10 12 26 30 VIEWPOINT Improving IAQ Investigations CONTROLS Raising Health's Profile in Construction FEATURE Consensus Standards and IH FEATURE Plan Your Career October 2019 The Journey to "Be Well" Implementing Total Worker Health in Eugene, Oregon AIHA | Protecting Worker Health. www.aiha.org North Americas Leading Legionella Laboratory! Legionella i ll Testing • • • • • • • • 22 CDC Elite Certified Labs CDC/ISO Culture Tests Rapid Testing by PCR Strain Typing by DNA Sequencing Pure Isolate Preparation and Storage Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) qPCR for L. pneumophila Serotype 1 Legiolert Call for your FREE Legionella Pocket Guide! Ann Arbor, MI Atlanta, GA Buffalo, NY* Carle Place, NY* Chicago, IL Cinnaminson, NJ* Dallas, TX Denver, CO Houston, TX Huntington Beach, CA Indianapolis, IN Miami, FL Minneapolis, MN New York, NY* Orlando, FL Phoenix, AZ Plymouth, MI Raleigh, NC San Leandro, CA South Pasadena, CA Toronto, Canada Wallingford, CT* * NYSDOH ELAP Legionella Certified Lab www.EMSL.com West Coast 866.798.1089 East Coast 800.220.3675 Sampling Supplies And Instructions Available OCTOBER 2019 FEATURES THE JOURNEY TO “BE WELL” IMPLEMENTING TOTAL WORKER HEALTH IN EUGENE, OREGON In the last few years, Eugene, Ore. has proven to be an ideal environment for implementing the NIOSH Total Worker Health initiative. The city serves as an excellent example of how medium-sized or small organizations can engage with TWH. 22 BY LIZ HILL, DEDE MONTGOMERY, AND RANDI BOWERS-PAYNE 26 FIRST CHOICE CONSENSUS STANDARDS, TECHNOLOGY, AND THE IH PROFESSIONAL The National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act requires that government agencies use consensus standards. As a result, consensus standards have begun to appear with more regularity in federal directives, guidelines, regulations, and requirements by citation or by reference. BY KENN WHITE AND MIKE BRISSON TAKE CONTROL OF YOUR DEVELOPMENT A GUIDE TO PLANNING YOUR CAREER A critical tool for every professional (not just early-career professionals) is a formal development plan—a roadmap that helps ensure you meet your personal and professional goals. Even seasoned professionals need to review their development plans and their career progression. 30 BY MICHAEL A. FINNAMORE CONTRIBUTORS LIZ HILL, FEATURE AUTHOR Liz Hill, MPH, CIH, CSP, is Total Worker Health advisor at SAIF Corporation. | October 2019 KENN WHITE, FEATURE AUTHOR Kenn White, MS, MM, CIH, CSP, FAIHA, is the principal of Consultive Services in Virginia Beach, Va. 4 MICHAEL A. FINNAMORE, FEATURE AUTHOR Michael A. Finnamore, MSPH, CIH, CSP, CHMM, is the global director of Environmental, Health and Safety at Hillrom Corporation in Chicago. Low2Flow2 Air2Sampling2Pump •2 20mL - 500mL/min ﬂow •2 Wireless2Bluetooth2Connectivity2to2222222 C n Casella’s2Airwave2App,2saving2time2by222 s ON allowing2notes2creation2ON O THE GO! •2 Compact2IP65,2IS2design Compact2IP65,2IS2design S •2 More2than2342hours2battery2life2under2 typical2operating2conditions o •2 Motion2sensing2technology Motion2sensing2technology i i h l •2 Maximum2back2pressure2of270cm2H222 2 Plus many other b beneﬁts... 415 Lawrence Bell Drive, Unit 4, Buﬀalo, NY, 14221 T: (800) 366 2966 E: [email protected] casellasolutions.com 5 www.aiha.org | OCTOBER 2019 Volume 30 Number 9 EDITOR IN CHIEF Ed Rutkowski: [email protected] COLUMNS & DEPARTMENTS 8 PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE 14 More than a Facelift SENIOR EDITOR Kay Bechtold: [email protected] NEWSWATCH OEHS and Industry News BY KATHLEEN S. MURPHY 10 20 ADVERTISERS’ INDEX 35 PRODUCT FEATURES PRODUCTION MANAGER Jim Myers: [email protected] VIEWPOINT Follow the Fresh Air ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVE MCI | USA Holly Klarman: [email protected] BY JOHN L. PARKER 12 36 CONTROLS COMMUNITY AIHA News Raising Health’s Profile 38 BY MATT GILLEN DESIGNER Janelle Welch, 2 Hounds Media CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER Lawrence D. Sloan, CAE: [email protected] BY THE NUMBERS Outbreak of Lung Disease Associated with E-Cigarette Use The Synergist® is a copyrighted publication of the American Industrial Hygiene Association, 3141 Fairview Park Drive, Suite 777, Falls Church, VA 22042; (703) 849-8888; e-mail [email protected] No part of The Synergist may be reprinted without the express written consent of AIHA. Submission of articles or letters to the editor are welcome, but AIHA and The Synergist will determine what to publish and reserve the right to edit all submissions for content, style, length and clarity. The Synergist (USPS #009-332) is published monthly except a combined June/July issue by the American Industrial Hygiene Association, 3141 Fairview Park Drive, Suite 777, Falls Church, VA 22042 for $50 per year for members; nonmembers may subscribe for $315/yr. International nonmembers may subscribe for $415/yr (U.S. funds). Periodicals postage paid at Merrifield, Virginia, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Synergist, American Industrial Hygiene Association, Attn: Customer Service, 3141 Fairview Park Drive, Suite 777, Falls Church, VA 22042. ISSN 10667660. Ü IN THE DIGITAL EDITION See digital content at SYNERGIST.AIHA.ORG Ü ON AIHA.ORG Publications Mail Agreement No. 40039445. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to PO Box 503, RPO West Beaver Creek, Richmond Hill ON L4B 4R6. Latest news: WWW.AIHA.ORG/NEWS COMING IN NOVEMBER: Handling Sensitizers in the Occupational Environment | Managing in a Distracted World | Providing Cost Estimates for OEHS Recommendations The Synergist’s mission is to provide AIHA members with news and information about the occupational and environmental health and safety fields and the industrial hygiene profession. The Synergist focuses on industry trends and news, government and regulatory activities, key issues facing the profession, appropriate technical information and news on association events and activities. The Synergist’s objective is to present information that is newsworthy and of general interest in industrial hygiene. Opinions, claims, conclusions, and positions expressed in this publication are the authors’ or persons’ quoted and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the editors, AIHA, or The Synergist. | October 2019 6 EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS Jeff Behar, California Institute of Technology Patricia Crawford, Consultant M. Cathy Fehrenbacher, U.S. EPA Don Garvey, 3M Co. Stephen Hemperly, Hitachi GST Hank Muranko, Muranko & Associates Derek Popp, Wisconsin Occupational Health Laboratory Doris Reid, Goodrich Corporation John Rekus, John F. Rekus & Associates Ltd. You Are IH Ensure the Protection of the Next Generation American Industrial Hygiene Foundation TM Consider making your year-end annual gift We have included an envelope in the middle of The Synergist for you to enclose and mail your generous donation today! Or donate online... www.aihfoundation.org 3141 Fairview Park Drive, Suite 777, Falls Church, VA 22042 USA • 703-849-8888 TM PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE KATHLEEN S. MURPHY, CIH, is AIHA president and director of Global Regulatory Affairs at Sherwin Williams in Cleveland, Ohio. She can be reached at [email protected] More than a Facelift BY KATHLEEN S. MURPHY, AIHA PRESIDENT Send feedback to [email protected] L ast month, AIHA unveiled a brand-new design for AIHA.org. The purpose of a new website is sometimes simply to give your company’s look a facelift. However, the recent updates to AIHA’s website were motivated by more than just cosmetic reasons. THE USER EXPERIENCE Over the past six years, we have learned from our tri-annual Member Needs Surveys that our website is one of the top three member benefits AIHA offers. Yet, anecdotally, AIHA staff were constantly receiving feedback that the site’s navigability and user-friendliness were under par. Understanding these factors, AIHA’s Board of Directors agreed to undertake a website redesign. Last year, staff conducted a customer survey of members and non-members about the website as well as a focus group of website users. Staff also worked with a UXP (user experience) team to learn about best practices in website design so that we could redesign the new AIHA.org with the needs of both members and non-members in mind. The newly unveiled AIHA.org website is now simpler and more navigable. The site is very much consumer-focused, providing tools for people affected by hazards in the workplace and in their communities. We wanted to organize the many resources that | October 2019 AIHA committees and staff have developed over the years to make them more accessible to a wider audience and encourage people to learn how IH professionals can help them. publications. Also available are links to our eLibrary Subscription package and the member-developed, subject-specific “frameworks” (previously known as “bodies of knowledge”). AIHA UNIVERSITY THE NEW MEMBER CENTER One of the important features of the new website is AIHA University. Because AIHA’s educational offerings have been expanding to new outlets and formats over the years, staff felt this slight name change was needed to attract both new and current cus- Other improvements made to AIHA.org include enhanced search capabilities and a better experience for users of mobile devices. The AIHA Member Center has also been reimagined to place Catalyst, our online community, front and center. When you click on the “member access” link at http://bit.ly/ membercenteraiha, you’ll be brought directly to the Catalyst home page with its links to current discussions, AIHA-related news, blog posts, and a list of upcoming educational events. The Catalyst home page also includes an easy-to-find link to the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene on the right side of the page. That link provides member access to the JOEH home page, where you can search for and download articles. Members who want to browse past issues of The Synergist will find a link to the full-issue PDF archives on the Member Center page at http://bit. ly/membercenteraiha. I encourage you to look around the new website and get familiar with it. Change is not always easy, but it’s necessary to improve. We acknowledge that nothing is perfect, and that’s why staff is open to your feedback. Please use the form at www.aiha.org/feed back to share your thoughts on the new site. We wanted to organize the many resources that AIHA committees and staff have developed over the years to make them more accessible to a wider audience and encourage people to learn how IH professionals can help them. tomers to our e-learning courses, publications, and other materials. By rebranding our education and marketing it to new audiences, we expect to broaden our footprint and increase sales. The AIHA University page at www. aiha.org/education brings together all of AIHA’s resources, including e-learning opportunities, face-to-face course offerings, certificate programs, and 8 INTRODUCING the AIHA University eLIBRARY 50 best-selling publications Unlimited online access 1 low subscription fee Access 50 of AIHA’s best-selling publications, authored by respected industry experts, via our online subscription service. The AIHA University eLibrary allows you to: • • • View relevant IH/OEHS publications via our responsive subscription site, anytime, anywhere. Browse our topic-based categories or find what you need via keyword search. Save time and money by accessing multiple IH/OEHS resources for a low one-time fee. ® Learn more at bit.ly/AIHA_eLibrary. SIX MONTH SUBSCRIPTION ONE YEAR SUBSCRIPTION Member: $180 Non-member: $235 Member: $300 Non-member: $390 VIEWPOINT JOHN L. PARKER, MSPH, CIH, CSP, is a principal industrial hygienist with Northrop Grumman Corporation with 17 years of experience. He lives in in Baltimore, Md. Send feedback to [email protected] Follow the Fresh Air Advice for Improving Indoor Air Quality Investigations BY JOHN L. PARKER I ndustrial hygienists rely on instruments to measure all kinds of exposures. We are the samplers, and instruments are part of the process of risk assessment. But over-reliance on instrumentation when performing indoor air quality investigations can be a detriment. Don’t get me wrong. There is definitely a place for instruments. PERCEPTION AND CAUSATION The first step in getting to the bottom of troublesome IAQ problems is to recognize that IAQ measurements aren’t nearly as valuable as a good walk-through. | October 2019 I was taught that an IAQ investigation involved three major aspects: measurements, interviews of concerned or affected persons, and a walk-through evaluation. Measurements are my expertise. I have invested many hours in understanding the instruments I use to make risk assessments. I use IAQ meters, 4-gas meters, particulate meters, photoionization detectors (PIDs), and others. This is what IHs are trained to do: we learn how to use our instruments and how to get the most valuable information from them. They provide numbers we can use to relate to exposure limits or IAQ parameters, so it’s easy to see how we can fail to give sufficient effort to the other two parts of the investigation. When people get sick from unidentified agents, they present challenges to the IAQ investigator. Interviews with these individuals, although necessary, revolve around their perceptions of the problem, which are often misleading. I’ve noticed that safety and health pro- fessionals withdraw emotionally from people who claim that “the building is making me sick.” Early in my career, I spent over a year investigating one such complaint. A person reported allergic-type symptoms and understandably wanted to know what caused the problem. But the tools available to us for determining causation are not that specific. I measured IAQ parameters, looked in the supply air ducts, and sampled for a few substances, such as fiberglass. Building occupants often fixate on mold, but my search yielded no finding of mold or any other agent of concern. The occupational health practitioner, seeing my report, bluntly told the sufferer that the problem was “all in her head.” As you can imagine, she was outraged. A few weeks later, a colleague of hers who worked in the same area of the building reported what I believe was the acquisition of yet another allergy. What was causing these allergies? Complicating matters, my efforts to coordinate and work with local management yielded little help. They did not want to discuss the problem openly. There were, in fact, many complaints about this building over years. An open conversation would likely reveal years of resentment and mistrust. When I looked at the data, I estimated that one or two allergic cases were developing each year, yet I found only a slightly higher than normal perception of household dust. Although I left the company shortly 10 thereafter, I continued to wonder about the cause of these illnesses. I wrote a research paper in graduate school on the psychosocial factors of IAQ. I learned that slight temperature changes affect perceptions of IAQ problems and that people often report illness when a known pollutant source (such as old carpet) is in the building where they work. One study discussed how management’s suppression of complaints contributed to workplace stress, lower productivity, and reduced sense of cohesiveness. While this research was interesting, the only prescription I found was to have an open mind and keep looking for the cause. A GOOD WALK-THROUGH I am convinced that most safety and health professionals are ill-prepared to deal with IAQ matters. The conscientious ones dutifully work through the guidance, not expecting to find anything of note. This can lead to resignation and apathy. “People get sick,” they think, “and there isn’t a lot I can do about it.” In my opinion, the first step in getting to the bottom of troublesome IAQ problems is to recognize that IAQ measurements aren’t nearly as valuable as a good walk-through. The problem we face is understanding what to look for. We rely on published checklists, but since we haven’t created them ourselves, we don’t always know what relevance they have. For example, one checklist had me looking for chemicals under kitchen sinks, which may be helpful on occasion but is usually noise in a sea of possible causes. So what should we be looking for? Just as the mantra for accountants is to “follow the money,” I suggest IAQ investigators follow the fresh air. In most cases this means investigating the design and operation of the building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. To do this you need to enlist the help of some maintenance personnel, and you need to ask them to show you the movement of the fresh air through the building, from the supply through the return. I think the reason I’ve neglected to use the expertise of maintenance technicians to their fullest is that I didn’t want to step on their toes. They are our most valuable asset in solving IAQ problems, but they’re human and make mistakes. They frequently wear many hats and can get complacent like the rest of us. They too rely on instruments to tell them how the system is operating. That’s why you need them to give you a guided tour of the HVAC system. Most likely, they will be the ones to show you the problems they have failed to catch on their own. Relying on HVAC technicians has improved my IAQ investigations on several occasions. In one case, I had about a dozen people telling me they were experiencing symptoms directly related to the building’s environment. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic compounds were DERO2084/Getty Images VIEWPOINT air was 10 percent. After about 40 minutes of following the fresh air through the HVAC system, we found a fresh air actuator had broken off from the damper it was supposed to control. Needless to say, we had it repaired. normal. Yet the building had an odd odor that dated back some 10 years when the roof was repaired. I arranged to have maintenance show me the air handler. As we walked the system, I noticed the fresh air intake was open a mere sliver and was clearly not at 10 percent. We adjusted it, and I returned a few days later to follow up with occupants. The change was dramatic. People who had been suffering from allergies for years reported significant improvement. In another case, a colleague was investigating a similar case of illnesses reported in a section of the building. We walked through the area together with maintenance. The building had a computerized control system that said the fresh GOOD INVESTIGATIONS I’m not certain we appreciate the effect fresh air has on people’s health. Medical practitioners have been prescribing fresh air and sunshine for centuries. It may be that fresh air has ions that reduce the bacterial count in the air. We don’t measure these things, but they affect human health. Whatever the case, I’ve found following the fresh air to be invaluable to performing good IAQ investigations. I hope it will help you, too. RESOURCES AIHA: The IAQ Investigator’s Guide, third edition (2016). AIHA: “Technical Framework: A One-of-a-Kind Resource for All IAQ/IEQ Practitioners,” http://bit.ly/iaqframework (December 2018). The Synergist: “Setting the Bar for IAQ: How AIHA and IAQA Developed the Indoor Air Quality Body of Knowledge,” http://bit.ly/syn1602f1 (February 2016). 11 www.aiha.org | CONTROLS Raising Health’s Profile MATT GILLEN, MS, is an AIHA Fellow, member of AIHA’s Construction Committee, and project team lead for the Focus Four for Health guidance. Send feedback to [email protected] Editor’s note: This article was originally published on the SynergistNOW blog on July 9, 2019. The guidance works to improve employer skills at identifying visually the types of “risk factors” that make exposures more likely for each of the four health hazards. | October 2019 A Battle Plan for the Construction Sector’s Health Hazards BY MATT GILLEN I ndustrial hygienists know the importance of occupational health. We know the national estimates suggesting that fatal occupational illnesses occur ten times more than fatal occupational injuries. We realize that the costs of these illnesses—whether shouldered by workers and their families, borne by employers affected by lost productivity, or passed along to taxpayers in the form of higher disability costs—tend to be overlooked. We understand that awareness is higher for injuries, which are easier to link to the workplace than occupational diseases. Diseases may not show up for months or years. Harder to know is what we can do to raise the profile of health. How can we best serve as occupational health champions? These challenging questions motivated a project team from AIHA’s Construction Committee to develop new materials to raise awareness about health and to target common construction health hazards in the United States and Canada. The resulting booklet, called “Focus Four for Health” (PDF, http://bit.ly/focus fouraiha), was released in June and is available as a free download to encourage construction stakeholders to join in to improve construction worker health. STRATEGY Construction is relevant for all industrial hygienists because sooner or later every type of workplace needs renovation or new construction. The major focus of EHS programs in construction has been safety. While this is appropriate given the higher-than-average injury and fatality rates in construction, the contrast with occupational health hazards is stark. There are fewer guidance materials, regulations, enforcement actions, and training efforts for health. The inadvertent message received by many employers and work- ers is that safety is a clear priority, but health is not. The project team saw an opportunity to build upon an existing safety approach with a strong foothold in the construction industry. The long-running “Focus Four” program, initially launched by OSHA in 1994, is well known by many construction employers and employees. It targets the four top causes of fatal construction injuries: falls, electrocutions, struck-by injuries, and injuries resulting from workers getting caught between objects. OSHA’s Focus Four program has stimulated a wide variety of activities and is credited with helping to bring down fatality rates over time. However, it is silent about health hazards. The project team created a health companion piece to fit alongside the Focus Four program. We selected four widely prevalent construction health hazards: Manual material handling. Overexertion during lifting, pulling, pushing, and carrying is the top cause of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, which account for about a third of all work-related injuries in construction and about half of all workers’ compensation costs. 12 Noise. High noise levels can cause hearing loss and tinnitus. Recent findings also suggest links to sleep disturbance, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, depression, and impairment of balance. Almost three-quarters of construction workers in a 2011 study were found to be exposed to noise levels above the recommended exposure limit set by NIOSH. Air contaminants. Dust, fumes, vapors, and gases can cause a variety of short- and long-term health effects, ranging from asthma and irritation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nervous system problems, kidney damage, or even cancer, depending on the material and extent of exposure. More than half of construction workers report being regularly exposed to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes twice a week or more at work. The risk for developing an occupationally related disease after a working lifetime in construction is two to six times greater than for non-construction workers. High temperatures. North American summers during the last decade rank among the hottest on record. Heat stroke is the most severe heat-related illness. It can cause death or permanent disability if not treated quickly. An OSHA study of 20 construction heat illness cases involving 13 deaths found that four occurred on the first day of the job. GUIDANCE The primary target audience is construction employers and workers. The project team believes that secondary audiences such as construction trade organizations, workers’ compensation CONTROLS carriers, and industrial hygiene professionals, consultants, and safety practitioners will also find the guidance useful. The guidance begins by tackling head-on why health tends to lag behind safety in construction: Seeing is believing. Injuries and safety hazards are easier to see with the naked eye, while health hazards and most occupational illnesses are much less observable. Mixed signals from regulations and inspections. Only about seven percent of all OSHA construction inspections are for health, about one-third the 20 percent rate for general industry. Mixed signals from a lack of national statistics. Whereas annual national reports describing top causes of traumatic injuries get considerable attention, there are no counterpart reports for occupational illnesses. This lack of attention sends an inadvertent message that health is not a major issue. Next, the guidance presents the four hazard sections. Each follows a similar outline with ten topics. The first three topics orient the reader: What is the hazard? How severe are the health effects and how common are they? What trades are most commonly affected? These sections make the hazards as salient as possible for readers and clarify what the impacts to worker health can be—from cutting careers short to pain, disability, and death. The next two topics—How should we look at this health hazard? and What strategies can be used to control this hazard?—use the safety practice template most likely to be familiar to construction employers: identifying observable risk factors before the job as part of a Job Safety Analysis. Our preference is always to have a professional hygienist assist employers with evaluating exposure potential, but this may not be realistic given that small and medium-sized firms dominate the construction industry (81 percent of the half a million construction establishments have fewer than 10 employees) and the limited information available suggests they seek industrial hygiene consultations at a much lower rate than for safety topics. The guidance takes an alternative approach. It works to improve employer skills at identifying visually the types of “risk factors” that make exposures more likely for each of the four health hazards. It reinforces how this can be done at the same time employers are identifying safety hazards prior to work. It also provides practical strategies that employers can use to prevent or control likely exposures. Finally, it makes employers aware of how industrial hygienists can help them better understand exposures, especially for cases where overexposures seem most likely. The Regulations and Guidance topic describes applicable U.S. and Canadian regulations. However, the goal of the guidance is to go beyond compliance to good practice. This is important because regulations do not address topics such as manual material handling and heat stress, and because existing regulations for construction noise and permissible exposure limits are known to be out of date or insufficiently protective. Two short sections follow: How can trade groups help? and How can an industrial hygienist help? These provide suggestions on how construction organizations can get involved to assist their members, and how industrial hygienists can assist employers with evaluating and controlling each of the four health hazards. The final topics for each section reiterate key messages and provide useful links to other resources. CALL TO ACTION The guidance concludes with a short section that suggests specific activities for nine different construction sector groups, including safety and health organizations such as AIHA. For example, AIHA local sections could collaborate with local construction trade associations, labor organizations, and local OSHA offices to conduct workshops and training sessions, or they could work with local tool rental suppliers and vendors to demonstrate quieter tool options and noise measurement apps. The goal of this section is to stimulate activities and partnerships. WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? “Focus Four for Health” can help construction employers tackle some of the most common construction health hazards. It provides a vehicle for hygienists to educate safety colleagues and work site trainers about getting involved with health. In sum, it represents an opportunity for all industrial hygienists to raise the profile of occupational health in construction—a worthwhile but long-overdue goal. As industrial hygienists, we must be champions for health. If we don’t do it, who will? The project team looks forward to working with AIHA members to spread awareness about health in construction. Please contact Thursa La at [email protected] if you are interested in initiating partnership activities. RESOURCES Annals of Occupational Hygiene: “Longitudinal Assessment of Noise Exposure in a Cohort of Construction Workers,” Table 1, http://bit.ly/annalsnoiseconstruction (October 2011). Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene: “Utilization of Health and Safety Consulting Services of the Ohio Bureau of Workers’ Compensation by Small Businesses” (November 2010). CDC: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, “Heat Illness and Death Among Workers — United States, 2012–2013,” http://bit.ly/mmwrheat (August 2014). Climate.gov: “Climate Change: Global Temperature,” http://bit.ly/climateglobaltemp (August 2018). CPWR ‒ The Center for Construction Research and Training: The Construction Chart Book, http://bit.ly/ chartbookcpwr (PDF, April 2013). The Milbank Quarterly: “Economic Burden of Occupational Injury and Illness in the United States” (December 2011). 13 www.aiha.org | NEWSWATCH BACTERIA AND VIRUSES Report Urges Action to Manage Legionella CORE SCIENCES CALL FOR ABSTRACTS FOR 2020 WORLD CONGRESS NOW OPEN The call for abstracts for the XXII World Congress on Safety and Health at Work is open until Dec. 15, 2019. The World Congress, a global forum for advancing worker health protection, will be held Oct. 4–7, 2020, in Toronto, Canada. The 2020 World Congress will focus on topics such as innovations in addressing longstanding safety and health challenges, implications of the changing world of work for occupational safety and health, and efforts to advance a culture of prevention. Individuals will be invited to submit abstracts to present papers, projects, or case studies during the event. The World Congress is organized by the International Labor Organization, the International Social Security Association, the Institute for Work & Health, and the Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety. More information is available on the event’s website at http://bit. ly/2020worldcongress. | October 2019 A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine calls for a range of actions to prevent the growth of Legionella in water systems. The report focuses on the ecology and diagnosis of Legionella contamination of water systems, strategies for the control of Legionella, and regulations and guidelines on Legionella control in water systems. Inhaling air contaminated with Legionella bacteria from water systems can cause Legionnaires’ disease, a serious type of pneumonia, or Pontiac fever, a milder flu-like illness. The report states that Legionnaires’ disease afflicts and kills more people in the United States than any other reported waterborne disease. The National Academies Committee on Management of Legionella in Water Systems, which developed the publication, estimates that the number of people in the U.S. who get Legionnaires’ disease each year ranges from 52,000 to 70,000. This incidence rate is approximately 10 times higher than the number of reported cases, which the committee says does not capture everyone who contracts the disease. In an online briefing to introduce the new report, members of the committee explained that multiple factors likely contribute to the increasing incidence of Legionnaires’ disease in the U.S. These factors include an increasing number of people with health vulnerabilities, aging water infrastructure in cities, more complex water features, unintended consequences related to green buildings (such as lower hot-water temperatures in plumbing), and changing environmental conditions, including global warming. The new report stresses that a more comprehensive policy for Legionella management is needed in the U.S., where regulations currently cover only healthcare facilities in the state of New York, cooling public buildings. The committee also suggests expanding federal requirements of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that apply to hospitals and other healthcare facilities to require monitoring for Legionella in environmental water samples for all types of buildings. The report urges other actions to prevent the growth of Legionella in water systems, including maintaining water temperature outside Legionella’s preferred growth range. Many buildings and private residences are formally protected from Legionella only by building and plumbing codes. towers in New York and New York City, healthcare facilities within the Veterans Health Administration, and hospitals and healthcare facilities that receive Medicare or Medicaid funds. According to the authors, the federal Safe Drinking Water Act does not provide any substantial control of Legionella in water systems, and many buildings and private residences are formally protected from Legionella only by building and plumbing codes. The report outlines several ways to improve regulations related to Legionella management in the U.S. Recommendations include implementing regulations and guidelines that require the registration and monitoring of cooling towers and requiring water management plans in all 14 Hot-water heater temperatures should be maintained above 140°F and the hot-water temperature to distal points should exceed 131°F, according to the report. In addition, low-flow fixtures should not be allowed in hospitals, long-term care facilities, and other buildings with high-risk occupants. The committee also recommends modifying criteria for certifying green buildings, energy-conserving features, and water conservation features to account for risk factors associated with the growth of Legionella in building water systems. The report “Management of Legionella in Water Systems” is available as a free PDF download from the National Academies website at http:// bit.ly/naslegionella. NEWSWATCH HAZARD COMMUNICATION New Guidance Compares U.S., Canadian HazCom Requirements New guidance jointly developed by OSHA and Health Canada, the Canadian federal department responsible for national public health, compares the U.S. and Canada’s regulatory processes and labeling requirements for hazardous chemicals in the workplace. The new documents compare the requirements of Canadian regulations—including the Hazardous Products Regulations, Hazardous Products Act, and the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System, or WHMIS—with OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard, or HazCom 2012. WHMIS 2015 and HazCom 2012 both incorporate the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. GHS attempts to standardize hazard communication worldwide by requiring a consistent system for classifying chemical hazards, a consistent format for safety data sheets, and standardized labels that use pictograms to depict hazards, specific wording to inform workers of hazards, and information on how to protect against those hazards. hazards not otherwise classified, and health hazards not otherwise classified (PDF, http://bit.ly/oshahcpic togram). More information about hazard communication is available from OSHA’s website at http://bit.ly/ The new documents compare the requirements of Canadian regulations with OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard, or HazCom 2012. The joint guidance documents cover labeling requirements for hazardous products (PDF, http://bit.ly/oshah chazprod), regulatory processes for hazardous products in the workplace (PDF, http://bit.ly/oshahcregproc), and pictogram requirements for hazards not otherwise classified, physical hazcomosha. The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety provides information on hazard communication and GHS at http:// bit.ly/ccohsghs. Fact sheets on GHS, WHMIS, and safety data sheets are available at http://bit.ly/ccohsfact sheets. THERMAL STRESSORS Updated Tools Help Prevent Heat Stress IRSST, a nonprofit scientific research organization in Québec, Canada, has released updated computer tools intended to help employers, workers, and occupational health and safety professionals manage and prevent heat stress in the workplace. The newest tool can be used to calculate corrected air temperature, or CAT, using a simple thermometer or a psychrometer. According to IRSST, CAT estimates the thermal stress level for the purposes of preventive management of heat stress. IRSST notes that the calculation of CAT with this tool applies to “sufficiently acclimatized workers”; additional measures must be taken for workers who are not acclimatized. Two other tools for addressing heat stress are available from IRSST. One estimates the alternate work/rest regimen for working in a hot environment according to Québec’s occupational performs similarly, but calculates the alternate work/rest regimen according to the 2017 edition of the documentation of ACGIH’s threshold limit values for workers exposed to heat The newest tool can be used to calculate corrected air temperature using a simple thermometer or a psychrometer. health and safety regulation, or ROHS. This tool considers parameters such as the physical workload and the wet bulb globe temperature, or WBGT, values at the workstation and the worker’s rest location. Another tool 15 stress. This tool considers physical workload, WBGT values at the workstation and rest location, and the type of clothing worn by the worker. The tools are available from IRSST’s website at http://bit.ly/heatstresstools. ERGONOMICS DOCUMENT HELPS FACILITATE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT MSDS AT WORK The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, EU-OSHA, has published a resource intended to facilitate workplace discussions about musculoskeletal disorders. The document includes scenarios or conversation starters that have been designed for workers who perform tasks that may cause MSDs, and is intended to support prompt, effective communication between workers and managers regarding musculoskeletal health problems. The resource can be used in discussion-style workshops or in training sessions. According to EU-OSHA, the scenarios are intended to highlight some of the challenges faced by workers and the importance of company procedures related to the prevention of MSDs. “Conversation Starters for Workplace Discussions About Musculoskeletal Disorders” (PDF, http://bit.ly/euoshamsds) includes scenarios related to the retail environment, hand-arm vibration, small family businesses, neck and shoulder pain from office work, and speaking with an employer about a diagnosis of arthritis. www.aiha.org | NEWSWATCH IH PROGRAM MANAGEMENT OSHA Web Page Collects Guidance, Resources on Leading Indicators CORE SCIENCES CALL FOR PROPOSALS OPENS FOR IOHA 2020 The submission portal for proposals for IOHA 2020 is now open. IOHA 2020, which will be held Oct. 17–22 in Daegu, South Korea, will be the 12th International Occupational Hygiene Association International Scientific Conference and will be hosted by the Korea Industrial Hygiene Association. The theme of the conference, “Bridging Gaps in OH Development, Opening New Horizons,” is intended to recognize the “border-crossing nature” of occupational health and safety. Individuals may submit proposals for professional development courses, symposia, and special lectures to present at IOHA 2020 through Jan. 31, 2020. Symposia will focus on specific research issues, problems, or topics. Conference organizers encourage submissions on topics such as risk assessment, risk management, exposure assessment methodologies and applications, and international cooperation and harmonization activities. Special lectures are intended to share industrial hygiene knowledge, principles, and specific subjects with young researchers or students. More information about IOHA 2020 is available on the conference website at www. ioha2020.org. | October 2019 A new web page published by OSHA focuses on the use of leading indicators to improve health and safety outcomes. OSHA describes leading indicators as “proactive, preventive, and predictive measures that provide information about the effective performance” of health and safety activities. Leading indicators measure events that lead up to injuries, illnesses, and other incidents, and can reveal potential problems in a health and safety program. OSHA’s new page is intended to show how businesses can improve safety and health programs by tracking workplace conditions and events to prevent injuries or illnesses before they occur. According to the agency, employers that use leading indicators can reduce costs associated with incidents, improve productivity and organizational performance, optimize safety and health performance, and demonstrate their commitment to maintaining a socially responsible workplace that values workers. tified hazard or improve an element of their health and safety program. The document also includes an “action plan checklist” that employers can use to begin using leading indicators in their workplace. Leading indicators measure events that lead up to injuries, illnesses, and other incidents, and can reveal potential problems in a health and safety program. The page includes a guidance document that describes how employers can use leading indicators. For example, employers can use leading indicators based on data they are already collecting to control an iden- “Using Leading Indicators to Improve Safety and Health Outcomes” is available as a PDF at http://bit.ly/ oshalichecklist. To access OSHA guidance and resources on leading indicators, visit http://bit.ly/oshaleading. CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL HAZARDS EPA Materials Discuss “High-Priority” Chemicals, Including Formaldehyde Last week, EPA proposed to designate 20 chemicals as “high-priority” substances for upcoming risk evaluations under the Toxic Substances Control Act. The chemicals include seven chlorinated solvents, six phthalates, four flame retardants, formaldehyde, a fragrance additive, and a polymer precursor. EPA is required to designate existing chemical substances as high- or low-priority by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, which amended TSCA. The agency is also required to complete the prioritization process and make final designations for the 20 high-priority substances by December 2019. Once the designations are finalized, EPA will begin a three-year risk evaluation process to determine whether the chemicals present an “unreasonable risk” to human health or the environment under the sub- ysis, and the basis used by EPA to support the proposed designation for each substance. The agency is accepting comments on the proposed EPA will begin a three-year risk evaluation process to determine whether the chemicals present an “unreasonable risk” to human health or the environment. stances’ conditions of use. EPA has published supporting materials for the 20 proposed high-priority chemical substances. These materials identify the proposed designation for each substance and include instructions for accessing chemical-specific information, anal16 designations until Nov. 21, 2019. More information is available in the Federal Register at http://bit.ly/frepapriority and on the EPA website at http://bit. ly/highpriorityepa. According to EPA, risk evaluation for low-priority substances is not warranted at this time. NEWSWATCH NEWSWATCH CONTROLS CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL HAZARDS Area Monitor • Free Network Monitoring Software • Various Probe Options • Simple, Reliable, Customizable, Easy to use Video Depicts Proper Use of NI PPE to Prevent Exposures to Illicit Drugs A new video released by NIOSH depicts the proper use of personal proetrahydrocann tective equipment to prevent occupational exposure to illicit drugs among emergency responders. The 12-minute video is intended to help responders understand the risks associated with these exposures and show what they can do to protect themselves by properly donning and doffing PPE. NIOSH developed the video in collaboration with the police and fire departments in Fredericksburg, Va. The video is available at http://bit.ly/ppedrugvideo. The agency previously collaborated with the Fredericksburg police and fire departments to develop a video that includes real-life footage from a body camera worn by a police officer responding to an overdose call and shows what happens when an officer is exposed to illicit drugs such as fentanyl. The earlier NIOSH video from March 2019 shows that these exposures can result in lightheadedness, drowsiness, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, and the rapid onset of life-threatening respiratory depression. First responders are at risk of inhalation; mucous membrane contact through nose, eye, and mouth; ingestion; and dermal and needlestick exposure to illicit drugs. To watch the March 2019 video, visit http://bit.ly/drugexposurevideo. • Excellent Sensitivity to Alpha, Beta, and Gamma • 3 Modes of Detection • On-Board Memory • Adjustable Timer & Alert • Free Observer USB Software • Included Xtreme Boot & Stand • Optional Wipe Test Plate ® P.O. Box 39, 436 Farm Rd. Summertown, TN 38483 1-800-293-5759 | Fax: 931-964-3564 www.seintl.com | [email protected] MINING Registration Opens in December! MSHA Seeks Information on Miners' Exposure to Quartz Keep an eye on your Inbox to learn how you can participate in a drawing for prizes if you register before January 1. Prizes include: travel to AIHce in Atlanta, gift cards and more! MSHA is seeking information regarding best practices to protect miners’ health from exposure to silica, specifically quartz, in respirable dust, the agency announced in a request for information published in August. MSHA requests input from industry, labor, NIOSH, and other stakeholders on economically and technologically feasible practices to improve health protections for coal, metal, and nonmetal miners against exposure to quartz dust. The agency hopes to gather input in several areas, including new or developing protective technologies and technical and educational assistance. Stakeholders are encouraged to provide information on how engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment can be used to protect miners from exposure to quartz dust. MSHA is particularly interested in dust-control methods that could be used to reduce miners' exposure to respirable quartz during high-silica cutting situations. MSHA also solicits information and data regarding “an examination of an appropriately reduced permissible exposure limit.” In 2016, OSHA’s final rule on occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica set a new PEL for respirable crystalline silica of 50 μg/m3 calculated as an eight-hour time-weighted average. Comments and other input are due by Oct. 28, 2019. More information is available in the Federal Register at http://bit.ly/frmshaquartz. JUNE 1 - 3 • ATLANTA, GA SAVE THE DATE www.AIHce2020.org 17 17 www.aiha.org | www.aiha.org | NEWSWATCH Toxic Vapor Monitoring Badge RISK ASSESSMENT EPA: “Unreasonable” Risks to Workers Associated with Solvent 1-BP A new draft risk evaluation published by EPA in August identifies “unreasonable” risks to workers associated with the chemical 1-bromopropane under specific industrial and commercial uses. Occupational non-users, or workers in the general area of 1-BP use, also face unreasonable risks under the same industrial and commercial uses. The agency says it found no unreasonable risk to workers, occupational non-users, consumers, and bystanders under other specific conditions of use associated with the manufacturing, processing, disposal, and distribution of 1-BP. EPA further states that 1-BP presents no unreasonable risks to the environment. According to EPA, 1-BP is used in several industries as a solvent, including in degreasing operations, spray adhesives, and dry cleaning. It is also used as reactant in the manufacturing of other chemical substances. EPA’s draft risk evaluation makes risk determinations on 25 conditions of use associated with 1-BP, including industrial and commercial uses as a solvent for cleaning or degreasing, in adhesives and sealants, and in cleaning and furniture care products. The agency also evaluated the use of 1-BP in adhesive accelerant, automotive care products, mold cleaning and release products, and electronic products. EPA is accepting comments on its new draft risk evaluation until Oct. 11, 2019. A previous draft risk assessment for 1-BP, which was published by EPA in 2016, indicates health risks for workers with repeated and chronic exposures to the chemical, including neurotoxicity; kidney, liver, and reproductive toxicity; and lung cancer. In 2014, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services added 1-BP to the Report on Carcinogens, a congressionally mandated report that identifies agents, substances, mixtures, or exposures that pose a hazard to people in the U.S. OSHA and NIOSH previously issued a joint hazard alert warning workers and employers of the dangers of occupational exposure to 1-BP in 2013. The new draft risk evaluation is the fourth that EPA has published under the amended TSCA legislation. As amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, which was signed into law in June 2016, TSCA requires EPA to complete risk evaluations for 10 chemicals, including 1-BP, by December 2019. EPA published its first draft risk evaluation for pigment violet 29 in November 2018. Draft risk evaluations for the solvent 1,4-dioxane and a group of cyclic aliphatic bromide flame retardants were published last month. The other chemicals set to undergo risk evaluations are asbestos, carbon tetrachloride, methylene chloride, N-methylpyrrolidone, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. To read the new draft risk evaluation for 1-BP, visit http://bit.ly/1bp draftra. EPA’s 2016 risk assessment for 1-BP is available from http://bit. ly/1bp2016ra. For the entry on 1-BP in the National Toxicology Program’s Report on Carcinogens, visit http://bit.ly/ntproc1bp (PDF). The Federal Register notice about EPA’s new draft risk evaluation is available at http://bit.ly/ frepa1bp. For more information on EPA activities related to chemical risk evaluations, visit the agency’s website at http://bit.ly/epariskevals. • Results will be analyzed by an AIHA-LAP, LLC Accredited Laboratory • Results in 72 hours • Chemicals such as: Formaldehyde, Xylene, Nitrous Oxide and many more ACS Badge • (561) 338-3116 • http://www.acsbadge.com 866-736-8347 www.RaecoRents.com Rent Monitoring Systems for All Your Short- or Long-Term Outdoor Projects Perimeter Dust Studies Outdoor Noise Studies Fenceline Monitoring Community Air Monitoring Programs Hazardous Pollutant Monitoring Event Noise Monitoring Noise Dust VOCs Vibration Daily, weekly, and long-term rentals. Free UPS Ground round-trip shipping on every rental order $500 or larger. | October 2019 18 NEWSWATCH REGULATION AND LEGISLATION California Regulation Protects Workers from Wildfire Smoke A new emergency regulation to protect outdoor workers in California from wildfire smoke is in effect until Jan. 28, 2020. According to a Cal/ OSHA press release (PDF, http://bit.ly/wildfire regpr), the regulation applies to workplaces where the current Air Quality Index (AQI) for airborne particulate matter, or PM 2.5, is 151 or greater and where employers should “reasonably anticipate that employees could be exposed to wildfire smoke.” The new regulation requires employers to identify harmful exposure to airborne particulate matter from wildfire smoke at the start of each shift and periodically thereafter by checking the AQI for PM 2.5 in regions where workers are located. Employers must reduce harmful exposure to wildfire smoke by relocating work to an enclosed building with filtered air or to another outdoor location where the AQI for PM 2.5 is 150 or lower. If employers cannot reduce workers’ exposure to wildfire smoke so that the AQI for PM 2.5 is 150 or lower, they must provide respirators to all employees for voluntary use. Employers must also provide training on the new emergency regulation, the health effects of wildfire smoke, and the safe use and maintenance of respirators. In the past two years wildfires in California have dramatically increased in number and intensity. The 2018 Camp Fire was the deadliest and most destructive wildfire in the state’s history, killing 86 people and destroying more than 18,000 structures. More information on the emergency regulation, including rulemaking documents, is available from the website of the California Department of Industrial Relations at http://bit.ly/cawildfirereg. Guidance from DIR on protecting outdoor workers exposed to smoke from wildfires is available at http://bit.ly/cadirwildfire. RISK ASSESSMENT EPA Publishes Supporting Materials for “Low-Priority” Chemicals In August, EPA proposed to designate 20 chemicals as “low-priority substances” under the Toxic Substances Control Act. The substances include d-gluconic acid, 1-docosanol, 1,2-hexanediol, and 1-octadecanol. According to EPA, risk evaluation for these and other low-priority chemical substances is not warranted at this time. The Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, which was signed into law in June 2016 and amended TSCA, requires EPA to prioritize existing chemical substances for high- or low-priority designations. The agency’s recent action is the second step in its new process for reviewing chemical substances under the amended TSCA. EPA completed the first step in March when it published a list of 40 chemical substances, including 20 “high-priority” chemical substances for subsequent risk evaluation and 20 low-priority substances. At that time, Alexandra Dapolito Dunn, the assistant administrator for EPA’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, said in a press release that “Initiating a chemical for high or low prioritization does not mean EPA has determined it poses unreasonable risk or no risk to human health or the environment; it means we are beginning the prioritization process set forth” in the Lautenberg Act. Chemicals designated as high priority will undergo a three-year risk evaluation to determine if they present an "unreasonable" risk to human health and the environment. Supporting materials for the 20 proposed low-priority chemical substances, including information, analysis, and the basis for the agency’s proposed designation of low priority, will be published on Regulations.gov, according to an agency news release. EPA is accepting comments on the proposed designations until Nov. 13, 2019. More information is available in the Federal Register at http://bit.ly/frepalowpriority. 19 facebook.com/RutgersTraining @RutgersTraining #RutgersTraining Personal Silica Monitor: Model SM-4000 The Only Real-Time Sampler On The Market To Offer: • An optical sensor mounted in the OSHA deﬁned breathing zone • Accepts any standard 37mm or 25mm pre-loaded ﬁlter cassette • Validated sampler meets the ISO 7708 Standard • Easy to clean optical sensor with calibration span veriﬁcation 800.234.2589 | Hazdust.com www.aiha.org | MADE IN THE USA NEWSWATCH NEWSWATCH NOISE COMPLIANCE OS NIOSH Examines Hearing Loss Among Oil and Gas, Mining Workers New Member Center… Consumer Resources… Volunteer Groups’ Bodies of Work and more! ew The n .org A new study by NIOSH researchers found that 24 tates percent of noise-exposed workers in the mining sector and 14 percent of noise-exposed workers in the oil and gas sector had hearing loss. The study, published in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine, is the first to examine hearing loss prevalence and risk by industry within the oil and gas sector. The prevalence of hearing loss varied across industries. In the construction sand and gravel mining industry, 36 percent of noise-exposed workers had hearing loss. Other industries in the mining sector with high prevalence of hearing loss include uranium-radium-vanadium ore mining, bituminous coal and lignite surface mining, and iron ore mining. In the oil and gas sector, 28 percent of noise-exposed employees working in natural gas liquid extraction had hearing loss. The findings were derived from audiograms for 1.9 million noise-exposed workers across all industries, including 9,389 in mining and 1,076 in oil and gas extraction. According to NIOSH, no data were available for two of the largest industries in the oil and gas sector—crude petroleum and natural gas extraction, and drilling oil and gas wells—which indicates that more worker surveillance is needed. The agency notes that approximately 61 percent of all workers in the mining and oil and gas extraction sectors have been exposed to hazardous noise. “Not only does noise cause hearing loss, previous NIOSH research has shown it is associated with high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol,” the agency said in a press release. More information is available at http://bit.ly/ oilgasnoise. STANDARDS REGULATION AND LEGISLATION ADVERTISERS’ INDEX ADVERTISER PAGE Assay Technology, Inc. 5 DataChem Software 19 INDEX EMSL ADVERTISERS’ Analytical Inside Front ADVERTISER ACS EMSLBadge Analytical American Board RAECO Rents LLCof Industrial Hygiene RJ Lee Group Casella CEL, Inc. Rutgers School of Public HealthAnalytical EMSL SKC Inc. Environmental Devices Corp. Nanozen VPPPA RAECO Rents LLC PAGE Cover Back18Cover 19 5 18 5 20 Inside Front Cover Inside Back 19 Cover 3 18 Rutgers School of Public Health 19 S.E. International 17 SKC Inc. Inside Back Cover Zefon International Back Cover See this month’s Product Features on page 35. || October October 2019 2019 OS OSHA Mulls Revisions to Table 1 of Its Silica Standard for Construction OSHA is requesting feedback on table 1 of its ease, respirable crystalline silica standard for construction through Oct. 14, 2019. Table 1, “Specified Exposure Control Methods When Working with Materials Containing Crystalline Silica,” matches common construction tasks and equipment with dust control methods that have been shown to be effective. The agency seeks information related to additional engineering and work practice control methods that effectively limit silica exposure for the tasks and equipment currently listed in table 1 of the standard. OSHA is also gathering feedback about silica-generating equipment and tasks that it should consider adding to table 1, along with the control methods associated with those items. “Expanding Table 1 to include additional engineering and work practice control methods, equipment, and tasks could provide employers with more flexibility and reduce regulatory burdens while maintaining protections for employees,” OSHA stated in a press release. The agency is also considering whether to 20 20 revise its respirable crystalline silica standard for general industry to “broaden the circumstances under which general industry and maritime employers would be permitted to comply with Table 1 of the silica standard for construction.” According to OSHA, construction employers that follow Table 1 do not have to assess employee exposures or separately ensure compliance with the PEL. For more information, including instructions for submitting comments, see the Federal Register notice at http://bit.ly/frtable1. OSHA’s final rule to protect workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica was published in March 2016 and comprises two standards, one for construction and one for general industry and maritime. More information about OSHA’s respirable crystalline silica standard for construction is available on the agency’s website at http://bit.ly/ silicatopics. To read the standard for construction, visit http://bit.ly/29cfr1926-1153. AIHce EXP 2019 session recordings now available! AIHce OnDemand The best of AIHce EXP delivered directly to you Get access to curated, peer-reviewed education content from AIHce EXP with AIHce OnDemand! Conveniently bundled by topic, you’ll SAVE 15% per bundle, compared to the cost of purchasing recordings individually. You can even earn CM contact hours! Browse our AIHce OnDemand bundles to stay up to date on the latest IH/OEHS topics. Questions? Contact us at [email protected] BROWSE BUNDLES AT bit.ly/AIHce_OnDemand The Journey to “BE WELL” Implementing Total Worker Health in Eugene, Oregon BY LIZ HILL, DEDE MONTGOMERY, AND RANDI BOWERS-PAYNE T he city of Eugene is one of Oregon’s largest, with a population of nearly 169,000. Home to the University of Oregon and a multitude of cultural and recreational activities, Eugene is the quintessential Oregon city, with a health-conscious and engaged citizenry. The city serves as an employment hub for the southern end of Oregon’s Willamette Valley and employs more than 1,200 people who range from firefighters and police to employees in parks, recreational venues, libraries, public works, administrative services, and planning and development. In the last few years, Eugene has also proven to be an ideal environment for implementing Total Worker Health. As authors, each of us has been involved in implementing TWH through our work with SAIF Corporation (Liz Hill), the Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences (Dede Montgomery), and the city of Eugene’s Risk Services Division (Randi Bowers-Payne). Initiated by NIOSH, TWH is a holistic approach to enhancing worker well-being that attempts to address workplace risks associated with health problems previously considered to be unrelated to work. The NIOSH Total Worker Health Affiliate Program aims to foster an integrated approach to protecting and promoting worker well-being through collaborations with academic, labor, nonprofit, and government organizations. TWH affiliates and NIOSH may engage in joint research; develop programs, interventions, and other work products; collaborate on seminars, meetings, training events, and educational events; and create and disseminate publications and other communications. TWH affiliates include large organizations such as NASA and other government agencies, the Mount Sinai Health System, the University of Georgia, AIHA, the American Society of Safety | October 2019 Professionals, the National Safety Council, and many labor and professional groups. Corporations have also embraced TWH through development of metrics to track injury and illness prevention and holistic health promotion. The TWH approach considers many issues relevant to worker well-being. Smaller organizations and those with limited resources can feel overwhelmed and unsure where to start. The city of Eugene is one of the newest TWH affiliates and serves as an excellent example of how medium-sized or small organizations can engage with TWH. The city has taken an interest in employee wellness and invested time and resources into both evaluation and action. #WELLBEINGWEDNESDAY Eugene was engaged in well-being-related initiatives even before the advent of TWH. The city manager, Jon Ruiz, has long promoted employee wellness and well-being; for example, he provides each new employee a copy of Well Being: The Five Essential Elements, a book based on a Gallup study of people in 150 countries. This action was an invaluable message that employee well-being is a priority. When Bowers-Payne joined the organization as Eugene’s incoming Risk Services Division Manager in 2017, she began researching how TWH could work at and for the city. She had heard about TWH from SAIF, a nonprofit workers’ compensation insurance company that provides consultative services in safety management to its policyholders. Quickly, Risk Services staff recognized that TWH’s holistic connections between safety, health, performance, productivity, stress, customer service, and injury/illness rates were invaluable additions to the city’s already robust wellness offerings. Later, the city launched an initiative to support employees in their journey to “be well.” 22 lzf/Getty Images Because the city’s executive leadership already understood the connectivity between health, wellness, innovation, and the organization’s mission, the first year’s effort focused on an informal information-sharing campaign to create energy around TWH and communicate the value it could provide. Bowers-Payne and the risk team introduced TWH-related topics to the organization through a variety of communication channels. The team sought ways to highlight TWH in conversations, formal presentations, and at committee meetings. The risk team implemented organization-wide “#wellbeingwednesday” communications, which highlighted benefits and resources that could help staff in their journey to be well. As the movement evolved beyond information sharing, members of the executive team began sponsoring monthly well-being activities, initiatives, and programs. One month, in partnership with the Risk Division, executives hosted activities that encouraged employees to invest in social, physical, and community well-being by completing a scavenger hunt related to Eugene history. Employees were encouraged to partner with colleagues, use their city bike-share benefit, and hit the town to learn about our community’s history. Communications during the month highlighted the connections between physical, social, and community well-being as contributors to workplace attendance as well as mental and physical health. While the #wellbeingwednesday communications provide helpful resources related to a component of well-being, they also serve as a way to highlight engagement at all levels of the organization. Weekly communications have contained pictures of staff engaged in well-being at work and home. A consistent piece of feedback is the value of staff seeing their leaders and colleagues participate in the initiative. Sponsorship of monthly activities has now transitioned from the executive team to division managers. This important transition further expands engagement in a measurable top-down, middle-out, bottom-up way. CAPTAIN P-CARD By the end of the first year, employees had begun organizing around the opportunity to promote and invest in their journey to be well. Supervisors started asking for more information, then for formal presentations, and staff started asking how they could get involved, lead an initiative, or solve a problem. As staff began looking for action beyond information, a grassroots committee formed and the TWH movement became the BeWell initiative. TWHrelated activities formerly owned by the risk team became owned, planned, and developed by the BeWell committee. Committee members develop, implement, and highlight organizational TWH initiatives, policies, strategies, and programs. A recent BeWell month sponsored by the finance director featured financial well-being and focused on using both personal and city credit cards (known as “p-cards”) responsibly. A short video featuring “Captain P-card” in uniform (a play on the character Captain Picard from the Star Trek 23 www.aiha.org | The city of Eugene employs more than 1,200 people, including firefighters, police, and employees in parks, recreational venues, libraries, and administrative services. Sean Pavone/Getty Images franchise) was a natural fit for this campaign. These examples demonstrate how the city has initiated and supported employee engagement, which is essential to developing and adopting effective TWH policies and practices. The BeWell movement continues to evolve to meet organizational needs such as raising awareness of the connections between physical, financial, community, career, and social well-being to work performance and to personal and occupational health and safety. To highlight these connections, the BeWell committee recently began integrating the organization’s “competencies” into monthly programs. Competencies are aspects of work culture such as fostering a respectful work environment and encouraging employees’ self-awareness and emotional intelligence. These competencies complement the tenets of well-being identified by the Gallup study and are the framework for the city’s TWH movement. The monthly programs provide a common language for employees to share their personal and occupational journeys to BeWell. MINDFULNESS Employees will not achieve well-being exclusively through #wellbeingwednesdays, program highlights, benefit plans, or information sharing. A critical component of a holistic journey to well-being is the recognition that safety is the foundation of the TWH approach. The effects of workplace psychosocial stress on health | October 2019 24 and safety have been well documented, particularly for municipal first responders. Less well documented are the stressors related to modern library and planning work. Staff in the library and planning departments are required to interact extensively with the public and are continuously exposed to a stressed citizenry. In the case of library staff, interactions frequently include communities struggling with chronic trauma including the unhoused, the substance addicted, and those with untreated or undertreated mental health conditions. The BeWell program brought these seemingly different departments together for a single trauma-informed resiliency workshop. Trauma-informed practices are leadership models that encourage awareness of how an individual’s history or current circumstances may affect their ability to interact, connect, learn, or engage. Trauma-informed practices also encourage resiliency in staff and promote understanding of how to maintain proper boundaries in their interactions with the public. Workshop attendees learned fundamentals of trauma-informed self-care practices and how to “bounce back” after difficult encounters. Shortly after the workshop, library staff set aside a “mindfulness room” for employees to take quiet time when needed. The room hosts resources to promote resiliency and rejuvenation, and allows space for staff to practice meditation. The city also provided access to a trauma-informed book club and workshop for staff and the community to assist them with interacting effectively and compassionately with clients who have experienced trauma. At the end of July, a six-month onsite Employee Assistance Program pilot was launched that will allow any staff working in the downtown area to schedule an appointment at their local library branch and visit with a counselor without having to leave a fourblock area. The Planning Division also engaged a mindfulness consultant for yearlong coaching. Mindfulness is a common practice similar to meditation that asks participants to be aware of their feelings, experiences, and thoughts. Mindfulness practices are linked to reduced stress and anxiety as well as improved productivity and feelings of contentedness. The consultant will help management and staff approach work through a TWH lens and may also support staff in organizing, prioritizing, and managing tasks in a way that helps them “be well.” The mindfulness consultant, EAP pilot, and mindfulness room will be evaluated through an employee survey to gauge efficacy and progress. These actions all reflect the city’s intent to incorporate mental well-being as a key component of a safe work environment. COMMITMENT TO HEALTH The city also understands that TWH practice must be met with budget support. To strengthen its safety foundation, the Risk Division manages an account for unforeseeable but needed workplace safety enhancements. The fund has supported the expansion of TWH initiatives—for example, ergonomic assessments for all workgroups including those who aren’t based in office buildings, such as first responders and public works and library staff. To support data-driven safety decisions, the city developed a detailed workers’ compensation claims analysis for police and fire in 2015. The results continue to inform improved training protocols and physical fitness expectations geared toward injury prevention. With this commitment to enhance worker well-being so firmly incorporated into the organization’s culture, the city of Eugene continues to imagine new initiatives. The organization makes an effort to connect people and find ways to support all employees with ideas that sustain and promote TWH. Ideas such as the onsite EAP pilot, year-long mindfulness practice, and a new interview club are developed and operated entirely by department staff. Data collection around the TWH movement is still evolving, since the early phase focused on coaxing engagement, fostering trust, and empowering new leaders. Employee surveys will play an important role in gauging success and identifying areas for improvement. The next priority is to track the employer self-funded health plan experience, which is expected to provide meaningful feedback. The city isn’t limiting its efforts to employees alone. As a municipality, the city of Eugene recognizes itself as an important community resource, with the potential to positively affect the health, safety, and well-being of all A critical component of a holistic journey to well-being is the recognition that safety is the foundation of the TWH approach. community members. Staff continue to seek creative ways to engage the workforce around community by sponsoring volunteer events, launching a “couch to 5K” program open to employees and community members through the Recreation Division, and actively exploring a “Blue Zones” initiative with community partners. (Blue Zones is a comprehensive community approach to individual wellness and well-being.) Eugene is demonstrating its commitment to the health and livability of its entire community, including those who live and work in Eugene. The city understands the connectivity between a vibrant workforce, the community, and the local economy. The investment in its workforce through BeWell is a clear illustration of the positive change that can come about through leadership commitment and employee engagement in Total Worker Health. LIZ HILL, MPH, CIH, CSP, is Total Worker Health advisor at SAIF Corporation. She can be reached at [email protected] DEDE MONTGOMERY, MS, CIH, is senior research associate for outreach and education at the Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Healthy Workforce Center, Oregon Health and Science University. She can be reached at [email protected] RANDI BOWERS-PAYNE, JD, is Risk Services Director for the City of Eugene. She can be reached at [email protected] eugene-or.gov. Send feedback to [email protected] RESOURCES American Psychological Association: “What Are the Benefits of Mindfulness?” http://bit.ly/ apamindfulness (July 2012). NIOSH: NIOSH Total Worker Health Affiliates, http://bit.ly/twhaffiliates. Psychiatric Clinics of North America: “Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Anxiety and Depression” (December 2017). The New York Times: “How to Be More Mindful at Work,” http://bit.ly/nytmindfulness. UCLA Mindfulness Awareness Research Center: http://bit.ly/uclamarc. 25 www.aiha.org | First Choice Consensus Standards, Technology, and the IH Professional I n 1995, Congress enacted the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act to bring technology and industrial innovation to the marketplace for the economic, environmental, and social well-being of U.S. citizens. Known as Public Law 104-113 or the NTTAA, the Act was also established to foster cooperative research and development agreements with federal laboratories to help U.S. businesses speed the development of new products and processes and to commercialize the innovative technologies created. BY KENN WHITE AND MIKE BRISSON | October 2019 masterzphotois/Getty Images 26 One of the technologies commercialized since the advent of the NTTAA of interest to industrial hygienists is the use of optical fluorescence to determine beryllium in dust by wipe, in air sampling media, and in bulk samples, developed by the Department of Energy. This technology is the focus of analytical methods from NIOSH that describe the use of field-portable fluorometry to analyze beryllium in air (method 7704) and in surface wipes (method 9110). ASTM methods also use optical fluorescence technology for the determination of beryllium in the workplace (method D7202) and in soil, rock, sediment, and fly ash (method D7458). Other IH-related technologies facilitated by the NTTAA include soaps, wipes, and cleaning liquids for removing lead and other metals, oxides, and radioisotopes from skin developed by NIOSH; a colorimetric screening method for lead on skin and wipes also developed by NIOSH (see NIOSH method 9105); and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) mold identification methods based on an EPA patent used by environmental microbiology laboratories accredited by AIHA Laboratory Accreditation Programs, LLC. The NTTAA also requires that government agencies use consensus standards developed by nonprofit standards development organizations whenever possible. Section 12 of the law states that, except after evaluation to the contrary by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, “all Federal agencies and departments shall use technical standards that are developed or adopted by voluntary consensus standards bodies, using such technical standards as a means to carry out policy objectives or activities determined by the agencies and departments.” Further, the Act states that “Federal agencies and departments shall consult with voluntary, private sector, consensus standards bodies and shall, when such participation is in the public interest and is compatible with agency and departmental missions, authorities, priorities, and budget resources, participate with such bodies in the development of technical standards.” In an amplification of the NTTAA in 2017, the executive branch of the federal government expressed its preference for consensus standards. A revised instruction published by the Office of Management and Budget as Circular A-119 “establishes a preference for the use of voluntary consensus standards in lieu of government-unique standards” and directs federal agencies to adopt voluntary consensus standards wherever possible to avoid development of unique government standards. The OMB instruction states that “all Federal agencies must use voluntary consensus standards in lieu of government-unique standards in their procurement and regulatory activities, except where inconsistent with law or otherwise impractical.” OMB also requires federal agencies to show a “strong preference for using voluntary consensus standards” and states that these policies are intended to encourage federal agencies to benefit from the expertise of the private sector, promote federal agency participation in standards bodies to support the creation of standards that are useable by federal agencies, and minimize reliance on government-unique standards where an existing standard would meet the objectives of the federal government. As a result, federal agencies and their representatives, and federal employees and contractors, have become more involved in the creation and revision of consensus standards, both internationally and domestically. Consensus standards have begun to appear with more regularity in federal directives, guidelines, regulations, and requirements by citation or by reference. Outside of government, the courts have heard more arguments for compliance to consensus standards in tort cases; and, of direct interest to the IH communities, an unofficial hierarchy for the use of standards for analytical methods has developed. That hierarchy, in descending order of preference of application, is: 1. c onsensus standard methods 2. m ethods from authorities having jurisdiction and governmental agencies (for example, EPA, NIOSH, and OSHA) 3. m ethods from peer-reviewed publications 4. methods from other sources (such as manufacturers’ methods) The consensus standards process provides the following benefits: • It brings together people with diverse backgrounds, expertise, and knowledge. • It provides a balanced representation of interests (for example, the interests of industry, government, and other users). • Consensus standards are reviewed and updated at regular intervals. Governmental methods typically are not. • Quality is enhanced by strict balloting and due-process procedures. • Test methods are typically validated by multiple laboratories. WHO DEVELOPS CONSENSUS STANDARDS? For IH professionals, the most active and most recognized sources of IH-applicable consensus standards are the International Organization for Standardization, the American National Standards Institute, and ASTM International. ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 162 national standards bodies and a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland. ISO members represent individual countries, and each country has one vote for final approval of an ISO standard. To date, ISO has published more than 22,000 international standards. Examples of ISO standards of interest to IH professionals include: • ISO 7708, Air Sampling—Particle-size Fraction Definitions for Health-related Sampling • ISO 8672, Air Quality—Determination of the Number 27 www.aiha.org | In 2017, the executive branch of the federal government expressed its preference for consensus standards. Concentration of Airborne Inorganic Fibres by Phase Contrast Optical Microscopy—Membrane Filter Method • ISO 15202, Workplace Air—Determination of Metals and Metalloids in Airborne Particulate Matter by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (separate parts for sampling, sample preparation, and analysis) • ISO 19087, Workplace Air—Analysis of Respirable Crystalline Silica by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy One of the more visible ISO examples, at least for sampling and laboratory analysis, is ISO/IEC 17025:2017, General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories, which is the basis for accreditation of sampling and laboratory activities worldwide. (For more information, see the article “New Requirements for Labs” in the August 2018 Synergist at http://bit.ly/ syn201808f1.) ISO recognizes one organization within each of its member countries to oversee development and approval of consensus standards. As the ISO representative for the U.S., ANSI oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products and services can be used worldwide. More than 230 standards developers are accredited by ANSI including the Acoustical Society of America; the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers; the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; the American Society of Safety Professionals; ASTM | October 2019 28 International; the U.S. Department of Defense; ISO; the International Safety Equipment Association; the National Fire Protection Association; and SAE International. ANSI itself does not develop standards but recognizes standards created by its member organizations. These consensus standards are sometimes referred to as “ANSI standards.” All ANSI-recognized standards from accredited standards developers, including ISO standards, are available from ANSI. Examples of ANSI American national standards of interest in industrial hygiene include: • ANSI/AIHA/ASSP Z9.5, American National Standard for Laboratory Ventilation • ANSI/ASSP Z88.2, American National Standard Practices for Respiratory Protection • ANSI/ISEA 104-1998 (R2009), American National Standard for Air Sampling Devices—Diffusive Type for Gases and Vapors in Working Environments • ANSI/ASA S1.4-2014, American National Standard Electroacoustics—Sound Level Meters—Part 1: Specifications ASTM International, as an ANSI-accredited developer of consensus standards that are used worldwide, is a significant contributor of standards of interest to IHs. ASTM standards include the following types: • Guide: a compendium of information or series of options that does not recommend a specific course of action • Practice: a definitive set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations that does not produce a test result • Specification: an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, system, or service • Terminology Standard: a document comprising definitions of terms, explanations of symbols, abbreviations, or acronyms • Test Method: a definitive procedure that produces a test result Of direct interest to IH professionals are the standards under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D22 on Air Quality. The committee has subcommittees on Quality Control; Workplace Air Quality; Indoor Air; Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos; Assessment, Sampling, and Analysis of Microorganisms; and Sampling and Analysis of Lead for Exposure and Risk Assessment. These subcommittees have more than 130 current standards that may be of interest to IHs. Also, ASTM Committee E34 on Occupational Safety and Health has over 20 standards, primarily for metalworking fluids. The NTTAA requires that the National Institute of Standards and Technology report to OMB on federal agencies’ use of consensus standards. Within the report, federal agencies briefly describe their activities undertaken to carry out provisions described in the NTTAA and OMB Circular A-119. All laboratories accredited by AIHA-LAP are accredited to a consensus standard, ISO/IEC 17025. AIHA-LAP itself conforms to ISO 17011, Conformity Assessment—Requirements for Accreditation Bodies Accrediting Conformity Assessment Bodies, and is recognized as such within the framework of the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation. One of the requirements for laboratories is to participate in proficiency testing programs such as the AIHA Proficiency Analytical Testing Programs, LLC. AIHA PAT Programs is a proficiency sample provider accredited to ISO 17043, Conformity Assessment—General Requirements for Proficiency Testing. WHAT’S IN IT FOR YOU? The IH professional can benefit from consensus standards in many ways: Initial decision making. Guides such as ASTM E1370 for air sampling and ASTM D7659 for surface sampling describe options to evaluate when developing a sampling plan. Similarly, ANSI/ISEA Z87.1 provides selection criteria for eye- and face-protection devices. Consistency and reproducibility. Using applicable and appropriate consensus standards to propose, plan, conduct, document, analyze, report, and archive processes for IH projects and the resulting data creates a consistent and reproducible record of the work. This makes the process for reaching a conclusion and developing recommendations much easier. Data quality objectives. Consensus standards can be used to establish appropriate and consistent data quality objectives, or DQOs, for the results of sampling and analysis. Guidance for DQOs was developed by EPA (see http:// bit.ly/epadqoguidance) and has been incorporated into consensus standards such as ASTM D7659 and in the widely-used Visual Sample Plan from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (http://bit.ly/pnnlvsp). Data comparability. When consensus standards are used for sampling and laboratory analysis, comparison of the data is much easier. Trending and control banding can also be more consistent across multiple locations or organizations. Data defensibility. Perhaps most important, the records of the work and processes used, the analysis of the collected data, and the conclusions reached are more easily defended to superiors and clients—and in court—when consensus standards are applied and followed. Imagine providing testimony that says the work was done according to a consensus standard; the data were analyzed and reported according to a consensus standard; and the conclusions reached, recommendations made, and actions taken were according to a consensus standard. Consistent application and use of consensus standards make the requirements for admissibility much easier to achieve. Participation in their development. IH professionals can participate in the consensus standards process by joining a standards development organization such as ASTM International or ASSP. Being involved in the creation and maintenance of national standards presents a valuable insight into the current state of the profession; the current thinking on possible changes in the application of standards; current conduct of government and commercial research, and other professional work; possible future professional developments and future changes to the profession; and the standard-making and standard-amending process. Participation in the standards process results in knowledge of what is currently happening and a unique view of what is coming. All could be important for career development and career enhancement. KENNETH T. (KENN) WHITE, MS, MM, CIH, CSP, FAIHA, is the principal of Consultive Services in Virginia Beach, Va. He is a three-time recipient of the AIHA Edward J. Baier Technical Achievement Award, chair of the ASTM International Subcommittee D22.12 on Sampling and Analysis of Lead for Exposure and Risk Assessment, and a member of the AIHA Sampling and Laboratory Analysis Committee, serving as chair of the Environmental Lead Subcommittee. He can be reached at [email protected] MICHAEL J. (MIKE) BRISSON, MS, PMP, FASTM, is a fellow technical advisor at Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, S.C. He is past chair of the AIHA Sampling and Laboratory Analysis Committee, chair of ASTM International Committee D22 on Air Quality, chair of ISO Technical Committee 146, Subcommittee 4, on Air Quality General Aspects, and convener of three ISO working groups. He can be reached at [email protected] Send feedback to [email protected] RESOURCES American National Standards Institute: ANSI/ISEA Z87.1, American National Standard for Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices (2010). ASTM International: ASTM D7659, Standard Guide for Strategies for Surface Sampling of Metals and Metalloids for Worker Protection (2015). ASTM International: ASTM E1370, Standard Guide for Air Sampling Strategies for Worker and Workplace Protection (2014). ASTM International: “Determination of a New Fluorescence Method for the Detection of Beryllium on Surfaces” in Beryllium: Sampling and Analysis, ASTM Selected Technical Publication 1473 (2006). ASTM International: Method D7202, “Standard Test Method for Determination of Beryllium in the Workplace by Extraction and Optical Fluorescence Detection” (2015). ASTM International: Method D7458, “Standard Test Method for Determination of Beryllium in Soil, Rock, Sediment, and Fly Ash Using Ammonium Bifluoride Extraction and Fluorescence Detection” (2014). EPA: “Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process,” http://bit.ly/epadqos. Federal Register: Revision of OMB Circular No. A-119, “Federal Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment Activities,” http://bit.ly/fromba119 (January 2016). Google Patents: U.S. Patent No. 6387652B1, “Method of Identifying and Quantifying Specific Fungi and Bacteria,” http://bit.ly/patent6387652B1. Government Publishing Office: Public Law 104-113, http://bit.ly/gponttaa (PDF, March 1996). Hygenall: https://hygenall.com. National Institute of Standards and Technology: “Twentieth Annual Report on Federal Agency Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and Conformity Assessment,” http://bit.ly/nistreport20 (August 2017). NIOSH: Method 7704, “Beryllium in Air by Fluorometry,” http://bit.ly/niosh7704 (PDF, December 2015). NIOSH: Method 9105, “Lead in Dust Wipes by Chemical Spot Test (Colorimetric Screening Method),” http://bit. ly/niosh9105 (March 2003). NIOSH: Method 9110, “Beryllium in Surface Wipes by Fluorometry,” http://bit.ly/niosh9110 (PDF, December 2015). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Visual Sample Plan, “Data Quality Objectives,” http://bit.ly/pnnlvsp. SKC: “Full Disclosure: Wipes for Disclosing the Presence of Lead,” http://bit.ly/skcwipeslead (PDF). The Synergist: “New Requirements for Labs,” http://bit.ly/syn201808f1 (August 2018). 29 www.aiha.org | Take Control of Your A Guide to Planning Your Career BY MICHAEL A. FINNAMORE I n today’s competitive working environment, it’s easy for professionals to feel overwhelmed. Young professionals in particular face an onslaught of choices, challenges, and opportunities as they embark on their career, and it’s difficult to know the best path forward. Whether we work in industry, academia, or government, the times when employees moved up the career ladder based on experience and seniority no longer exist. Today, professionals must look to themselves to grow. Others may help along the way, but we must actively engage these resources and take control of our development. A critical tool for every professional (not just earlycareer professionals) is a formal development plan—a roadmap that helps ensure you meet your personal and professional goals. This article will help professionals at all levels develop, implement, and secure support for their development plan. Even seasoned professionals need to review their development plans and their career progression. CONDUCT A SELF-ASSESSMENT If you’re a young professional entering the work force, it is critical for you to have a direction. Where do you want to go, and what do you want to do? Without a plan, the years can easily slip away before you realize that you aren’t where you thought you would be. A plan is also critical when talking with your supervisor, mentors, coaches, and others. If you don’t know where you would like to go, how can you expect others to help you along that journey? As you attempt to define a successful career, consider the following questions: • What do you enjoy doing? | October 2019 30 wacomka/Getty Images 31 www.aiha.org | • Do you like to work by yourself, or with other people? • Do you like to do the same thing every day, or do you like variety? • Do you like to work in one place, or do you prefer to travel? • Is what you do more important than how much money you make? • Do you like to solve problems or implement other people’s ideas? These are just examples of the questions you should ponder as you think about your career and your development. Be honest with yourself about your expectations and what truly matters to you. If money is important, are you willing to live in an undesirable location to attain the highest salary? Weighting each preference will help you achieve fulfillment. If you value living in the mountains or being near family, then chasing a higher salary that takes you away from these things may not make you happy. Honesty about what drives you will lead to more career satisfaction and probably to greater opportunities. DEVELOP THE PLAN Now that you have decided the where, why, and when, the next step is the how. Your development plan should lay out the steps you need to take to develop to the next level. Don’t make your plan too lofty; focus instead on incremental steps such as tasks you can complete over a year or two. Remember that a development plan can be changed as necessary. Your plan should encompass three important areas: technical skills, leadership skills, and management skills. Where you are in your career will affect how much weight you give to each of these categories. Many people are so focused on developing technical competencies that they fail to add soft skills to their development plan. Soft skills are essential; people who are highly competent in many technical areas under the umbrella of environmental health and safety may struggle to be effective IHs if they have poor communication skills or lack the ability to sell their ideas. In addition to the three types of skills, you should also consider the three types of action steps: work experience, mentorship experience, and training. A well-rounded development plan has balance; for example, you don’t want to spend one hundred percent of your time training. Similarly, spending all your time on work experience can lead to slower development, because all professionals need continuous learning for career growth. Lastly, you must decide how to measure success for each of the items in your development plan. Defining success will help you get support for your plan. Think about what success will look like once you have completed a Pathways to Career Success AIHA provides a number of essential resources for early-career professionals: IH Professional Pathway. The information at http://bit.ly/ihpropathway will help you set goals, develop a plan, and identify sources of support from the association and colleagues, mentors, and coaches. The IH Professional Pathway aligns resources available from AIHA with career tracks, knowledge areas, and career stages. An illustrated career roadmap at http://bit. ly/ihcareermap (PDF) specifies the typical skills in management, technical areas, and leadership that you will need at each stage of your career. Core Competencies for the Practice of Industrial/Occupational Hygiene. Originally published in 2012 and updated in 2018, the Core Competencies is a digital book that provides guidance for those working as IH technicians, practitioners, and professionals, and outlines the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities that an IH should possess. The 2018 edition includes additional technical competencies such as fatigue management and indoor air quality as well as many of the soft skills that are invaluable to professional industrial hygienists throughout their career. To download the Core Competencies, visit http://bit.ly/IOH_Competencies. Mentoring Program. Early in our careers, a good mentor is crucial. AIHA’s Mentoring Program matches senior professionals with IHs who are just starting their professional journeys. Visit http://bit.ly/mentorsaiha for more information about the program or to participate as a mentor or a mentee. LightFieldStudios/Getty Images | October 2019 32 project or training program. Keep the end goal in mind as you’re putting together your plan. If you’d like to take a training course, think about the additional work you can take on or the opportunities that will be open to you once the course is complete. Be sure to include a target completion date; this will ensure that you’re always moving forward. GET SUPPORT Once you’ve completed your development plan, work with your supervisors, mentors, and coaches to ensure their support. In most cases your supervisor will have a great deal of influence on your plan, but stay committed to what you want to achieve and not what a supervisor thinks you need to become. We each have our own career path, and the best policy is to be open in your discussions. A strong leader will support and guide you on your journey. If you meet resistance to your plan, take time to understand your supervisor’s point of view. For example, there may be budget restrictions for outside travel or even a travel freeze. Always have alternatives in mind for each aspect of your plan, and don’t let short-term setbacks prevent you from working toward your long-term goals. In my experience, it’s easiest to obtain support for skills related to work. Young professionals may underestimate the amount of development they gain from their involvement in day-to-day activities at work. Treat each opportunity as a learning event rather than just a to-do list. Taking time to review what you’re doing can open a multitude of development opportunities; for example, you might identify an improved method for completing a task or a more efficient way to finish a project. These kinds of discoveries are great development opportunities, and they show your organization that you have the leadership skills needed to advance your career. Your supervisor should give you opportunities to experience new projects and seek new experiences. Be open to volunteering for new teams and groups at work: many times, these types of projects open doors to new experiences and new interactions that help drive your career development. For training and development opportunities that have a cost associated with them, it is critical to have a business case to support your request. Asking a supervisor for money can be a challenging proposition in today’s economy. You can demonstrate a business need by identifying an area that is under-supported or doesn’t have a subject matter expert. If you show that there is a gap in technical expertise or a risk that needs mitigation, your manager is more likely to be receptive to your request for training. When I was a young professional, I identified an opportunity to save my employer a great deal of money by bringing technical expertise in house rather than paying contractors. As a result, I secured money for training and travel, which ultimately led to a move up the career ladder within my organization. Look for opportunities that benefit both you and your organization, and have alternatives available so that you aren’t derailed when the business environment isn’t ideal. There are also many volunteer opportunities within the industrial hygiene community that can supplement development when you run into headwinds within your organization. Volunteer groups are a great way to develop leadership skills and work with colleagues from varying fields and businesses. For young professionals, volunteering also gives you a chance to interact with more senior professionals who can help you with your career and your development plan. REVISIT THE PLAN Your development plan shouldn’t sit in a folder collecting dust. It is a living, breathing document, and as your career progresses, so should your development plan. Revisit your plan often. Ask yourself if it is still valid and useful. Have new opportunities changed the direction of your development plan? Make sure you’re hitting your targeted timelines, but remember to be flexible: as with all things career related, sometimes the path is not what we expect. OWN YOUR PLAN Your career development is something you must own yourself. Don’t wait for others to direct your career; you may end up missing out while waiting for opportunities. But you should recognize that many people are available to help you along your path. I encourage you to reach out to the AIHA volunteers’ community, specifically the Mentoring and Professional Development and Student and Early Career Professionals Committees. These groups are focused on helping IH professionals achieve their career aspirations. MICHAEL A. FINNAMORE, MSPH, CIH, CSP, CHMM, is the global director of Environmental, Health and Safety at Hillrom Corporation in Chicago. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry from the University of Illinois and a Master of Science degree in public health with emphasis in industrial hygiene from the University of Utah. He has been an active member of AIHA for over twenty years and is a past chair of AIHA’s Mentoring and Professional Development Committee. Send feedback to [email protected] RESOURCES The Synergist: “Dive Right In: Stepping Up as an Early Career Professional,” http://bit.ly/syn201802 connell (February 2018). The Synergist: “The IH Route Planner: Navigating a New Career,” http://bit.ly/syn201509f1 (September 2015). The Synergist: “The Newcomer’s Perspective: Building Relationships with Experienced Professionals,” http://bit.ly/syn201603connell (March 2016). 33 www.aiha.org | ® CALLING ••• ALL SDS and Label Authors Prepare for the SDS & Label Authoring Registry Exam with AIHA’s recently updated SDS and Label Authoring Registry Preparation Course.* Aligned with the SDS and Label Authoring Registry Competency Framework, this course is the perfect final "tune-up" prior to sitting for the competency assessment. • • • Cover both the knowledge and skills portions of the Registry assessment Learn at your own pace with online self-study materials Earn 10.5 contact hours = 1.3 exam qualification points *Completion of this course does not guarantee that you will pass the Registry Program competency assessment Learn more at bit.ly/SDSPrep. PRODUCT FEATURES ADVERTISEMENT Publication of this material does not constitute endorsement by AIHA® or The Synergist®. BOARD FOR GLOBAL EHS CREDENTIALING® (BGC®) CIH® AND QEP® CREDENTIALS The Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH), Qualified Environmental Professional (QEP), and Environmental Professional In-Training are now being offered under the new organizational umbrella called the Board for Global EHS Credentialing (BGC). For more information, please visit https://ehscredentialing.org, email [email protected], or call (517) 321-2638. CASELLA EMSL ANALYTICAL, INC. DBADGE2, PERSONAL NOISE DOSIMETERS FREE POCKET SAMPLING GUIDES The dBadge2 is the next generation of personal noise dosimeters. It is an ideal tool for a variety of workplace noise assessments with the added benefit of wireless data transmission. Measurements from multiple users can be accessed remotely without disturbing the wearers. The intrinsically safe version is perfect for potentially explosive environments. Visit http://bit. ly/caselladosimeters. EMSL Analytical, Inc. offers free pocket sampling guides! To request a free sampling guide for microbiology, Legionella, silica, or formaldehyde, please call (888) 958-8170 or email [email protected] KINETICS NOISE CONTROL, INC. SOUND CURTAIN PROCESS ENCLOSURES A noisy saw or process equipment requiring personnel to wear hearing protection? Kinetics provides engineered solutions and products to isolate noise, eliminating the need for personal hearing protection, featuring noise reduction up to 25 dBA. Email [email protected] icsnoise.com, call 1 (800) 959-1229, or visit http://bit.ly/kineticsenclo sure. NANOZEN INDUSTRIES INC. S.E. INTERNATIONAL, INC. SKC INC. ZEFON INTERNATIONAL PERSONAL REAL-TIME DUST MONITORS RADIATION ALERT™ RANGER AIR SAMPLING MEDIA Nanozen’s personal real-time dust monitor, DustCount 9000, is now intrinsically safe and good for respirable, inhalable, and wildfire particulates. Check out OSHA’s FAQ for crystalline silica: use of direct-reading instruments to conduct real-time monitoring of respirable dust at http://bit.ly/ nanozenfaq. For more information, visit http://bit.ly/nanozenhse4. The Ranger is for surveying at the facility or in the field. It offers excellent sensitivity to low levels of alpha, beta, gamma, and x-rays and has built-in efficiencies for common isotopes. It has a backlit digital display, internal memory, selectable alert levels, timer, red count light, and beeper. Visit http://seintl. com/radiationalert/ranger.htm. CHEK-MATE CALIBRATOR – AVAILABLE FOR LOW FLOW SKC introduces the new 20 to 500 ml/min Low Flow chek-mate Calibrator. Calibrate your low-flow sample pumps to a NIST- or UKAS-certified volumetric accuracy of 1 percent of reading (50–500 ml/min). One-button control, no moving parts (use in any orientation), and continuous moving-average flow readings offer fast, accurate, convenient calibration. Visit www.skcinc.com/chek-mate. 35 From asbestos cassettes to preweighed filters, Zefon provides the OEHS professional with the highest quality products in air sampling media. Providing reliable and worry-free air sampling media and equipment is our commitment to you and your profession. Zefon is the Professionals’ Choice. Visit www.zefon.com. www.aiha.org | COMMUNITY AIHA’S NEW WEBSITE INCLUDES ONLINE UNIVERSITY AND CONSUMER CENTER Award Recipient Kathryn Crawford Honored at AIHce EXP AIHA’s Safety Committee honored Kathryn Crawford, a PhD candidate in the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health at the University of Iowa, with this year’s Best Student Poster Award at AIHce EXP 2019. The committee presents this award annually to recognize the best student poster at the conference based on a topic related to safety. Crawford, the 2019 award recipient, received a ribbon and an honorarium for her poster, “Evaluation of Hearing Protection Device Effectiveness for Musicians.” This poster was selected by a panel of judges based on its quality and connection to both safety and industrial hygiene. The Noise Committee also selected Crawford’s poster as best in show. Crawford is a certified occupational hearing conservationist and a member of the IowaIllinois Industrial Hygiene Student Association. | October 2019 I n late August, AIHA unveiled its newly designed website, AIHA.org. The new AIHA.org adds content and resources that are easily accessible for industrial hygiene and occupational health professionals, government agencies, researchers, students interested in worker health and safety, and the general public. With a modern design and revamped, intuitive navigation, visitors can quickly find the information they need. Resources on the new AIHA.org include: AIHA University. The new AIHA University at www.aiha.org/educa tion provides cutting-edge education, training programs, and conference materials to current and aspiring industrial hygiene and occupational and environmental health and safety professionals. AIHA University eLibrary. The new AIHA University eLibrary grants visitors unlimited online access to 50 of AIHA’s bestselling publications, including newly released titles. Public resources. A new public resource center offers both professionals and consumers extensive information on a variety of industrial hygiene topics and worker safety issues such as disaster recovery, mold, noise exposure, environmental issues, respiratory protection, ergonomics, nanotechnology, indoor air quality, and incident preparedness and response. Access these resources at www.aiha.org/pub lic-resources. New member center. The new AIHA member center gives members access to exclusive information dashboards and AIHA’s online com- munity, Catalyst, along with the latest information on issues affecting IH and related OEHS professions. A link to the new member center is available at the top of every page on AIHA.org. Communication center. A reorganized communication center helps reporters find valuable information from AIHA’s press releases, position statements, and membership letters. AIHA’s communications team also answers media inquiries and puts journalists in touch with IH experts and resources. In addition to new information, visitors to AIHA.org will discover some features that were previously hard to find, such as free downloads of white papers, infographics, and more. Please share feedback about the new website using the comment form available at www.aiha.org/feedback. Board-Related Nominations Deadlines Approaching AIHA seeks nominations for four Board of Directors positions that will be vacated in June 2020: vice president, secretary-elect, and two at-large director positions. AIHA’s Board of Directors plays a critical role in the association. The Board is the “face” of AIHA, establishes the organization’s strategic direction and goals, and monitors progress toward reaching those goals on behalf of the membership. Desired attributes of Board members include a demonstrated record of distinguished service and the potential for further contributions; demonstrated performance at the highest level in the scientific, industrial, and public sectors, or in educational communities; a commitment to devote the time necessary to effectively perform Board duties; and demonstrated expertise in industrial, environmental, 36 or occupational hygiene. The deadline for Board nominations is Nov. 1, 2019. Visit AIHA’s website at http://bit.ly/aihaopencalls to find electronic submission forms for all positions. Please email AIHA at [email protected] with questions. AIHA is also seeking volunteers to serve on the 2020 Board Nominating Committee. AIHA is using an open application process to add four at-large members to the Board Nominating Committee. The association seeks active, full members of AIHA who are committed to helping AIHA find the best nominees for Board positions. Self-nominations will be accepted. The deadline for applications is Oct. 10, 2019. Visit http://bit.ly/aihaopencalls to learn about submitting applications for the Board Nominating Committee. COMMUNITY New Dates Added for 2019 Road Course AIHA road courses help industrial hygiene and occupational and environmental health and safety professionals build a solid foundation of knowledge in the field of IH with basic and intermediate-level courses led by industry experts. The courses are held near Columbus, Ohio, and provide face-to-face training in a small group setting. New dates have been added in November for one of AIHA’s road courses, “Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene.” AIHA’s intermediate three-day course, “Exposure and Chemical Monitoring - Beyond IH Fundamentals,” will be held Oct. 21–23, 2019. This course is designed to provide additional training and knowledge in IH chemical monitoring through group exercises and discussion. Learn more on AIHA’s website at http://bit.ly/ beyondihcourse. Further details on AIHA’s face-toface training opportunities are available at http://bit.ly/aihafacetoface. Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene is a four-day course designed for those who are new to IH or who have newly acquired IH responsibilities, and for those who need a refresher. Join AIHA Nov. 4–7, 2019, to gain exposure to the broad field of IH through sampling and workshop sessions, hands-on lab experiences, demo sessions, and problem-solving exercises. More information about the course is available at http://bit.ly/aihafih course. AIHce EXP 2019 Session Recordings Are Available Get access to curated, peer-reviewed educational content from AIHce EXP 2019 with AIHce OnDemand session recordings, which are now available in the AIHA Marketplace. AIHce OnDemand brings the best of the conference directly to you. Choose from topic bundles or individual sessions that best meet your needs and interests, and view session recordings using your computer, tablet, or smartphone. Topic bundles include sessions on emergency preparedness and response, exposure assessment, industrial hygiene program man- agement, risk assessment, and safety. New industry bundles group together sessions focused on construction, healthcare, and laboratories. Learn more about AIHce OnDemand offerings at http://bit.ly/ aihceondemand2019. Contribute to the Future of Industrial Hygiene The industrial hygiene profession needs a pipeline of highly trained and skilled professionals if it is to continue to meet the needs of a global economy. The purpose of the American Industrial Hygiene Foundation is to provide scholarships to the best and the brightest to ensure this critical need is being met. Since 1982, AIHF has distributed more than $2 million to more than 700 students studying IH and related disciplines at fifty-plus schools and universities. These scholarships have enabled talented students to complete their education and have encouraged the most promising scholars to enter and remain in the IH profession. Contributions to AIHF are tax-deductible, as provided by law. Donating to AIHF will help ensure that deserving students preparing for careers in IH will receive scholarships. Detailed information about making a donation or a pledge can be found on the AIHF website at http://bit.ly/aihfsite. NOVEMBER 7 AIHA webinar: “The Role of Context in Ethical Decision-Making for the Industrial Hygienist.” Visit http://bit. ly/ethicsnov2019. JUNE 1–3, 2020 AIHce EXP 2020 in Atlanta, Ga. Visit www.aihce2020.org. Dates and Deadlines OCTOBER 22 AIHA webinar: “Exposure Assessment and Engineering Control Evaluations: Lessons Learned from Additive Manufacturing Field Studies.” Visit http://bit.ly/oct2019 webinar. NOVEMBER 4–7 AIHA’s “Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene” course in Westerville, Ohio. Visit http://bit.ly/aihafihcourse. For a complete list of events, visit www.aiha.org/calendar. DECEMBER 6 73nd Annual Northeast Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition in Princeton, N.J., presented by NJAIHA. Visit http://bit.ly/ neihce2019. AIHA Accepting Proposals for Projects, Training in Developing Countries The Micro-Grants Subcommittee of AIHA’s International Affairs Committee is accepting applications for funding for international projects and training in developing countries through Dec. 31, 2019. The IAC’s Emerging Economy Projects Fund was established to increase understanding of and build capacity for occupational hygiene in developing economies around the world. Learn more on AIHA’s website at http:// bit.ly/aihaemergingeconomy. Coming Soon: AIHA Buyer’s Guide The 2020 AIHA Buyer’s Guide will be mailed together with the November issue of The Synergist. Keep the Buyer’s Guide handy for easy access to information on products and services that you need in your daily work. The Buyer’s Guide is also available online at http:// bit.ly/buyersguideaiha. AIHA Publishes Strategic Framework for Enterprise Risk Management AIHA’s new strategic framework for enterprise risk management establishes a baseline for what risk means within the sphere of safety and environmental health. This new framework is intended to help industrial hygiene professionals tap into the fundamental definitions, concepts, methodologies, and communications strategies necessary to participate in organizations’ enterprise risk management processes. This resource was developed by subject matter experts from a variety of committees, agencies, and organizations, and is intended for professionals moving into more strategic leadership positions. The new framework is available for purchase at http://bit.ly/ermframe work. Many of AIHA’s other frameworks are available for free at http://bit.ly/ aihaframeworks. 37 www.aiha.org | From “Severe Pulmonary Disease Associated with Using E-Cigarette Products:” “Although the etiology of e-cigarette-associated pulmonary disease is undetermined, epidemiologic investigations in affected states are ongoing to better characterize the exposures [and] demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and behaviors of patients.” SOURCES: CDC: Health Alert Network Advisory: “Severe Pulmonary Disease Associated with Using E-Cigarette Products,” http:// bit.ly/cdcadvisoryecig (August 2019). CDC: Investigation Notice: “Outbreak of Severe Pulmonary Disease Associated with Using E-cigarette Products,” http:// bit.ly/cdcecignotice (September 2019). CDC: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: “Notes from the Field: Use of Electronic Cigarettes and Any Tobacco Product Among Middle and High School Students — United States, 2011–2018,” http://bit.ly/mmwrtobaccouse (November 2018). BY THE NUMBERS OUTBREAK OF LUNG DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH E-CIGARETTE USE In late August, CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced an investigation of an outbreak of severe lung disease associated with the use of e-cigarette products. Together with state and local health departments and other clinical and public health partners, CDC and FDA are investigating serious incidents of respiratory disease that have affected both youth and adults across the country. As this issue of The Synergist went to press, the agencies had not yet identified a cause of the outbreak but believed that the lung illnesses were likely associated with a chemical exposure. According to CDC, all patients had reported using e-cigarette products. Many had reported using e-cigarette products with liquids containing cannabinoid products such as tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, the active ingredient in cannabis. Information about the outbreak appears below. The numbers below are current as of Sept. 6, 2019. 450 Number of possible cases of lung illness associated with the use of e-cigarette products. 33 Number of states that reported possible cases of this severe lung disease. 5 Number of deaths associated with this outbreak. Deaths were confirmed in California, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, and Oregon. CDC: “Statement from CDC Director Robert R. Redfield, MD, and Acting FDA Commissioner Ned Sharpless, MD, on Federal and State Collaboration to Investigate Respiratory Illnesses Reported After Use of E-Cigarette Products,” http://bit.ly/ecigstatement (August 2019). 3.6 The approximate number, in millions, of middle and high school students who reported that they used e-cigarettes in 2018. 20.8 RELATED: AIHA: “Electronic Cigarettes in the Indoor Environment,” http://bit.ly/ aihaecigpaperrev (PDF, 2019). The Synergist: “Electronic Cigarettes and the IH: Updated White Paper Covers Latest Research,” http://bit.ly/ syn1905f2 (May 2019). | October 2019 1.5 2018 38 2011 Percentage of high school students who reported current e-cigarette use in 2018 compared with the percentage in 2011.