW^‚cZa¸igVchedgiZ¹*XjZgYVhh^beaZh!
X#k#*%Xb#!Za¸i^ea^aad¹YZ(d)XjZgYVhh^beaZhnZa¸WdgYdcjV¹-XjZgYVh
Y^k^Y^YVhZc*‹gYZcZh'eg^bZgVh!&hZ\jcYV!'iZgXZgVh!'XjVgiVh&fj^ciV!
X#k#+*Xb#:c8J76ZcXdcigVbdhVa¸igZh¹YZ(XjZgYVhYdWaZh!X#k#*'Xb#!
VÃcVX^‹cB^9dHda#:c7G6H>AaV¸k^daVYZXV^e^gV¹YZ*XjZgYVhYdWaZh!X#k#
*.Xb#!VÃcVX^‹cB^H^HdaGZAV#
:h^bedgiVciZhZŠVaVgfjZaVhWVcYdaVhXdadbW^VcVhVcY^cVnaaVcZgV!hdc
YZhXZcY^ZciZhYZaaVYZheVŠdafjZhZidXVWVcXdceaZXigddVejgdYZYdh0Za
b^hbddg^\Zcijk^ZgdcaVhWVcYjgg^VhhjYVbZg^XVcVh#
13
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
AV¸\j^iVggV¹)‹gYZcZhXjVigdXjZgYVhYdWaZhiVbW^‚cVcYjkdedgkVg^Vh
gZ\^dcZhVbZg^XVcVhYVcYddg^\ZcVdigdh^chigjbZcidhYZXjZgYVheVgZX^Ydh#
:cigZ Zhidh iZcZbdh! Zc 8DADB7>6 Va ¸i^eaZ¹ ) XjZgYVh ig^eaZh! X#k# ** Xb#
:c K:C:OJ:A6 n 8DADB7>6 Za ¸XjVigd¹ ) XjZgYVh h^beaZh! X#k# *& Xb# :c
=6L6>Va¸j`jaZaZ¹)XjZgYVhh^beaZh!X#k#((Xb#:c7G6H>AVa¸XVkVfj^c]d¹
)XjZgYVhh^beaZh!X#k#(*Xb#:cBwM>8DaV¸\j^iVggV_VgdX]V¹naV¸X]VbjaV¹
)XjZgYVhig^eaZh!X#k#*%Xb#:cEVcVb{Va¸hdXVk‹c¹YZ)XjZgYVhh^beaZh!X#k#
(-Xb#:c7DA>K>6VaV¸_^iVggVd_Va^hXd¹YZ)XjZgYVhYdWaZhZcegdXZhdYZ
Zmi^cX^‹c!ZaX]VgVc\dkVaaZ\gVcY^cdYZ+XjZgYVhY^k^Y^YVhZc)‹gYZcZh#
EZgdZcigZidYdhZhidh^chigjbZcidhfjZVgg^WVgdcVaV6b‚g^XVYjgVciZaV
Xdadc^V! Zh bjn cdiVWaZ aV egZhZcX^V YZ aV ¸k^]jZaV YZ bVcd¹ YZ * XjZgYVh
YdWaZhnkVg^dhiVbVŠdh!fjZ]VYVYddg^\ZcVaVXgZVX^‹cYZiVcidhXdgY‹[d"
cdhZmegZh^kdhnWZaadh!XdbdgZ\^dcZhejZWaVccjZhigV6b‚g^XV#:cBwM>8D
ZcXdcigVbdhVaV¸_VgVc^iV¹YZ-XjZgYVhY^k^Y^YVhZc*‹gYZcZh&eg^bZgV!'
hZ\jcYVh!'iZgXZgVh'XjVgiVhn&fj^ciV!X#k#((Xb#!aV¸_VgVcV¹*XjZgYVh
h^beaZh!X#k#(.Xb#!Za¸bdhfj^id¹+XjZgYVhY^k^Y^YVhZc*‹gYZcZh&eg^bZgV!
'hZ\jcYVh!&iZgXZgV!&XjVgiVn&fj^ciV!X#k#'.Xb#n)igVhiZh!aV¸\j^iVggV
\jVeVc\jZgV¹YZ-XjZgYVhY^k^Y^YVh
Zc * ‹gYZcZh & eg^bZgV! & hZ\jcYV!
' iZgXZgVh! ' XjVgiVh! ' fj^ciVh! X#k!
+(Xb#!aV¸XdcX]V¹*XjZgYVhYdWaZh
XV_V YZ idgij\V d VgbVY^aad! aV ¸k^"
]jZa^iV¹ * XjZgYVh h^beaZh! ( igVhiZh
bdk^WaZhYZe^iV!aVg\didiVa,(Xb#!
X#k#)*Xb#:cE6C6BÌVaV¸bZ_d"
gVcV¹*XjZgYVhh^beaZh!X#k#))Xb#!
) igVhiZh bdk^WaZh YZ e^iV! VÃcVX^‹c
VaiZgcVYVYZeg^bZgVhVfj^ciVhA6»"
G:"A6"B>"9D# :c K:C:OJ:A6 Va
¸fj^cid¹YZ*XjZgYVhYdWaZh!X#k#)*
Xb#:c7G6H>AVaV¸k^daVYZXdX]d¹
*XjZgYVhh^beaZh!)igVhiZhbdk^WaZh
YZe^iV!X#k#),Xb#:cH6CID9D"
B>C<DZa¸i^eaZ¹!*XjZgYVhh^beaZh!
X#k# (+ Xb# :c E:GÖ Va ¸X]VgVc\d¹
XdchjhcdiVWaZhkVg^VciZh*XjZgYVh
YdWaZh! ig^eaZh d hZcX^aaVh n jcd eZ"
fjZŠd XdcdX^Yd Xdc Za cdbWgZ YZ
¸X]^aaVYdg¹ * XjZgYVh YdWaZh# :c Za
Criollo con vihuela grande. Guaman Poma de Ayala.
1613 Del Libro Nueva Crónica y buen Gobierno
XVhd YZa \j^iVgg‹c YZ 8=>A: YZ '*
14
:A8=6G6C<D
XjZgYVh '& Y^k^Y^YVh Zc * ‹gYZcZh
b{h)XjZgYVhVY^X^dcVaZh!aaVbVYVh
Y^VWa^idh!YdhVXVYVaVYd!jW^XVYVh
ZcigZZaY^VeVh‹cnaVeVgiZhjeZg^dg
YZ aV XV_V YZ gZhdcVcX^V! XdciVcYd
Xdc hjh gZheZXi^kVh XaVk^_Vh Zh egd"
WVWaZ fjZ hj dg^\Zc kZc\V YZ ÃcZh
YZah#MK>>>!‚edXVZcfjZZhiVWVYZ
bdYV aV ^cXdgedgVX^‹c YZ XjZgYVh
VY^X^dcVaZhZcWVhZVaVhk^]jZaVhYZ
+n,‹gYZcZh&,,(¶&,.,#H^cZb"
WVg\d!ZcaVX]VgaVfjZijk^bdhXdc
aV Vgi^hiV K^daZiV EVggV! Zc HVci^V"
\d YZ 8]^aZ Za VŠd &.++! bVc^[Zhi‹
¸fjZZa\j^iVgg‹cZgVjcV^ckZcX^‹c
gZX^ZciZYZjcVgiZhVcdX]^aZcd¹#
:c 7DA>K>6 ZcXdcigVbdh Va
¸X]VgVc\d¹ Xdc jcV \gVc kVg^ZYVY
YZ iVbVŠdh! Y^[ZgZciZh cdbWgZh!
Y^hi^cidh bdYdh YZ VÃcVg! cbZgd
YZ XjZgYVh! Y^kZgh^YVY YZ XV_Vh YZ Criollo con vihuela pequeña. Guaman Poma de Ayala.
gZhdcVcX^V! ZiX# [Vb^a^V fjZ ^cXdg" 1613 Del Libro Nueva Crónica y buen Gobierno
edgVbdhZcZhiZigVWV_d#
CjZhigV ^cfj^ZijY Xdbd [da`adg^hiV! ^ci‚gegZiZ YZ X]VgVc\d Z ^ckZhi^\VYdg
YZ ZhiZ XdgY‹[dcd edg b{h YZ *% VŠdh! cdh ]V aaZkVYd edg bjX]Vh gZ\^dcZh
YZabjcYd!k^h^iVcYdbjhZdhfjZZm]^WZc^chigjbZcidhbjh^XVaZh!XdbdZaYZ
K^ZcV 6jhig^V! <^cZWgV Hj^oV! <VbV\dg^ ?Ve‹c! BdhX Vci^\jV J#G#H#H!
Fj^id:XjVYdg!BjhZdYZa=dbWgZEVg†h¶;gVcX^V!bjhZdhYZIg^Zgn7Zga†c
6aZbVc^V!bjhZdYZ^chigjbZcidhbjh^XVaZhYZ7gjhZaVh!YZCjZkVNdg`JH6!
YZ7jZcdh6^gZh6g\Zci^cV!YZ8j^VW{7gVh^a0nVaVgZk^h^‹cYZVa\jcdha^Wgdh
nXVi{ad\dh!cdiVcYdYZcigdaVZm^hiZcX^VYZe^ZoVhVji‚ci^XVhng‚ea^XVhfjZaVh
ÃX]VhfjZYZhXg^WZcVZhidhXdgY‹[dcdh!adhbZcX^dcVc^cY^hi^ciVbZciZXdbd
¸k^]jZaVh¹n$d¸\j^iVggVh¹0YZV]†fjZYZYjX^bdhfjZ‚hiVhYZah^\adMK>>VaMK>>>
¸i^ZcZcXVgVXiZg†hi^XVh[†h^XVhfjZhZZcXjZcigVcZcadhXdgY‹[dcdhVbZg^XVcdh
bZcX^dcVYdh¹#
15
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
EG:H:C8>69:A6K>=J:A69:B6CD:C7DA>K>6
JcVkZo[jcYVYVhaVheg^cX^eVaZhX^jYVYZhnk^aaVhZcaV6jY^ZcX^VYZ8]VgXVh!
YZhXjW^ZgiVaVZcdgbZg^fjZoVfjZZcXZggVWVZacdWaZ8ZggdYZEdidh†&*)*
n VhZciVYV aV ZmeadiVX^‹c YZ adh b^cZgVaZh! aV \gVc edWaVX^‹c >W‚g^XV VigV†YV
edgaVdWiZcX^‹cYZ[VWjadhVhg^fjZoVh!hZZhiVWaZX^‹ZcadfjZ]dnZhcjZhigd
iZgg^idg^d!igVnZcYdXdch^\d[dgbVhegde^VhYZZheVgX^b^ZcidneVhVi^ZbedhZcigZ
ZaadhZaVgiZbjh^XVa#9ZV]†fjZ_jcidVadhXdadc^oVYdgZhVeVgZoXVcVgi^hiVhZ
^chigjbZcidhbjh^XVaZh!nVhZVYZaVh[Vb^a^VhYZadhVZg‹[dcdh!bZbWgVc‹[dcdh
n XdgY‹[dcdh ZheVŠdaZh! Zc ZheZX^Va aV ^cXdbeVgVWaZ k^]jZaV YZ bVcd YZ *
XjZgYVhYdWaZh^chigjbZcidcZiVbZciZZheVŠdafjZZhijkdYZbdYVVadaVg\d
YZa h# MK> Va MK>>>! Za b^hbd fjZ hZ Y^[jcY^‹ n hZ edejaVg^o‹ g{e^YVbZciZ
YjgVciZaV‚edXVXdadc^VaZc7da^k^Vn6b‚g^XV#
Carnaval de Sucre en 1880. Se distinguen 6 vihuelas (grandes, medianas y pequeña) del Libro
CAYMARI VIDA de Beatriz Rossells
16
:A8=6G6C<D
:c ZhiZ hZci^Yd <jhiVkd 6Yda[d DiZgd Zc aV K^YV HdX^Va Zc Za 8dadc^V_Z
:hfjZbV YZ aV ]^hidg^V YZa 6aid EZg ]dn 7da^k^V YZ adh h^\adh MK>! MK>> n
MK>>>VÃgbVfjZadhZheVŠdaZhVaigVhaVYVghjh^chigjbZcidhbjh^XVaZhiVbW^‚c
igVchedgiVWVcbZadY†VhedejaVgZhfjZZgVcVh^b^aVYVhYZcigdYZaXa^bVhdX^VaYZ
aV‚edXV#¸Adh^chigjbZcidhkZgcVXjaVgZhYZadh^cY†\ZcVh[jZgdcZcg^fjZX^Ydh
edgaV^bedgiVX^‹cZheVŠdaVYZa‹g\Vcd!aVX†iVgV!bVcYdaV!k^]jZaV!gVWZadcZh!
gVWZaZh!k^da^cZh!igdbeV!dWdZh!bdcdXdgY^dh!a^gVh!ÄVjiVh![V\diZh!Zhe^cZaVh!
X]^g^b†Vh! XdgcZiVh! XaVkZh! XVbeVcVh! WV_dcZh! dg\Vc^aadh! ZiX# ZiX#¹ &.*-/
)'%
BVg^Vcd7Vei^hiV<jbjX^dZchjdWgV:heaZcYdgn<gVcYZoVYZEdidh†&*)*
¶&-'*!Y^XZfjZ¸aVK^aaV>beZg^VagZhjai‹hZgjcXZcigdVgi†hi^XdYZeg^bZgV
edgaVZaZkVYVedWaVX^‹cnadhgZXjghdhfjZedhZ†V¹eVgVXdci^cjVgVagZ[Zg^ghZ
hdWgZ aV bVh^kV ^ciZgkZcX^‹c YZ adh ^cY^dh Zc aVh ÃZhiVh edidh^cVh! Xdc jcV
X^iVYZ6goVch/¸EVhVYVZhiVXdc[jh^‹chZdn‹cjZkVVgbdc†VYZ^chigjbZcidh
YZaZ^idhdhfjZedgkVg^VheVgiZhhZ\jhiVWV!nVYZaVhVgeVh!k^]jZaVh!X†iVgVh!
nV YZ adh gVWZaZh! \V^iVh! oVbdgVcVh! iVbWdg^cZh! X]jgjbWZaVh! oVbedŠVh!
hdcV_Vh!VaWd\jZhndigdhghi^Xdh^chigjbZcidh¹&..,/&++#
6j\jhid<job{cZchjhgZ[ZgZcX^[email protected]]VWVbWVYjgVciZ
Za \dW^Zgcd YZ IdaZYd Zc &*+. hZ gZ[Zg†V V aV Zm^hiZcX^V YZ )% d *% [Vb^a^Vh
ZheVŠdaVhfjZk^k†VcY^hZb^cVYVhZchjhfj^ciVh!aVhb^hbVhfjZdg\Vc^oVWVc
[gZXjZciZbZciZgZjc^dcZhhdX^VaZh!\doVcYdYZXdb^YVhVaV^gZa^WgZnWV^aVcYd
VahdcYZaVhk^]jZaVh##¸ÄdgZX†VcXdeaVhnWZW†Vc!Zc\gVcYZhkVhdhnXdeVhYZ
Xg^hiVaZg†V!VŠZ_dhk^cdhYZhVWdgZheVŠdadXdcbVndg[gZXjZcX^V!fjZ^WVeVgV
XdhijbWgZ!aVX]^X]VYZbV†oXdckZgi^YVZcWZW^YVgZ\^dcVa^begZhX^cY^WaZ¹#
&.,'/-*
EdgdigdaVYd!aVegZhZcX^VYZaVk^]jZaVYZbVcdZcaVhZhXjZaVhWda^k^VcVh
YZbh^XV!YVcoV!XVcidnk^]jZaV[jZWVhiVciZcdidg^V!hZ\cadheg^cX^eVaZh
YVidh ^chZgiVYdh Zc aVh ¸:hXg^ijgVh eWa^XVh¹ YZa 6gX]^kd CVX^dcVa YZ 7da^k^V
XdcVh^ZcidZcaVX^jYVYYZHjXgZ!jcd[ZX]VYdZa&'YZ_jc^dYZaVŠdYZ&*+-
YdcYZhZ^chXg^WZX‹bd9dc=Zgc{c<VgX†V!bjaVid¸a^WgZ¹!_jcidV?d{cYZ
aVEZŠVYZBVYg^YÃ\jgVcXdbd[jcYVYdgZhYZjcV¸:hXjZaVYZYVcoVh!XVcid
nk^]jZaV¹#DigVZhXg^ijgVeWa^XVYZa&•YZZcZgdYZaVŠd&*+.ZhiVWaZXZjc
Xdbegdb^hdZcigZ=Zgc{c<VgX†Vn?d{cYZaVEZŠVYZBVYg^Y!VciZjcZhXg^"
WVcdYZhjbV_ZhiVY!YZ]VWZggZX^W^Yd!ZhiZai^bd!jceg‚hiVbdeVgVVYfj^g^g
jcVk^]jZaV\gVcYZ_jcidVdigdhZchZgZh#6h^b^hbd!VeVgZXZ?d{cYZaVEZŠVYZ
BVYg^YgVi^ÃXVcYdZhiZXdbegdb^hdeVgVVYfj^g^gjcVk^]jZaV\gVcYZ#:hXg^ijgV
EWa^XVCd!&%#;da^d''+X#67C7#:hXg^WVcdeWa^Xd/A{oVgdYZa6\j^aVn:h"
Xg^ijgVEWa^XVIdbd''![da^d'.k#"&)-"&).X"(%k#67C7#:hXg^WVcd?d{c
7gVkd#8ZciZaaVh!&.../&&!&'
17
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
JcdigdYdXjbZcid!fjZXdggZhedcYZVAVEaViVBZig‹eda^YZaVhEgdk^cX^Vh
YZadh8]VgXVh!bVc^ÃZhiVfjZZcaV;^ZhiVYZ8dgejh8g^hi^ZcZaHVcijVg^dYZ
<jVYVajeZhZjhVck^]jZaVhndigdh^chigjbZcidhbjh^XVaZh#Edghj^bedgiVcX^V
X^iVbdhhjXdciZc^Yd/¸:cZhiZcdkZcVg^d!aVÃZhiVYZaV>\aZh^VZhYZidYdhadh
Y†Vh edg aV bVŠVcV ]VhiV aVh YdXZ! aV YZ aV X^jYVY n eaVoV ]VhiV aV dgVX^‹c!
YZhYZVaa†VaVhcjZkZYZaVcdX]Z]Vn\gVcZhiVX^‹cXdcbjX]dXdcXjghdVaV
HVciV>bV\Zc!ZcigZiZc^YVXdckVg^ZYVYYZbh^XVYZVgeVh!k^]jZaVhnYZb{h
^chigjbZcidh!]VhiVfjZXdgg^‚cYdhZadhkZadhhZX^ZggVaV>\aZh^V#:cZhidhY†Vh
cVY^ZigViVYZdigVXdhVb{hfjZYZÃZhiVh!nVhZViZbedgVaZh!nVZhe^g^ijVaZh
n Vh^b^hbd XdcXjggZ bjX]V \ZciZ YZ Edidh†0 Za XVW^aYd ZXaZh^{hi^Xd Vh^hiZ V
ZaaVYZhYZjcWVaX‹cXdc\gVckdaVY^odfjZi^ZcZcZcaVeaVoVYZYdcYZkZc
h^ZbegZaVhÃZhiVhedejaVgZh¹#8ZciZaaVh!&.../&(#
EZgdYjgVciZZaXdadc^V_Zcdh‹adhZegZdXjeVgdcedgaVWhfjZYVnZmVXX^‹c
YZ aVh g^fjZoVh h^cd fjZ VYZb{h eZghZ\j†Vc Xdbd ÃcVa^YVY eg^bdgY^Va aV
ZmeVch^‹cYZaV[ZXg^hi^VcVZcidYdhadhcVi^kdh!edgZaadaaZ\VgdccjbZgdhVh
‹gYZcZh gZa^\^dhVh XVh^ ^cbZY^ViVbZciZ YZhej‚h YZ aV Xdcfj^hiV Ydb^c^Xdh!
[gVcX^hXVcdh! V\jhi^cdh! _Zhj^iVh0 YZ iVa bVcZgV! fjZ eVgV Vh^b^aVgadh V adh
g^idhgZa^\^dhdhXVi‹a^Xdh]^X^ZgdcjhdYZaVbh^XVZ^chigjbZcidhbjh^XVaZh!
YdcYZiVbedXd[VaiVgdcaVhk^]jZaVh#6agZheZXid!Zm^hiZc^bedgiVciZh[jZciZh
Vh†Xdbd^ccjbZgVWaZhe^cijgVhYZaV‚edXVfjZcdhbjZhigVcZhiV^ccZ\VWaZ
egZhZcX^V#
6h†ZcaVcjZkVXg‹c^XVnWjZc\dW^Zgcd!<jVb{cEdbVYZ6nVaVhZŠVaV/
¸FjZZcZhiZgZ^cdZcadhejZWadhX]^Xdhd\gVcYZhVn\VZhXjZaVnhZeVcaZZg
ZhXg^j^g! XVciVg XVcid YZ ‹g\Vcd adh Y^X]dh c^Šdh n c^ŠVh idYVh# EdgfjZ Vh†
Xdck^ZcZeVgVZahZgk^X^dYZ9^dhnhjbV\ZhiVYnWjZcVeja^X†VnXg^hi^VcYVY¹
&+&($&.--/ +(*# N b{h VYZaVciZ XjVcYd ]VXZ gZ[ZgZcX^V V aVh ]VW^a^YVYZh
YZ adh ^cY^dh ZmegZhV/ ¸>cY^dh YZhiZ gZ^cd Xdbd ZheVŠdaZh YZ 8Vhi^aaV# HVjZc
n egZcYZc YZ idYdh adh dÃX^dh! VgiZÃX^dh! WZcZÃX^dh! adh XjVaZh hdc \gVcYZh
XVcidgZhnbh^XdhYZXVcid!YZ‹g\VcdnaaVcdnYZj^\“ZaVnYZÄVjiV!X]Zg^b†V!
igdbeZiV!XdgcZiVnW^\“ZaVYZVgXd!dg\Vc^hiV¹#&+&($&.--/,+)#
IVbW^‚chZ]VZhXg^idfjZaVbh^XV!ZheZX^VabZciZgZa^\^dhVaaZ\‹ViZcZg
jc \gVc egZY^XVbZcid Zc Za 6aid EZg# k$\# 8VaVcX]V &*-)¶&+*) ^c[dgb‹
fjZaVbh^XVYZadhV\jhi^cdhaaZ\‹VXdWgVg[VbV!hZ\cZhiZXgdc^hiV###¸Hj
bh^XVfjZZhaVeg^bZgVYZaVh>cY^VhnW^ZcXZaZWgVYVVcZc:jgdeVi^ZcZ
ZaXdckZcidcjZkZXdgdhYZk^\“ZaVh!WV_dcZh!\j^iVggVhndigdh^chigjbZcidh!
fjZXdc*%nb{hY^ZhigdhZcbh^XVnXZaZWgVYVhZckdXZh!]VXZcZaXdgdb{h
YZaZ^idhdfjZhZXdcdXZZcZabjcYd¹#DiZgd!&.*-/)'%#
:cZaXVhdYZaVX^jYVYYZAVEVo!aVegZhZcX^VYZaV¸k^]jZaV¹hZZmiZcY^‹
]VhiVeVhVYVaVeg^bZgVb^iVYYZah#M>M!ZhidadXdcÃgbVcadhVk^hdhcjZkdh
18
:A8=6G6C<D
ejWa^XVYdhZcZa9^Vg^dEda†i^Xd!A^iZgVg^d!8dbZgX^Va!GZa^\^dhdZ>cYjhig^Va¸AV
wedXV¹! YdcYZ hZ YZhiVXV ¸:a hjhXg^id fjZ XdcdXZ Xdc Va\jcV gZ\jaVg^YVY aV
k^]jZaVnZaXVcid!d[gZXZhjZchZŠVcoV{aV_jkZcijYeVXZŠVYZVbWdhhZmdh!
XjnV YZX^Y^YV ^cXa^cVX^‹c { aV bh^XV Zh jcV ^ajhigVX^‹c# AVh eZghdcVh fjZ
fj^ZgVcdXjeVgad!]VWaVg{cXdc‚aZcaV^begZciVYZZhiZY^Vg^d#''cdk^ZbWgZ
&-*)#?dh‚7gVkd¹AVEVo!'&Va'-!M>!&-*)0ZcZab^hbdY^Vg^d!hZejZYZ
aZZgadh^\j^ZciZ/¸EVgVadhVÃX^dcVYdhVaVbh^XV#:cXdgYVYjgVhjeZg^dgeVgV
k^\“ZaVhZkZcYZZcaVi^ZcYVYZ9#9ZX^YZg^d:g\jZiV!VaaVYdYZaVWdi^XVYZ9#
>h^Ygd>Y^V\VjZo!XVaaZYZa8dbZgX^d#AVEVo!&)YZ_ja^d&-*,¹#AVEVobVgiZh
&)!K>>!&-*,#
HZ\cZaa^Wgd8V^bVg^k^YVYZ7ZVig^oGdhhZaah!ZcjcVcdiVejWa^XVYVedg
aVgZk^hiV:a9jZcYZ!C§'(!YZa''!V\dhid&-.,!hZYZhXg^WZjc[ZhiZ_dedejaVg
ZcIjXhjeVnV!edWaVX^‹cVaZYVŠVVHjXgZ!YZaVh^\j^ZciZbVcZgV/¸:cXdcig‚
Z[ZXi^kVbZciZ!\gjedhYZbdXg{i^XdhXdbejZhidhedga^cYVhh†aÃYZhkZhi^YVhYZ
VW^\VggVYdhXdadgZh!WV^aVcYdVahdcYZaVYjaXZk^]jZaV!YZaVVgeVZ‹a^XV!n
YZ aV fjZcV ^cY^VcV! V‚gZdh WV^aZX^idh n VggZWViVYdgVh XjZXVh! Xdc VaZ\gZh n
gdWjhidhVgiZhVcdhnig^hXVYdgZhZhijY^VciZh°¹&..+/,(#
>8DCD<G6;Ï69:A8=6G6C<D
:ciZcY^ZcYd ZhiV Y^hX^ea^cV Xdbd Za
Xdc_jcidYZiZhi^bdc^dhVgi†hi^XdhYZ_VYdh
VigVk‚hYZai^Zbednh^\j^ZcYdjcdgYZc
Xgdcda‹\^Xd! ]VaaVbdh aV egZhZcX^V YZa
X]VgVc\d n hj VciZXZhdgV ^cbZY^ViV aV
k^]jZaVYZbVcd!hdWgZidYdZcaVhdWgVh
YZVgiZ^cYdk^ggZncVaZhfjZkVcYZhYZZa
h^\adMK>>VaM>M#
9Z ZhiV bVcZgV! Zh edh^WaZ ZcXdc"
igVgZcdWgVhYZkVg^dhVjidgZh!{c\ZaZhj
digdheZghdcV_ZhidXVcYdk^]jZaVh!Xdbd
^chigjbZcidegZYZXZhdgYZaX]VgVc\d#6h†
Zc Za gZa^ZkZ ¸CVX^b^Zcid¹! YZa BVZhigd
YZHVcGdfjZYZah^\adMK>>!jW^XVYdZc
Za6h^adYZ6cX^VcdhEdidh†!hZdWhZgkV
V jc {c\Za idXVcYd jcV k^]jZaV \gVcYZ
<^hWZgi! &.,'/&()!(*%! n V digd eZghd"
cV_ZidXVcYdÄVjiVkZgi^XVa#
Nacimiento. Maestro de San Roque.
Asilo de ancianos. Potosí
19
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
Detalle Ascensión del Señor. “Iglesia de Caquiaviri ”.
La Paz.
Angel en la Iglesia de la Recoleta. Sucre
:c aV ^\aZh^V YZ EjZgid 6XdhiV Zhi{ jc XjVYgd eZgiZcZX^ZciZ V aV hZg^Z YZ
HVakZh&+-)YZae^cidgbZhi^odncVijgVaYZAVEVoAZdcVgYd;adgZh!YdcYZhZ
ejZYZckZgYdh{c\ZaZhbh^XdhXdadXVYdhVadhXdhiVYdhYZaVK^g\ZcBVg†V!
jcdidXVZaVgeVndigdjcVk^]jZaVBZoV"<^hWZgi!&.,,/-&!-';^\#.-#
:caV^\aZh^VYZ8VgVWjXdAVEVoZcaVe^cijgVeZgiZcZX^ZciZV?dh‚A‹eZo
YZadhG†dhYZ&+.%!ZcZaYZiVaaZYZa^cÃZgcd!hZejZYZVegZX^VgjcVk^]jZaV
\gVcYZ#9ZaVb^hbVbVcZgV!ZcZaiZbeadXdadc^VaYZ8Vfj^Vk^g^ZcjcdYZadh
XjVYgdhYZVjidgVc‹c^bd&,(.![dgbVceVgiZYZaViZb{i^XVkVg^dhfjZgjW^cZh
Xdc^chigjbZcidhbjh^XVaZh#:cZaaVYdhjeZg^dg!Zhi{c+Vc\Za^idh^ciZgegZiVcYd
'k^]jZaVheZfjZŠVh!'igdbeZiVh!&VgeV!n&k^]jZaVYZVgXd0ZcaVeVgiZXZcigVa
Detalle “La ascención del Señor”. Iglesia de Caquiaviri. La Paz
20
:A8=6G6C<D
digdh ( Xdc VgeV! XdgcZiV n k^]jZaV YZ VgXd0 jc edXd b{h VWV_d Zc aV eVgiZ
^ofj^ZgYVadh{c\ZaZhb{hk^h^WaZhnb{h\gVcYZhidXVcjcVk^]jZaV\gVcYZ!jcV
igdbeZiVaVg\VnjcVgeV#
AVk^]jZaVWVggdXVbZciZdgcVbZciVYVhZejZYZVYb^gVgZcaVhe^cijgVhYZ
?jVcGVbdh&,%([email protected]!jW^XVYVhZcZaegZhW^iZg^d
YZaV^\aZh^VYZ?ZhhYZBVX]VXV!Egdk#>c\Vk^AVEVo!ZcZafjZhZYZhiVXV
¸:aIg^jc[dYZacdbWgZYZBVg†V¹]ZX]VedgZcXVg\dYZa8VX^fjZ;Zgc{cYZo
<jVgVX]^0‚hiVVa^\jVafjZZc<jVfj^[dgbVeVgiZYZjcXVggdig^jc[VanXdbd
jcZaZbZcidh^bW‹a^XdZhi{caVhh^gZcVh^ciZgegZiVcYdaVk^]jZaV#¸JcVYZaVh
gZegZhZciVX^dcZhb{hVci^\jVhnb{hWZaaVh!YdcYZhZdWhZgkVaVhjhi^ijX^‹cYZa
ig^i‹cedgjcVh^gZcViVŠZcYdZaX]VgVc\d¹#BZoV"<^hWZgi!&.,,/--!-.#:c
<jVfj^ egdk^cX^V >c\Vk^ AV EVo iVbW^‚c ZcXdcigVbdh Zc Za egZhW^iZg^d digd
¸Ig^jc[dYZacdbWgZYZBVg†V¹XdcaVh^c\jaVgh^gZcVYZidghdYZhcjYdnXdc
[VaYZaa†c! Vig^Wj^Yd V aV Vjidg†V YZ ?jVc GVbdh! ¸[dgbVcYd eVgiZ YZ jc XVggd
ig^jc[VaXdcaVVediZdh^hYZaVk^g\ZcBVg†V!aVhh^gZcVhidXVck^]jZaVhgZegZhZc"
iVcYdZabjcYdYZaVkZgcd!edgZaadh^ijVYVhZcaVWVhZ^c[Zg^dgYZaXjVYgd¹#
BZoV"<^hWZgi&.,,/-.".%#
Sirena. Detalle del Carro Triunfal de la Iglesia Jesús de
Machaca. (J. Ramos 1703)
Foto: Teresa Gisbert
Juan Ramos. Sirena tocando Vihuela
grande. Detalle del cuadro apoteosis
de la Vírgen María. Iglesia de Guaqui.
La Paz. Foto: José D. Meza - Teresa
Gisbert
9Z ^\jVa bVcZgV! Za a^Zcod YZa BVZhigd YZ 8Vfj^Vk^g^ YZcdb^cVYd Vh†
edgYZhXdcdXZghj^YZci^YVY¸AVbjZgiZYZaeZXVYdg¹YZaVŠd&,(.!bjZhigV
eZfjZŠdh YZbdc^dh! fjZ Z_ZXjiVc Y^hi^cidh ^chigjbZcidh! ZcigZ Zaadh gZhVaiVc
YdhY^VWadhVbW^YZmigdhidXVcYdk^]jZaVhYZXdgVYVheVgiZhjeZg^dgnjcVidXV
21
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
Detalle “La Muerte del pecador”. Lienzo existente
en la Iglesia de Caquiaviri, La Paz
“Muerte del Pecador”.
Maestro de Caquiaviri (1779). La Paz
Zak^da†ceVgiZ^c[Zg^dg0iVbW^‚cZcaV^\aZh^VYZ=jVX]VXVaaVZm^hiZjcVe^cijgV
bjgVaXdc{c\ZaZhbh^XdhidXVcYdVZg‹[dcdhZ^chigjbZcidhYZXjZgYV!YdcYZ
hZejZYZY^hi^c\j^gjcVk^]jZaVbjnVYdgcVYV!Vh†XdbddigdhZ_ZbeadhfjZhZ
ZcXjZcigVZckVg^VhYZcjZhigVh^\aZh^Vh#
8dc gZ[ZgZcX^V Va VgiZ e^Xi‹g^Xd! YZhVggdaaVYd ZcigZ adh VŠdh &+(% n &++%
hjg\^ZgdcZmedcZciZh^cY†\ZcVheVgVaZaVbZciZVaV\ZhiVX^‹cYZabVndgXZcigd
Vgi†hi^Xd!fjZhZY^dYjgVciZaVhZ\jcYVb^iVYYZah^\adMK>>!YZaXjVaZbZg\Zg†Vc
adhe^cidgZhb{hV[VbVYdhnhda^X^iVYdhYZcigdn[jZgVYZaK^ggZ^cVid0aVh^c\jaVg
¸:hXjZaVEdidh^cV¹!fjZ^ggVY^‹hj^cÄjZcX^V!YZhYZaVX^jYVYYZa8ZggdG^XdV
aVXVe^iVaYZaV6jY^ZcX^VYZ8]VgXVh!Zc[jcX^‹cYZaegZYdb^c^dZXdc‹b^Xd#
AdhVŠdh&+*%¶&,*%gZegZhZciVcaV‚edXVYZdgd!ejZhaV[VbVYZadhe^cidgZh
hZZmiZcY^‹g{e^YVbZciZ!hjhhZgk^X^dh[jZgdcbjngZfjZg^YdhnhjhdWgVh^b"
edgiVYVh! aaZ\VcYd ]VhiV :jgdeV! Xdck^gi^‚cYdhZ Edidh† Zc jc \gVc 8Zcigd YZ
egdYjXX^‹c Vgi†hi^XV# H^ZcYd adh bVndgZh ZmedcZciZh YZ ZhiV ZhXjZaV _jcid V
bjX]dhdigdh/BZaX]dgE‚gZoYZ=da\j†c!<VheVgB^\jZa7Zgg†dnZa^cXdbeV"
gVWaZe^cidg!ZhXjaidgndg[ZWgZ^cY^d¸Aj^hC^Šd¹!XjnVhdWgVhgZegZhZciVcZc
eVaVWgVhYZadhVgfj^iZXidhBZhV¶<^hWZgi¸ZaegdXZhdYZVbZhi^oVb^ZcidYZaVh
VgiZh^cY†\ZcVh¹#
:c aV egdYjXX^‹c YZ BZaX]dg E‚gZo YZ =da\j†c YZ aV ZhXjZaV Edidh^cV!
jcdYZadhb{m^bdhgZegZhZciVciZhYZaVaaVbVYVZmegZh^‹cWVggdXVk^ggZ^cVa!
edYZbdhdWhZgkVgZcadhYZiVaaZhYZa‹aZdhdWgZa^Zcod¸AVY^hejiVYZahVci†h^bd
hVXgVbZcidYZaVaiVg¹e^ciVYdZcaVheg^bZgVhY‚XVYVhYZah^\adMK>>>8VhVYZ
aV BdcZYV YZ Edidh†! jcV dgfjZhiV YZ {c\ZaZh ^ciZgegZiVcYd jcV k^]jZaV YZ
22
:A8=6G6C<D
Detalle: Angeles Músicos de la disputa del
Santísimo Sacramento del Altar.
Melchor Pérez de Olguín
bVcd! jcV k^]jZaV YZ VgXd! jc k^]jZaV YZ
VgXd bVndg! jc VgeV! Ydh _VgVb^aadh n jc
eZfjZŠd‹g\Vcd#
Digd\gVcZmedcZciZedidh^cdZh<VheVg
B^\jZa YZ 7Zgg†d Zc ¸:a eVigdX^c^d YZ HVc
?dh‚¹YZ&,(,!‹aZdhdWgZa^Zcod&.+M'*'
Xb# h^ijVYd VciZh Zc aV hVXg^hi†V YZ HVciV
B‹c^XV]dnZcZaBjhZdYZaV8VhVCVX^dcVa
YZ aV BdcZYV Edidh† ]VaaVbdh {c\ZaZh
idXVcYd jcV k^]jZaV YZ bVcd! jcV k^]jZaV
YZ VgXd! jc eZfjZŠd aVY! Ydh igdbeZiVh!
jc[V\dinjc‹g\Vcd#:hiVdWgVbVZhigVijkd
WVhiVciZ‚m^idedgadfjZZaVjidg]^odkVg^Vh
g‚ea^XVhXdceZfjZŠVhkVg^VciZhÃgbVYVhZc
&,))! VXijVabZciZ ZmejZhiVh Zc Za BjhZd
YZ8]VgXVhHjXgZnZcZaBjhZdYZ7ZaaVh
6giZhYZHVci^V\dYZ8]^aZ#BZoV"<^hWZgi!
&.,,/'('!'((#
:cdigVdWgVYZ7Zgg†d¸AVVYdgV"
X^‹c YZ adh Ìc\ZaZh¹ YZ &,(, Zc aV
Dos detalles Angeles Músicos “Patrocinio de San José
(Gaspar Miguel de Berrío) 1737
eVgiZ ^c[Zg^dg cjZkVbZciZ hZ ejZYZ
VegZX^Vg{c\ZaZhbh^Xdh^ciZgegZiVcYd
jcVgeV!dWdZ!k^daVYZ\VbWV!k^]jZaV!
i^bWVanZaig^{c\jad#HZaZVYhXg^WZcV
ZhiZe^cidgdigdhYdhXjVYgdhfjZgZegZ"
hZciVcVHVciV<ZgigjY^h&,(,"&,))!
Angeles Músicos “Patrocinio de San José (Gaspar
Miguel de Berrío)
23
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
Zc Za eg^bZgd YZ aV XdaZXX^‹c L^ahdc!
]dn YZhVeVgZX^Yd! Zc aV eVgiZ hjeZg^dg
hZ ]VaaV jc {c\Za idXVcYd jcV k^]jZaV
\gVcYZ0 Zc Za hZ\jcYd XdaZXX^‹c eVgi^"
XjaVgYZAVEVoZhi{cYdh{c\ZaZhZcaVh
cjWZh idXVcYd aVY n k^]jZaV YZ VgXd#
BZhV¶<^hWZgi!&.,,/'(*!'(+#
:c Za BjhZd YZ aV Jc^kZgh^YVY HVc
;gVcX^hXdMVk^ZgYZ8]jfj^hVXVHjXgZ!
hZZm]^WZjcbVeVYZa8ZggdG^XdnYZaV
K^aaV>beZg^VaYZEdidh†!e^ciVYdiVbW^‚c
edgZaBVZhigd<VheVgYZ7Zgg†d[ZX]VYd
Za ') YZ hZei^ZbWgZ YZ &,*-0 Zc ZhiZ
bVeVYZVegdm^bVYVbZciZ&!-%m&#%%!
hZ Y^hi^c\jZ V jcV kZ^ciZcV YZ Vgg^Zgdh
Detalle: Angel tocando Vihuela. Santa Gertrudis.
(Gaspar Miguel de Berrío). Foto: Teresa Gisbert
fjZkVcZc]^aZgVhedghZcYZgdhYZa
8ZggdG^XdVe^ZnVXVWVaad!cdi{c"
YdhZk^h^WaZbZciZZcigZadhk^V_Zgdh
bj_ZgZh n ]dbWgZh V jc b^iVnd
fjZ aaZkV XVg\VYd jc VgeV n Zc aV
bVcd jcV \j^iVgg^aaV ghi^XV 8]V"
gVc\d#9ZVXjZgYdVaVYZhXg^eX^‹c
fjZ]VXZcBZoVn<^hWZgiZc¸=da"
\j†cnaVe^cijgVK^ggZncVa¹!<VheVg
B^\jZaYZ7Zgg†d¸iZc†VjcVYZhbZ"
Y^YV VÃX^‹c edg adh {c\ZaZh bh^"
Xdh!iVcXVgVXiZg†hi^XdhZcidYdhhjh
XjVYgdhedgadfjZcdh]VXZeZchVg
fjZijkdZhigZX]VgZaVX^‹cXdcb"
h^XdhYZhji^Zbed¹#
8dcgZ[ZgZcX^VVaVgi^hiV^c^\jV"
aVWaZAj^hC^Šd0YZcigdYZhjhdWgVh
Detalle: Mapa del Cerro Rico de Potosí
eg^cX^eVaZhZhi{ZaXjVYgdYZaVK^g"
(Miguel Gaspar Berrío)
\ZcYZHVWVnVfjZgZegZhZciVjcV
Foto: William E. Centellas
YZaVhWZaaZoVhfjZi^ZcZZaVgiZe^X"
i‹g^XdWda^k^Vcd!aVK^g\ZcBVg†VXdcZaC^ŠdZcWgVodhnVadhaVYdhYdhVc\Z"
a^idhXdchjhXdgY‹[dcdh!jcdidXVcYd¸X]VgVc\d¹eZfjZŠVk^]jZaVYZbVcd
nZadigd¸jcVk^]jZaVYZVgXd¹#
24
:A8=6G6C<D
:cadhai^bdhVŠdh!aVh^ckZhi^\VX^dcZhgZVa^oVYVhedgBVg^d8]VX‹cIdggZo
eZgb^i^ZgdcYZhXjWg^gaVZm^hiZcX^VYZYdhXjVYgdhYZaVK^g\ZcYZHVWVnV!fjZ
YViVcYZ&,%%V&,'%!igVi{cYdhZYZe^ZoVheg{Xi^XVbZciZ^\jVaZh!ZcVbWVh
Zhi{cegZhZciZhVadhZmigZbdhYdhVc\Za^idhbh^XdhXdchjhXdgY‹[dcdh!jcd
idXVcYdk^]jZaVeZfjZŠVX]VgVc\dnZadigdjcVk^]jZaVYZVgXd#JcVYZ‚hiVh
eZgiZcZXZ V aV eVggdfj^V YZ HVc GdfjZ! Zc YZe‹h^id Zc Za bjhZd YZ aV 8VhV
CVX^dcVaYZAVBdcZYVEdidh†naVdigVVabjhZd8]VgXVhHjXgZ!ZhiVai^bV
YZW^‹hZgaaZkVYVedgZaegde^dAj^hC^ŠdXjVcYd[jZVigVWV_VgV‹gYZcZhYZa
VgodW^hedYZaVEaViV#FjZgZ_Voj!&.../.!&%!&&#
¸AVVig^WjX^‹cb{hVci^\jVVeVgi^gYZaYZhXjWg^b^ZcidYZaVhYdhHVWVnVh
ZhYZaegd[ZhdgHigdZhcZg!Vci^\jdXjgVYdgnY^gZXidgYZa9ZckZg6gi#BjhZjb!
¸CjZhigV HZŠdgV YZ aV K^Xidg^V YZ B{aV\V¹ ‹aZd hdWgZ a^Zcod &!*& M &!'-
Xb# I^ZcZ Zc Xd^cX^YZcX^V Xdc aVh Ydh HVWVnVh ZcigZ digdh ZaZbZcidh! Za eVg
YZ Vc\Za^idh V aV VaijgV YZ aV VjgZdaV idXVcYd VgeV n k^]jZaV YZa VŠd &,(*¹#
FjZgZ_Voj!&.../&&#
Edgai^bdYZWZbdhbZcX^dcVgXdbddigVdWgVYZAj^hC^Šd/¸AVK^g\ZcYZa
GdhVg^dYZaEdidh†¹fjZYViVVegdm^bVYVbZciZYZ&,)*!‹aZdhdWgZa^ZcodYZ
-.M,%Xb#!XdcHVcid9db^c\dYZ<job{cnHVc;gVcX^hXdYZ6h†hjW^XV"
YdhZcaVhZhfj^cVh^c[Zg^dgZh#:caVeVgiZhjeZg^dgVaaVYdYZgZX]dYZaVK^g\Zc
Zhi{ gZegZhZciVYd Za Hda Xdc jc gdhigd
]jbVcd YZ [gZciZ n Va aVYd ^ofj^ZgYd
aV ajcV fjZ VhZbZ_V jc gdhigd YZ eZg"
Ãa Y^hedh^X^‹c h^b^aVg V aV edgiVYV YZ
HVcAdgZcod#:hiVdWgViVbW^‚cZhVig^"
Wj^YVVAj^hC^ŠdVeVgi^gYZaVejWa^"
XVX^‹c]ZX]VedgL^ahdcBZcY^ZiVZc
&..-#FjZgZ_Voj!&.../&(#
9ZaVb^hbVbVcZgV!]VaaVbdha^Zc"
odh Xdc h^gZcVh iVŠZYdgVh YZ ^chigj"
bZcidhZceVgiZYZaiZgg^idg^dYZaVh^Z"
ggVeZgjVcVfjZXdggZhedcYZVaV[gVc_V
XdbZgX^VaYZaZheVX^dVcY^cd#
HZ\cIZgZhV<^hWZgi!ZhiVYZXdgVX^‹c
iVbW^‚chZ]VaaVg†VZcaVhVXg^hi†VYZaV
^\aZh^V YZ OZe^iV Ejcd Zc aV e^cijgV
bjgVa YZa h^\ad MK>>> YdcYZ hZ VegZX^V
jcVh^gZcVidXVcYdk^]jZaV&.-%/*%#
Detalle: Angel con vihuela pequeña. Virgen de Sabaya.
Luis niño. s. XVIII
25
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
A6HH>G:C6H8=6G6C<J>HI6H9:Ah#MK>>>
Portada de la Iglesia de San Lorenzo. s. XVIII. Potosí
8dbd iZhi^bdc^d YZa dg^\Zc YZa X]VgVc\d! YZhiVXVbdh aVh ZhXjaijgVh YZ
h^gZcVhX]VgVc\j^hiVh!Zm^hiZciZhZcedgiVYVhYZ^\aZh^Vh!gZiVWadhnZchjhcVkZh
^ciZg^dgZh#
26
:A8=6G6C<D
Sirenas charanguistas. Detalles: Portada de la Iglesia de San Lorenzo. Potosí.
H^c YjYV Va\jcV fjZ aV >\aZh^V YZ HVc
AdgZcod YZ aV X^jYVY YZ Edidh† 7da^k^V!
Z_ZbeaVg^oVYV Za VŠd &.)- edg BVgi†c H#
CdZa Xdbd Zhe‚X^bZc XjbWgZ YZa VgiZ
^cY^\Zc^hiV n edg BVg^d 7jhX]^Vood Xdbd
Za bdYZad b{h ejgd YZ aV Vgfj^iZXijgV
VbZg^XVcV!hZXdchi^ijnZZcaV¸Vgfj^iZXijgV
eg^b^\Zc^V¹ fjZ cdh eZgb^iZ ^c^X^Vg Za
gZXdgg^Yd ^Xdcd\g{ÃXd YZ cjZhigVh h^gZcVh#
:hiV ^bedcZciZ dWgV fjZ [jZgV eVggdfj^V Detalle: personaje Detalle: personaje
Arpa
tocando Vihuela de Arco
YZhi^cVYV dg^\^cVabZciZ eVgV adh ^cY^dh tocando
Iglesia San Lorenzo Iglesia San Lorenzo
gZX^W^‹ Za cdbWgZ YZ aV 6cjcX^VX^‹c eVgV
ajZ\dXVbW^VgedgZaYZHVcAdgZcodYZadh8VgVc\Vh!XdbZco‹VXdchigj^ghZ
Zc &*),0 h^ZcYd ZhXjae^YV aV edgiVYV ZcigZ adh VŠdh YZ &,'- V &,))! YdcYZ
hZ ejZYZ VegZX^Vg c†i^YVbZciZ ZcigZ Za hda! aV ajcV n aVh ZhigZaaVh YZ^YVYZh
^cY†\ZcVh V Ydh h^gZcVh VbW^YZmigVh idXVcYd X]VgVc\dh n ZcigZ adh e^aVgZh
hjeZg^dgZhdigdhYdheZghdcV_Zhbh^Xdh!jcd^ciZgegZiVcYdaVk^]jZaVYZVgXdn
ZadigdjcVgeVedgi{i^a#
27
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
H^b^aVgZhh^gZcVhVbW^"
YZmigVh Xdc aVh b^hbVh
XVgVXiZg†hi^XVh YZ HVc
AdgZcod n digdh Ydh b"
h^Xdh idXVcYd igdbeZiVh!
ZcXdcigVbdhZcZaedgiVa
YZaV^\aZh^VYZHVa^cVhYZ
NdXVaaV K^XZeVggdfj^V
YZaXjgVidYZI^cfj^eVnV
Zc i^Zbedh YZ aV Xdad"
c^V!hZ\c^c[dgbZbVc"
YVYV V Xdchigj^g edg hj
e{ggdXd9^Z\d;Za^eZYZa
7Vgg^d BZcYdoV0 ZhiV ad"
Iglesia Salinas de Yocalla. Potosí
XVa^YVYeZgiZcZXZVaVnaaj
NjgV_`»VhVEgdk#Idb{h;g†VhV+%@b#YZaVX^jYVYYZEdidh†0ZcZhiVedgiVYVY^"
ÃXjaidhVbZciZhZejZYZaZZg/¸HZZbeZo‹&,)(#9:>6:9>;>86I>D#I:BEC>4
9:>HIKBD<B>4H6C8IKB4IKG6#HZZhigZc‹Zc&,),¹0VXijVabZciZ!
ZhiZ]Zgbdhdaj\VgZhi{XdbeaZiVbZciZVWVcYdcVYd!hZ\cadhedWaVYdgZhVaZ"
YVŠdh!aVXdbjc^YVYYZNdXVaaVb^\g‹]VX^VZaXVb^cdeg^cX^eVaYZNjgV_`»VhV#
8jZciVcfjZ]jWdjciZbWadgnfjZhVa^‹V\jV]Zgk^YVedgadfjZaV\ZciZ]jn‹
Sirenas charanguistas. Detalle: Portada Iglesia Salinas de Yocalla. Potosí
28
:A8=6G6C<D
YZheVkdg^YV0edhiZg^dgbZciZhZY^djc
hVfjZdnYZhbVciZaVb^ZcididiVaYZaV
^\aZh^V!aVbVndgeVgiZYZadhgZiVWadh!
hVcidhndW_ZidhgZa^\^dhdhhZigVhaVYV"
gdcVaV^\aZh^VYZHVcBVgi†cEdidh†#
6h^b^hbd! Zc aV X^jYVY YZ Edidh†
Zm^hi†VjcVXVhVhZŠdg^VajW^XVYVZcaV
XVaaZCd\VaZhXdchigj^YVVagZYZYdgYZa
VŠd &,**! fjZ Zc aV Y‚XVYV YZa »)%
h#MMXdggZhedcY†VVaCd#&%.!Xjnd
[gdci^h eg^cX^eVa XdciVWV Xdc ZaZbZc"
idhYZaVaaVbVYVVgfj^iZXijgVbZhi^oV!
YZhiVX{cYdhZZcaVeVgiZhjeZg^dgYdh
h^gZcVh VbW^YZmigVh idXVcYd X]VgVc"
\d#=VhiV]VXZVa\jcdhVŠdhZhiVXVhV
VchZXdchZgkVWV!eZgdVaV[ZX]Vh‹ad
fjZYVcaVhÃ\jgVhZmejZhiVhZcZaXjV"
YZgcdCd#&¸AVK^aaV>beZg^VaYZEdid"
h†¹YZaV6XVYZb^VCVX^dcVaYZ7ZaaVh
6giZhYZaVgZeWa^XV6g\Zci^cVn¸6g"
fj^iZXijgV 6cY^cV# =^hidg^V n Vc{a^h^h
&*(%"&-(%¹YZBZoVn<^hWZgi#
Casa de la calle Nogales 1755. Potosí
Una de las sirenas tocando Vihuela Grande s.
XVIII Iglesia de la Merced. Sucre
Foto: William Ernesto Centellas
:c aV eVgiZ hjeZg^dg YZ aV ZhXjaijgV YZa
gZiVWad bVndg YZ aV ^\aZh^V aV BZgXZY YZ
HjXgZEg^bZgVb^iVYh#MK>>>!ZcVbWdhaV"
YdhZhi{cYdhh^gZcVhidXVcYdZaX]VgVc\d!
dWgVfjZhZejZYZhjedcZgYZaVVjidg†VYZa
Vgi^hiV^cY†\ZcVedidh^cdAj^hC^Šd!Zc[jc"
X^‹cYZaYZhXjWg^b^ZcidfjZ]^odZahVXZg"
YdiZ_Zhj^iV7ZgcVgYd<Vci^ZgZcZagZiVWad
aViZgVa YZ aV ^\aZh^V! Zc Za XjVa XaVgVbZciZ
hZejZYZdWhZgkVgZcaVeVgiZXZcigVaZaVcV"
\gVbVYZBVg†VXdcaVÃgbVYZae^cidgZc
jcVXVgiZaZgVhdhiZc^YVedgh^gZcVhYZXdaV
kZ\ZiVa#¸:aXjZgedhjeZg^dgYZagZiVWadaaZ"
kVhdedgiZhVcigdedbdg[dh^cjhjVaZhZcaV
Vgfj^iZXijgVYZaVodcV!ZhiVdWgVYZC^Šd
29
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
i^ZcZX^ZgiVgZaVX^‹c[dgbVaXdcZagZiVWadbVndgYZaVb^hbV^\aZh^VYZaVBZg"
XZYfjZZchjXdgdcVX^‹cbjZhigVYdhh^gZcVhidXVcYdZaX]VgVc\d¹#<^hWZgi
&.../&.#
6agZheZXidnhZ\cZaiZhi^bdc^dYZ6goVchDghVnKZaVadh^cY^dhhZg†Vc
adhZ_ZXjidgZhYZaVedgiVYVYZHVcAdgZcod0edgaVi‚Xc^XVh^b^aVgnedgaVXde^V
XVh^ZmVXiV]VW†VfjZVig^Wj^gVaVhb^hbVhbVcdhYZEdidh†!HVa^cVhYZNdXVaaV
nbjnedh^WaZbZciZ8VnVgVnaV8VhVYZadhBVgfjZhZhYZDiVk^edgjch^c
cbZgdYZYZiVaaZh!XdbdaVhh^gZcVh!aVY^hedh^X^‹cn[dgbV^Y‚ci^XVYZahdan
aVajcVndigdh#BZoV"<^hWZgi!&.-*/&,#
AVedgiVYVYZaV^\aZh^VYZHVc
AdgZcodeVgZXZiZcZgjcVgZaVX^‹c
bjn †ci^bV Xdc aV dWgV YZ Aj^h
C^Šd/ e^cidg! ZhXjaidg! dg[ZWgZ YZ
dg^\Zc ^cY^d cVX^Yd Zc Edidh† n
fjZ [jZ bjn [Vbdhd Zc Za h^\ad
MK>>>0 edg iVa gVo‹c Xdc gZ[ZgZc"
X^V V aV e^cijgV YZ ¸AV K^g\Zc YZ
HVWVnV¹IZgZhV<^hWZgibVc^[Zhi‹/
¸CVY^Z fjZ kZV ZhiZ XjVYgd ejZ"
YZYZ_VgYZVhdX^VgadVaVedgiVYV
YZHVcAdgZcodYZEdidh†!ZhX^Zgid
fjZcd]Vn^YZci^YVYZcigZVbWVh
dWgVh!eZgdjcVb^hbVZhi‚i^XVaVh
^che^gV¹#EdhiZg^dgbZciZbZcX^dcV/
¸fjZaVhYdhdWgVh[jZgdcZcXVg\V"
YVhedgadh8VgVc\Vh!aVK^g\ZcYZ
HVWVnVeVigdcVYZZhidh^cY^dh!Vh†
Xdbd aV EdgiVYV fjZ Zh hj eVggd"
fj^V YZcigd YZ aV K^aaV >beZg^Va¹0
ajZ\dX^iVV9^Z\dYZ6goVch]^_d
YZ 7Vgidadb‚ 6goVch YZ DghjV n
KZaV!fj^ZcVÃgbVYZAj^hC^Šdad
h^\j^ZciZ¸CVijgVaYZaVK^aaV!^cY^d
La Virgen de Sabaya (Luis Niño). Casa Nacional de la
aVY^cd! hZ\jcYd 8Zjm^h! 6eZaZh d
Moneda. Potosí.
I^bVciZh! n Zh XVhd YZ cdiVg fjZ
ZhiVcYdZbWg^V\VYde^ciVnZhXjaeZXdceg^bdg#KVg^VhdWgVhYZhjhbVcdhaV"
WgVYVhZceaViV!bVYZgVna^Zcod]VcaaZkVYdV:jgdeV!A^bVn7jZcdh6^gZhXdc
VegdWVX^‹c\ZcZgVan]dnadi^ZcZZaVgodW^hedYZaVEaViVdXjeVYdZcZ_ZgX^X^d
YZhjVgiZ##6adchdYZaEdodnH^akVVgodW^hedZcigZ&,(&n&,)*!bVcYVid
fjZZhh^bjai{cZdVaViVaaVYZaVedgiVYVYZaHVcAdgZcod&,'-"&,))!‚edXV
30
:A8=6G6C<D
ZcfjZ‚hiZk^h^i‹aVK^aaV>beZg^VakVg^VhkZXZh!XjVcYdaVedgiVYVhZZhiVWViV"
aaVcYdnAj^hC^ŠdgVY^XVWVZcEdidh†###9ZhjZgiZfjZXjVcYdhZVea^XVcadh
^cY^dhiVcidhVWZcnVegZcYZc!h^cfjZhZaZh]V\VcVYVY^ÃXjaidhdaVWgVcYdn
ZhXjae^ZcYdZcidYdhbZiVaZhnbVYZgVh!XdbdVaegZhZciZhZkZZcaVedgiVYV
YZaV>\aZh^VYZaVeVggdfj^VYZHVcAdgZcod¹#<^hWZgi!&.../&,!&-#8dcZhiVh
kZgh^dcZh9dŠVIZgZhV<^hWZgi]VXZeZchVgfjZZhZab^hbdAj^hC^ŠdVjidgYZ
aVbV\^higVaedgiVYV#
>\jVabZciZ!edYZbdhgVhigZVgVaVhh^gZcVhZcedgiVYVhYZ^\aZh^VheZgjVcVh#
:caV[VX]VYVeg^cX^eVaYZaV7Vh†a^XVBVndgYZaVX^jYVYYZEjcd!ZhXjae^YV
edgH^b‹cYZ6hid!YdcYZhZejZYZaZZg/¸HZVXVW‹ZhiVedgiVYVZc'*YZbVnd
YZ&,*,YZaHg#CDH¹egZhZci{cYdhZVa\jcVhXd^cX^YZcX^VhXdcHVcAdgZcodYZ
Edidh†!ZcigZZaaVhYdhh^gZcVhidXVcYdX]VgVc\deZgd‚hiVhhZ]VaaVcZcedh^X^‹c
]dg^odciVanjcVZ_ZXjX^‹c]VW^ijVaZcaV^ciZgegZiVX^‹cYZa^chigjbZcidY^Zh"
igVh!nYdh{c\ZaZhbh^Xdhh^ijVYdhZcaVeVgiZhjeZg^dgYZaVhXdajbcVhZmigZ"
bVhYZaVedgiVYV!jcdidXVaVk^]jZaVYZbVcdnZadigdaVk^]jZaVYZVgXd#
Sirenas charanguistas. Portada Catedral de Puno, Perú
HZ\cZaa^Wgd¸>Xdcd\gV[†Vnb^idhegZ]^hi‹g^XdhYZaVgiZ¹YZIZgZhV<^hWZgi!
Zc =jVb{c! Zc aV ^\aZh^V YZ HVci^V\d hZ\jcYV b^iVY h# MK>>> ZhiVg†Vc Ydh
h^gZcVhidXVcYdk^]jZaVh<^hWZgi!&.-%/*%#
IVbW^‚cZcZagZiVWadYZaVk^g\ZcYZaVCVi^k^YVY!YZaV^\aZh^VYZHVciV
8aVgV8joXdfjZXdggZhedcYZVah^\adMK>>>&,,.!dWhZgkVbdhVaVVaijgVYZ
adhe^ZhYZaVk^g\ZcYdhh^gZcVhVbW^YZmigVhidXVcYdk^]jZaVhXdcZaXa{h^Xd
XaVk^_ZgdXjgkVYd>ckZhi^\VX^‹cVŠd'%%%#
:caVeVgiZ^c[Zg^dgYZaVedgiVYVYZaV>\aZh^VYZHVcidIdb{h8]jbW^k^aXVh!
8joXd!hZZcXjZcigVcZcVbWdhaVYdh!YdheZfjZŠVhZhXjaijgVhfjZbjZhigVc
h^gZcVh!jcVidXVcYdk^]jZaVYZbVcdnaVdigVk^]jZaVYZVgXd#6aaVYd^ofj^ZgYd
YZZhiVedgiVYVhZejZYZaZZg¸VdcgVn\adg^Vª4YZ9^dhH#H#XdbZco‹VhZg
ZhiZiZbeadedgZa9c#BVcjZaYZ7dhVNGVggVhVWVaZaVŠdYZ&,-,¹nZcaVYd
31
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
YZgZX]d###¸hZVXVWdZaVŠdYZ&,.)¹#
>ckZhi^\VX^‹cVŠd'%%%
DigVh h^gZcVh [dgbVcYd eVgiZ
YZXdgVi^kVZcZa^ciZg^dgYZaVh^\aZh^Vh
Zhi{c egZhZciZh Zc aV adXVa^YVY YZ
EdbViVEjcdZcaV^\aZh^VYZHVci^V\d#
6]† hZ ejZYZc VegZX^Vg Ydh h^gZcVh
Y^ZhigVh! idXVcYd ZhiV kZo k^]jZaVh
\gVcYZh cdbWgZ fjZ iZc†V aV k^]jZaV
YZa edgiZ YZ jcV \j^iVggV Xdgg^ZciZ Zc
adh h^\adh MK> Va MK>>> Xdbd c^Xdh
Z_Zbeadh h^ijVYdh V VbWdh aVYdh YZ
aV W‹kZYV YZa egZhW^iZg^d V aV [ZX]V
h‹ad hZ bVci^ZcZ †ciZ\gV aV fjZ Zhi{ V
aV bVcd ^ofj^ZgYV ZcigVcYd YZ [gZciZ!
YZ aV digV h‹ad fjZYV YZhYZ aV X^cijgV
V aV XdaV# HZ\c ZhijY^dh ]ZX]dh
YZ aV ^\aZh^V YZ HVci^V\d YZ EdbViV
edg BZoV n <^hWZgi! ZcigZ &,-, n
&,.( hZ gZVa^o‹ aV XdchigjXX^‹c YZa
Sirena tocando Vihuela Grande.
Presbiterio Iglesia Santiago de Pomata.
Foto: Teresa Gisbert s. XVIII
eZcai^bdigVbdYZaVcVkZnedgiVYVYZe^Zh!
XjWdhYZidggZnjcXVbeVcVg^d]VhiVZa^c^X^d
YZaVW‹kZYV#:c&,.)hZXdcXajnZaVedgiVYV
aViZgVa! jcV YZ aVh idggZh n Za XjWd YZ digV0
ÃcVabZciZZcigZ&,.)V&,.-hZXdcXajnZadh
ZmiZg^dgZh YZ aV EdgiVYV n Za XVg\VYd YZ aVh
W‹kZYVh! edg iVcid ZhiVh h^gZcVh XdggZhedcYZc
VÃcVaZhYZah^\adMK>>>#&.-*/'.&!'.'
:c Za HdiVXdgd YZ aV >\aZh^V YZ HVc B^\jZa
hZ\jcYV b^iVY h# MK>>> ]VW†Vc ) h^gZcVh
idXVcYdk^]jZaVhVbW^YZmigVh!ZcaVVXijVa^YVY
h‹adfjZYVcVa\jcdhkZhi^\^dhYZZaaVh!edgfjZ
Za'%YZY^X^ZbWgZYZ&.-+Za8dchZ_d9^hig^iVa
YZ EdbViV ^cVj\jgV Zc ZhiZ h^i^d Za IZVigd
Bjc^X^eVa#>ckZhi^\VX^‹cVŠd'%%%#
32
Sirena tocando Vihuela de mano.
Sotacoro de la Iglesia de San Miguel de
Pomata, Perú. (2da. mitad del siglo XVIII)
:A8=6G6C<D
:hiZgZXdgg^YdYZcjZhigVhh^gZcVhYZhYZHVcAdgZcodYZadh8VgVc\Vh&,'-
"&,))YZaVK^aaV>beZg^VaYZEdidh†!]VhiVHVcidIdb{hYZ8]jbW^k^aXVh&,-,
¶&,.)cdheZgb^iZZk^YZcX^VgjcVkZob{haV^ciZgXdbjc^XVX^‹ceZgbVcZciZ
YjgVciZaVXdadc^VYZZhiZ¸XdgY‹cVcY^cd¹a^\VYdeg^cX^eVabZciZVaXdbZgX^d
nVaigVhaVYdYZb^cZgVaZhZmigV†YdhYZa8ZggdG^XdXdcYZhi^cdVak^Z_dbjcYdn
VYZb{hYZaVXdbjc^XVX^‹cZhe^g^ijVabjh^XVaZcigZadh^cY†\ZcVh#:hiZ¸XdggZYdg
VcY^cd¹ XdbZcoVWV Zc Edidh†! eVhVcYd edg HjXgZ 6jY^ZcX^V YZ 8]VgXVh!
Dgjgd!AVEVo!Ejcd!8jhXd!6nVXjX]d]VhiVaaZ\VgV=jVcXVkZa^XV#:cWVhZV
adhXVb^cdhYZadh>cXVhXdchigjnZgdcadhVci^\jdhXVb^cdhYZ]ZggVYjgV#
:caVX^jYVYYZAVEVo!ZcXdcigVbdheZfjZŠVhZhXjaijgVhYZa¸Z`Z`d¹9^dh
YZaVVWjcYVcX^VYZeg^cX^e^dhYZah^\adMM!XVg\VcYdZcigZdigdhdW_ZidhZc
b^c^VijgVhjX]VgVc\d0iVbW^‚cZcZaeVgfjZGddhZkZaihZ]VaaVaVZhXjaijgVYZa
bVZhigdK†XidgOVeVcViVaaVYVZce^ZYgVZaVŠd&.,,XdcjcVVaijgVYZ'#%-b#
ajX^‚cYdhZjcedgiZcidhdX]VgVc\d_jcidVaeZX]dYZaigVY^X^dcVa:`Z`d#Edg
digVeVgiZVaX]VgVc\j^idhZadkZiVaaVYdZc_dnVhYZdgdneaViV!Zce^ZYgV!Zc
b{gbda! Zc nZhd! XZg{b^XV! bVYZgV n Zc jcV ^cÃc^YVY YZ bViZg^VaZh YZ jhd
XVhZgd#
Ekeko. Periódico La Razón en el Cuarto.
Centenario de la Fundación de La Paz. 1948
Ekeko músico. Autor: Museo de Instrumentos
Musicales de Bolivia. La Paz. 1998
33
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
El Ekeko, escultura en piedra. Autor: Víctor Zapana. La Paz. 1977
:c digVh VgiZh bZcdgZh! Zc 7da^k^V hZ ZcXjZcigVc iZ_^Ydh gjgVaZh Xdbd
V\jVndh!X]»jheVhn[V_Vh!hdWgZidYdZcaVhgZ\^dcZhYZEdidh†!HjXgZnDgjgd
Xdcbdi^kdhbjh^XVaZhXdbdX]VgVc\j^idh!\j^iVggVhnYVcoVg^cZh#
EVgV aVh ÃZhiVh YZa Ãc YZ VŠd CVk^YVY n 6Šd CjZkd! hdc ^c[VaiVWaZh aVh
iVg_ZiVh cVk^YZŠVh! Xdc Za X]VgVc\j^id \ZcZgVabZciZ Zc bVcdh YZ c^Šdh
XVbeZh^cdhVYdgVcYdVac^Š^id9^dh#6h^b^hbd!aVegZhZcX^VYZc^ŠdhVYdgVYdgZh
egdkZc^ZciZhYZaCdgiZYZEdidh†#
34
:A8=6G6C<D
El Charango en tejidos, ch’uspas y fajas tarjetas navideñas y niños villansiqueros. s. XX
Luzbel 1970
Villansiquero. La Paz 2007
Roberto Shaw 1975
Inspiración Cards
35
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
7G:K:H6HE:8IDH9:7DA>K>6
AVGZeWa^XVYZ7da^k^V[jZaaVbVYVYjgVciZZaeZg†dYdYZaVEgdXaVbVX^‹c
YZaV>cYZeZcYZcX^V¸6AIDE:GÖ¹&-%."&-'*eVgVY^[ZgZcX^VgaVYZa¸76?D
E:GÖ¹[dgbVYVedgaVVXijVagZeWa^XVYZaEZg!YZV]†fjZZcX^gXjchiVcX^VhhZ
ejZYZcVYkZgi^gXdc[jh^dcZh#9ZhYZZaVŠd&-'+aaZkVZacdbWgZYZ7DA>K>6#
:c aV XgZVX^‹c YZ aZ GZeWa^XV! + YZ V\dhid YZ &-'*! 7da^k^V iZc†V
Vegdm^bVYVbZciZ(#%%%#%%%[email protected]'!eZgdXdcaVhYZhbZbWgVX^dcZhiZgg^idg^VaZh
XVjhVYVhedg8]^aZ!6g\Zci^cV!7gVh^anEVgV\jVn!jcVhedg\jZggVhndigVhedg
igViVYdh!hZ]VgZYjX^YdV&#%.-#*-&@b'#
Adh.YZeVgiVbZcidhfjZY^k^YZcZaiZgg^idg^dcVX^dcVahdc/
V 9ZeVgiVbZcidh h^ijVYdh Zc aV bZhZiV n aV bdciVŠV/ AV EVo! Dgjgd n
Edidh†
W 9ZeVgiVbZcidhh^ijVYdhZcZakVaaZ/8dX]VWVbWV!8]jfj^hVXVnIVg^_V
X 9ZeVgiVbZcidhh^ijVYdhZcZaaaVcdnig‹e^Xd/HVciV8gjo!7Zc^nEVcYd
Adh 6NB6G6H dXjeVc aV odcV Vai^ea{c^XV bZhZiV n bdciVŠVh YZ adh
YZeVgiVbZcidhYZAVEVonDgjgd#
AdhFJ:8=J6HadhYZeVgiVbZcidhYZ8dX]VWVbWV!8]jfj^hVXV!Edidh†n
eVgiZYZAVEVonDgjgd#
Adh<J6G6CÏ:HNDIG6H8JAIJG6H(+\gjedh‚ic^XdhXdcY^[ZgZciZh
aZc\jVhadhYZeVgiVbZcidhYZHVciV8gjo!7Zc^!EVcYd!eVgiZYZ8]jfj^hVXV!
8dX]VWVbWVnAVEVo#
36
:A8=6G6C<D
EDIDHÏ8JC69:A8=6G6C<D
:a X]VgVc\d i^ZcZ hj dg^\Zc Zc aV Vci^\jV k^]jZaV YZ bVcd YZ * XjZgYVh
YdWaZh!XdgY‹[dcdZheVŠda^cigdYjX^YdVaV6b‚g^XVYjgVciZaVXdadc^V!‚edXV
Zc aV XjVa ZhiVWV Zc hj b{m^bd Ved\Zd# :c Za b^hbd eZg^dYd XdbZcoVWV V
hjg\^gaVK^aaV>beZg^VaYZEdidh†!XdbdXdchZXjZcX^VYZaYZhXjWg^b^ZcidYZa
[Vbdhd8ZggdG^Xd&*)*!YdcYZVWjcYVWVaVeaViV!VaZmigZbdfjZhZYZX†V/
¸fjZ Xdc ZaaV edY†V Xdchigj^ghZ jc ejZciZ YZhYZ Edidh† ]VhiV :heVŠV¹! [VbV
Calle de Potosí, al fondo el Cerro Rico. 1979
37
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
fjZ hZ ZmiZcY^‹ edg idYd Za bjcYd n
fjZ V aV edhigZ Edidh† hZ Xdck^gi^‹ Zc
jcV X^jYVY Xdhbdeda^iV YZ ZmigZbV
^bedgiVcX^V#
AdhXgdc^hiVhcdhgZaViVcfjZVk^hiV
n eVX^ZcX^V YZa ^begZh^dcVciZ 8Zggd
G^Xd! egdYjXid YZ aVh cjZkVh aVWdgZh
fjZhZYZhXjWg†Vc!aVX^jYVYYZEdidh†
ÄdgZX†V n XgZX†V XVYV Y†V b{h n b{h0
^cXgZbZciVWV Zc \gVc bVcZgV hj
edWaVX^‹c! [jZ aV b^bVYV YZa k^Z_d n
YZa cjZkd Xdci^cZciZ! Xdck^gi^ZcYd
V ZhiV X^jYVY Zc aV bZig‹eda^h b{h
edWaVYV YZ hj ‚edXV# EVgV &*), hZ
Zhi^bVWVfjZnVhjg\^‹jcXdc_jcidYZ
b{h YZ Ydh b^a fj^c^ZciVh XVhVh eVgV
b{h YZ &)#%%% eZghdcVh! Za VŠd &*+%
hZ XdciVWV Xdc +%#%%% edWaVYdgZh!
Zc &*,* Xdc ,*#%%% ]VW^iVciZh! Zc
&*-% Xdc &'*#%%% n eVgV &+&% V
Calle de Potosí, al fondo el Cerro Rico. 1999
&+(% aV edWaVX^‹c aaZ\VWV V &+%#%%%
]VW^iVciZh0 b^ZcigVh fjZ AdcYgZh n
6bWZgZhVaWZg\VWVcV&%%#%%%]VW^iVciZh!EVg†hV+%#%%%!HZk^aaV)*#%%%!A^bV
',#%%%n7jZcdh6^gZh'*#%%%]VW^iVciZh#
8dbdiZhi^bdc^dVaV\gVcYZoVZ^bedgiVcX^VfjZgZegZhZciVWVaVX^jYVY
YZEdidh†fjZZcZhZi^ZbedZgVaaVbVYV¸K^aaV>beZg^Va¹!fjZgZbdhgZVÃgbVgaV
XdcX^iVhYZ\gVcYZhXgdc^hiVhncdkZa^hiVh#
EZYgd8^ZoVYZAZ‹cegdYjXidYZaVk^h^iVgZVa^oVYVVZhiVcdWaZK^aaVZcigZ
adh VŠdh &*)- " &*).! YZhXg^WZ aV \gVcY^dh^YVY YZa 8Zggd Xdc ZhiVh eVaVWgVh/
¸8dc\gVckZgYVYhZejZYZYZX^gfjZZcc^c\jcVeVgiZYZabjcYdhZ]Vaa‹XZggd
iVcg^Xd!c^c^c\ceg†cX^eZ!YZjch‹adejZWad!XdbdZcZhiV[VbdhVK^aaVYZ
aVEaViV!ijkdc^i^ZcZiVciVhgZciVhc^egdkZX]d0ejZhYZhYZZaVŠd&*)-]VhiV
Za&**&aZ]VckVa^Ydhjhfj^cidhgZVaZhb{hYZigZhb^aadcZhYZYjXVYdhfjZ
bdciV b{h fjZ XjVcid ]jW^Zgdc adh ZheVŠdaZh YZ 6iVWVa^WV c^ hZ ]Vaa‹ Zc aV
X^jYVYYZa8joXdXjVcYdaVYZhXjWg^Zgdc¹ngZheZXidVa\gVcXdbZgX^dZm^hiZciZ
bVc^[ZhiVWV/¸:cidYdZhiZgZ^cdYZaEZghZhVWZedgadhfjZedg‚a]VWZbdh
VcYVYd fjZ ]jWd \gVcYZh i^Vc\jZh! fjZ hdc bZgXVYdh! YdcYZ adh cVijgVaZh
XdcigViVWVchjhXdhVh!ZcigZaVhXjVaZhZab{h\gVcYZng^XdfjZ]jWdVci^\jVbZciZ
[jZZaYZaVX^jYVYYZa8joXd0edgfjZVcZci^ZbedYZadhZheVŠdaZhhZXdcdX^‹
38
:A8=6G6C<D
hj \gVcYZoV #### B{h cd hZ ^\jVa‹ ZhiZ
bZgXVYd d i^Vc\jZh c^ digd c^c\jcd YZa
gZ^cd Va hdWZgW^d YZ Edidh†0 edgfjZ [jZ
iVc\gVcYZaVXdcigViVX^‹c!fjZhdaVbZciZ
ZcigZ ^cY^dh h^c ^ciZgkZc^g Xg^hi^Vcdh! hZ
kZcY†VXVYVY†V!Zci^ZbedfjZaVhb^cVh
VcYVWVceg‹heZgVh!kZ^ciZnX^cXdnigZ^ciV
b^aeZhdhYZdgd!nY†VhYZb{hXjVgZciV
b^a0XdhVZmigVŠVnfjZXgZdfjZc^c\jcV
[Zg^V YZa bjcYd hZ ^\jVaV Va igVid YZhiZ
bZgXVYd¹#&*)-$&.-)/(,)!(,+
AV eajbV ^cbdgiVa YZ B^\jZa YZ
8ZgkVciZh HVVkZYgV Zc ¸9dc Fj^_diZ YZ
aV BVcX]V¹ ZY^iVYV Za VŠd &+%* ad\g‹
edcZgZcWd\VZcZabjcYdZciZgdaV[gVhZ
X‚aZWgZ ¸KVaZ jc Edidh†¹0 Zc aV eg^bZgV
eVgiZ!XVe†ijad+%hZedcZVab^hbdc^kZa
aVX^jYVYYZEdidh†Xdc;gVcX^V!aVX^iVY^XZ
Vh†/#####¸Adh]VXZk^V_VgedgY^kZghVheVgiZh
YZabjcYdn]dnZhi{cVfj†nbVŠVcVZc
;gVcX^V n Va digd Y†V Zc Edidh†¹### :c aV Campesino y su charango. Potosí. 1979
hZ\jcYV eVgiZ YZa XVe†ijad ,& Y^XZ/ ¸H^
ndiZijk^ZgVfjZeV\VgHVcX]d!gZhedcYZ9dcFj^_diZ!Xdc[dgbZadbZgZXZaV
\gVcYZoVnXVa^YVYYZZhiZgZbZY^d!ZaIZhdgdYZKZcZX^V!aVhb^cVhYZEdidh†
[jZgVc edXd eVgV eV\VgiZ¹# Cd YZWZbdh dak^YVg fjZ 8ZgkVciZh! Za VŠd &*.)
hda^X^i‹VaVXdgdcVZheVŠdaVZaXVg\dYZXdggZ\^YdgZcaVX^jYVYYZAVEVo#
<jVb{cEdbVYZ6nVaVZc¸AVcjZkVXg‹c^XVnWjZc\dW^Zgcd¹!egZeVgVYV
ZcigZ adh VŠdh &+&' n &+&* Va gZ[Zg^ghZ V aV K^aaV G^XV >beZg^Va YZ Edidh†!
hZŠVaVfjZ¸EdgY^X]Vb^cVZh8Vhi^aaV!GdbVZhGdbV!ZaeVeVZheVeVnZa
gZn Zh bdcVgXV YZa bjcYd! n aV hVciV bVYgZ >\aZh^V Zh YZ[ZcY^YV n cjZhigV
hVciV[Z\jVgYVYVedgadhXjVigdgZnZhYZaVh>cY^VhnedgZaZbeZgVYdg>cXV¹
&+&($&.--/.,,#
Edg digV eVgiZ! Zm^hiZ jc ^c[dgbZ YZa k^V_Z Va 8Zggd G^Xd YZ Edidh† &+*,
¶&++%fjZYViVYZaVŠd&+,%YZa[gVcX‚h9»6XXVgZiiZYj7^hXV^ZcigZ\VYdV
Aj^hM>KGZnYZ;gVcX^V!YdcYZYZhXg^WZVaV[dgbVYZk^YVfjZhZaaZkVWVZcaV
X^jYVYYZEdidh†#°¸HZXjZciV]VhiV)%%%XVhVhW^ZcXdchigj^YVhnYZWjZcV
e^ZYgV!i^ZcZckVg^dhe^hdhVaVbdYVYZ:heVŠV!aVh^\aZh^Vhhdcbjn]ZgbdhVhn
idYVhg^XVbZciZVYdgcVYVhYZeaViZg†V!iVe^XZg†VndigdhdgcVbZcidh###:aejZWad
Xdbc k^kZ iVbW^‚c bjn Xdc[dgiVWaZbZciZ! idYdh hdc dg\jaadhdh n Vai^kdh#
39
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
NZcYd h^ZbegZ W^Zc XjW^Zgidh
hZV YZ WgdXVYdh YZ dgd n
eaViV d YZ iZaV YZ ZhXVgaViV n
YZ hZYV! WdgYVYdh YZ bjX]dh
ZcXV_Zh YZ dgd n eaViV! hjh
XVhVh hdc iVbW^‚c g^XVbZciZ
VbdWaVYVh!cd]VW^ZcYdcVY^Z
fjZ cd hZV hZgk^Yd Zc kV_^aaV
YZ eaViV¹# #### IgZh hZbVcVh
YZhej‚hYZb^aaZ\VYVVEdidh†
hZ gZVa^oVgdc adh [ZhiZ_dh edg
Za cVX^b^Zcid YZa eg†cX^eZ YZ
:heVŠV0 ‚hiVh YjgVgdc &* Y†Vh Feria. Norte Potosí. 1978
hZ\j^YdhYjgVciZadhXjVaZhhZ
eVgVa^o‹ Za igVWV_d Zc idYV aV X^jYVY! Zc aVh ZmeadiVX^dcZh b^cZgVh n Zc adh
VagZYZYdgZh n idYdh! YZhYZ Za b{h k^Z_d ]VhiV Za b{h _dkZc! nV hZV ZheVŠda!
ZmigVc_Zgd!^cY^ddhVakV_Z!hdadeZchVWVZc]VXZgVa\d[jZgVYZadXdbceVgV
aVh ÃZhiVh ### Adh Y†Vh h^\j^ZciZh hZ aaZkVgdc V XVWd Y^[ZgZciZh _jZ\dh! kVg^Vh
XaVhZhYZbVhXVgVYVh!XdbZY^Vh!WVaaZi!bh^XVXVciVYVZ^chigjbZciVandigdh
ZcigZiZc^b^Zcidh!dg\Vc^oVYdhjcY†Vedgadh]^YVa\dh!ZadigdedgadhVaYZVcdh!
dg[ZWgZh d b^cZgdh! digdh [jZgdc ]ZX]dh edg adh Y^kZghdh \gjedh ]jbVcdh n
Vcdigdhb{h!edgadh^cY^dh!idYdZhidZcbZY^dYZjcV\gVcVWjcYVcX^Vn
\VhidhZmigVdgY^cVg^dh####:hidh[ZhiZ_dhXdcXajnZgdcXdcjcVegdXZh^‹cfjZhZ
]^odYZaVXViZYgVaVaV^\aZh^VYZaVhgZXdaZiVh!YdcYZZaHVcidHVXgVbZcid[jZ
VaoVYdZc]dbWgdh!VXdbeVŠVYdYZidYdZaXa‚g^\dnYZidYdZaejZWad#EVgV
aVhÃZhiVhegZXZYZciZhhZ]VW†VYZhVYdfj^cVYdZaXVb^cdfjZXdcYjX†VYZjcV
^\aZh^VVaVdigVneVgVaVegdXZh^‹chZaVkdak^‹VVYdfj^cVgXdcWVggVhYZeaViV!
YZbVcZgVfjZidYdZaXVb^cdfjZhZgZXdgg†VZhiVWVVh†XjW^Zgid#:aVaiVgfjZ
hZgk†VYZaj\VgYZYZhXVchdZcaV^\aZh^VYZAVhGZXdaZiVhZhiVWViVcVYdgcVYd
XdcÃ\jg^aaVh!ÄdgZgdhneaVXVhYZdgdeaViV^cXgjhiVYdhXdcY^VbVciZ!eZgaVhn
digVhe^ZYgVhegZX^dhVhfjZcdXgZdfjZejZYVZm^hi^gcVYVb{hg^Xd!nVfjZadh
VaYZVcdh]VW†VcaaZkVYdidYdVfjZaadfjZiZc†VcYZgVgd#HZ]VZhi^ejaVYdfjZ
Za\VhidZmigVdgY^cVg^dfjZhZ]^odZcZhiVÃZhiVaaZ\VWVVb{hYZfj^c^Zcidhb^a
ZhXjYdh¹#9dXjbZcid\Zci^aZoVYZaV:bWV_VYV;gVcXZhVZc7da^k^V&..,#
6goVch YZ DghjV n KZaV bVc^[ZhiVWV/ ¸AV bjn XZaZWgVYV! h^ZbegZ †cXa^iV!
Vj\jhiV!bV\c{c^bV!cdWaZng^XVK^aaVYZEdidh†0]dcdgn\adg^VYZ6b‚g^XV!
8Zcigd YZa EZg0 :beZgVig^o YZ aVh K^aaVh n aj\VgZh YZ ZhiZ cjZkd bjcYd!####
hZŠdgVYZadhiZhdgdhnXVjYVaZh!WZc^\cVne^VYdhVBVYgZYZV_Zcdh]^_dh0###:a
[Vbdhdh^ZbegZg^fj†h^bd!b{m^bdZ^cVXVWVWaZ8ZggdG^XdYZEdidh†0h^c\jaVg
dWgVYZaedYZgYZ9^dh!c^Xdb^aV\gdYZaVcVijgVaZoVeZg[ZXiVneZgbVcZciZ
40
:A8=6G6C<D
bVgVk^aaVYZabjcYd0###:beZgVYdgYZadhbdciZh!GZnYZadhXZggdh!eg†cX^eZYZ
idYdhadhb^cZgVaZh!###bdchigjdYZg^fjZoV!XjZgedYZi^ZggVnVabVYZeaViV¹#
&,%*$&.)(/&(!&)#
8dchZXjZciZbZciZ!adhXgdc^hiVhXd^cX^YZcVahdhiZcZgfjZaVZcdgbZg^fjZoV
fjZ \jVgYVWV Za 8Zggd G^Xd HjbVX Dg`d! cd h‹ad [jZ igVchedgiVYV ]VhiV Za
gZ^cd YZ :heVŠV! h^cd fjZ VYZb{h h^gk^‹ eVgV egdedgX^dcVg aj_d n \gVcYZoV
V idYV aV cdWaZoV! eVgV aV XdchigjXX^‹c YZ XVhVh! ^\aZh^Vh n XdckZcidh! Vh† hZ
edY†VcVegZX^VghjcijdhdhdW_Zidh!ZheVYVh!ZhXjYdh!bZYVaadcZh!_dnVhYZeaViV!
^ccjbZgVWaZhjiZch^a^dhndgcVbZcidhZcadhVaiVgZh!Z^cXajhdZcaVh]ZggVYjgVh
YZadhXVWVaadh!eVgVVYdfj^cVgaVhXVaaZhedgYdcYZeVhVWVaVegdXZh^‹cYZadh
hVcidh!eVgVadh\gVcYZhVgXdh!ZiX#0niVbW^‚chdakZci‹aVhedgiZcidhVhÃZhiVh
XVgVXiZg^oVYVh edg Za \gVc YZggdX]Z! ajX^b^Zcid n \Vhid fjZ hZ ]VX†V YjgVciZ
aVh XdcbZbdgVX^dcZh gZVaZh! gZa^\^dhVh! eVigdcVaZh n digdh gZ\dX^_dh! V adh
XjVaZhVh^hi†VaVedWaVX^‹cYZidYdhadhXdcidgcdhnaj\VgZhVaZYVŠdhYZEdidh†!
XdciVcYdiVbW^‚cXdcaVeVgi^X^eVX^‹cVXi^kVYZadh^cY^dh#9ZhiVX{cYdhZZhiV
cdWaZk^aaVXdbdaVX^jYVYfjZ]VX†V\VaVYZhjdejaZcX^VnYZhjhXdhidh†h^bdh
VXdciZX^b^Zcidh!fjZaVXdck^gi^ZgdcZcZaXZcigdYZVYb^gVX^‹cnbdi^kdeVgV
YZhZVg^b^iVgaV#
:hiVhXZaZWgVX^dcZhYjgVWVcaVhb{hYZaVkZXZh]VhiV'+Y†Vh!Y^hig^Wj^Ydh
ZcigZ egZhZciVX^dcZh YZ XdbZY^Vh! b{hXVgVh! idgdh! _jZ\dh YZ XVŠVh! hdgi^_V!
idgcZdhYZY^hi^ciV†cYdaZnadh^c^\jVaVWaZhhVgVdhXdcbh^XV!XVcid!WV^aZn
YVcoVh[dgbVcYdeVgiZYZaYZaZ^iZ\ZcZgVa#6h†eVgVZaVŠd&+*+hZ\c6goVch!
ZcEdidh†Zm^hi†Vc&)ZhXjZaVhYZYVcoVh!(+XVhVhYZ_jZ\d!)XdbeVŠ†VhYZ
[VghVciZhfjZZchj\gVcXda^hZdgZegZhZciVWVcajX^YVhXdbZY^VhidYdhadhYd"
b^c\dhnY†VhYZÃZhiVh#
H^c aj\Vg V YjYVh ZhiZ
Vj\Z ZXdc‹b^Xd! ^beja"
h‹ g{e^YVbZciZ Zc VfjZ"
aaV edejadhV edWaVX^‹c
Xdhbdeda^iV [dgbVYV edg
ZheVŠdaZh! Xg^daadh! ^cY†"
\ZcVh! cZ\gdh n digdh! Za
YZhVggdaadYZjcVbW^ZciZ
egde^X^d YZ jcV ^ciZchV
k^YVhdX^Va!YdcYZZhiVWVc
egZhZciZh aVh VXi^k^YVYZh
Vgi†hi^XVhna^iZgVg^Vh#
A‹\^XVbZciZ! VigV†Ydh
edg ZhVh g^fjZoVh [VWjad"
hVh! Vgg^WVgdc b^aaVgZh YZ Tarabuqueños. Del Libro: “Craft and Folk Museum”. Los Angeles. 1978
41
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
[dgVhiZgdh n VkZcijgZgdh Zc WjhXV
YZ [VbV n [dgijcV! aaZ\VcYd ZcigZ
Zaadh bV\c†ÃXdh bh^Xdh n ]{W^"
aZheVnVYdgZh!fj^ZcZhYZaZ^iVWVc
Va ejZWad edg aVh cdX]Zh! Zc aVh
Xa{h^XVh hZgZcViVh n Zc Zhdh Y†Vh
hdaZbcZh YZ XZaZWgVX^‹c YZhVggd"
aaVYVhZcaVhXVaaZh!eaVoVh!iZVigdh!
^ck^iVcYdVjcV¸eVgi^X^eVX^‹c\Z"
cZgVa¹#
:aVŠd&+&+!Edidh†nVXdciVWV
Xdc jc 8da^hZd egde^d YdcYZ aVh
Lequepalca. Oruro 2000
VgiZhVaXVcoVgdchj\gVcZheaZcYdg!
YZhYZgZegZhZciVX^dcZhYZiZVigd^cY†\ZcV!]VhiVdWgVhYZedejaVgZhnXa{h^Xdh
ZheVŠdaZh! fj^ZcZh XVciVWVc n WV^aVWVc Va hdc YZ hjh k^]jZaVh! ^chigjbZcid
fjZ hZ VYZcig‹ Va XdgVo‹c YZa ^cY†\ZcV Wda^k^Vcd eVgV eZgYjgVg V igVk‚h YZa
i^Zbed!YVcYdaj\VgVacVX^b^ZcidYZaX]VgVc\dYZhej‚hYZa^WgVgegdXZhdhYZ
igVchXjaijgVX^‹c!VXjaijgVX^‹cXdbdgZbZYd!V[ZXid!egZhi^\^d!Xjg^dh^YVY!ZiX#
=Vc h^Yd adh ^cY†\ZcVh ZmeadiVYdh YjgVciZ aV Xdadc^V Zc aV K^aaV >beZg^Va
YZ Edidh† adh fjZ bdaYZVgdc Z ]^X^Zgdc Za X]VgVc\d ^beg^b^‚cYdaZ hjh
hZci^b^Zcidh! hjh cdhiVa\^Vh! hjh eZcVh n idYV hj VabV0 n [jZgdc adh Vgg^Zgdh
^cY†\ZcVh!igVhedgiVYdgZhYZb^cZgVaZhnegdYjXidhcZXZhVg^dheVgV\VgVci^oVg
aVk^YVnaVZhiVcX^VYZaVK^aaV>beZg^VaYZEdidh†!adhfjZidbVgdcZabdYZad
bVheZfjZŠdedga^k^Vcdnedgi{i^aeVgVaaZkVgadedgZhdhXVb^cdhYZ]ZggVYjgV
Xdbd jc XdbeVŠZgd k^iVa YZ ZhVh aVg\Vh n eZcdhVh igVkZh†Vh! XdhijbWgZ Vc
VggV^\VYV Zc 7da^k^V YdcYZ adh XVbeZh^cdh VigVk^ZhVh hZggVc†Vh! kVaaZh! aaVcdh
nhZYZi^ZcZcZcedWaVYdhdiVbWdhXdcZhiZ^chigjbZcidaaVbVYdX]VgVc\d!
VaXdbe{hYZhjhkVaa^bVnjhkVaaZYZg†dh"fjZX]jV!YZhjh¸Wjggd`]Vi^cVh¹
h^\j^ZcYd Va Wjggd " fjZX]jV n ¸lVgb^bVŠVfVh¹ XZgZbdc^V eVgV eZY^g aV
bVcdYZaVcdk^V#AdhbZhi^odhnX]dadhaZY^ZgdcZahVWdgcdhi{a\^XdXdchjh
`Vajndh!WV^aZhYZaVi^ZggV!`VX]VgeVnVh!XjZXVh!XVgcVkVa^idh!ZiX#^ck^iVcYdV
WV^aVgnVVYb^gVghjh^ciZgegZiVX^dcZh#
¸Fj^ZcZh YZ 8joXd d A^bV! aaZ\VWVc V aV VjY^ZcX^V YZ 8]VgXVh! kZc†Vc
ZheZX^VabZciZVEdidh†!YZYdcYZhda†VceVhVgVaVX^jYVYYZAVEaViV!ejZhh^
8]jfj^hVXVXdbdhZYZZe^hXdeVad[gZX†VigVWV_dVadhVgi^hiVh!ZgVEdidh†Xdchj
g^fjZoVfjZadhYZiZc†V^cXajhdVadhfjZZhiVWVcYZeVhd¹8]VX‹c!&.,(/+)#
H^\j^ZcYdV8]VX‹cnVdigdhZhijY^dhdhYZaiZbV!edYZbdhVÃgbVgfjZZc
ZaYZhVggdaadYZaVVgfj^iZXijgViVbW^‚cYZ_VgdcXdchigjXX^dcZhbdcjbZciVaZh!
YZW^ZcYd bZcX^dcVg V adh \gVcYZh bVZhigdh n dÃX^VaZh XVciZgdh YZ dg^\Zc
42
:A8=6G6C<D
^cY†\ZcVaVWgVYdgZhYZaVhe^ZYgVhYZedgiVYVh!VgXdhneZYZhiVaZhYZaVh>\aZh^Vh!
XVhVheVgi^XjaVgZh!niVbW^‚cYZdWgVhbZcdgZhXdbde^aVh![jZciZhWVji^hbVaZh!
ZiX#! fj^ZcZh [jZgdc VjidgZh bViZg^VaZh YZ ZhVh \gVcY^dhVh dWgVh# ¸AV X^jYVY
VcY^cV!edgaVeaViV^cV\diVWaZYZhjbV\c{c^bVbdciVŠV!hjeZgVcYdVB‚m^Xd!
8VgiV\ZcVYZ>cY^Vh!A^bVn8joXd!hZXdchi^ijnZZcZacXaZdb{h^bedgiVciZ
YZafjZ]VXZgVgi†hi^Xd¹#BZcY^ZiV!&.../&#
:caV[jcX^‹cYZaVVh^\cVX^‹cYZaigVWV_dhdWgZidYdbViZg^Va!VYZb{hYZidYdh
ZhidhVgi^hiVh!ZcaVK^aaVhZXdciVWVXdcbVZhigdhZhXjaidgZh!YdgVYdgZh!VaVg^[Zh!
h^aaZgdh! VaWVŠ^aZh! XVge^ciZgdh! Va[VgZgdh! XZgVb^hiVh n adXZgdh fjZ gZX^W†Vc
Za cdbWgZ YZ ¸daaZgdh¹! aVWgVYdgZh YZ bVYZgV! ZchVbWaVYdgZh! bjZWa^hiVh!
dg[ZWgZh!eaViZgdh!bVZhigdhXVaYZgZgdheVgVdW_ZidhYZdgcVbZciVX^‹cejZgiVh
gdhZidcZh d aaVbVYdgZh! gZ_Zgdh! bVZhigdh ]ZggZgdh! ZheVYZgdh hZ Y^XZ fjZ
adh bVZhigdh edidh^cdh XdbeZi†Vc Xdc adh bVZhigdh idaZYVcdh! WdgYVYdgZh!
\j^iVggZgdh!dg\VcZgdh!iVaVWVgiZgdh!XVbeVcZgdh!ZchVbWaVYdgZh!XZgZgdh!ZiX#
YZdg^\Zc^cY^d#
AdfjZaaZkVVXdcÃgbVgaVX^iVYZ6goVchVagZ[Zg^ghZVadh^cY†\ZcVhYZaV
K^aaV>beZg^Va###¸hdcYZbjngVgV]VW^a^YVY!ejZhhZZmeZg^bZciVXdc\gVcYZ
hZci^b^ZcidYZadhZheVŠdaZhZafjZadh^cY^dhhZ]VnVcVaoVYdXdcZaZ_ZgX^X^d
YZ idYdh adh dÃX^dh! cd h‹ad adh
bZX{c^Xdh! iVbW^‚c adh YZ VgiZ!
XVjhVcYd cd edXV VYb^gVX^‹c kZg
[dgbVg jcd YZ Zhidh cVijgVaZh jc
gZiVWad! jcV edgiVYV! jcV idggZ n
idYd jc ZY^ÃX^d eZg[ZXid h^c iZcZg
XdcdX^b^Zcid YZ aV <ZdbZig†V c^
6g^ib‚i^XV0nadfjZZhb{h!h^chVWZg
aZZg c^ ZhXg^W^g [dgbVg \jVg^hbdh!
XVgVXiZgZhnaVWdgZhXdbdiVbW^‚c
]ZgbdhVh Ã\jgVh Xdc Za e^Xd n Za
e^cXZa!hdaVbZciZXdckZgZaY^Wj_d¹
&,%*$&.)(/+,
Edg ai^bd! ]VXZbdh gZ[ZgZcX^V
VaigVWV_db^cjX^dhdYZ9dcBVg^d
8]VX‹c! egZhi^\^dhd ^ckZhi^\VYdg
edidh^cd! hdWgZ aV ^cYjhig^V YZ
^chigjbZcidh bjh^XVaZh! fj^Zc
VÃgbV/¸fjZZcEdidh†XdbdZcdigdh
aj\VgZhYZaXdci^cZciZ[VWg^X{gdchZ
^chigjbZcidh YZ dg^\Zc Vji‹Xidcd! Charanguista. San Pedro Buena Vista. Potosí. 2002
43
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
XdbdadhYZeZgXjh^‹cnYZk^Zcid!ndigdhdg^\^cVg^dhYZak^Z_dbjcYd!Xdbd
adhYZXjZgYV!niVbW^‚cVa\jcdhaaVbVYdhXg^daadhdb{hegde^VbZciZbZhi^odh
###:cadhVgX]^kdhVeVgZXZcbVZhigdhdg\VcZgdhn\j^iVggZgdhfjZ[VWg^XVWVc
Zc Edidh†! ‹g\Vcdh! \j^iVggVh n digdh ^chigjbZcidh YZ XjZgYV Xdbd aVh VgeVh#
:c aVh ZhXg^ijgVh cdiVg^VaZh VeVgZXZc/ VŠd &*-, 9^Z\d YZ G^kZgV 8dchigjXidg
YZadh‹g\VcdhYZaV>\aZh^VbVndgYZEdidh†#:c&+%(Zadg\VcZgd7VaiVoVgYZ
adhGZnZhhZXdbegdbZiZ]VXZgjc‹g\Vcd^\jVaVafjZ[VWg^X‹eVgVaV8ViZYgVa
YZaVEaViV(+!;da#(%%)#:c&+%-n&+%.Za\j^iVggZgd?jVcGdYg†\jZogZX^WZ
VegZcY^XZhZchjdÃX^d)'!;da#&%.-k#n)(!;da#&,-&k##:c&+(%9^Z\d
=da\j†chZXdbegdbZiZZchZŠVgVidXVg\j^iVggVnVXVciVgVBV#YZKVg\Vh,+!
;da#(+%.#:c&+(&VeVgZXZZabVZhigdYZXVe^aaV;ZgcVcYd9†Vo,*!;da#')
k##&+()hZX^iVVa\j^iVggZgd8g^hi‹WVaFj^heZ-*!;da#(--k##&++&9^Z\dYZ
KZgVhZXdbegdbZiZZchZŠVg]VXZg‹g\VcdhVEZYgdYZaVh8VhVh&&.!;da#*&&#
&+,,ZabVZhigdYZ]VXZg‹g\Vcdh?jVc<VgX†VEVX]ZXdVggZ\aVZaYZaVXVe^aaV
YZ 6gVcoVoj YZ HVc 6\jhi†c &'.! ;da# )*,# &+.% ;gVcX^hXd ?ja^{c Fj^heZ!
bVZhigddg\Vc^hiVYZaV^\aZh^VbVndgYZEdidh†YZ_VZaXVg\d&(-!;da#'(*#
:c&,+&VabVZhigd9db^c\d;Zgc{cYZofjZVggZ\a‹Za‹g\VcdYZaXdgdVaidYZ
HVciVB‹c^XV!‹g\VcdfjZZcaVVXijVa^YVYh^\jZ[jcX^dcVcYd!cddWhiVciZhZg
Zab{hVci^\jdYZaVX^jYVYHVciVB‹c^XV/¸:cigVYVhnhVa^YVhYZaXdckZcidYZ
CigV#HgV#9ZadhGZbZY^dh!VŠdh&,+&¶&,+)!;da#&k#:c&,.,ZhX^iVYdZa
bVZhigdYZXVe^aaVYZaV^\aZh^VBVndgBVcjZa9{k^aV>#n8#+)!;da#(#&-%&
aVXd[gVY†VYZaV8dcXZeX^‹cYZaV>\aZh^VBVndgXVcXZaVVabVZhigdYZXVe^aaV
?ja^{cYZKVg\VhnVadg\Vc^hiV?jVcBVcjZaGdYg†\jZo>#N8#)+!;da#&)#9Z
&-%)V&-&%hZX^iVcjZkVbZciZVabVZhigdYZXVe^aaV?ja^{cYZKVg\Vh!nZc
&-%.V6aZ_d;gVcXdn?dh‚<VWg^Za;Zgc{cYZofjZXdbejh^ZgdcZa‹g\VcdYZ
aV^\aZh^VYZHVcid9db^c\d>#n8#'*!;dah#,&nH><#n.-k##&-''VeVgZXZ
6aZ_d;gVcXdXdbdbVZhigdYZXVe^aaV!nZc&-')ZhX^iVYdZabh^Xd9{bVhd
<‹bZo>!n8#('#8]VX‹c!&.,(/&+*!&+,&+-#
N Vh† [jZgdc aVh bVcdh ^cY†\ZcVh fjZ bdaYZVgdc! iVaaVgdc! e^ciVgdc!
aVWgVgdc n igVWV_Vgdc edgiVYVh! XdajbcVh! gZiVWadh! hVcidh! k†g\ZcZh! {c\ZaZh
nYZbdc^dhbh^Xdh!h^gZcVhX]VgVc\j^hiVhXdchdaZh!ajcVh!ZhigZaaVh!_jcidV
digdhZaZbZcidhYZaVcVijgVaZoVniVbW^‚cY^Zgdc[dgbVhVaVhbVYZgVheVgV
XgZVg ^chigjbZcidh bjh^XVaZh Xdbd Za X]VgVc\d YZhYZ hj egde^V b^gVYV n
hZci^b^Zcid! gZXdchigjnZcYd eVgiZ YZ hj eVhVYd YZcigd YZa egZhZciZ Xdadc^Va
fjZaZhidX‹k^k^g#
EdYZbdhVhZ\jgVg!fjZYZhYZZhdhh^\adh]VhiVcjZhigdhY†Vh!ZaX]VgVc\d]V
XdchZgkVYdhjVj\ZZcZa{gZVgjgVa!^ciZgk^c^ZcYdZcbVc^[ZhiVX^dcZhV\gVg^Vh!
eVigdcVaZhnZcaVhYZX^gXjchiVcX^Vh!Xjbea^ZcYdaV[jcX^‹cYZXdbeVŠZgdk^iVa
YZadhhda^iVg^dhVgg^ZgdhnXVb^cVciZh!fj^ZcZhhZYZheaVoVWVcYZedWaVYdZc
edWaVYdgVh\jZVcYdZaX]VgVc\j^idXdbdVa\dcZXZhVg^deVgVhjhjWh^hiZcX^V#
44
:A8=6G6C<D
=Zbdh h^Yd iZhi^\dh! b^aZh YZ kZXZh! X‹bd V\gjeVX^dcZh YZ XVbeZh^cdh
aaZ\Vc V adh edWaVYdh idXVcYd hjh X]VgVc\dh eVgV eVgi^X^eVg Zc aVh ÃZhiVh
gZa^\^dhVh d gZVa^oVg hjh VXi^k^YVYZh YZ VWVhiZX^b^Zcid Zc aVh aaVbVYVh ;Zg^Vh
8VbeZh^cVh# 6YZb{h! dWhZgkVbdh fjZ [dgbVcYd jcV gjZYV ]VhiV YZ Y^Zo
eZghdcVh adh XVbeZh^cdh XVciVc! WV^aVc! oVeViZVc! _VaZVc Va Xdbe{h YZ jc
h‹adX]VgVc\deZfjZŠd!bZY^Vcdd\gVcYZ!h^cc^c\cdigdVXdbeVŠVb^Zcid
fjZhjX]VgVc\d`»VaVbeZVYdg#AdhVgg^Zgdh!VfjZaadhXdbZgX^VciZhfjZk^V_Vc
edg XVb^cdh YZ ]ZggVYjgV Xdc hjh bjaVh XVg\VYVh YZ ad b{h egZX^VYd eVgV
aV hjWh^hiZcX^V YZ adh ejZWadh! kVc idXVcYd hjh X]VgVc\dh Va Xdbe{h YZ hjh
Wjggd`]Vi^cVh Vgg^VcYd Wjggdh! YZ ad XdcigVg^d aVh bjaVh cd k^V_Vg†Vc iVc V
\jhid n Za eV^hVcd aaZ\Vg†V iVgYZ V hj YZhi^cd# :hidh hda^iVg^dh! VcYVg^Z\dh
XVbeZh^cdh fjZ kVc VigVkZhVcYd egVYZgVh n hZggVc†Vh YZ ejZWad Zc ejZWad!
iVbW^‚ckVcidXVcYdhjhidcVYVhVaXdbe{hYZhjhX]VgVc\dheVgVVXdgiVgadh
aVg\dhXVb^cdhn]VXZgadhbZcdh[Vi^\dhdh#:cbjX]dhejZWadh!YdcYZhZXVgZXZ
YZZcZg\†VZa‚Xig^XVZhidhk^V_ZgdhVXdhijbWgVcgZ[j\^VghZZcadXVaZhYdcYZhZ
ZhXjX]V bZadY†Vh Zc X]VgVc\d V aV ajo YZ adh bZX]Zgdh# DWhZgkVX^‹c &.+'
V&..%Edidh†!8]jfj^hVXV!8dX]VWVbWVnDgjgd#CddWhiVciZnVjcfjZZc
bZcdg \gVYd! eZgk^kZ ZhV XdhijbWgZ ZheZX^VabZciZ Zc aVh ÃZhiVh eVigdcVaZh0
h^cZbWVg\d!hZkZXaVgVbZciZfjZkVYZXVnZcYdZhVeg{Xi^XVZcXVh^idYdZa
iZgg^idg^dYZhej‚hYZhjeZgbVcZcX^Vedgb{hYZ*%%VŠdh#
EVgVXZggVgZhiZXVe†ijad!XdcXaj^bdhfjZZaX]VgVc\di^ZcZbVndgVci^\“ZYVY
fjZaV\j^iVggVZheVŠdaVVXijVa+X#h^beaZhh^ZcYdZabVZhigd9^dc^h^d6\jVYd
fj^ZcZcZaVŠdYZ&-')^ckZci‹eVgVaV\j^iVggV!Za¸ejZciZXVcVa^oVYd¹Xdc
+dg^ÃX^dhedgadhfjZhZ^cigdYjXZcnVbVggVcaVhXjZgYVhfjZhZVednVcZc
jcV XZ_^aaV ^c[Zg^dg ]ZX]V YZ ]jZhd! bjn Y^[ZgZciZ Va ejZciZ igVY^X^dcVa fjZ
jhVZaX]VgVc\dZc[dgbVYZW^\diZdk†WdgVnfjZYZhYZÃcZhYZah#MMadh
XdchigjXidgZhjgWVcdh]VcYZX^Y^YdXVbW^VgadYZÃc^i^kVbZciZedgZaejZciZYZ
aV\j^iVggV#
Detalle: Carnaval de Oruro s. XIX. Manuel E. Mirones. De Caymari Vida - Rossells
45
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
9>HE:GH>ÓC9:A8=6G6C<D
JcVkZoXdchda^YVYdZaX]VgVc\dXdbdeVgiZYZahZci^b^ZcidnYZaXdi^Y^Vcd
k^k^gYZadh^cY†\ZcVhedWaVYdgZhYZaVX^jYVYYZaHjbVXDg`dEdidh†!hZY^Zgdc
adheg^bZgdhigV_^cZhYZaX]VgVc\dYZcigdYZaiZgg^idg^dYZak^ggZ^cVideZgjVcd!
YZW^Yd [jcYVbZciVabZciZ V adh aVodh ]^hi‹g^Xdh! XjaijgVaZh! n Va Zhe†g^ij fjZ
Zckdak†V V adh b^aZh YZ b^iVndh! nVcVXdcVh egdXZYZciZh YZ XVh^ idYVh aVh
egdk^cX^Vh!fjZ[jZgdcaaZkVYdhVaigVWV_d[dgoVYdYZaVhb^cVh!YZaVh[VZcVh
YZaXVbed!YZadhigVhaVYdhnVXVggZdh!YZahZgk^X^dZcaVh^\aZh^Vh!ZiX#
6edn{cYdcdh Zc iZbVh ZmejZhidh Zc adh VciZg^dgZh XVe†ijadh! gZ^iZgVbdh
fjZ YjgVciZ aV VjY^ZcX^V YZ 8]VgXVh &**, ¶ &-'*! Za X]VgVc\d fjZ cVX^‹
Zc Za XZcigd ZXdc‹b^Xd b{h ^bedgiVciZ YZa ^beZg^d Xdadc^Va hZ Y^heZgh‹! V
igVk‚hYZaVheg^cX^eVaZhgjiVhXdc[dgbVYVhedgZaZ_ZEdidh†¶A^bV!fjZ[dgb‹
Za XdbZgX^d YZ aV eaViV YZhYZ aV K^aaV >beZg^Va ]VX^V aV X^jYVY YZa 8joXd!
6nVXjX]d!aaZ\VcYd]VhiV=jVcXVkZa^XV^bedgiVciZedghjhb^cVhYZVod\jZ0
ZcgVo‹cYZaVXdchiVciZgZaVX^‹cZm^hiZciZZcigZZaXZcigdb^cZgdnZagZhidYZ
aVhX^jYVYZhnedWaVX^dcZhedgYdcYZX^gXjaVWVcadhegdYjXidhcZXZhVg^dheVgV
\VgVci^oVgaVegdYjXX^‹c!aVk^YVnZhiVcX^VYZadh]VW^iVciZhYZZhiVedejadhV
K^aaV#6h†!YjgVciZadhh^\adhMK>VaMK>>>YZhYZXjVafj^Zgaj\Vg!YZhYZXjVafj^Zg
ejcid!cd^bedgiVWVXjVcVaZ_VYdZhijk^ZgVh^ZbegZhZaaZ\VWVVEdidh†#
AVhgjiVhXdadc^VaZhhZZhiVWaZX^ZgdcZcWVhZVadhXVb^cdhgZVaZhniVbWdh
edhVYVh XdadXVYVh YZ igZX]d Zc igZX]d Zm^hiZciZh YZhYZ aV ‚edXV ^cXV^XV0
YdcYZadhZcXVg\VYdhYZigVchedgiVgadhb^cZgVaZhnY^[ZgZciZhegdYjXidh[jZgdc
b^aaVgZhYZ^cY†\ZcVhigV_^cVciZhfjZk^V_VWVcVadaVg\dYZadhXVb^cdhYjgVciZ
igZhdXjVigdbZhZh]VhiVaaZ\VgVhjhYZhi^cdh!fjZVhjkZohZXdchi^ijnZgdcZcadh
eg^cX^eVaZhY^[jhdgZhaaZkVcYdadheg^bZgdhZ_ZbeaVgZhYZaX]VgVc\d!^chigjbZcid
fjZadhVXdbeVŠVWVedgZhdh^ciZgb^cVWaZhhZcYZgdh!Va^k^Vc{cYdaZhaV[Vi^\V
nZaXVchVcX^dXdcZagVh\jZdYZhjhXjZgYVh0iVaXdbdhZejZYZkZgVcZhiZ
bVgVk^aadhdXjVYgd!ZcaVhedWaVX^dcZhCdgedidh^cVhngZ\^dcZhX^gXjcYVciZh
46
:A8=6G6C<D
hdcadhXVbeZh^cdhVgg^ZgdhfjZhZ
Y^g^\ZcVaVh[Zg^VhYZadhedWaVYdh
aaZkVcYdhjhegdYjXidhnejahVcYd
h^ZbegZhjhX]VgVc\dh#
IdbVcYd Zc XjZciV adh YVidh
^Xdcd\g{ÃXdh! ]^hi‹g^Xdh n XZcigdh
YZ Xjai^kd YZa ^chigjbZcid! ZhiV
eg^bZgV \gVc Y^heZgh^‹c VWVgX‹
aVh h^\j^ZciZh edWaVX^dcZh n
VhZciVb^Zcidh/ aV \gVc K^aaV
>beZg^Va YZ Edidh† X^jYVY YZ
aV EaViV n bZh‹c gZVa! NdXVaaV
iVbWdgZVanejZciZYZXVciZg†V!
AV\jc^aaViVbWdgZVa!Bdgdbdgd!
8VgVXVgV!BVX]V!EdXdViVejZWadh
n iVbWdh gZVaZh! EVg^V! 8VgVXdaad
iVbWdh gZVaZh! H^XV H^XV! 6nd
6nd! 8VaVbVgXV! K^VX]V ejZWadh
niVbWdhgZVaZh!8]jfj^V\d¶AV
EVo X^jYVY n bZh‹c gZVa! AV_V!
I^lVcVXj!<jVfj^iVbWdhgZVaZh
Zc aV eVgiZ Wda^k^VcV n digdh fjZ
XdggZhedcYZc V ad fjZ Zh ]dn
iZgg^idg^d eZgjVcd/ 8Ze^iV! EdbViV
EjZWadh n iVbWdh gZVaZh! ?ja^
iVbWdgZVa!Ejcdn?ja^VXVVaYZV
YZ ZheVŠdaZh! ^cY^dh n iVbWd Campesino de Tarabuco. Chuquisaca 1980
gZVa! EjXVgV! 6nVk^g^ ejZWadh
n iVbWdh gZVaZh! H^XjVc^! 8VcVh n 8VcX]^h ejZWadh n iVbWdh gZVaZh! JgXdh!
Fj^he^XVcX]^h iVbWdh gZVaZh! 8joXd bZh‹c gZVa! 6WVcXVn! 6cYV]jVnaaVh!
JgVbVgXVejZWadhniVbWdhgZVaZh!<jVbVc\VX^jYVYnbZh‹cgZVa!EVgXdh!
E^XdniVbWdhgZVaZh!]VhiVaaZ\VgV=jVcXVkZa^XV#8^ZoVYZAZ‹c/(),Va(,%0
=jVbVcEdbV/&%%*¶&%%+#
:cZhiZegdXZhdYZ^ciZgXdbjc^XVX^‹cnXdbZgX^dfjZhZY^dZcigZEdidh†n
A^bV!ZaX]VgVc\daaZ\‹YZZhiVbVcZgV]VhiVaVgZ\^‹chjgVcY^cVYZaV]ZgbVcV
gZeWa^XVYZaEZg!ZhiVWaZX^‚cYdhZ[jcYVbZciVabZciZZcadhYZeVgiVbZcidhYZ
Ejcd Egdk^cX^Vh ?ja^VXV! AVbeV! 6o{c\Vgd! =jVcXVc‚! 8]jfj^id#! 6gZfj^eV
8V^aaVcV!6ejg^bVX6WVcXVn!V^bVgV‚h!6cYV]jVnaaVh!8joXd8VcVh!8VcX]^h!
:he^cVg! EVjXVgiVbWd! 8]jbW^k^aXVh! Fj^e^XVcX]^h! 6nVXjX]d =jVbVc\V!
47
:gcZhid8Vkdjg6gVbVnd
=jVciV! eZgY^‚cYdhZ V bVcZgV YZ
aaZ\Vg ]VhiV =jVcXVkZa^XV 6XdWVbWV!
6c\dgZh#
EdgdigdaVYd!Zabdk^b^ZcidZXdc‹"
b^Xd fjZ egdYj_d aV ZmeadiVX^‹c YZ aV
eaViVad\g‹^bedcZgcjZkVhgjiVhZ^ciZg"
XVbW^dhVZhXVaVgZ\^dcVa!k^cXjaVcYd†c"
i^bVbZciZadhZheVX^dhVWVhiZXZYdgZhYZ
egdYjXidhXdcZaXZcigdb^cZgdYZEdidh†0
YZiVabVcZgVfjZZhiVeg^bZgVY^heZgh^‹c
YZaX]VgVc\diVbW^‚cVaXVco‹VadhVXijV"
aZhYZeVgiVbZcidhYZ8]jfj^hVXVVh^Zc"
idgZVaYZaVVjY^ZcX^VYZ8]VgXVh!aj\Vg
VbZcd!VeVX^WaZnXdcjcXa^bViZbeaVYd
Campesino de Cacachaca tocando su khonkhota. 1979
egde^X^d eVgV Za ZhiVWaZX^b^Zcid YZ X]{"
XVgVhnXVhVhYZ]VX^ZcYV!egdedgX^dcVWV
V Edidh† [gjiVh! k^cd! Vc^bVaZh! eZhXVYdh!
bVYZgVh! ZiX#! 8dX]VWVbWV gdYZVYV YZ
kVaaZh[‚gi^aZhXdbd8a^oV!IdidgV!B^ofjZ!
HVXVWV n digdh! Veidh eVgV aV egdYjXX^‹c
YZadheg^cX^eVaZhVa^bZcidhXdbdZabV†o
n Za ig^\d! [gjiVh kVg^VYVh! k^cdh! \VcVYd
bVndgnbZcdg!iZ_^YdhYZVa\dY‹c!XZgV!
e^ZaZh YZ VciV! b^Za YZ VWZ_Vh! XVcVhidh!
gZh^cVh n kVg^ZYVY YZ bVYZgVh Xdbd Za
XZYgd!hdid!i^eV!fj^cVfj^cV!iVgXd!ZiX#!
Dgjgd ^bedgiVciZ X^jYVY b^cZgV! fjZ
Zck^VWVVhjkZofjZhdh!XVgcZYZXZgYd!
48
Campesino de Mizque (Cochabamba),
con su Ranqha charango. 1982
:A8=6G6C<D
idX^cd! bVciZXV! Vc^bVaZh! ZiX#! n
eVgiZ YZa YZeVgiVbZcid YZ AV EVo
eVhd dWa^\VYd eVgV aaZ\Vg V Edidh†!
egdkZ†VYZeVeVh!X]jŠd!dXV!kVg^Z"
YVYYZeZhXVYdhYZaaV\d!XdXV!iZm"
i^aZh!dkZ_Vh!aaVbVh!ZiX#!aaZ\VcYdZa
X]VgVc\d^cXajhd]VhiVaVX^jYVYYZ
KVaaZ\gVcYZHVciV8gjo#
Hj Y^heZgh^‹c ]VX†V Za hjg YZ
7da^k^V H# MM! _jcid V digdh ^chigj"
bZcidh cVi^kdh igVY^X^dcVaZh! hZ YV
XjVcYdZhaaZkVYdZcZaZfj^eV_ZYZ
adh Zb^\gVciZh fjZX]jVh! VnbVgVh!
X]^X]ZŠdh!X]VnVciZŠdh!XdX]VWVb"
W^cdhndigdh!VadhVa\dYdcVaZhnXV"
ŠVkZgVaZhYZHVaiV!?j_jnnIjXjb{c
Zc 6g\Zci^cV! VciZh YZ aV b^iVY YZa
h# MM# B{h iVgYZ aaZ\Vc Va KVaaZ YZ
6oVeVYZacdgiZYZ8]^aZZc\gdhVcYd
YZZhiVbVcZgVaVhÃaVhYZadhWgVXZ"
gdh! adh XjVaZh edg hj XdcY^X^‹c YZ
]dbWgZh hZch^WaZh! YZhej‚h YZ aVh
Campesino de la región de los Yuras en un tambo de Potosí. VXi^k^YVYZhYZaVoV[gV!gZcY†VcXjaid
Foto Elena Hosmann. 1944
VhjhigVY^X^dcZh!ZheZX^VabZciZbj"
h^XVaZh!VeVX^\jVcYdYZZhiVbVcZgV!
ZcZaXdgVo‹cYZZhidhZb^\gVciZh!aVcdhiVa\^VfjZXdcYZcVVa]dbWgZWda^k^V"
cdXjVcYdZhi{[jZgVYZhjiZggjŠd#HdcadhWgVXZgdhnoV[gZgdhZmeadiVYdh!adh
XVbeZh^cdhedWgZhfjZZcedhYZjcedh^WaZbZ_dgVb^ZcidZXdc‹b^Xd!aaZ\Vc
VZhdhiZgg^idg^dhkZX^cdh!YdcYZaVbVndgeVgiZYZaVhkZXZhh‹adXdchZ\j†Vcjc
igVWV_dYjgdnbVagZbjcZgVYd#
AVhVc‚XYdiVhcdhXjZciVcfjZbjX]dhZb^\gVciZhZgVciVbW^‚chda^X^iVYdh
eVgV ^ciZgXVaVg bjh^XVabZciZ Xdc ad b{h hZaZXid YZa VbW^ZciZ Vgi†hi^Xd Zc
gVY^dh!iZVigdh!iZaZk^h^‹cZ^cXajhdX^cZ!YZY^X{cYdhZVa\jcdhYZZaadhedgZhiVh
X^gXjchiVcX^Vh ¸V aV k^YV Vgi†hi^XV¹! h^c dak^YVgcdh YZ adh bVZhigdh [da`adg^hiVh
Wda^k^Vcdh XjnV kVhiV Y^hXd\gV[†V YZbjZhigV aV egZhZcX^V YZa X]VgVc\d YZhYZ
eg^cX^e^dhYZah^\adMMZcZa]ZgbVcdeV†hYZaV6g\Zci^cV#
49
Descargar