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Manual Utilizador S420 Ed1 2.2.0 uk

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User Manual
The content of this manual has been carefully revised, however the full compliance of its content
with the technical and functional characteristics of the product it is referred to, can not be
assured, as typing or other errors can not be completely ruled out. The information given is
regularly reviewed any necessary correction or additional explanation will be included in future
revisions of this document.
Due to continuous development, the content of this manual can be changed without notice.
We appreciate any correction or improvement suggestion.
PREFACE
Previous note
Throughout the text you may find some references to EFACEC Sistemas de Electrónica, S.A. or its
logotype
. This is justified by the fact that this document original version was completed
before the company and logotype has been changed.
Objective
This manual describes the operation, installation, configuration and maintenance of the
TPU S420, a Medium Voltage feeder protection and control unit.
Scope
This manual is destined for protection engineers, specialized personnel responsible for the
installation, configuration and commissioning of the equipment and staff from the energy
transport and distribution companies in charge of its operation.
Application
The information in this manual is valid for the following equipment of EFACEC:
TPU S420, Edition 1, firmware 3.x or higher
Safety Instructions
This manual does not cover all safety measures required to operate the equipment because
additional procedures can be necessary in specific circumstances. Yet, all safety instructions
given in this manual must be followed.
Any intervention regarding the equipment’s installation, commissioning or operation must be
carried out by authorized technical personnel.
The equipment should not be used for purposes other than those specified in this document.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
This product complies with the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council
2006/95/EC (Low Voltage Directive) as well as with the Directive of the European Parliament and
of the Council 2004/108/EC (Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive).
The conformity is proved by several actions including tests conducted by EFACEC and by
independent entities, in accordance with the standards EN 61000-6-2 (2005) and EN 61000-64 (2007) concerning the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive and in accordance with the
standards EN60950-1 (2006) + A11 (2009) and EN 60255-5 (2001) concerning the Low
Voltage Directive.
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
i
Organization
This manual is organized in chapters so that is easier to find the desired information and is
adjusted to the different target readers it is meant for:
Chapter 1 – Introduction: Summary of the unit’s characteristics and functions;
Chapter2 - Installation: instructions for the unit’s correct assembly and the execution of all
necessary connections;
Chapter3 - Human Machine Interface: guide for the use of the local human-machine
interface unit and PC interface program;
Chapter4 - Configuration: description of the base configurations and the customization of
the unit functions;
Chapter5 - Communications: application of the functions associated with the local area
network communications and its configuration;
Chapter6 - Protection and Control Functions: description of the operating principle,
configuration and associated logic for each function;
Chapter7 - Operation: instructions for the unit operation when in service;
Chapter8 - Commissioning: procedures to test the unit functions;
Chapter9 - Maintenance: indication of corrective and maintenance actions and solution of
frequent problems;
Chapter10 - Technical Specifications: summary of all functional characteristics of the
equipment;
Chapter11 - Annexes: compilation of the necessary information to configure the TPU S420.
This manual contains warnings related to specific aspects of the equipment installation,
configuration or operation with different importance levels:
The failure to comply with the safety instruction may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
The failure to comply with the safety or operational instruction may endanger the correct
operation of the TPU S420.
Additional information with special interest for an easier protection configuration or operation,
not relevant for personnel and/or equipment safety.
Answer to a frequent question about the equipment’s configuration or operation for quick
problem solving.
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
ii
Manual Revisions
Revision
Date
Changes
1.0
2006-10-23
Initial version
2.0
2008-10-28
- Introduction to the IEC61850 option
Comments
- Oscillography data update
- Correction of typing errors
- Changing of the functions “Earth
Overcurrent Protection”, “Second Phase
Overcurrent Protection” and “Second Earth
Overcurrent Protection”
2.1
2010-12-20
Updates based on 2.1 Portuguese version
2.2.0
2011-12-28
General formatting
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
iii
GLOSSARY
A/D
Analogue / Digital
BDM
Background Debug Mode
BDD
Distributed Database
CPU
Central Processing Unit
DNP
Distributed Network Protocol
I/O
Input / Output
IRIG-B
Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (Time Synchronization Module )
LAN
Local Area Network
LCD
Liquid Cristal Display
LED
Light Emiting Diode
MAC
Medium Access Controller
MII
Medium Independent Interface
PC
Personal Computer
PECL
Positive Emitter Coupled Logic
PHY
Physical Layer Entities
Inch (’’)
An inch is a length unit of the British unit system and it isn’t
embraced by the international system of units (SI). It is sometimes
used throughout this document once it is often used by technicians.
An inch is equal to 2.54 cm or 25.4 mm.
PUR 2.1
Protocol for remote units used on Efacec local area networks
RS232
Serial protocol of Data Transmission by DB9 serial cable
RS485
Protocol of Data Transmission by 485 twisted pair bus
SCADA
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
STP
Shielded Twisted Pair
TI
Current Transformer
TPU
Terminal Protection Unit – EFACEC digital protection units
TT
Voltage Transformer
UA
Acquisition Unit
UART
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UC
Redondant Central Unit
URT
Remote Telecontrol Unit
URT500
EFACEC Remote Telecontrol Unit
UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair
μC
Microcontroller
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 1-1
1.1. APPLICATION..........................................................................................................1-3
1.2. VERSIONS ..............................................................................................................1-4
1.3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................................................1-5
1.4. FUNCTIONALITIES.....................................................................................................1-7
1.5. OPERATION PRINCIPLE.............................................................................................1-13
2.
INSTALLATION ........................................................................................... 2-1
2.1. PRESENTATION AND DIMENSIONS..................................................................................2-3
2.1.1. Case .............................................................................................................................2-3
2.1.2. Dimensions..................................................................................................................2-7
2.2. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION...........................................................................................2-8
2.2.1. General Description.....................................................................................................2-8
2.2.2. Board Description ........................................................................................................2-9
2.2.3. Configuration of the supply voltage and digital I/O................................................ 2-24
2.3. ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................2-25
2.3.1. Embedded assembly ................................................................................................ 2-25
2.3.2. Assembly in 19’’ rack ............................................................................................... 2-27
2.4. CONNECTIONS......................................................................................................2-29
2.4.1. Connectors description ............................................................................................ 2-31
2.4.2. Description of connector pins.................................................................................. 2-33
2.4.3. Wiring connections diagram .................................................................................... 2-36
2.4.4. Power Supply Connection ........................................................................................ 2-39
2.4.5. Current and voltage connections............................................................................. 2-40
2.4.6. Digital input and output connections ...................................................................... 2-43
2.4.7. Local network connections ...................................................................................... 2-44
2.4.8. Serial ports................................................................................................................ 2-47
2.4.9. Serial port of the Ethernet communication board ................................................... 2-49
3.
HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE ....................................................................... 3-1
3.1. FRONT PANEL DESCRIPTION........................................................................................3-3
3.2. LOCAL INTERFACE OPERATION ....................................................................................3-5
3.2.1. Start-up .......................................................................................................................3-5
3.2.2. Keys..............................................................................................................................3-7
3.2.3. Local Interface Modes..................................................................................................3-9
3.3. MENUS INTERFACE OPERATION ..................................................................................3-11
3.3.1. Changing the value of a parameter ......................................................................... 3-12
3.3.2. Passwords ................................................................................................................. 3-14
3.3.3. Menus Content ......................................................................................................... 3-16
3.3.4. Other Actions in Menus Interface ............................................................................ 3-28
3.4. OPERATION OF THE SUPERVISION AND COMMAND INTERFACE ............................................3-32
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3.4.1. Alarms Page.............................................................................................................. 3-32
3.4.2. Mimic ........................................................................................................................ 3-32
3.5. USE OF WINPROT ..................................................................................................3-37
3.6. WEBPROT USE ......................................................................................................3-42
4.
CONFIGURATION ........................................................................................ 4-1
4.1. DATE AND TIME ......................................................................................................4-3
4.1.1. Time Synchronization..................................................................................................4-3
4.1.2. Configuration...............................................................................................................4-4
4.1.3. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................4-7
4.2. MEASUREMENT TRANSFORMERS...................................................................................4-8
4.2.1. Configuration...............................................................................................................4-8
4.2.2. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................4-9
4.3. DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS..................................................................................4-11
4.3.1. Inputs ........................................................................................................................ 4-11
4.3.2. Outputs ..................................................................................................................... 4-13
4.3.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-15
4.3.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-19
4.4. LOCAL INTERFACE..................................................................................................4-21
4.4.1. Display ...................................................................................................................... 4-21
4.4.2. Alarms Page.............................................................................................................. 4-21
4.4.3. Mimic ........................................................................................................................ 4-22
4.4.4. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-28
4.4.5. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-30
4.5. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ...........................................................................................4-31
4.5.1. Logical Variables....................................................................................................... 4-31
4.5.2. Logic Inference ......................................................................................................... 4-35
4.5.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-36
4.6. OPERATION MODES................................................................................................4-42
4.6.1. Operation Modes Types ........................................................................................... 4-42
4.6.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-42
4.6.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-44
4.7. OSCILLOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................4-50
4.7.1. Characteristics .......................................................................................................... 4-50
4.7.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-50
4.7.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-51
5.
COMMUNICATIONS..................................................................................... 5-1
5.1. SERIAL COMMUNICATION...........................................................................................5-3
Architecture............................................................................................................................5-3
5.1.1. Modem connection......................................................................................................5-3
5.1.2. Configuration...............................................................................................................5-4
5.2. TCP/IP COMMUNICATION.........................................................................................5-5
5.2.1. Architecture .................................................................................................................5-5
5.2.2. Configuration...............................................................................................................5-5
5.2.3. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................5-7
5.3. SCADA PROTOCOLS ...............................................................................................5-8
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5.4. DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ..........................................................................................5-10
5.5. LONWORKS PROTOCOL ...........................................................................................5-11
5.5.1. General Architecture................................................................................................. 5-11
5.5.2. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-13
5.5.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-15
5.5.4. Communication with WinProt .................................................................................. 5-18
5.5.5. Lonworks Distributed Database............................................................................... 5-19
5.5.6. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-24
5.6. DNP 3.0 PROTOCOL .............................................................................................5-26
5.6.1. General Architecture................................................................................................. 5-26
5.6.2. Operation Principle................................................................................................... 5-26
5.6.3. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-27
5.6.4. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-30
5.6.5. Communication with WinProt .................................................................................. 5-33
5.7. IEC 60870-5-104 PROTOCOL ..............................................................................5-34
5.7.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-34
5.7.2. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-35
5.7.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-38
5.7.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-42
5.8. ETHERNET DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ............................................................................5-43
5.8.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-43
5.8.2. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-43
5.8.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-44
5.8.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-48
5.9. IEC 61850 PROTOCOL ..........................................................................................5-50
5.9.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-50
5.9.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-50
5.9.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-55
5.10. SNTP PROTOCOL................................................................................................5-56
5.10.1. Architecture ............................................................................................................ 5-56
5.10.2. Operation Principles ............................................................................................... 5-56
5.10.3. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 5-56
5.10.4. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 5-57
6.
PROTECTION AND CONTROL FUNCTIONS ....................................................... 6-1
6.1. COMMON CHARACTERISITCS ......................................................................................6-5
6.1.1. Functions Modular Organization ................................................................................6-6
6.1.2. Configuration Sets.......................................................................................................6-7
6.1.3. Configuration...............................................................................................................6-8
6.1.4. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................6-8
6.2. PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION ...................................................................6-11
6.2.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-11
6.2.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-18
6.2.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-20
6.3. EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION ...................................................................6-24
6.3.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-24
6.3.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-26
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6.3.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-28
6.4. DIRECTIONAL PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION..................................................6-31
6.4.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-31
6.4.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-33
6.4.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-34
6.5. DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION .................................................6-36
6.5.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-36
6.5.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-38
6.5.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-40
6.6. SECOND PHASE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION .................................................................6-42
6.6.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-42
6.6.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-42
6.6.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-44
6.7. SECOND EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION........................................................6-46
6.7.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-46
6.7.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-46
6.7.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-48
6.8. RESISTIVE EARTH FAULT PROTECTION..........................................................................6-50
6.8.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-50
6.8.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-52
6.8.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-52
6.9. PHASE OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION ............................................................................6-54
6.9.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-54
6.9.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-55
6.9.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-55
6.10. ZERO SEQUENCE OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION..............................................................6-58
6.10.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-58
6.10.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-59
6.10.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-60
6.11. PHASE UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION ........................................................................6-62
6.11.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-62
6.11.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-63
6.11.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-64
6.12. UNDERFREQUENCY AND OVERFREQUENCY PROTECTION..................................................6-67
6.12.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-67
6.12.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-68
6.12.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-70
6.13. PHASE BALANCE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION..............................................................6-73
6.13.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-73
6.13.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-74
6.13.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-76
6.14. OVERLOAD PROTECTION .......................................................................................6-79
6.14.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-79
6.14.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-81
6.14.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-82
6.15. AUTOMATIC RECLOSING ........................................................................................6-84
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6.15.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-84
6.15.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-88
6.15.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-90
6.16. SYNCHRONISM AND VOLTAGE CHECK .......................................................................6-92
6.16.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-92
6.16.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-94
6.16.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-98
6.17. VOLTAGE RESTORATION......................................................................................6-103
6.17.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-103
6.17.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-105
6.17.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-106
6.18. FREQUENCY RESTORATION ...................................................................................6-108
6.18.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-108
6.18.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-110
6.18.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-111
6.19. CENTRALISED VOLTAGE RESTORATION ....................................................................6-113
6.19.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-113
6.19.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-115
6.19.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-115
6.20. CENTRALISED FREQUENCY RESTORATION .................................................................6-118
6.20.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-118
6.20.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-120
6.20.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-120
6.21. BLOCKING BY LOGICAL SELECTIVITY ........................................................................6-123
6.21.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-123
6.21.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-124
6.21.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-124
6.22. FAULT LOCATOR ...............................................................................................6-125
6.22.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-125
6.22.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-126
6.22.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-128
6.23. CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE....................................................................................6-129
6.23.1. Operation method................................................................................................ 6-129
6.23.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-130
6.23.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-130
6.24. TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION ...................................................................................6-133
6.24.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-133
6.24.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-134
6.24.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-134
6.25. PROTECTIONS TRIP TRANSFER ...............................................................................6-135
6.25.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-135
6.25.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-136
6.25.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-136
6.26. CIRCUIT-BREAKER SUPERVISION .............................................................................6-138
6.26.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-138
6.26.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-139
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6.26.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-140
6.27. DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION................................................................................6-148
6.27.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-148
6.27.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-149
6.27.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-150
7.
OPERATION ............................................................................................... 7-1
7.1. MEASURES .............................................................................................................7-3
7.1.1. Read Measures ............................................................................................................7-3
7.1.2. Clear Measures ............................................................................................................7-6
7.1.3. Remote Access ............................................................................................................7-8
7.1.4. Export ..........................................................................................................................7-9
7.2. EVENT LOGGING....................................................................................................7-10
7.2.1. Read Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-10
7.2.2. Clear Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-11
7.2.3. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-11
7.2.4. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-13
7.3. FAULT LOCATOR ...................................................................................................7-14
7.3.1. Read Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-14
7.3.2. Clear Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-15
7.3.3. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-15
7.3.4. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-16
7.4. LOAD DIAGRAM ....................................................................................................7-17
7.4.1. Read Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-17
7.4.2. Clear Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-18
7.4.3. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-18
7.4.4. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-20
7.5. OSCILLOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................7-21
7.5.1. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-21
7.5.2. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-24
7.6. HARDWARE INFORMATION .......................................................................................7-25
7.6.1. Read Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-26
7.6.2. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-27
7.7. OPERATION MODES................................................................................................7-28
7.8. MIMIC ................................................................................................................7-29
7.8.1. Apparatus ................................................................................................................. 7-29
7.8.2. Commands ............................................................................................................... 7-30
7.8.3. Measures................................................................................................................... 7-30
7.8.4. Parameters ................................................................................................................ 7-31
7.9. SCREENSAVER .......................................................................................................7-32
8.
COMMISSIONING ........................................................................................ 8-1
8.1. INITIAL CHECKS.......................................................................................................8-3
8.2. ANALOGUE INPUTS...................................................................................................8-7
8.2.1. Connections.................................................................................................................8-7
8.2.2. Measures Value ...........................................................................................................8-7
8.3. DIGITAL INPUTS.......................................................................................................8-9
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8.4. DIGITAL OUTPUTS .................................................................................................8-11
8.5. ALARMS PAGE ......................................................................................................8-12
8.6. INTERFACE WITH THE LOCAL AREA NETWORK.................................................................8-13
8.7. PROTECTION AND CONTROL FUNCTIONS ......................................................................8-15
8.8. PUT INTO SERVICE..................................................................................................8-16
9.
MAINTENANCE........................................................................................... 9-1
9.1. ROUTINE CHECKS ....................................................................................................9-3
9.1.1. Torque .........................................................................................................................9-3
9.1.2. Logs .............................................................................................................................9-3
9.1.3. System Menu ...............................................................................................................9-4
9.2. FIRMWARE UPDATE ................................................................................................9-13
9.3. TROUBLESHOOTING................................................................................................9-15
9.3.1. Hardware .................................................................................................................. 9-15
9.3.2. Software.................................................................................................................... 9-27
9.3.3. Calibration ................................................................................................................ 9-27
9.4. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ) .......................................................................9-32
10. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS....................................................................... 10-1
11. ANNEXES................................................................................................. 11-1
ANNEX A.
ORDERING FORM.........................................................................................11-3
ANNEX B.
MEASUREMENTS TABLE ..................................................................................11-5
ANNEX C.
INPUTS OPTIONS TABLE .................................................................................11-9
ANNEX D.
OUTPUT OPTIONS TABLE .............................................................................11-13
ANNEX E.
ALARM OPTIONS TABLE................................................................................11-18
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FIGURES LIST
FIGURE 1.1. TPU S420 HARDWARE STRUCTURE. .....................................................................1-13
FIGURE 1.2. SAMPLING AND FILTERING OF ANALOGUE DIGITAL SIGNALS. ..........................................1-14
FIGURE 2.1. FRONT VIEW OF THE TPU S420. ...........................................................................2-4
FIGURE 2.2. BACK VIEW OF THE TPU S420 (CONNECTORS ARRANGEMENT).......................................2-5
FIGURE 2.3. BACK VIEW OF THE TPU S420 (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). .......................................2-6
FIGURE 2.4. EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS AND FIXATION SCREWS OF THE TPU S420. .................................2-7
FIGURE 2.5. INTERNAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE BOARDS.................................................................2-8
FIGURE 2.6. BACK VIEW OF THE CT & VT BOARD OF TPU S420 (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ...........2-10
FIGURE 2.7. BACK VIEW OF THE LONWORKS COMMUNICATIONS BOARD OF TPU S420 (CONNECTOR
ARRANGEMENT)...............................................................................................................2-11
FIGURE 2.8. BACK VIEW OF THE ETHERNET COMMUNICATIONS BOARD OF TPU S420 (CONNECTOR
ARRANGEMENT)...............................................................................................................2-12
FIGURE 2.9. BACK VIEW OF THE PROCESSING BOARD (CPU) OF THE TPU S420 (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT).
..................................................................................................................................2-13
FIGURE 2.10. BACK VIEW OF THE PROCESSING BOARD (CPU) OF THE TPU S420 WITH PIGGY-BACKS FOR
PLASTIC OPTICAL FIBRE INTERFACE (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ..................................................2-14
FIGURE 2.11. BACK VIEW OF THE PROCESSING BOARD (CPU) OF THE TPU S420 WITH PIGGY-BACKS FOR GLASS
OPTICAL FIBRE INTERFACE (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ............................................................2-15
FIGURE 2.12. BACK VIEW OF THE PROCESSING BOARD (CPU) OF THE TPU S420 WITH PIGGY-BACK FOR
RS485 INTERFACE (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ....................................................................2-16
FIGURE 2.13. BACK VIEW OF THE PROCESSING BOARD (CPU) OF THE TPU S420 WITH PIGGY-BACK FOR
RS232 INTERFACE (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ....................................................................2-17
FIGURE 2.14. BACK VIEW OF THE I/O BOARD + POWER SUPPLY OF THE TPU S420 (CONNECTOR
ARRANGEMENT)...............................................................................................................2-18
FIGURE 2.15. BACK VIEW OF EXPANSION BOARD I OF THE TPU S420 (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). .....2-19
FIGURE 2.16. BACK VIEW OF THE EXPANSION BOARD 2 OF THE TPU S420 (CONNECTOR ARRANGEMENT). ..220
FIGURE 2.17. PLACEMENT OF THE BOARDS IN THE TPU S420 (VERSION LONWORKS).........................2-22
FIGURE 2.18. PLACEMENT OF THE BOARDS ON THE TPU S420 (VERSION ETHERNET). ........................2-23
FIGURE 2.19. CUT TO MAKE EMBEDDED ASSEMBLY....................................................................2-26
FIGURE 2.20. ASSEMBLY IN 19’’ RACK. .................................................................................2-27
FIGURE 2.21. 7U FRONT PLANE FOR ASSEMBLY IN 19’’ RACK. ......................................................2-28
FIGURE 2.22. 7U FRONT PLANE FOR ASSEMBLY IN 19’’ RACK. ......................................................2-28
FIGURE 2.23. CONNECTORS IN THE BACK OF THE TPU S420 (VERSION LONWORKS). ........................2-29
FIGURE 2.24. CONNECTORS IN THE BACK OF THE TPU S420 (VERSION ETHERNET). ..........................2-30
FIGURE 2.25. GENERAL WIRING CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM OF THE TPU S420, BASE CONFIGURATION.......2-37
FIGURE 2.26. GENERAL WIRING CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM OF THE TPU S420, EXPANSION MODES (OPTIONAL).
..................................................................................................................................2-38
FIGURE 2.27. POWER SUPPLY CONNECTIONS OF TPU S420. .......................................................2-39
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FIGURE 2.28. CURRENT AND VOLTAGE CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM (TOROID). .....................................2-41
FIGURE 2.29. CURRENTS AND CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM (HOLMGREEN CONNECTION). .........................2-42
FIGURE 2.30 DIGITAL INPUT AND OUTPUT CONNECTIONS OF TPU S420 (BASE BOARD). .....................2-43
FIGURE 2.31. POWER SUPPLY CONNECTIONS OF THE LONWORKS NETWORK BOARD. ...........................2-44
FIGURE 2.32. CONNECTIONS OF THE ETHERNET NETWORK BOARD. ...............................................2-46
FIGURE 2.33. SERIAL PORT FOR OPTICAL FIBRE INTERFACE. ..........................................................2-47
FIGURE 2.34. SERIAL PORT FOR RS485 INTERFACE...................................................................2-48
FIGURE 2.35. SERIAL PORT FOR RS232 INTERFACE...................................................................2-49
FIGURE 3.1. FRONT PANEL APPEARANCE WHEN THE TPU S420 IS NOT ENERGIZED. ..............................3-3
FIGURE 3.2. FRONT PANEL APPEARANCE WHEN THE TPU S420 IS STARTED-UP. .................................3-6
FIGURE 3.3. FRONT PANEL APPEARANCE WHEN THE TPU S420 IS STARTED-UP ..................................3-7
FIGURE 3.4. MENUS INTERFACE – MAIN MENU APPEARANCE........................................................3-11
FIGURE 3.5. PARAMETERS CHANGE PROCESS............................................................................3-13
FIGURE 3.6. ENTERING PASSWORD PROCESS. ...........................................................................3-14
FIGURE 3.7. PASSWORD CHANGING PROCESS ...........................................................................3-16
FIGURE 3.8. MAIN MENU...................................................................................................3-16
FIGURE 3.9. MEASUREMENTS MENU......................................................................................3-17
FIGURE 3.10. ACCESS MEASUREMENTS MENU. ........................................................................3-18
FIGURE 3.11. EVENT LOGGING MENU. ..................................................................................3-19
FIGURE 3.12. SEE EVENT LOGGING MENU. .............................................................................3-19
FIGURE 3.13. FAULT LOCATOR MENU...................................................................................3-20
FIGURE 3.14. FAULT 1 MENU. ............................................................................................3-20
FIGURE 3.15. LOAD DIAGRAM MENU....................................................................................3-20
FIGURE 3.16. POWER DIAGRAM MENU. .................................................................................3-21
FIGURE 3.17. APPARATUS SUPERVISION MENU.........................................................................3-21
FIGURE 3.18. CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPERVISION MENU. ................................................................3-22
FIGURE 3.19. INFORMATION MENU (CIRCUIT BREAKER)..............................................................3-22
FIGURE 3.20. DELETE INFORMATION MENU (CIRCUIT BREAKER)....................................................3-23
FIGURE 3.21. INSULATION DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION MENU....................................................3-23
FIGURE 3.22. INFORMATION MENU (INSULATION DISCONNECTOR)................................................3-23
FIGURE 3.23. PROTECTION FUNCTIONS MENU.........................................................................3-24
FIGURE 3.24. PHASE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MENU............................................................3-24
FIGURE 3.25. AUTOMATION MENU. .....................................................................................3-25
FIGURE 3.26. PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER MENU. ...................................................................3-25
FIGURE 3.27. INPUTS AND OUTPUTS MENU. ...........................................................................3-26
FIGURE 3.28. COMMUNICATIONS MENU. ...............................................................................3-26
FIGURE 3.29. HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE MENU. .................................................................3-26
FIGURE 3.30. SET DATE AND TIME MENU. .............................................................................3-27
FIGURE 3.31. INFORMATION MENU. .....................................................................................3-27
FIGURE 3.32. COMMAND EXECUTION PROCESS. .......................................................................3-29
FIGURE 3.33. DATE CHANGE PROCESS..................................................................................3-30
FIGURE 3.34. APPEARANCE OF THE DISPLAY WITH THE SAMPLE MIMIC. ............................................3-33
FIGURE 3.35. USE OF SEL KEY ............................................................................................3-35
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FIGURE 4.1. PARAMETERS MENU (SET DATE AND TIME). ..............................................................4-5
FIGURE 4.2. MEASUREMENT CONVERTERS MENU........................................................................4-9
FIGURE 4.3. DIGITAL INPUTS FILTERING (EXAMPLE: CONFIRMATIONS NR. EQUAL TO 5)..........................4-12
FIGURE 4.4. DIGITAL INPUTS VALIDATION (EXAMPLE: MAXIMUM NR. OF STATE CHANGES PER SECOND EQUAL TO
5). ..............................................................................................................................4-12
FIGURE 4.5. COMPLEMENTARY INPUTS VALIDATION. ..................................................................4-13
FIGURE 4.6. OUTPUTS OPERATION MODES. .............................................................................4-14
FIGURE 4.7. PARAMETERS MENU (BASE I/O BOARD). ................................................................4-15
FIGURE 4.8. INPUTS RELATED MENUS.....................................................................................4-16
FIGURE 4.9. OUTPUTS RELATED MENUS..................................................................................4-17
FIGURE 4.10. DOUBLE INPUTS PARAMETERS MENU. ..................................................................4-17
FIGURE 4.11. LCD VISUALIZATION MODES. ............................................................................4-21
FIGURE 4.12. ALARMS OPERATION MODES..............................................................................4-22
FIGURE 4.13. APPARATUS TYPE OBJECTS CONFIGURATION. ..........................................................4-23
FIGURE 4.14. COMMAND TYPE OBJECTS CONFIGURATION............................................................4-25
FIGURE 4.15. PARAMETER TYPE OBJECT CONFIGURATION. ...........................................................4-26
FIGURE 4.16. MEASUREMENT TYPE OBJECTS CONFIGURATION.......................................................4-27
FIGURE 4.17. DISPLAY CONFIGURATION MENU........................................................................4-28
FIGURE 4.18. ALARMS PAGE CONFIGURATION MENU ................................................................4-29
FIGURE 4.19. AUTOMATION LOGIC ORGANIZATION...................................................................4-32
FIGURE 4.20. MODULAR ORGANIZATION OF THE AUTOMATION LOGIC. ...........................................4-33
FIGURE 4.21. DELAY LOGICAL VARIABLE TYPES. ......................................................................4-33
FIGURE 4.22. TIMER AND PULSE LOGICAL VARIABLE TYPES........................................................4-34
FIGURE 4.23. LOGICAL VARIABLE CONSTITUTION. .....................................................................4-34
FIGURE 4.24. EXAMPLE OF LOGIC INFERENCE SCHEME.................................................................4-36
FIGURE 4.25. AUTOMATION LOGIC CONFIGURATION WITH WINLOGIC ............................................4-37
FIGURE 4.26. LOOP EXAMPLE..............................................................................................4-38
FIGURE 4.27. INITIALIZATION OF GATES INPUTS WITH AND TYPE VARIABLES. ....................................4-38
FIGURE 4.28. INITIALIZATION OF GATES INPUTS WITH NEGATED OUTPUTS.........................................4-39
FIGURE 4.29. DESCRIPTIONS CONFIGURATION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES WITH WINLOGIC. .................4-39
FIGURE 4.30. OPERATION MODES MENU. ..............................................................................4-43
FIGURE 4.31. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE OPERATION MODES MODULE (PART 1). ..................................4-47
FIGURE 4.32. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE OPERATION MODES MODULE (PART 2). ..................................4-48
FIGURE 4.33. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE OPERATION MODES MODULE (PART 3). ..................................4-49
FIGURE 4.34. PARAMETERS MENU (OSCILLOGRAPHY). ...............................................................4-51
FIGURE 4.35. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE OSCILLOGRAPHY MODULE. ..............................................4-52
FIGURE 5.1. CONFIGURATION MENU OF THE SERIAL COMMUNICATION PARAMETERS. ............................5-4
FIGURE 5.2. CONFIGURATION MENU OF THE ETHERNET COMMUNICATION PARAMETERS. ........................5-6
FIGURE 5.3. TYPICAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE PROTECTION AND CONTROL SYSTEM................................5-8
FIGURE 5.4. DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ARCHITECTURE. ................................................................5-10
FIGURE 5.5. LONWORKS COMMUNICATION INFORMATION MENU WITH DEBUG INFORMATION. ..............5-15
FIGURE 5.6. LOCATION STRING CONFIGURATION MENU. ............................................................5-15
FIGURE 5.7. SEND SERVICE PIN AND RESET NEURON CHIP COMMANDS ACCESS MENU. ........................5-16
FIGURE 5.8. DATA STRUCTURE OF THE DISTRIBUTED DATABASE. ..................................................5-19
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FIGURE 5.9. EXAMPLE OF THE DISTRIBUTED DATABASE CONFIGURATION. .........................................5-23
FIGURE 5.10. DNP 3.0 COMMUNICATION INFORMATION MENU WITH DEBUG INFORMATION. ...............5-29
FIGURE 5.11. CONFIGURATION MENU OF THE DNP 3.0 PROTOCOL PARAMETERS..............................5-30
FIGURE 5.12. IEC104 COMMUNICATION INFORMATION MENU WITH DEBUG INFORMATION. ................5-38
FIGURE 5.13. CONFIGURATION MENU OF THE IEC60870-5-104 PROTOCOL PARAMETERS. ..............5-38
FIGURE 5.14. TIME SCHEMATIC OF SENDING THE DDB TO THE NETWORK.........................................5-45
FIGURE 5.15. EXAMPLE OF THE DISTRIBUTED DATABASE CONFIGURATION. .......................................5-48
FIGURE 5.16. CONFIGURATION WINDOW OF A DATASET.............................................................5-51
FIGURE 5.17. CHOOSING WINDOW OF THE PUBLISHED GOCB.......................................................5-52
FIGURE 5.18. CONFIGURATION WINDOW OF AN INPUT DATASET. ..................................................5-53
FIGURE 6.1. FUNCTION MODULAR STRUCTURE. ..........................................................................6-6
FIGURE 6.2. SET CONFIGURATION MENU (PHASE OVERCURRENT)....................................................6-8
FIGURE 6.3. LOGIC DIAGRAM COMMON TO THE DIFFERENT MODULES. ..............................................6-9
FIGURE 6.4. LOGIC OF SIMULTANEOUS CHANGE OF ACTIVE SETTING GROUPS IN MORE THAN ONE FUNCTION...610
FIGURE 6.5. TRIPPING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION WITH INVERSE TIME. .........6-15
FIGURE 6.6. DYNAMIC RESET CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INVERSE TIME PROTECTION............................6-18
FIGURE 6.7. OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION..............................6-18
FIGURE 6.8. SET 1 MENU (PHASE OVERCURRENT).....................................................................6-19
FIGURE 6.9. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE.................6-23
FIGURE 6.10. SET 1 MENU (EARTH OVERCURRENT). .................................................................6-27
FIGURE 6.11. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE. ......................6-30
FIGURE 6.12. FAULTS BETWEEN PHASES IN A NETWORK WITH SELF-PRODUCERS. ................................6-31
FIGURE 6.13. DIRECTIONAL PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION. .........................................6-32
FIGURE 6.14. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (DIRECTIONAL PHASE). ....................................................6-33
FIGURE 6.15. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE DIRECTIONAL PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE
(VERSION I AND C). ..........................................................................................................6-35
FIGURE 6.16. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE DIRECTIONAL PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE
(VERSION S)....................................................................................................................6-35
FIGURE 6.17. PHASE-TO-EARTH FAULTS IN A DISTRIBUTION NETWORK. ..........................................6-36
FIGURE 6.18.OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE EARHT DIRECTIONAL PROTECTION.....................6-37
FIGURE 6.19. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (DIRECTIONAL EARTH).....................................................6-39
FIGURE 6.20. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE
(VERSIONS I AND C). .........................................................................................................6-41
FIGURE 6.21. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE
(VERSION S)....................................................................................................................6-41
FIGURE 6.22. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (2ND PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION). ...................6-43
FIGURE 6.23. LOGICCAL DIAGRAM OF THE SECOND PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE. .6-45
FIGURE 6.24. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (2ND EARTH OVERCURRENT). .............................................6-47
FIGURE 6.25. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE SECOND EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE. ..............6-49
FIGURE 6.26. RESISTIVE EARTH PROTECTION CHARACTERISTIC. ...................................................6-51
FIGURE 6.27. SET 1MENU (RESISTIVE EARTH)..........................................................................6-52
FIGURE 6.28. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE RESISTIVE EARTH PROTECTION MODULE.................................6-53
FIGURE 6.29. SET 1 MENU (PHASE OVERVOLTAGE)...................................................................6-55
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FIGURE 6.30. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PHASES OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION MODULE. ........................6-57
FIGURE 6.31. SET 1 MENU (EARTH OVERVOLTAGE). .................................................................6-59
FIGURE 6.32. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE ZERO SEQUENCE OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION MODULE. .............6-61
FIGURE 6.33. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (PHASE UNDERVOLTAGE). ................................................6-63
FIGURE 6.34. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PHASES UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION MODULE. ......................6-66
FIGURE 6.35. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (FREQUENCY)................................................................6-69
FIGURE 6.36. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE UNDERFREQUENCY AND OVERFREQUENCY PROTECTION MODULE. .6-72
FIGURE 6.37. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (PHASE BALANCE). .........................................................6-75
FIGURE 6.38. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE PHASE BALANCE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE. ..........6-78
FIGURE 6.39. TRIP CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OVERLOAD PROTECTION...........................................6-80
FIGURE 6.40. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (OVERLOAD).................................................................6-81
FIGURE 6.41. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE OVERLOAD PROTECTION MODULE........................................6-83
FIGURE 6.42. AUTOMATIC RECLOSING OPERATION SEQUENCE. ....................................................6-86
FIGURE 6.43. SUCCESSFUL FAST RECLOSING............................................................................6-87
FIGURE 6.44. UNSUCCESSFUL FAST RECLOSING........................................................................6-87
FIGURE 6.45. UNSUCCESSFUL FAST RECLOSING FOLLOWED BY SECOND SUCCESSFUL RECLOSING. ............6-88
FIGURE 6.46. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (RECLOSING).................................................................6-89
FIGURE 6.47. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF AUTOMATIC RECLOSING......................................................6-91
FIGURE 6.48. OPERATION EXAMPLE (SYNCHRONISM CONDITIONS FULFILLED). ...................................6-94
FIGURE 6.49. OPERATION EXAMPLE (SYNCHRONISM CONDITIONS NOT FULFILLED). .............................6-94
FIGURE 6.50. OPERATION EXAMPLE (SYNCHRONISM CONDITIONS PRESENT DURING THE COMMAND TIME)..6-94
FIGURE 6.51. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (SYNCHRONISM CHECK). ..................................................6-97
FIGURE 6.52. PART 1 OF THE LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE SYNCHRONISM AND VOLTAGE CHECK MODULE......6101
FIGURE 6.53. PART 2 OF THE LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE SYNCHRONISM AND VOLTAGE CHECK MODULE......6102
FIGURE 6.54. UNITS CONFIGURATION EXAMPLE INSERTED ON THE VOLTAGE RESTORATION.................6-103
FIGURE 6.55. TIME DIAGRAM OF VOLTAGE RESTORATION. .......................................................6-104
FIGURE 6.56. SEQUENCE OF THE LOAD SHEDDING AND VOLTAGE RESTORATION OPERATION. .............6-105
FIGURE 6.57. SET 1 MENU (LOAD SHEDDING/ VOLTAGE RESTORATION). ....................................6-106
FIGURE 6.58. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF VOLTAGE RESTORATION. ......................................................6-107
FIGURE 6.59. UNITS CONFIGURATION EXAMPLE INSERTED ON THE FREQUENCY RESTORATION..............6-108
FIGURE 6.60. FREQUENCY RESTORATION TIME DIAGRAM. .........................................................6-109
FIGURE 6.61. OPERATION SEQUENCE OF THE FREQUENCY SHEDDING AND RESTORATION. ..................6-110
FIGURE 6.62. SET 1 MENU ( FREQUENCY SHEDDING / RESTORATION). ........................................6-111
FIGURE 6.63. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE FREQUENCY RESTORATION...............................................6-112
FIGURE 6.64. VOLTAGE CENTRALISED RESTORATION FUNCTIONING. ...........................................6-113
FIGURE 6.65. OPERATION SEQUENCE OF LOAD SHEDDING AND VOLTAGE CENTRALISED RESTORATION..6-114
FIGURE 6.66. SET MENU 1 (LOAD SHEDDING/VOLTAGE RESTORATION). ......................................6-115
FIGURE 6.67. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE VOLTAGE CENTRALISED RESTORATION. ...............................6-117
FIGURE 6.68. FREQUENCY CENTRALISED RESTORATION FUNCTIONING. ........................................6-118
FIGURE 6.69. OPERATION SEQUENCE OF THE LOAD SHEDDING AND FREQUENCY CENTRALISED RESTORATION.
................................................................................................................................6-119
FIGURE 6.70. SETTING GROUP MENU 1 (LOAD SHEDDING/FREQUENCY RESTORATION).....................6-120
FIGURE 6.71. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE CENTRALISED FREQUENCY RESTORATION. ............................6-122
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FIGURE 6.72. FAULT ELIMINATION ON THE BUS-BAR................................................................6-123
FIGURE 6.73. FAUTL ELIMINATION ON AN OUTPUT (LOGIC SELECTIVITY)........................................6-124
FIGURE 6.74. FAULT LOCATOR MENU.................................................................................6-126
FIGURE 6.75. PARAMETERS MENU (LINE). ............................................................................6-127
FIGURE 6.76. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE FAULT LOCATOR MODULE................................................6-128
FIGURE 6.77. TIME DIAGRAM OF CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE OPERATION........................................6-129
FIGURE 6.78. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE). ...........................................6-130
FIGURE 6.79. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE MODULE. ...............................6-132
FIGURE 6.80. TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION. ............................................................................6-133
FIGURE 6.81. TIME DIAGRAM OF THE TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION OPERATION..................................6-133
FIGURE 6.82. SUBSTATION TOPOLOGY WITH BYPASS BUSBAR. .....................................................6-135
FIGURE 6.83. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER).........................................6-136
FIGURE 6.84. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER MODULE.................................6-137
FIGURE 6.85. TIME DIAGRAM OF CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPERVISION OPERATION. ..................................6-138
FIGURE 6.86. TIME DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKER SPRING SUPERVISION OPERATION. ...................6-139
FIGURE 6.87. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (CIRCUIT BREAKER).......................................................6-140
FIGURE 6.88. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (OPENING COMMANDS).................6-144
FIGURE 6.89. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (STATE)....................................6-145
FIGURE 6.90. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (POSITION). ...............................6-146
FIGURE 6.91. LOGIC DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCUIT-BREAKER MODULE (CLOSING COMMANDS). ................6-147
FIGURE 6.92. LINE BAY CONFIGURATION. .............................................................................6-148
FIGURE 6.93. TIME DIAGRAM OF DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION OPERATION. ...................................6-149
FIGURE 6.94. SETTING GROUP 1 MENU (INSULATION DISCONNECTOR). ........................................6-150
FIGURE 6.95. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE EARTH DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS). .................6-153
FIGURE 6.96. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE EARTH DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATE)..........................6-154
FIGURE 6.97. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE INSULATION DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS)............6-155
FIGURE 6.98. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE INSULATION DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATE). ..................6-156
FIGURE 6.99. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BYPASS DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS)..................6-157
FIGURE 6.100. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BYPASS DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATE). ......................6-158
FIGURE 6.101. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR DISCONNECTOR MODULE (COMMANDS). ..............6-159
FIGURE 6.102. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR DISCONNECTOR MODULE (STATE).......................6-160
FIGURE 6.103. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR DISCONNECTOR 1 MODULE (COMMANDS). ...........6-161
FIGURE 6.104. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR DISCONNECTOR 1 MODULE (STATE)....................6-162
FIGURE 6.105. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR DISCONNECTOR 2 MODULE (COMMANDS). ...........6-163
FIGURE 6.106. LOGICAL DIAGRAM OF THE BUSBAR DISCONNECTOR 2 MODULE (STATE)....................6-164
FIGURE 7.1. DISPLAY MEASURES MENU....................................................................................7-4
FIGURE 7.2. INFORMATION MENU – CIRCUIT BREAKER. ................................................................7-5
FIGURE 7.3. INFORMATION MENU – DISCONNECTOR. ..................................................................7-6
FIGURE 7.4. MEASURES MENU...............................................................................................7-6
FIGURE 7.5. CLEAR INFORMATION MENU – CIRCUIT BREAKER. .......................................................7-7
FIGURE 7.6. CLEAR INFORMATION MENU – DISCONNECTOR. .........................................................7-7
FIGURE 7.7. WINREPORTS – MEASURES WINDOW........................................................................7-8
FIGURE 7.8. WINREPORTS – MEASURES CHANGE WINDOW............................................................7-9
FIGURE 7.9. FILE EXPORTED FROM MEASURES RECORD.................................................................7-9
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FIGURE 7.10. VISUALIZATION OF EVENT LOGGING. ...................................................................7-10
FIGURE 7.11. WINREPORTS – LIST OF EVENTS LOGS. .................................................................7-11
FIGURE 7.12. WINREPORTS – VISUALISATION OF THE EVENTS LOGS. ..............................................7-12
FIGURE 7.13. WINREPORTS – CLEAR LOAD LOGS. ....................................................................7-12
FIGURE 7.14. FILE EXPORTED FROM THE EVENT LOG..................................................................7-13
FIGURE 7.15. VISUALIZATION OF FAULT LOCATOR....................................................................7-14
FIGURE 7.16. WINREPORTS FAULT LOCATOR WINDOW. .............................................................7-15
FIGURE 7.17. WINREPORTS – CLEAR FAULT LOCATOR...............................................................7-16
FIGURE 7.18. FILE EXPORTED FROM THE FAULT LOCATOR LOG. ....................................................7-16
FIGURE 7.19. VISUALIZATION OF THE LOAD DIAGRAM IN THE LOCAL INTERFACE. ..............................7-17
FIGURE 7.20. WINREPORTS – LOAD DIAGRAMS LIST. ................................................................7-18
FIGURE 7.21. WINREPORTS – VISUALIZATION OF THE LOAD DIAGRAMS. .........................................7-19
FIGURE 7.22. WINREPORTS – CLEAR LOAD DIAGRAMS. .............................................................7-19
FIGURE 7.23. FILE EXPORTED FROM THE LOAD DIAGRAM LOG......................................................7-20
FIGURE 7.24. WINREPORTS – OSCILLOGRAPHIES LIST. ...............................................................7-22
FIGURE 7.25. WINREPORTS – VISUALIZATION OF OSCILLOGRAPHIES...............................................7-23
FIGURE 7.26. WINREPORTS – CLEAR OSCILLOGRAPHIES. ............................................................7-23
FIGURE 7.27. FILES EXPORTED IN COMTRADE FORMAT FROM THE OSCILLOGRAPHY LOG ...................7-24
FIGURE 7.28. HARDWARE INFORMATION LOG INTERFACE............................................................7-26
FIGURE 7.29. FILE EXPORTED FROM THE HARDWARE INFORMATION LOG .........................................7-27
FIGURE 7.30. POSSIBLE ASPECT OF THE LOCAL MODE/REMOTE MODE LEDS. ..................................7-28
FIGURE 7.31. POSSIBLE ASPECT OF THE MANUAL MODE/AUTOMATIC MODE LEDS............................7-28
FIGURE 7.32. EXAMPLE MIMIC. ...........................................................................................7-29
FIGURE 7.33. CIRCUIT-BREAKER STATE ASPECTS: OPEN/CLOSED/UNDEFINED..................................7-29
FIGURE 7.34. CIRCUIT BREAKER POSITION ASPECTS: EXTRACTED/INSERTED/UNDEFINED POSITION. ........7-30
FIGURE 7.35. DISCONNECTOR STATE ASPECTS: OPEN/CLOSED/UNDEFINED. ...................................7-30
FIGURE 7.36. COMMAND STATE ASPECTS: STATE 0 / STATE 1.....................................................7-30
FIGURE 7.37. MEASURE ASPECT. .........................................................................................7-31
FIGURE 7.38. PARAMETER STATE ASPECTS IN VISUALIZE MODE......................................................7-31
FIGURE 7.39. PARAMETER STATE ASPECT IN CHANGE MODE. .......................................................7-31
FIGURE 8.1. WINLOGIC – LOGICAL COMMANDS. ........................................................................8-9
FIGURE 9.1. SYSTEM MENU. .................................................................................................9-4
FIGURE 9.2. SYSTEM INFORMATION MENU................................................................................9-5
FIGURE 9.3. MASTER INFORMATION MENU. ..............................................................................9-5
FIGURE 9.4. EXCEPTION INFORMATION MENU – MASTER. .............................................................9-6
FIGURE 9.5. FRAME 1 MENU...............................................................................................9-7
FIGURE 9.6. INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS STATUS. ....................................................................9-7
FIGURE 9.7. CLEAR MEMORY LOGS MENU. ...............................................................................9-8
FIGURE 9.8. RESTORE DEFAULT PARAMETERS MENU....................................................................9-9
FIGURE 9.9. HARDWARE TEST MENU. ...................................................................................9-10
FIGURE 9.10. HARDWARE TEST MENU. .................................................................................9-10
FIGURE 9.11. CALIBRATION MENU. ......................................................................................9-11
FIGURE 9.12. LOCATION OF FUSES (FU4 AND FU5) IN THE I/O+ POWER SUPPLY BASE BOARD..............9-17
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FIGURE 9.13. LOCATION OF FUSE (FU1) IN THE COMMUNICATIONS BOARD. .....................................9-18
FIGURE 9.14. LOCATION OF THE DIP-SWITCH (INT1) IN THE COMMUNICATIONS BOARD......................9-19
FIGURE 9.15. LOCATION OF THE JUMPERS IN THE ETHERNET COMMUNICATIONS BOARD. ......................9-22
FIGURE 9.16. LOCATION OF THE JUMPERS IN THE PROCESSING BOARD.............................................9-24
FIGURE 9.17. LOCATION OF THE JUMPER IN THE PIGGY-BACK BOARD FOR OPTICAL FIBRE INTERFACE. .......9-25
FIGURE 9.18. LOCATION OF THE JUMPERS IN THE PIGGY-BACK BOARD FOR RS485 INTERFACE (REVISION A)..926
FIGURE 9.19. PHASE OVERCURRENT MENU – DEFAULT VALUES....................................................9-27
FIGURE 9.20. CONFIGURATION OF THE INPUTS/OUTPUTS BASE BOARD FOR CALIBRATION....................9-28
FIGURE 9.21. PHASES CALIBRATION. ....................................................................................9-29
FIGURE 9.22. NEUTRAL CALIBRATION. ..................................................................................9-30
FIGURE 9.23. CALIBRATION MENU – DEFAULT CALIBRATION RESTORE. ..........................................9-31
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TABLES LIST
TABLE 2.1. CONNECTORS DESCRIPTION...................................................................................2-5
TABLE 2.2. CONNECTORS DESCRIPTION. ..................................................................................2-6
TABLE 2.3. TYPES OF EXPANSION BOARDS...............................................................................2-20
TABLE 2.4. SOME CONFIGURATIONS FOR I/O BOARDS................................................................2-21
TABLE 2.5. RANGES OF OPERATING VOLTAGES FOR THE POWER SUPPLY. ..........................................2-24
TABLE 2.6. OPERATING VOLTAGES AND OPERATION SETS OF DIGITAL INPUTS.....................................2-24
TABLE 2.7. COMMAND BUTTONS OF THE LONWORKS NETWORK BOARD.........................................2-45
TABLE 2.8. LED OF THE LONWORKS NETWORK BOARD. ............................................................2-45
TABLE 2.9. LED OF THE ETHERNET NETWORK BOARD. ..............................................................2-46
TABLE 2.10. PIN ALLOCATION TO RS485 SERIAL PORTS. ...........................................................2-48
TABLE 2.11. PIN ALLOCATION TO RS232 SERIAL PORTS. ...........................................................2-48
TABLE 2.12. PIN ALLOCATION TO SERIAL PORTS. ......................................................................2-49
TABLE 4.1. TIME PARAMETERS...............................................................................................4-6
TABLE 4.2. DESCRIPTION OF THE TIME MODULE LOGICAL VARIABLES. ................................................4-7
TABLE 4.3. MEASUREMENT CONVERTERS PARAMETERS. ................................................................4-9
TABLE 4.4. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE MEASUREMENT TRANSFORMERS MODULE.......4-9
TABLE 4.5. DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS PARAMETERS (BASE BOARD). ..........................................4-18
TABLE 4.6. DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS PARAMETERS (EXPANSION BOARDS 1 AND 2). .....................4-18
TABLE 4.7. COMPLEMENTARY INPUTS PARAMETERS. ..................................................................4-19
TABLE 4.8. LOGICAL VARIABLE DESCRIPTION OF THE BASE BOARD MODULE. ......................................4-19
TABLE 4.9. LOGICAL VARIABLE DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPANSION BOARD1 MODULE. ............................4-19
TABLE 4.10. LOGICAL VARIABLE DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPANSION BOARD 2 MODULE. .........................4-20
TABLE 4.11. DISPLAY PARAMETERS. .....................................................................................4-29
TABLE 4.12. ALARMS PAGE PARAMETERS. ..............................................................................4-29
TABLE 4.13. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE ALARMS MODULE.........................................4-30
TABLE 4.14. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE AUXILIARY LOGIC MODULE 1. ..........................4-41
TABLE 4.15. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE AUXILIARY LOGIC MODULE 2. ..........................4-41
TABLE 4.16. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE TIME DELAY MODULE.....................................4-41
TABLE 4.17. OPERATION MODES PARAMETERS.........................................................................4-43
TABLE 4.18. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE OPERATION MODES MODULE. ..........................4-44
TABLE 4.19. OSCILLOGRAPHY PARAMETERS. ...........................................................................4-51
TABLE 4.20. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE OSCILLOGRAPHY MODULE...............................4-52
TABLE 5.1. SERIAL COMMUNICATION PARAMETERS. ....................................................................5-4
TABLE 5.2. ETHERNET PARAMETERS........................................................................................5-6
TABLE 5.3. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES IN THE ETHERNET MODULE. ................................5-7
TABLE 5.4. LIST OF CAUSES ................................................................................................5-12
TABLE 5.5. LONWORKS PROTOCOL PARAMETERS......................................................................5-18
TABLE 5.6. PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DISTRIBUTED DATABASE.........................................5-22
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TABLE 5.7. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE LONWORKS MODULE. ............................5-24
TABLE 5.8. DNP 3.0 PROTOCOL PARAMETERS. .......................................................................5-32
TABLE 5.9. LIST OF CAUSES. ...............................................................................................5-35
TABLE 5.10. IEC60870-5-104 PROTOCOL PARAMETERS. ......................................................5-41
TABLE 5.11. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE IEC104 MODULE. .......................................5-42
TABLE 5.12. ETHERNET DISTRIBUTED DATABASE PARAMETERS. .....................................................5-46
TABLE 5.13. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE LONWORKS MODULE. ..........................5-48
TABLE 5.14. IEC61850 PROTOCOL PARAMETERS. ..................................................................5-53
TABLE 5.15. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE IEC61850 MODULE. ...................................5-55
TABLE 5.16. CONFIGURATION EXAMPLE OF THE SNTP PROTOCOL. ...............................................5-57
TABLE 5.17. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE ETHERNET MODULE ASSOCIATED WITH THE SNTP
PROTOCOL.....................................................................................................................5-57
TABLE 6.1. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES COMMON TO THE DIFFERENT MODULES. .................6-8
TABLE 6.2. CONSTANTS OF THE INVERSE TIME CURVES ACCORDING TO STANDARD IEC 60255-3.........6-12
TABLE 6.3. CONSTANTS OF THE INVERSE TIME CURVES ACCORDING TO STANDARD IEEE 37.112. .........6-12
TABLE 6.4. PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION PARAMETERS. .............................................6-20
TABLE 6.5. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
MODULE. .......................................................................................................................6-21
TABLE 6.6. EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION PARAMETERS. .....................................................6-28
TABLE 6.7. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE...629
TABLE 6.8. DIRECTIONAL PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION PARAMETERS. ...........................6-33
TABLE 6.9. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE DIRECTIONAL PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT
PROTECTION MODULE. ......................................................................................................6-34
TABLE 6.10. DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION PARAMETERS. .........................6-39
TABLE 6.11. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT
PROTECTION MODULE. ......................................................................................................6-40
TABLE 6.12. PARAMETERS OF THE SECOND PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION. ......................6-43
TABLE 6.13. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE SECOND PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
MODULE. .......................................................................................................................6-44
TABLE 6.14. SECOND EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION PARAMETERS. ........................................6-47
TABLE 6.15. LOGIC VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE SECOND EARTH OVERCURRENT PROTECTION MODULE. .648
TABLE 6.16. RESISTIVE EARTH PROTECTION PARAMETERS...........................................................6-52
TABLE 6.17. DESCRIPTION OF LOGIC VARIABLES OF THE RESISTIVE EARTH PROTECTION MODULE. ...........6-53
TABLE 6.18. PHASES OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION PARAMETERS. ..................................................6-55
TABLE 6.19. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE PHASES OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION MODULE......6-56
TABLE 6.20. ZERO SEQUENCE OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION PARAMETERS. .......................................6-59
TABLE 6.21. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE ZERO SEQUENCE PROTECTION MODULE..............6-60
TABLE 6.22. PHASE UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION PARAMETERS. ..................................................6-64
TABLE 6.23. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE PHASE UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION MODULE.
..................................................................................................................................6-64
TABLE 6.24. UNDERFREQUENCY AND OVERFREQUENCY PROTECTION PARAMETERS. ...........................6-69
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TABLE 6.25. LOGIC VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE UNDERFREQUENCY AND OVERFREQUENCY PROTECTION
MODULE. .......................................................................................................................6-70
TABLE 6.26. PHASE BALANCE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION PARAMETERS. .......................................6-76
TABLE 6.27. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE PHASE BALANCE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
MODULE. .......................................................................................................................6-76
TABLE 6.28.OVERLOAD PROTECTION PARAMETERS. .................................................................6-81
TABLE 6.29. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE OVERLOAD PROTECTION MODULE. ...................6-82
TABLE 6.30. AUTOMATIC RECLOSING PARAMETERS. .................................................................6-89
TABLE 6.31. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE AUTOMATIC RECLOSING MODULE. ..........6-90
TABLE 6.32. NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR EACH TYPE OF SYNCHRONISM. .......................................6-93
TABLE 6.33. SYNCHRONISM AND VOLTAGE CHECK FUNCTION PARAMETERS.....................................6-97
TABLE 6.34. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE SYNCHRONISM AND VOLTAGE CHECK MODULE. ...6-98
TABLE 6.35. VOLTAGE RESTORATION PARAMETERS.................................................................6-106
TABLE 6.36. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE VOLTAGE RESTORATION MODULE...................6-106
TABLE 6.37. FREQUENCY RESTORATION PARAMETERS..............................................................6-111
TABLE 6.38. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE FREQUENCY RESTORATION MODULE................6-111
TABLE 6.39. CENTRALISED VOLTAGE RESTORATION. ..............................................................6-115
TABLE 6.40. LOGICAL VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE CENTRALISED VOLTAGE RESTORATION MODULE. 6-116
TABLE 6.41. CENTRALISED FREQUENCY RESTORATION PARAMETERS............................................6-120
TABLE 6.42. LOGIC VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE CENTRALISED FREQUENCY RESTORATION. ...........6-121
TABLE 6.43. PRE-SELECTION OF LOOPS DEPENDING ON THE FAULT PHASES. ...................................6-125
TABLE 6.44. FAULT LOCATOR PARAMETERS..........................................................................6-127
TABLE 6.45. LINE PARAMETERS. ........................................................................................6-127
TABLE 6.46. LOGIC VARIABLES DESCRIPTION OF THE FAULT LOCATOR MODULE...............................6-128
TABLE 6.47. CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE PARAMETERS. .............................................................6-130
TABLE 6.48. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE MODULE.......6-131
TABLE 6.49. TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION PARAMETERS..............................................................6-134
TABLE 6.50. PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER PARAMETERS. ..........................................................6-136
TABLE 6.51. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE PROTECTION TRIP TRANSFER MODULE. ..6-136
TABLE 6.52. CIRCUIT BREAKER MANOEUVRES SUPERVISION PARAMETERS. .....................................6-140
TABLE 6.53. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPERVISION MODULE. 6-141
TABLE 6.54. DISCONNECTORS MANOEUVRES SUPERVISION PARAMETERS.......................................6-150
TABLE 6.55. DESCRIPTION OF THE LOGICAL VARIABLES OF THE INSULATION DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION
MODULE. .....................................................................................................................6-151
TABLE 9.1. POSSIBLE CONFIGURATIONS FOR THE COMMUNICATIONS BOARD. ....................................9-19
TABLE 9.2. DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT JUMPERS OF THE ETHERNET COMMUNICATIONS BOARD. .......9-20
TABLE 9.3. POSSIBLE HARDWARE DEFAULT OPERATION MODES FOR TRANSCEIVERS TP1AND FO1...........9-21
TABLE 9.4. POSSIBLE HARDWARE DEFAULT OPERATION MODES FOR TRANSCEIVERS TP2 AND FO2. .........9-21
TABLE 9.5. POSSIBLE HARDWARE DEFAULT OPERATION MODES FOR TRANSCEIVERS TP1, TP2, FO1 AND FO2.
..................................................................................................................................9-22
TABLE 9.6. DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT JUMPERS OF THE PROCESSING BOARD. .............................9-23
TABLE 9.7. DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT JUMPERS OF THE PIGGY-BACK BOARD FOR OPTICAL FIBRE
INTERFACE. ....................................................................................................................9-25
TABLE 9.8. DESCRIPTION OF THE JUMPERS OF THE PIGGY-BACK BOARD FOR RS485 INTERFACE. ............9-26
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TABLE 9.9. PHASES CALIBRATION VALUES. .............................................................................9-29
TABLE 9.10. NEUTRAL CALIBRATION VALUES..........................................................................9-30
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1
Chapter
1.
INTRODUCTION
In this chapter it is introduced the TPU S420, a Medium Voltage feeder protection and control
unit. There are presented the product main characteristics and its range of application. It is also
made a brief description of the several functionalities and it is presented its operation basic
principle.
Chapter 1 - Introduction
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
1.1. APPLICATION..........................................................................................................1-3
1.2. VERSIONS ..............................................................................................................1-4
1.3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................................................1-5
1.4. FUNCTIONALITIES.....................................................................................................1-7
1.5. OPERATION PRINCIPLE.............................................................................................1-13
Total of pages of the chapter: 15
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Chapter 1 - Introduction
1.1. APPLICATION
TPU S420 was designed as a protection and terminal unit for supervision and control of aerial
lines and underground cables in radial electric networks with isolated, compensated, solid or
with limiting impedance neutral connection. It can also be used on the connection to small
power producers.
Besides these applications, the TPU S420 can be used as a reserve protection of others
equipments, such as transformers and High Voltage lines.
TPU S420 performs a wide range of automation and protection functions. It has an extensive
range of user programming options, offering a high accuracy of regulation on the currents,
voltages, temporisations and optional characteristics. All protection and automation settings are
independent among themselves, having four sets of parameterizations for each function.
The possibility to define logical interlockings to complement the existing protection and control
functions, and the possibility to chose, besides the default options lists, of inputs, outputs and
alarms with attributable logical mean add an additional configuration facility of the protection,
that can be used to adapt it to the user needs.
The TPU S420 local interface integrates a graphic display where it is presented a synoptic with
the state of all devices as well as its respective measurements. This synoptic is totally defined by
the user, which allows adjusting it to the specific configuration of the panel where the protection
is installed. On the front panel there are also several functional keys that enable an easier
operation of the protection for the most frequent exploitation situations.
As a terminal unit, the TPU S420 does accurate measurements of all values of a line related with
currents, voltages, power values, power factors, energy and frequency, and several faults
monitoring functions, including Oscillography and Event Chronological Log.
The ability to do complete monitoring of a panel analogue values and digital states allow the
TPU S420 to be integrated as Remote Unit in Efacec’ Supervision Command and Control
Systems. For that purpose an optical fibre interface is available that ensures the horizontal
communication between different units on the local area network (LAN). Simultaneously, three
serial ports are offered to a PC connection.
Together with the TPU S420 is supplied an integrated software package for PC interface with the
protection– WinProt – either locally or through the local communication network. This
application enables, among others functionalities, the access and changing of all relay settings
and configurations and also the gathering and detailed analysis of the produced logs.
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Chapter 1 - Introduction
1.2. VERSIONS
There are three different versions of TPU S420 that offers the user the flexibility to choose the
suitable relay for to each case.
The product basic version is the TPU S420-I, and it has as main functionalities the Directional
Overcurrent Protections, of Phase and Earth Faults, and the automatic Reclosing automatism. Its
natural application will be for a protection of Medium Voltage outputs. It can also be used as a
reserve on other equipments protection.
The TPU S420-C is based on the version I but adding the possibility of doing Load Shedding/
Restoration for Undervoltage and Underfrequency. These automatisms are based on the
interaction of the LAN with a protection unit and bus-bar control, the TPU S420, not requiring
protection voltage and frequency functions.
At last, the TPU S420-S is the complete version for the aerial or underground lines protection,
including the Phase Balance Protection for the detection of broken conductors, and a second
Overcurrent Protection function with only a definite/ inverse universal stage, which performs
four stages of overcurrent for phase and earth faults. About the automatisms, additionally to
version I, it has the Over and Undervoltage Protections, the Over and Underfrequency, the
associated Voltage and Frequency Restoration and the Synchronism Check and Voltage
Presence.
On the Annex A. - Ordering Form the two different versions of the TPU S420 can be compared
concerning the executed functions.
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Chapter 1 - Introduction
1.3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
The feeder protection and control unit TPU S420 belongs to Efacec’s TPU x420 digital
technology protections family. All protections which are part of this family are characterised by a
similar set of functionalities and they are based on a common platform which enables uniform
and highly integrated solutions for the protection and automation of substations in power
systems.
Powerful modular architecture, constituted by a processing board with three 32 bit
microcontrollers.
Acquisition up to a maximum of 8 analogue values with 12 bit digital conversion at a rate of
40 samples per cycle (sampling frequency of 2 kHz for a nominal frequency of 50 Hz).
High number of digital inputs and outputs for complete acquisition of all panel and
equipment status and for the commands execution over circuit-breakers or other
indications, respectively.
Integration of a vast set of protection, control and monitoring functions, appropriate to each
application, covering the most common situations of usage.
Modular structure and object-oriented of the different sets of parameters and protection
configurations.
4 sets of independent parameters for each protection and automation function,
interchangeable by specific logic or user’s command.
Possibility of changing the automation logic programmed by default for the implementation
of interlockings and other logic conditions, additional to the protection and control functions.
Graphic editor of programmable logic and associated descriptions with the possibility of
editing, configuring, testing and printing of logic directly from the diagram over the logic
gates.
Easy and accessible visualization, changing and automation logic testing, directly from the
graphic editor of logic gates which constitute the different functions.
Easiness of recording and/ or updating the protection firmware.
Usage of high ability flash memory, for non-volatile storage of all protection parameters and
configurations, as well as all the logs resulting from its application.
Logs of the currents and voltages oscillographies with a sampling frequency of 20 samples
per cycle and up to 40 digital channels, with a total storage capacity of almost one and a half
minute.
Events log with the selection of logical variables and its descriptions editable by the user,
dated with a precision of one millisecond.
Real-time clock with own battery, with the possibility of time synchronization through the
local area network interface or by the SNTP protocol.
Possibility of configuring the regional time parameters associated to the country or zone of
the globe where the protection is installed.
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Chapter 1 - Introduction
Sophisticated local interface, constituted by a graphic display, alarms with user-settable logic
meaning and functional keys for an easier protection operation.
Possibility of editing the synoptic presented on the frontal panel’s display, with the
representation of the equipment and measurement status.
Interface by optic fibre or copper in LonWorks or Ethernet architectures for complete
integration in Efacec SCADA systems, with simple configuration of digital and analogue
information reporting to the Control Centre.
Piggy-back interfaces type supported by the CPU board, in optical fibre, RS232 or RS485 to
support the DNP 3.0 Serial protocol.
Horizontal communication of logic information and another type of information among
different units in the same local area network, for the implementation of complex
automatisms, totally programmable by the user.
A frontal serial port and two back serial ports for communicating with a PC.
Availability of a specific interface application for PC - WinProt - with parameterization
functions, configuration and protection logs reading functions, communicating by serial port
or through the local area network.
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Chapter 1 - Introduction
1.4. FUNCTIONALITIES
1
Phase Overcurrent Protection
High stage zone with high-speed trip to rapidly eliminate violent faults.
Temporized low stage zone, of definite or inverse time, prepared for chronometric
coordination with other protection elements.
Inverse time features according to IEC and IEEE standards.
Optional dynamic reset when the inverse time option is selected.
Third extended range definite time stage setting, complementing the two previous stages.
Working in parallel (full scheme) of the 9 virtual relays (3 per phase).
Configured directionality for each one of the stages independently.
Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection
Same number of stages and similar characteristics as the Phase Overcurrent Protection.
Independent settings from those used for phase faults protection.
Parallel functioning (full scheme) of the 3 virtual relays.
Residual current obtained from the internal sum of the three phase currents or directly from
the fourth current input.
Possibility of configuring each one of the protection stages against earth faults to optionally
work with the sum of the three currents obtained internally or with the current observed on
the forth current input.
Directionality configured for each one of the stages independently.
Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent
Interaction with the Phase Overcurrent Protection.
Directionality activation and selection of the operation direction for each stage independently.
Operational characteristic associated to polarization voltages that ensure the sensitivity
maximization and operation of the function for all types of phase faults.
Pre-fault polarization voltages memorization in case of their annulment.
Possibility of defining the function behaviour, by stage, after the memory time exhausts.
Directional Earth Protection
Interaction with Earth Overcurrent protection.
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Chapter 1 - Introduction
Directionality activation and selection of operation direction for each stage independently.
Possibility of configuring each one of the Directional protection stages to optionally work
with the sum of the three currents obtained internally or with the current observed on the
fourth current input.
Operational characteristic ensuring the direction discrimination for phase-to-earth faults in
any neutral system.
Zero sequence voltage using as a polarization value.
Possibility of defining the function behaviour, by stage, in case of annulment of the
polarization voltage value.
Second Phase Overcurrent Protection
Additional stage of temporized low threshold, of definite or inverse time, according with the
same standards that the main Overcurrent function.
Directionality criteria similar to what was configured for the third stage of the Phase
Overcurrent protection.
Second Earth Overcurrent Protection
Additional stage of temporized low threshold, of definite or inverse time, according with the
same standards that the main Overcurrent function.
Using, optionally, the sum of the three currents obtained internally or from the current
observed on the fourth current input.
Directionality criteria similar to what was configured for the third stage of the Earth
Overcurrent protection.
Resistive Earth Fault Protection
Independent functioning and regulation from those from the Overcurrent protection against
earth faults.
Inverse time feature in agreement with the EPATR standard, presenting high sensitivity to
eliminate very resistive earth faults.
Actuation according with the residual current observed on the fourth current input.
Automatic calibration to compensate the measurements faults on the residual current , in
case of Holmgreen assembly.
Phase Overvoltage Protection
Two independent stages of definite time.
Phase-to-phase voltages using, calculated from the earth-to-phase voltages observed on
the analogue inputs.
Working in parallel (full scheme) of the 6 virtual relays (2 per each couple of voltages).
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Chapter 1 - Introduction
Zero Sequence Overvoltage Protection
Two independent definite time stages.
Calculation of the residual voltage in the line from the earth-to-phase voltages observed on
the analogue inputs.
Working in parallel (full scheme) of the 2 virtual relays.
Phase Undervoltage Protection
Two independent definite time stages.
Phase-to-phase voltages using, calculated from the earth-to-phase voltages observed on
the analogue inputs.
Working in parallel (full scheme) of the 6 virtual relays (2 per each couple of voltages).
Possibility of three-phase actuation for both stages.
Possibility of function additional locking configuration by checking the voltage value of the
current phases.
Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection
Two independent stages of Underfrequency.
Configuration possibility of one of Underfrequency stages as a virtual relay of negative
frequency variation rate.
Two independent Overfrequency stages.
Configuration possibility of one of the Overfrequency stages as a relay of positive frequency
variation rate.
Frequency measurement accuracy for all settings range.
Phase Balance Overcurrent Protection
High threshold with an instantaneous trip to rapidly eliminate violent faults.
Temporized low threshold stage, of definite or inverse time, prepared for chronometric
coordination with other protection elements.
Inverse time characteristics according with the IEC and IEEE standards.
Dynamic reset, when the inverse time option is selected.
Definite time third stage, working using the components reason of inverse sequence and
direct from the currents.
Third stage, of definite time, which operation depends on the current inverse and direct
sequence components.
Functioning in parallel (full scheme) of the 3 virtual relays.
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Chapter 1 - Introduction
Overload Protection
Trip curves according with the IEC 60255-8 standard, replying the dynamic behaviour of the
evolution of the conductors’ temperature.
1
Calculation of the effect of the pre-overload current on the moment of the function trip.
Alarm levels and reset configurable by the user according the trip level.
Possibility of choosing the protection operation according the average or maximum value of
the image of the calculated temperature for each one of the phases.
Automatic Reclosing
Up to 5 reclosing cycles, with independent parameterizations per cycle.
Fast and slow reclosing, parameterized per cycle.
Circuit-breaker switching monitoring, after opening and closing commands.
Indication of the available definite trip.
Indication of the available definite trip.
Possibility of a trip time definition of fast reclosing, in order to avoid switching actions due to
short-time transients.
Possibility of configuring the specific conditions of start-up through the programmable logic.
Synchronism Checking and Voltage Presence
Possibility of selecting the voltage sign to compare among one of the phase-to-phase or
earth-to-phase voltages.
Independent activation of the closing permission by Synchronism Check (LLLB) and for
Voltage Presence Check (for LLDB, DLLB, DLDB conditions).
Voltage maximum value and thresholds associated to the presence or absence of userregulated voltages.
Independent configurations for manual commands or commands generated by Automatic
Reclosing.
Synchronism conditions detection by checking the amplitude, phase and frequency
differences of the voltage signs.
Stability confirmation time of the configurable synchronism conditions.
Voltage Restoration
Load restoration after the voltage trip.
Associated to the Undervoltage protection.
Possibility of a delay time definition, after the confirmation time of stable voltage.
Possibility of configuring the specific conditions of restoration through the programmable
logic.
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Frequency Restoration
Load restoration after frequency trip.
Associated to the Underfrequency protection.
1
Possibility of definition of a delay time, after the confirmation time of stable frequency.
Possibility of configuring the specific conditions of restoration through the programmable
logic.
Voltage Centralised Restoration
Available only on the version C. It requires the existence of a bus-bar protection unit, TPU
B420.
Interaction with the TPU B420 through the communication network.
Possibility of configuring the specific conditions of restoration through the programmable
logic.
Frequency Centralised Restoration
Available only in version C. It requires the existence of a bus-bar protection unit, TPU B420.
Available only in the version C. It requires the existence of a bus-bar protection unit, TPU
B420.
Interaction with the TPU B420 through the communication network.
Possibility of configuration of the specific conditions of restoration through the
programmable logic.
Logical Trip Lock
High speeding of the reserve Overcurrent protection of the downstream protections.
A specific input is available for logic interlocking.
Fault Locator
Possibility of configuring the function start-up conditions, either for faults eliminated by the
protection itself as by other network protections.
Logging of the fault distance and the associated loop for the last 10 eliminated faults.
Presentation of the distance calculated in ohm, kilometres (or miles) and percentage of the
line total length.
Independent functioning concerning to the Overcurrent Protection.
Circuit-Breaker Failure
Reset supervision of the protection functions after the trip command.
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Trip Circuit Supervision
Specific inputs available for the surveillance of the trip circuit continuity of the circuit-breaker
coil.
Interaction with the Circuit-breaker protection, for its immediate trip in case of detecting
circuit damage after trip of any protection function.
Protections Transfer
Transfer of the opening circuit-breaker command by protection functions operation, in case
of bypass disconnector closing or user command.
Circuit-Breaker Switching Supervision
Circuit-breaker opening and closing times supervision.
Circuit-breaker spring supervision.
Counting of the circuit breaker opening switch actions.
Sum of the square currents switched off by each circuit-breaker pole supervision.
Disconnectors Switching Supervision
Available for a maximum of 6 disconnectors.
Supervision of the disconnector opening and closing times.
Opening switch actions counting for each disconnector.
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1.5. OPERATION PRINCIPLE
TPU S420 presents hardware architecture prepared for the digital processing of the analogue
inputs and for the implementation of several protection algorithms, with the correspondent
actuation by means of binary outputs. The equipment basic internal configuration is shown in
Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1. TPU S420 hardware structure.
The acquisition and analogue/ digital conversion system guarantees the protection galvanic
insulation toward the exterior. It also guarantees the conditioning of the available input signs
concerning the admissible levels by the internal electronics, as well as the filtering and sampling
of signals for subsequent treatment by protection and measurement algorithms. In each input
there a measurement transformer which assures both first aforementioned objectives. For the
current inputs, an additional sampling resistance allows to get an equivalent voltage signal. After
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that there is a low-pass analogue filter dimensioned in order to have the adequate bandwidth
for the protection algorithms.
TPU S420 has 4 current analogue inputs and 4 voltage analogue inputs. Three of the current
inputs are used to phase currents measurements. The fourth current input is intended to the
output residual current measurement, being obtained through the direct connection to a
toroidal transformer or through the Holmgreen assembly, that is, through the sum by hardware
of the phase currents.
The three voltage inputs are intended to phase-to-earth voltages measurement, being the
residual voltage obtained by internal calculation on the TPU S420. The fourth voltage input can
be used to do the surveillance of an extra voltage, for example for logical interlockings.
The different channels are multiplexed and sampled at a frequency of 40 samples per cycle.
Then, a first digital filter that corresponds to the average of each pair of subsequent samples,
from which a 20 sample set per cycle is obtained for the protection and measurement functions,
as well as for the oscillography.
From these samples the fundamental component values from the different channel phasors are
obtained, by using adequate estimation algorithms which remove the other harmonic and
transient components that are present on the signals (Figure 1.2).
From the different sampled phasor values other relevant measures are calculated, be it specific
characteristics of those signs (their amplitude, for example), or measures derived from them,
such as the respective symmetric components, the frequency, the currents, etc. these measures
are calculated regularly to be used in protection and measuring algorithms. They are compared
with thresholds and other characteristics defined by the user and timeouts are set after some of
those conditions are checked.
Figure 1.2. Sampling and filtering of analogue digital signals.
The central processing system is also responsible for the management of other protection
interfaces with the exterior, particularly the digital inputs and outputs and the local and remote
human-machine interface. It is also responsible for the management of several system
resources and of all information obtained.
The digital inputs are sampled every millisecond and submitted to a filtering process to
eliminate transitions due to noise. The digital outputs are changed by certain events internal to
the protection, such as a circuit-breaker opening instruction by some protection function.
The human-machine interface management includes the display and alarms refreshment on the
local interface, the communication by the serial ports and the communication through the local
area network with the SCADA system.
Other executed functions are, for example, the inference of the automation logic as a result of
the performance of the different functions and of the input status, as well as parameters and
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other configurations updating. Finally, the logging of information related to occurred faults and
memory management are also performed.
1
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Chapter
2.
INSTALLATION
This chapter describes the construction, constitution and installation of the TPU S420. It
describes its enclosure, constitution, assembly and connections, as well as the type of these
connections. There is an indication concerning the type of conductors to be used and the
procedures to make all connections properly.
Chapter 2 - Installation
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2.1. PRESENTATION AND DIMENSIONS..................................................................................2-3
2.1.1. Case .............................................................................................................................2-3
2.1.2. Dimensions..................................................................................................................2-7
2.2. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION...........................................................................................2-8
2.2.1. General Description.....................................................................................................2-8
2.2.2. Board Description ........................................................................................................2-9
2.2.3. Configuration of the supply voltage and digital I/O................................................ 2-24
2.3. ASSEMBLY............................................................................................................2-25
2.3.1. Embedded assembly ................................................................................................ 2-25
2.3.2. Assembly in 19’’ rack ............................................................................................... 2-27
2.4. CONNECTIONS......................................................................................................2-29
2.4.1. Connectors description ............................................................................................ 2-31
2.4.2. Description of connector pins.................................................................................. 2-33
2.4.3. Wiring connections diagram .................................................................................... 2-36
2.4.4. Power Supply Connection ........................................................................................ 2-39
2.4.5. Current and voltage connections............................................................................. 2-40
2.4.6. Digital input and output connections ...................................................................... 2-43
2.4.7. Local network connections ...................................................................................... 2-44
2.4.8. Serial ports................................................................................................................ 2-47
2.4.9. Serial port of the Ethernet communication board ................................................... 2-49
Total of pages of the chapter: 49
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2.1. PRESENTATION AND DIMENSIONS
The TPU S420 is presented in a 6U height proprietary case for embedded assembly in case of a
cell or for the assembly in a 19’’ cabinet. This section describes the case and presents its
dimensions.
Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions shall be presented in milimeters.
2.1.1. CASE
The TPU S420 has a proprietary case with a width of about half rack and a height of 6U. It has a
front panel with the local user interface and a back panel with the connectors for interface with
the installation. The case has no openings or slits.
The access to the electronic boards is made through the back of the TPU S420, after the back
panel has been removed which is done by removing the ten screws that fix it to the case of the
TPU S420. Once the panel is removed the electronic boards are accessible and they may vary
from four to seven according to the configuration. These boards have double Eurocard standard
format, and are interconnected by a Backplane type board, which is in the interior.
The complete user interface is located on a board parallel to the front panel which is also
connected to the Backplane board. The front panel, to which is fixed the board containing the
user interface, can be removed after removing the six screws that fix it to the body of the
enclosure.
The removal of the front panel does not allow access to the electronic boards, only to the user
interface. So it should be removed only for maintenance.
Before removing the back lid to access the interior of the TPU S420, all connectors must be
disconnected in order to avoid the risk of electrical shock. This warning is also applicable for the
removal of the front panel (user interface).
Any intervention in the interior of the TPU S420 should be carried out by authorised technical
personnel.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
Figure 2.1., Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3 present respectively the front panel and the back panels of
the TPU S420. The panels are briefly described.
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Front Panel
Figure 2.1. presents the front panel of the TPU S420. The TPU S420 assembly is made by four
screws in the back of the front frame. The front panel is covered by a film of silk screened
polycarbonate where the user interface is located.
This interface is constituted by the graphical display, 8 programmable alarm leds, 2 leds
indicating the operation status of the TPU S420 and of the LAN, as well as 4 leds indicating the
operation modes.
There are 4 navigation keys in the menus, 3 keys for selection and operation of apparatus, 2
keys for selection of Operation Modes and one last key for alarm acknowledgement.
Finally there is a front serial port type DB9 female for local communication with a personal
computer. This communication is dedicated to the WinProt application, which is the interface
software with the TPU S420.
For detailed information on local interface and its use, see Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
Figure 2.1. Front view of the TPU S420.
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Back Panel (version LAN LonWorks)
Figure 2.2 presents the back panel of the TPU S420. It is shown the back connectors
arrangement with their respective identification. Table 2.1 briefly describes the connectors.
Details on the connectors are given in section 2.4 - Connections.
2
Figure 2.2. Back view of the TPU S420 (connectors arrangement).
Table 2.1. Connectors Description.
Connector
Description
Observations
COM1, COM2
Back serial ports
See section 2.4
FO1
Connectors for LAN connection (optical
fibre)
Optional
IO1, IO2
Connections of base I/O board + Power
Supply
See section 2.4
IO3, IO4
Connections of Expansion board 1
Optional, Type I, Type II or Type III
IO5, IO6
Connections of Expansion board 2
Optional, Type I, Type II or Type III
IRIG-B
Digital input of the IRIG-B
synchronization signal
See section 2.4
P1
Power Supply of the Lonworks
communications board
Optional
T1, T2
Current and voltage analogue inputs
See section 2.4
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Back panel (version LAN Ethernet)
Figure 2.3 presents the back panel of the TPU S420. It is shown the back connectors
arrangement with their respective identification. Table 2.2 briefly describes the connectors.
Details on the connectors are given in section 2.4 - Connections.
2
Figure 2.3. Back view of the TPU S420 (connector arrangement).
Table 2.2. Connectors description.
Connector
Description
Observations
COM1, COM2,
COM4
Back serial ports
See section 2.4
FO1, FO2
Connectors for LAN connection (optical
fibre)
Optional
IO1, IO2
Connections of base I/O board + Power
Supply
See section 2.4
IO3, IO4
Connections of the Expansion board 1
Optional, Optional I, Optional II or
Optional III
IO5, IO6
Connections of the Expansion board 2
Optional, Optional I, Optional II or
Optional III
IRIG-B
Digital input of the IRIG-B
synchronization signal
See section 2.4
T1, T2
Current and voltage analogue inputs
See section 2.4
TP1,TP2
Connectors for LAN connection (twisted
pair)
Optional
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2.1.2. DIMENSIONS
2
Figure 2.4. External dimensions and fixation screws of the TPU S420.
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2.2. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
This section describes the hardware that constitutes the TPU S420, and presents the possible
configurations in terms of electronic boards.
2
2.2.1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Figure 2.5. presents a simplified diagram of the constitution of the TPU S420, which shows the
electronic boards. The boards in dotted lines are optional, they can exist or not depending on
hardware configuration.
Figure 2.5. Internal arrangement of the boards.
Its architecture is modular and multiprocessing, three 32-bit processors and one 8-bit
processor are used in order to achieve high performance of the TPU S420. A hard real-time
operating system is used to guarantee the demanding time requirements necessary to its
correct operation. The communication among processors is made by a serial high speed
synchronous bus.
The technology and components used allow meeting and exceeding the electromagnetic
compatibility and security standards applicable. All signals that interface with the installation are
properly isolated from the most sensitive electronics and are physically separated as all
connections to the installation are made in the back of the unit, and the sensitive internal signals
circulate in a Front-Plane that interconnects all boards and is located immediately behind the
local user interface.
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2.2.2. BOARD DESCRIPTION
Front-End Board
This board supports the local interface of the TPU S420. It is associated to the front panel and is
only accessible by the front. It contains the graphical display, all LEDs, keys and the front serial
port. The graphical display has a 240 x 128 pixel resolution and is back lighted by a cold
cathode lamp. The serial port is internally isolated by means of optical isolators for security
reasons and also to avoid mass rings. It allows communications from 4800 up to 19200 baud.
This board should only be accessed for maintenance purposes because it does not have any
accessible configuration.
Front-Plane Board
The Front-Plane board is destined to interconnect the other boards, supplying electrical and
mechanical support to them. It provides different supply voltages necessary to the operation of
the TPU S420, as well as analogue signals, communications among microcontrollers, signals
regarding digital I/O and also the signals for the local user interface. It does not have any
configuration and its access is only possible by fully dismounting the TPU S420.
CT & VT Board
This board houses the current and voltage measurement transformers and/ or measurement
converters. In case of the TPU S420 it has eight measurement transformers, four for current and
four for voltage. The nominal values can be 0.04 A, 0.2 A, 1 A or 5 A for currents, and 100 V,
110 V, 115 V, or 120 V for voltages. There are 3 transformers for phase currents, one for the
fourth current input, and four transformers for voltages measurement of the three phases and
an additional voltage transformer. Associated to this board there is a metal screen to help the
assembly.
The measurement transformers have special structure, based on electromagnetic screen in
order to avoid that exterior disturbances are passed on to the interior of the unit. They also
supply galvanic isolation and allow adjusting the measurements to the internal electronics. This
board also includes the sample resistances of the current transformers.
This board doesn’t include any type of configuration, and their access is possible after removing
the back lid of the TPU S420.
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Figure 2.6. Back view of the CT & VT board of TPU S420 (connector arrangement).
Analogue Acquisition Board (A/D)
This board houses all analogue electronics and analogue-digital converting electronics; it accepts
as inputs the outputs of the measurement transformers the Analogue Inputs board. It houses
eight analogue inputs, the respective low pass analogue filters, analogue multiplexer,
instrumentation amplifier, sample & hold, analogue-digital converter with a 12-bit resolution
and a microcontroller to manage the board and format the samples to send to the processing
board (CPU).
The analogue inputs are sampled at a 2000 Hz frequency and have a band width of 460 Hz. The
samples are then pre-processed, before being sent to the processing board (CPU) every
millisecond. This communication is processed at a rate of 1Mbit/s, in serial format.
This board does not have any configuration and its access is possible after removing the back lid
of the TPU S420.
Communications Board (LonWorks)
This board is optional and has two options: with or without auxiliary power supply. It houses the
Lonworks communication processor as well as the transceiver for the physical media, which can
be optical fibre or twisted pair. The option with auxiliary power supply is mainly destined for the
optical fibre option as it allows the supply of the optical transceiver, keeping the optical ring
closed even when the unit’s supply is off during maintenance.
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This board should be configured according to the type of transceiver used and its access is
possible after removing the back lid of the TPU S420. The configuration details of this board are
presented in Chapter 9 - Maintenance.
2
Figure 2.7. Back view of the LonWorks communications board of TPU S420 (connector
arrangement).
Communications Board (Ethernet)
This board is optional and has two options: Redundant 100BaseTX or Redundant
100BaseTX+100BaseFX. It can house up to four ports for the physical media, two for optical
fibre and two for twisted pair. It accepts SC or ST type connectors for optical fibre, and RJ45 for
twisted pair (UTP or STP, Cat.5).
It contains a 32-bit processing module and associated RAM and FLASH memories for operation
data, settings, firmware, etc. It also has a serial port and another port dedicated to download
firmware and make the diagnosis of the processing module. As an option, this board has
redundancy management, so the processing module constantly monitors the Link information
of the two available ports and in case the selected port becomes inactive switches to the other
port.
This board has several configuration jumpers. Its access is possible after removing the back lid
of the TPU S420. The configuration details of this board are presented in Chapter 9 Maintenance.
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Figure 2.8. Back view of the Ethernet communications board of TPU S420 (connector
arrangement).
Processing Board (CPU)
This board does all the central processing of the TPU S420. It has three 32 bit-precessing
modules and associated RAM and FLASH memories for operation data, settings, firmware, etc.
It also has a serial port dedicated to local interface in the front panel and three ports dedicated to
download firmware and make the diagnosis of the processing modules. There is also a real time
clock for maintenance of date and time. Each micro processor also has battery backed-up RAM
memory as well as a dedicated Watchdog. It also houses two piggy-back type boards for the
serial ports in the back panel (COM1 and COM2).
The processing is distributed by the three processing modules according to the functions to be
performed. The modules are identified as MASTER, SLAVE1 and SLAVE2. All protection functions
as well as the processing of digital inputs and outputs, communication with LAN and local
interface are managed by this board.
It has an IRIG-B time synchronization module, which receives optically isolated synchronization
signals which are later directed to the SLAVE processing module. So the TPU S420 can be
synchronized from the IRIG-B time synchronization signal.
This board has several configuration jumpers. Its access is possible after removing the back lid
of the TPU S420. The configuration details of this board are presented in Chapter 9 Maintenance.
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Figure 2.9. Back view of the processing board (CPU) of the TPU S420 (connector arrangement).
Piggy-back Board for optical fibre interface
This board is mounted in the processing board (CPU) through a male header. The piggy-back’s
own screws, distance pieces and washers should be used.
This board is prepared to support the DNP 3.0 serial protocol, as well as normal communication
with WinProt (only point to point mode). It allows transmission speeds up to 115 Kbaud.
This board presents two operation modes:
Point to point mode (TX PP1→RX PP2, TX PP2→RX PP1)
Ring mode (TX UC→RX PP1, TX PP1→RX PP2, TX PP2→RX PP3,..., TX PPn→RX UC)
Where PP means piggy-back, TX/RX represent the Transmitters or Receivers of PP board number
1, 2 ... n and UC stands for Central Unit (in Portuguese).
All piggy-backs that form the ring in the ring operation mode must be placed so that the ring
works correctly, except the UC which should be in the point to point operation mode.
Galvanic isolation from the exterior signals is supplied for the processing board (CPU) as well as
protection against electrostatic discharges.
This board can be configured and its access is possible after removing the back lid of the
TPU S420. The maintenance aspects of this board are presented in Chapter 9 – Maintenance.
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Piggy-back board for plastic optical fibre interface
The board uses 1mm thick plastic optical fibre and allows communication distances up to 45m.
2
Figure 2.10. Back view of the processing board (CPU) of the TPU S420 with piggy-backs for
plastic optical fibre interface (connector arrangement).
Piggy-back board for glass optical fibre interface
The board uses 62,5 m/125 m thick glass optical fibre and allows communication distances up
to 1700m.
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Figure 2.11. Back view of the processing board (CPU) of the TPU S420 with piggy-backs for glass
optical fibre interface (connector arrangement).
Piggy-back board for RS485 interface
This board is mounted in the processing board (CPU) through a male header. The piggy-back’s
own screws, distance pieces and washers should be used.
This board is prepared to support the DNP 3.0 serial protocol, as well as normal communication
with WinProt. It accepts transmission speeds up to 115 Kbaud.
The communication is made by twisted pair – cable of two twisted conductor wires. 4 pin “male”
Phoenix Combicon connectors are used in the piggy-back.
The piggy-back assures galvanic isolation from the signals as well as protection against
electrostatic discharges. The 485 bus can be shared by a maximum of 32 terminals and the
length of the cable should be less than 1200m.
In situations of high transmission rate or very long 485 bus the option with adjustment
resistance should be configured.
This board can be configured and its access is possible after removing the back lid of the
TPU S420. The maintenance aspects of this board are presented in Chapter 9 - Maintenance.
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Figure 2.12. Back view of the processing board (CPU) of the TPU S420 with piggy-back for
RS485 interface (connector arrangement).
Piggy-back board for RS232 interface
This board is mounted in the processing board (CPU) through a male header. The piggy-back’s
own screws, distance pieces and washers should be used.
This board is prepared to support the DNP 3.0 serial protocol, as well as normal communication
with WinProt. It accepts transmission speeds up to 115 Kbaud and is optically isolated and has
protection against electrostatic discharges.
This board does not have any configuration and its access is possible after removing the back lid
of the TPU S420.
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Figure 2.13. Back view of the processing board (CPU) of the TPU S420 with piggy-back for
RS232 interface (connector arrangement).
I/O Board + Power Supply
This board contains 9 digital inputs, 6 digital outputs (one is used as watchdog and another has
change-over contacts) and the power supply that supplies energy to the TPU S420. There are
several options depending on the range of supply voltage and the operating voltage of the
digital inputs. These options are detailed in section 2.2.3 - Configuration of the supply voltage
and digital I/O , as well as in the Annex A. - Ordering Form.
The power supply is of switching type and generates voltages of +5 V, +24 V and 15 V
respectively for logic, relay digital outputs and the analogue part. It supplies galvanic isolation
and filter from external disturbances. Every input and output is galvanically isolated among each
other with allows any type of cabling. They have high immunity against external disturbances
given by optical isolation and suppression of transient in the digital inputs, by using optical
couplers for the command of output relays, and the use of a separate power supply.
This board does not have any configuration and its access is possible after removing the back lid
of the TPU S420. The maintenance aspects of this board are presented in Chapter 9 Maintenance.
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Figure 2.14. Back view of the I/O Board + Power Supply of the TPU S420 (connector
arrangement).
Expansion 1, Expansion 2 I/O Boards
These two boards are digital inputs/outputs expansion boards and they are optional. There are
four types of expansion boards: Type 1 (9 inputs + 6 outputs), Type II (16 inputs), Type III (15
outputs) and Type IV (32 inputs), according to the number of available inputs and outputs.
Expansion boards Type I have two outputs with change-over contacts, and Type III boards have
six outputs with change-over contacts. Any combination of boards can be made, so it is
possible to obtain several combinations of inputs and outputs up to 41 inputs and 6 outputs
(5+ watchdog), or 9 inputs and 36 outputs (35 + watchdog). These numbers already take into
account the base board. The operating voltages of the digital inputs should be similar to the I/O
Board + Power Supply to guarantee their coherent behaviour. They are detailed in section 2.2.3.
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Figure 2.15. Back view of Expansion Board I of the TPU S420 (connector arrangement).
Every input and output is galvanically isolated among each other which allow any type of cabling.
They also have high immunity against external disturbances given by optical isolation and
suppression of transient in the digital inputs, by using optical couplers for the command of
output relays, and the use of a separate power supply.
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Figure 2.16. Back view of the Expansion Board 2 of the TPU S420 (connector arrangement).
Table 2.3. presents the types of existing boards, and Table 2.4. presents possible configurations
in terms of expansion boards and number of available digital inputs and outputs.
These boards do not have any configuration and their access is possible after removing the back
lid of the TPU S420. However, it is necessary to configure the TPU S420 so that they work
properly (see Chapter 4 - Configuration).). The maintenance of these boards is explained in
Chapter 9 - Maintenance.
Table 2.3. Types of expansion boards.
Type of board
Nº of digital inputs
Nº of digital outputs
I/O Board + Power Supply
9
5 + Watchdog
Expansion Type I
9
6
Expansion Type II
16
--
Expansion Type III
-
15
Inputs/outputs expansion boards must be correctly configured to work properly. The
configuration process is described in Chapter 4 - Configuration. Wrong configuration, besides
causing malfunction in the TPU S420, may cause permanent damage in the expansion boards
and/or processing board.
Any intervention in the interior of the TPU S420 should be carried out by authorised technical
personnel. The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct
operation of the TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
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Table 2.4. Some configurations for I/O boards.
Expansion 1
Expansion 2
Nº of digital inputs
Nº of digital outputs
--
--
9
5 + Watchdog
Expansion Type I
--
18
11 + Watchdog
Expansion Type I
Expansion Type
27
17 + Watchdog
Expansion Type I
Expansion Type II
34
11 + Watchdog
Expansion Type I
Expansion Type III
18
26 + Watchdog
Expansion Type II
--
25
5 + Watchdog
Expansion Type II
Expansion Type I
34
11 + Watchdog
Expansion Type II
Expansion Type II
41
5 + Watchdog
Expansion Type II
Expansion Type III
25
20 + Watchdog
Expansion Type III
-
9
20 + Watchdog
Expansion Type III
Expansion Type I
18
26 + Watchdog
Expansion Type III
Expansion Type II
25
20 + Watchdog
Expansion Type III
Expansion Type III
9
35 + Watchdog
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Placement of the Boards (version LAN LonWorks)
Back view:
2
Figure 2.17. Placement of the boards in the TPU S420 (version LonWorks).
 - (Position 2) Measurement Transformers Board (CT & VT).
 - (Position 12) Board of Analogue Acquisition (A/D).
 - (Position 15) Board of LonWorks Communications.
 - (Position 20) Processing Board (CPU).
 - (Position 25) Base Board of Power Supply and Inputs/Outputs (Power Supply + I/O).
 - (Position 33) Expansion Board 1 (Type I, Type II or Type III).
 - (Position 33) Expansion Board 2 (Type I, Type II or Type III).
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Chapter 2 - Installation
Placement of the Boards (version LAN Ethernet)
Back view:
2
Figure 2.18. Placement of the boards on the TPU S420 (version Ethernet).
 - (Position 2) Measurement Transformers Board (CT & VT).
 - (Position 12) Board of Analogue Acquisition (A/D).
 - (Position 15) Ethernet Board Communications.
 - (Position 20) Processing Board (CPU).
 - (Position 25) Base Board of Power Supply and Inputs/Outputs (Power Supply + I/O).
 - (Position 33) Expansion Board 1 (Type I, Type II or Type III).
 - (Position 33) Expansion Board 2 (Type I, Type II or Type III).
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2.2.3. CONFIGURATION OF THE SUPPLY VOLTAGE
AND DIGITAL
I/O
It is necessary to make sure that the correct options of the operating voltages of the power
supply and of the digital inputs are chosen. Incorrect choice can cause malfunction and even
damage the TPU S420.
See the Ordering Form in Annex A. . A copy of the ordering form is in the back lid of the
TPU S420, in the tag with the EC marking symbol.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420, and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
Ranges of Supply Voltages
Table 2.5 shows two options for the operating ranges of the power supply. For nominal voltages
of 24 V, 48 V and 60 V it is used the option 19 to 72 V d.c., for nominal voltages of 110 V, 125
V, 230 V and 240 V it is used the option 88 to 300 V d.c./ 80 to 265 V a.c.
Table 2.5. Ranges of operating voltages for the power supply.
Nominal voltages
Operating ranges
Consumption
24 V / 48 V / 60 V
19 – 72 V d.c.
12 – 35 W
110 V / 125 V / 230 V /240 V
88 – 300 V d.c.
12 – 35 W
80 – 265 V d.c.
Operating Voltages of Digital Inputs
There are four options for the range of operating voltage of digital inputs in order to adjust their
operation sets to the supply voltage used. The operating voltage must be chosen according to
the nominal voltage in order to assure a high enough operation set to avoid unexpected
operation of the inputs. The ranges and the operation sets are specified in Table 2.6.
Digital inputs will only work properly if a continuous voltage is applied. Make sure the polarity of
digital inputs is correct; otherwise they will not work properly.
Table 2.6. Operating voltages and operation sets of digital inputs.
Nominal
voltages
Operating ranges
Operation set
Consumption
24 V
19 – 138 V d.c.
(19
1,9) V
< 0,05 W (1,5 mA @ 24 V d.c.)
48 V
30 – 120 V d.c.
(30
3) V
< 0,1 W (1,5 mA @ 48 V d.c.)
110/125 V
80 – 220 V d.c.
(80
8) V
< 0,2 W (1,5 mA @ 125 V d.c.)
220/250 V
150 – 300 V d.c.
(150
15) V
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Chapter 2 - Installation
2.3. ASSEMBLY
This section describes the options available to assembly the TPU S420. The TPU S420 can be
embedded in a panel or mounted on a 19’’ rack type cabinet. There is only one model for the
two types of assembly. Instructions and relevant information for each type of assembly are
provided below. Assembly should be permanent, internal and made on a dry place.
The environmental conditions described in Chapter 10 - Technical Specificationsshould be taken
in consideration. Be careful to leave some free space around the TPU S420, to facilitate the air
flow and improve the dissipation of the generated heat.
In case of assembly in cell ports or cabinets, check if there is no interference with other
equipment or structure nearby during opening and closing.
In order to assure safe and efficient operation of the TPU S420, handling, assembly and
installation should be made strictly according to the instructions of this manual.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420, and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
2.3.1. EMBEDDED ASSEMBLY
For embedded assembly it is necessary to cut the panel according to Figure 2.19. The relevant
dimensions are provided to make the assembly. The TPU S420 should be fixed by 4 M4x10
screws.
Choose the location where the TPU S420 will be assembled considering the above
recommendations.
Cut the panel respecting the dimensions indicated in Figure 2.19.
Insert the TPU S420 in the cut area of the panel and screw it to the panel using the four
screws. M4x10 type screws should be used in the front; and M4 washers in the back.
After the TPU S420 is mounted in the panel, earth connection must be immediately made for
security reasons. This connection should be fully functional before any other connection is
made. See details in point 0.
Make the remaining connections in the back of the TPU S420 according to the wiring
connections diagram and to section 0. This section has important information on the type of
connectors, section of conductors, terminals to use, etc.
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Figure 2.19. Cut to make embedded assembly.
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2.3.2. ASSEMBLY IN 19’’ RACK
For assembly in 19’’ rack it is necessary a 7U space to accommodate the TPU S420. Figure 2.20
shows the assembly made with a dedicated front plane, detailed in Figure 2.21 and Figure 2.22).
Choose the location where the TPU S420 will be
recommendations made in the beginning of this section.
assembled
considering the
2
Make the assembly of the 7U front plane as indicated in Figure 2.20. Using 4 or 8 M6x16
screws.
Screw the TPU S420 using the four M4x10 screws.
After the TPU S420 is mounted, earth connection must be immediately made for security
reasons. This connection should be fully functional before any other connection is made. See
details in point 0.
Make the remaining connections in the back of the TPU S420 according to the wiring
connections diagram and to section 2.4. This section has important information on the type
of connectors, section of conductors, terminals to use, etc.
7U FRONT PANEL
Figure 2.20. Assembly in 19’’ rack.
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Figure 2.21. 7U front plane for assembly in 19’’ rack.
Figure 2.22. 7U front plane for assembly in 19’’ rack.
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2.4. CONNECTIONS
The voltages in the connections of the TPU S420 are high enough to present a high risk of
electrical shock. As such, precaution should be taken to avoid situations that may endanger the
physical health of the technical personnel.
Technical personnel should be adequately trained to handle this type of equipment. The
following should be considered:
A solid earth protection connection should be the first to be made, before any other
connections are made;
Any connection may carry dangerous voltages;
Even when the unit’s supply is off, it is possible to have dangerous voltages present.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
Figure 2.23 shows the connectors present in the back of the TPU S420 for LonWorks LAN
version and Figure 2.24. shows the connectors present in the back of the TPU S420 for Ethernet
LAN version.
Figure 2.23. Connectors in the back of the TPU S420 (version LonWorks).
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Figure 2.24. Connectors in the back of the TPU S420 (version Ethernet).
The different connectors are described below.
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2.4.1. CONNECTORS
DESCRIPTION
Connector for current and voltage analogue inputs (T1, T2)
Phoenix HCC 4 – M type connector. It accepts conductors with section from 0,25 mm2 to 4
mm2. The connection is made by screw with the help of a screw driver size 0,6 x 3,5 mm.
Torque: 0,5 – 0,6 Nm. This connector has a retention/removal screw.
Connector for power supply and digital inputs/outputs (IO1...IO6)
Phoenix Front-MSTB type connector, with 18 terminals. Accepts conductors with section from
0,2 mm2 to 2,5 mm2. The connection is made by screw with the help of a screw driver size 0,6 x
3,5 mm. Torque: 0,5 – 0,6 Nm.
Connector for the optional power supply communications board (P1)
Phoenix Front-MSTB type connector, with 6 terminals. Accepts conductors with section from 0,2
mm2 to 2,5 mm2. The connection is made by screw with the help of a screw driver size 0,6 x 3,5
mm. Torque: 0,5 – 0,6 Nm.
Connector for RS232 interface serial port (COM1, COM2, COM3 and COM4)
Sub-miniature 9 pins “D” type connector, female. The signals are EIA-232 standard. See
description of pins and signals in section 2.4.8 - Serial ports.
Connector for RS485 interface serial port (COM1 and COM2)
Phoenix Front-MSTB type connector, with 4 terminals. Accepts conductors with section from 0,2
mm2 to 2,5 mm2. The connection is made by screw with the help of a screw driver size 0,6 x 3,5
mm. Torque: 0,5 – 0,6 Nm. The signals are EIA-485 standard. See description of pins and
signals in section 2.4.8 - Serial ports.
ST Connectors for glass optical fibre serial port (COM1 and COM2)
ST type connector for 62,5 m/125 m thick glass optical fibre, wavelength of 820 nm, type
HFBR-1414 for the Transmitter and type HFBR-2412 for Receiver, both from Agilent, for
distances up to 1700m.
Connectors for plastic optical fibre serial port (COM1 and COM2)
Connector for 1mm thick plastic optical fibre (POF), wavelength of 660 nm, type HFBR-1522 for
Transmitter and type HFBR-1522 for Receiver, both from Agilent, for distances up to 45m.
Connectors for LonWorks local network connection in optical fibre (FO1)
Connection to the LonWorks local area network, using 50/125 m or 62,5/125 m optical fibre.
The existing versions use SMA or ST connectors. See description of pins and signals in section 5
– Local Network Connections.
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Terminal for earth protection connection
Terminal to be fitted by M4 screw, for connection to Earth Protection. This connection is
essential for the correct operation of the TPU S420. It should be solid for security reasons.
ST Connectors for Ethernet local network connection in optical fibre (FO1 and FO2)
Connection to the Ethernet local area network, using the HFBR-5103 ST optical module from
Agilent for 62,5 m/125 m thick glass optical fibre, 2000m maximum length and wavelength of
1300 nm.
SC Connectors for Ethernet local network connection in optical fibre (FO1 and FO2)
Connection to the Ethernet local area network, using the HFBR-5103 SC optical module from
Agilent for 62,5 m/125 m thick glass optical fibre, 2000m maximum length and wavelength of
1300 nm.
Connector for Ethernet local network connection in twisted pair (TP1 and TP2)
Connection to the Ethernet local area network in twisted pair, using RJ45plug of 8 pins for
network connection using UTP or STP, Cat.5. See description of pins and signals in section 5 –
Local Network Connections.
Connector for IRIG-B synchronization signal connection (IRIG-B)
Phoenix Front-MSTB type connector, with 2 terminals. Accepts conductors with section from 0,2
mm2 to 2,5 mm2. The connections is made by screw with the help of a screw driver size 0,6 x
3,5 mm. Torque: 0,5 – 0,6 Nm.
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2.4.2. DESCRIPTION OF CONNECTOR PINS
The sequence of the pins is the same as in the figure and the connectors are presented in the
position they are in the back panel of the TPU S420, when it is in normal vertical position.
Connector for current and voltage analogue inputs (T1, T2)
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Pin
Number
Pin designation (connector T1)
Pin designation (connector T2)
10
N/C
GND
9
N/C
GND
8
Io1
UD1
7
Io2
UD2
6
IA1
UA1
5
IA2
UA2
4
IB1
UB1
3
IB2
UB2
2
IC1
UC1
2
1
IC2
UC2
Connector for power supply and digital inputs/outputs (IO1...IO6)
Pin
Pin designation (connector IO1)
Pin designation (connector IO2)
Number
1
IN1A
GND
2
IN1B
GND
3
IN2A
-VIN
4
IN2B
+VIN
5
IN3A
O1A
6
IN3B
O1B
7
IN4A
O2A
8
IN4B
O2B
9
IN5A
O3A
10
IN5B
O3B
11
IN6A
O4A
12
IN6B
O4B
13
IN7A
O5C
14
IN7B
O5B
15
IN8A
O5A
16
IN8B
WDC
17
IN9A
WDB
18
IN9B
WDA
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Connector for the optional power supply communications board (P1)
Pin
Pin designation (connector P1)
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
2
7
3
8
4
5
9
+VIN
2
-VIN
3
GND
4
GND
5
GND
2
6
GND
Connector for RS232 interface serial port (COM1, COM2, COM3 and COM4)
Pin
Pin designation
Pin designation
Pin designation
Numer
(connector COM1 and
(connector COM3)
(connector COM4)
COM2)
1
6
1
9
9
1
N/C
N/C
N/C
2
RXD
RXD
RXD
3
TXD
TXD
TXD
4
N/C
DTR ( * )
N/C
5
GND
GND
GND
6
N/C
N/C
N/C
7
RTS
RTS
RTS
8
CTS
CTS
CTS
9
N/C
N/C
Connector for RS485 interface serial port (COM1 and COM2)
Pin designation
Pin
1
2
Reserved
Number
3
4
1
+485
2
N/C
3
-485
4
GNDISO
ST Connector for glass optical fibre serial port (COM1 and COM2)
Pin designation
RXD
TXD
RXD
TXD
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Connector for plastic optical fibre serial port (COM1 and COM2)
Pin designation
RXD
TXD
RXD
2
TXD
Connector for Ethernet local network connection in optical fibre (FO1 and FO2)
Pin designation
TXD
TXD
RXD
RXD
Connector for Ethernet local network connection in optical fibre (FO1 and FO2)
Pin designation
TXD
RXD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2
1
TXD
RXD
Connector for Ethernet local network connection in twisted pair (TP1 and TP2)
Pin
Pin designation
Number
1
TD+
2
TD-
3
RD+
4
N/C
5
N/C
6
RD-
7
N/C
8
N/C
Connector for IRIG-B synchronization signal connection (IRIG-B)
Pin
Pin designation
Number
2
-IRIG_B
1
+IRIG_B
( * ) Used only for interface supply.
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2.4.3. WIRING
CONNECTIONS DIAGRAM
Figure 2.25 present the general wiring connections diagrams for TPU S420, It serves as
reference to the next sub-chapters that detail the type of connections and connectors.
2
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Figure 2.25. General wiring connections diagram of the TPU S420, base configuration.
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Figure 2.26. General wiring connections diagram of the TPU S420, expansion modes (optional).
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2.4.4. POWER SUPPLY CONNECTION
According to security regulations a suitable device should be installed to turn on and off the
power supply of TPU S420 that should cut both poles simultaneously.
Protection device against over-currents in both poles of supply should also be installed.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
Earth protection should be directly connected to the earth system using the shortest possible
path. Earth protection symbol is:
A conductor with a minimum section of 4 mm2, preferably of copper braided wire should be
used.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
TPU S420, and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
After connecting the earth protection with a conductor with 4 mm2 minimum section, which
should be the first connection to be made, connect the other earth connections. See relevant
wiring connections diagrams for details and Figure 2.27. . These connections should be made
with 1.5 mm2 section conductor.
The two supply poles, after passing the protection device against over-currents and the switch
device, should be connected to the respective terminals of the IO2 connector, taking polarity into
account. Both poles are fluctuating in regard to earth and have full galvanic isolation.
Supply voltage should be within the acceptable range for the version in question – see the tag in
the back lid of TPU S420. The use of incorrect supply voltage may cause TPU S420 to
malfunction and/or damage.
Figure 2.27. Power supply connections of TPU S420.
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Chapter 2 - Installation
2.4.5. CURRENT AND VOLTAGE CONNECTIONS
The secondary circuits of current transformers must be short-circuited before connecting or
disconnecting the respective terminals in the TPU S420!
If there are test terminals that automatically short circuit the secondary circuits of the current
transformers, they may be put to test position as long as their correct operation has been
previously verified.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
TPU S420and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
It is mandatory to check the nominal values of the analogue current, whether they are AC or DC
inputs before they are put to operation. The nominal values can be checked in the back tag of
the TPU S420 and they can be 0.04 A, 0.2 A, 1 A or 5 A. Incorrect nominal values may cause the
unit to malfunction and/or damage.
The same is applicable to the nominal values of analogue voltage inputs. These values can be
100 V, 110 V, 115 V, or 120 V.
The values of acceptable thermal capacity should also be verified for each of the input nominal
values, both for permanent and short-time values. Subjecting analogue inputs to values higher
than those specified will cause permanent damage to the inputs.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
Current and Voltage Connections
Current and voltage connections are made through T1 connector in the back of TPU S420. Take
in consideration the general wiring connections diagram in Figure 2.25, and the specific wiring
connections diagram in Figure 2.28 or Figure 2.29. Current inputs (AC or DC) are completely
floating and independent, having a high galvanic isolation.
Special care should be taken in handling the current connectors because they are not self shortcircuiting. There should be a way to short-circuit the current circuits before current connectors
are disconnected.
It is necessary to check the correct phase sequence and their polarities. Always check the specific
wiring diagram. Polarity is marked by a small filled circle next to the current transformer
connections.
There are two possible ways of doing the currents connection according with the way the fourth
current input is obtained. It can be obtained directly from a toroidal CT mounted on the line
cable output (Figure 2.28) or, optionally, from the external sum of the three phase currents,
called Holmgreen connection.
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Voltages connections
The voltage connection is made using a T2 connector on the back of the TPU S420. The general
wiring connections diagram of Figure 2.25 must be taken into account as the particular
connections diagram, presented on Figure 2.28. The voltage inputs are completely fluctuating
and independent, and they have high galvanic isolation.
It is necessary to check the correct phase sequence, as well as their polarities. Always check the
connections diagram of Figure 2.28. Together with the voltage transformers, the polarity is
marked by a small filled circle.
The 9th and 10th terminals of the T2 connector should be connected to the earth common point
in the back of TPU S420 (protective earth connection) for a correct unit functioning. It should be
used a conductor of at least 2.5 mm2 of section.
Figure 2.28. Current and Voltage connections diagram (toroid).
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Figure 2.29. Currents and connections diagram (Holmgreen connection).
The change of current or voltage phases causes incorrect measurement of the respective inverse
sequence. The change of phases can be detected by the existence of a non null measure of the
inverse sequence of current (or voltage), similar to the phase currents (or phase voltages), in a
normal situation of three-phase and symmetrical load.
The change of current or voltage polarities causes incorrect measurement of the respective
residual sequence (sum of the three currents or sum of the three voltages). Polarity change can
be detected by the existence of a non null measurement of the sum of the three currents (or
voltages), similar to the phase currents (or phase voltages) in a normal situation of three-phase
and symmetrical load.
Frequency measurement is obtained from the value of the voltages direct sequence. Phases or
polarities voltage changes cause incorrect frequency measurement and can lead to the Over and
Under-frequency protection locking. The phase or polarities change can be detected by the
existence of a null frequency measurement.
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Phases or polarities change, or the non correspondence of current and voltage phases causes
incorrect measurement of active and reactive powers and power factor, as the power counters
and it can lead to incorrect actuations of the Phase and Earth Directional protections.
2.4.6. DIGITAL INPUT AND OUTPUT CONNECTIONS
2
It is necessary to assure the correct polarity of digital inputs, otherwise they will not work. Also
check that the option of operating voltage and operation set is according to the used control
voltage.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
TPU S420 has digital inputs that may vary in number from 9 to 41 depending on the
configuration of digital input/output expansion boards. Inputs have high galvanic isolation and
are completely independent among each other. It is also necessary to make sure that their
operating voltage (and respective operation threshold) is according to the used control voltage.
See Table 2.6. and section 2.2.3 - Configuration of the supply voltage and digital I/O .
Digital outputs may vary in number from 5 to 35 (besides the dedicated watchdog output)
depending on the configuration of input/output boards. See section 2.2.3 - Configuration of the
supply voltage and digital I/O . Output contacts are dry and completely independent among
each other. There are normally opened contacts and of change-over type, as can be seen in the
wiring diagram. See also Figure 2.30 that shows inputs and outputs of a base board.
Figure 2.30 Digital input and output connections of TPU S420 (base board).
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2.4.7. LOCAL NETWORK CONNECTIONS
LonWorks Network Board
TPU S420 can be equipped with a communication board to be connected to a LonWorks
network that can co-exist with other units sharing the same protocol. The physical environment
used is 50/125 m or 62.5/125 m multimode type glass optical fibre. The communication rate
used is 1.25 Mbps, and connectors used are ST type (older equipment can still have SMA type
connectors). Wavelength is 880 nm.
Optical fibre connectors are supplied with protecting covers to avoid dust from entering and
contaminating the optical components. The covers can be easily removed by pushing them out.
As an option, twisted pair can be used. However this option has less immunity against
electromagnetic disturbances.
Auxiliary Power Supply for LonWorks Network Board
When using a communication board with auxiliary power supply there is also a connector to
connect this supply (see Figure 2.25, section 2.4 –Connections). This supply should be separated
from the supply of the TPU S420, as it is destined to avoid the optical ring to open when that
auxiliary power supply is disconnected. Recommendations for these connections are in section
2.4.4 - Power Supply Connection.
Earth connection must be the first made using 2.5 mm2 section conductor. See relevant wiring
diagrams and Figure 2.31. for details. Use only one of the terminals 3,4,5 or 6 of the
P1connector.
The two supply poles (terminals 1 and 2 of the P1connector), after passing by a protection
device against over-currents and by a switch device (that should be independent from that of
the main supply of the TPU S420), should be connected to the respective terminals of the
P1connector, considering their polarity. Both poles are floating in regard to earth and have
complete galvanic isolation.
Supply voltage should be within the acceptable range for the version in question – see the tag in
the back lid of the TPU S420. The use of incorrect supply voltage may cause TPU S420 to
malfunction and/or damage.
Figure 2.31. Power supply connections of the LonWorks network board.
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Power supply terminals and conductors of the LonWorks network board (when there is one)
carry dangerous voltages. Precaution should be taken to avoid situations that may endanger the
physical health of the technical personnel.
Technical personnel should be adequately trained to handle this type of equipment.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
LED and Command Buttons of the LonWorks Network Board
In the back panel of the TPU S420 with LonWorks communication board there are four LED to
signal the status of the connection to the network that are described in Table 2.8., and two
command buttons described in Table 2.7. Both the LED and the command buttons are visible in
the back panel of the TPU S420 with the communication board installed.
Table 2.7. Command buttons of the LonWorks Network Board.
Command Button
Function
SERV
Send Service Pin message
RST
Neuron Chip Reset
Table 2.8. LED of the LonWorks Network Board.
LED
Colour
Function
TPU PWR
Red
TPU S420 with supply
LAN PWR
Red
LonWorks board with supply
RST
Yellow
Indication of Neuron Chip Reset
SERV
Yellow
Indication of Service Pin message sent
Ethernet Network Board
TPU S420 can be equipped with a Fast Ethernet communication board (100Mbps) to be
connected to an Ethernet network, with redundancy management option and with the
possibility to co-exist with other units sharing the same protocols.
The board houses a 32-bit processing module, to which a serial port (COM4) is associated. This
processing module implements the TCP/IP stack.
Redundancy is achieved by the use of two copper or copper + fibre interfaces (2x100BaseTX or
2x100BaseTX+2X100BaseFX) ports. Copper port option uses RJ45 connectors, and UTP or STP
Cat.5 cable.
62.5/125 m or 50/125 m multimode type glass optical fibre is supported as alternative and
type ST (SC by request) connectors are used. Wavelength is 1300 nm, and fibres length should
be up to 2000m.
Optical fibre connectors are supplied with protecting covers to avoid dust from entering and
contaminating the optical components. The covers can be easily removed.
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2
Figure 2.32. Connections of the Ethernet network board.
LED of Ethernet Network Board
In the back panel of the TPU S420 with Ethernet communication board there are several LED to
signal the status of the connection to the Ethernet network, described in Table 2.9. The external
LED is visible in the back panel of the TPU S420 when the communication board is placed in the
enclosure. Internal LED is only visible when the board is removed from the case and serve only
for diagnosis.
Table 2.9. LED of the Ethernet Network Board.
LED
Colour
Transceiver
Indication
Visibility
TX1
Green
TP1, FO1
Transmission of packages
External
RX1
Green
Reception of packages
LNK1
Green
Network connection status (Link)
COL1
Red
Collision of packages
FDX1
Yellow
Full Duplex Mode
Internal
LDEV
Green
TP1 , FO1
Base address decoding for the active
Internal
TP2 , FO2
Base Address Register
TP2, FO2
Transmission of packages
TX2
Green
RX2
Green
Reception of packages
LNK2
Green
Network connection status (Link)
COL2
Red
Collision of packages
FDX2
Yellow
Full Duplex Mode
External
Internal
Initialization of the Ethernet Network Board
When powering the TPU S420 on, the Ethernet communication board will start a sequence of
self-tests to check whether it is ready to start operation.
Self-tests comprise extensive verification of the board’s operation hardware to validate their
good condition before normal operation starts. If there is a failure in the self-tests the process is
restarted.
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2.4.8. SERIAL PORTS
TPU S420 has three serial ports – one front port (COM3) and two back ports (COM1 and COM2).
Every serial port has galvanic isolation and protection against electrostatic discharges. TPU S420
is supplied with protective covers in the three serial ports to protect them from dust and other
environmental agents.
Maximum transmission speed allowed by the TPU S420 is defined by the processing board, and
is 19200 baud for the front port and each of the back ones. In case of doubt or firmware
change, see in menu Communications > Serial Communication > Settings which is the
maximum baud rate supported by the TPU for each serial port.
Front serial port (COM3)
RS232 front serial port is dedicated to communication with WinProt – application running in
Windows, for configuration, setting, data collection and firmware update of the TPU S420.
Back serial ports
Back serial ports can be used for communication with WinProt. They can also be used to
support serial communication protocols. There are three types of communication interface for
back serial ports: RS485, RS232 or optical fibre.
Optical fibre interface (COM1 and COM2)
There are two options in optical fibre, plastic optical fibre (for connections up to 45 m) or glass
optical fibre (for connections up to 2000 m). This type of ports can be used in a point to point or
ring configuration.
Maximum baud rate is 19200 baud. For details on other possible port configuration see
Chapter 9 - Maintenance.
Protective covers for the connectors are supplied to protect them from dust and other
environmental agents.
Figure 2.33. Serial port for optical fibre interface.
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RS485 Interface (COM1 and COM2)
This type of interface is destined to allow the connection of units to a RS485 bus. Maximum
baud rate is 19200 baud. For details on other possible port configuration see Chapter 9 Maintenance. This serial interface has galvanic isolation and immunity against electrostatic
discharges.
Table 2.10. Pin allocation to RS485 serial ports.
TPU S420
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
+485 (1)
+485 (1)
N/C (2)
N/C (2)
-485 (3)
-485 (3)
GND_ISO (4)
Optional (4)
2
Figure 2.34. Serial port for RS485 interface.
RS232 Interface (COM1 and COM2)
Table 2.11 shows pin allocation to the serial port connectors. The cable to be used should be of
“transparent” type, pin by pin. For details on other possible port configuration see Chapter 9 Maintenance.
Table 2.11. Pin allocation to RS232 serial ports.
TPU S420
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
N/C (1)
DCD (1)
RXD (2)
RXD (2)
TXD (3)
TXD (3)
DTR (4) ( * )
DTR (4)
GND (5)
GND (5)
N/C (6)
DSR (6)
RTS (7)
RTS (7)
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CTS (8)
CTS (8)
N/C (9)
RI (9)
( * ) Not used as a communication signal.
2
Figure 2.35. Serial port for RS232 interface.
2.4.9. SERIAL PORT OF THE ETHERNET COMMUNICATION
BOARD
The Ethernet communication board has one RS232 (COM4) serial port located in the back panel
of the TPU S420. A protective cover is supplied to protect the serial port from dust and other
environmental agents.
This port can be used for communication with WinProt. For details on other possible port
configuration see Chapter 9 - Maintenance.
Table 2.12. shows pin allocation to the serial port connector. The cable to use should be
“transparent” type, pin by pin.
Table 2.12. Pin allocation to serial ports.
TPU S420
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
TxD (2)
RxD (2)
RxD (3)
TxD (3)
RTS (7)
RTS (7)
CTS (8)
CTS (8)
GND (5)
GND (5)
Reserved (9)
RI (9)
This back serial port (COM4) does not have galvanic isolation. Precaution should be taken when
using it.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
Ethernet communication board and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
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Chapter
3.
HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE
The information included in this chapter will also allow acquiring the necessary expertise to
change the settings of all protection and automation functions and the configurations of
TPU S420.
After reading this chapter, you will be able to put the TPU S420 in service, check the correct
operation of its functions and analyze the produced information.
Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
TABLE OF CONTENTS
3.1. FRONT PANEL DESCRIPTION........................................................................................3-3
3.2. LOCAL INTERFACE OPERATION ....................................................................................3-5
3.2.1. Start-up .......................................................................................................................3-5
3.2.2. Keys..............................................................................................................................3-7
3.2.3. Local Interface Modes..................................................................................................3-9
3.3. MENUS INTERFACE OPERATION ..................................................................................3-11
3.3.1. Changing the value of a parameter ......................................................................... 3-12
3.3.2. Passwords ................................................................................................................. 3-14
3.3.3. Menus Content ......................................................................................................... 3-16
3.3.4. Other Actions in Menus Interface ............................................................................ 3-28
3.4. OPERATION OF THE SUPERVISION AND COMMAND INTERFACE ............................................3-32
3.4.1. Alarms Page.............................................................................................................. 3-32
3.4.2. Mimic ........................................................................................................................ 3-32
3.5. USE OF WINPROT ..................................................................................................3-37
3.6. WEBPROT USE ......................................................................................................3-42
Total of pages of the chapter: 44
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3.1. FRONT PANEL DESCRIPTION
The front panel of the TPU S420 has the following appearance:
3
Figure 3.1. Front panel appearance when the TPU S420 is not energized.
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The Human-Machine Local Interface of the TPU S420 is constituted by the following elements:
Status LEDs
The ON LED is blinking if the TPU S420 is energized.
The LAN LED indicates the current status of the communications of the TPU S420 with the LAN.
Graphical Display
Depending on the Interface mode the display presents either the mimic and the alarms page or
the TPU S420 menus.
Alarms LEDs
These LEDs are associated with the alarms page. They display the current state of each defined
alarm .
CLR Key
Pressing this key allows the acknowledgment of the active alarms in the alarms page.
Navigation Keys
These keys allow navigation in menus and mimic pages, as well as settings change.
Mode LEDs and Keys
The mode keys allow changing rapidly the Operation Mode of the TPU S420 which is displayed
in the respective LEDs. The operation mode associated with each key is configurable.
Function Keys
The function keys allow the selection of objects existing in the mimic and their control.
Serial Front Port
This port is used to communicate with the interface software: WinProt.
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3.2. LOCAL INTERFACE OPERATION
3.2.1. START-UP
When powering the TPU S420 on, the display will be lighted and the unit will start a sequence of
self-tests to check whether it is ready to start operation.
Self-tests comprise extensive verification of the unit’s operation hardware to validate their good
condition before normal operation starts.
During these tests the watchdog output of the TPU S420 will remain in its inactive state
signalling that the unit is not yet in normal operation.
If there is failure in the self-tests the process is restarted.
These self-tests include:
Tests to the Microprocessors: internal logs, addressing, logical and arithmetical operations;
Tests to the Microprocessors internal RAM;
Tests to the Microprocessors external RAM;
Boot and Normal code validity tests through checksum verification;
Functions settings validity tests through checksum verification.
If the TPU S420 has an Ethernet communications board, the self-tests previously described will
be carried out, not only to the MASTER, SLAVE 1 and SLAVE 2 processors of the processing
board (CPU), but also to the SLAVE 3 processor of the Ethernet communications board. The
following self-tests will be added only related to the Ethernet communication board.
Tests to MAC records
Tests to MAC external RAM
Tests to PHY’s records
Tests of MAC internal loopback
Tests of PHY’s internal loopback
The self-tests last a few seconds. During that time the front panel appearance should be as
shown in Figure 3.2.
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Figure 3.2. Front panel appearance when the TPU S420 is started-up.
The graphical display should show the test message and all LEDs in the front panel should be
permanently on, except for the ON LED that should be blinking.
After completing all self-tests, the TPU S420 will show the factory interface shown in Figure 3.3.
and the watchdog output changes to the active state.
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Figure 3.3. Front panel appearance when the TPU S420 is started-up
3.2.2. KEYS
The keys on the TPU S420 front panel have the following functions:
Supervision and Command Interface
Changes the mimic’s visible page.
Menus Interface
Moves the selection bar up.
Paging up the options lists.
Increase the value of the selected parameter.
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Supervision and Command Interface
Changes the mimic’s visible page.
Menus Interface
Moves the selection bar down.
Paging down the options lists.
Decrease the value of the selected parameter.
Supervision and Command Interface
Goes to the Menus Interface.
3
Menus Interface
Goes to the selected menu;
Starts and ends the process of parameter changing;
Confirms the parameter value change.
Supervision and Command Interface
Goes to the Menus Interface.
Menus Interface
Goes back to the previous menu.
Interrupts the process of parameter changing.
Cancels the parameter value change.
Supervision and Command Interface
Selects objects existing in the visible mimic. Pressing this key several times will sequentially
select all the mimic’s objects possible to be controlled.
Menus Interface
Goes to the Supervision and Command Interface.
Supervision and Command Interface
Executes the order associated with the key 1 for the selected object.
Menus Interface
No function.
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Supervision and Command Interface
Executes the order associated with the key 0 for the selected object.
Menus Interface
No function.
Supervision and Command Interface and Menus Interface
Acknowledges active alarms in the alarms page. If the logical state of the variables in that page is
inactive, the corresponding LEDs will be turned off.
3
Supervision and Command Interface and Menus Interface
Changes the Operation Mode configured in the key F1.
Supervision and Command Interface and Menus Interface
Changes the Operation Mode configured in the key F2.
The interaction with the keyboard has the following particular characteristics:
If two keys are pressed simultaneously, none will be recognized;
If a key is repeatedly and quickly pressed, it will not be recognized;
If you keep pressing one key, the associated action will be repeated.
If the key’s information treatment time is too long, for security reasons the acceptance of
new keys will be inhibited until the previous action is completed.
3.2.3. LOCAL INTERFACE MODES
The Local Interface can operate in two different modes: The Supervision and Command Interface
and the Menus Interface.
In the Supervision and Command Interface it is possible to:
See the descriptives of the alarms page;
See the mimic configured for the TPU S420;
Select and operate on objects existing in the mimic;
Change Operation Modes;
Acknowledge active alarms in the Alarms Page
In the Menus Interface it is possible to:
See the information that the TPU S420 has locally available: Measurements, Chronological
Event Logging, Load Diagrams;
See the information related to the several monitored apparatus;
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Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
Set all the Protection, Automation and Supervision functions in the TPU S420;
Set all the TPU S420 configurations: Measurement Transformers, Inputs and Outputs, Alarms
Page, etc.
Change Operation Modes;
Acknowledge active alarms in the Alarms Page.
3
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3.3. MENUS INTERFACE OPERATION
The TPU S420 has a user-friendly interface, using menus to set its functions.
When you go into the Menus Interface, the display will show the following:
Menu Principal
Medidas
Medida
Registo de Eventos
Localizador de Defeitos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
3
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.4. Menus Interface – Main Menu Appearance.
The Menus Interface is constituted by the following elements:
Menu Principal
Medidas
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Regime de Funcionamento
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Configuração de SCADA
Entradas e Saídas
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Acertar Data e Hora
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Menu Principal
Medidas
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Regime de Funcionamento
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Configuração de SCADA
Entradas e Saídas
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Acertar Data e Hora
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Menu Principal
Medidas
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Regime de Funcionamento
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Configuração de SCADA
Entradas e Saídas
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Acertar Data e Hora
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Menu Principal
Medidas
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Regime de Funcionamento
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Configuração de SCADA
Entradas e Saídas
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Acertar Data e Hora
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Menu Identification
The first display line shows the identification of the current menu and provides the user with a
reference when navigating through the menus.
Menu Content
Lines 3 to 14 present the several objects that constitute the menu. These objects may be other
menus, function settings, measurements,…
Instructions
This line presents the possible actions the user can perform in the current menu.
Selection Bar
Corresponds to the menu line with the colour inverted regarding the remaining display
Selection bar identifies which object is accessed when pressing the
key.
The interaction with the Menus Interface only uses the 4 navigation keys and thus is very easy to
use.
and
keys allow moving the selection bar to the item to be accessed. There are menus
constituted by several pages. So when reaching the first or final line in the menu content, it is
possible to respectively go to the previous page or to the next page.
When pressing the
key, access is given to the selected menu. The
back to the previous menu.
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Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
3.3.1. CHANGING THE VALUE OF
A PARAMETER
To change a parameter, do as follows
Access the Menus Interface
Menu Principal
using the keys
Medidas
Medida
Registo de Eventos
Localizador de Defeitos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
or
.
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Access the menu with the
parameter to be changed
using the keys
,
and
.
Menu Principal
Medida
Registo de Eventos
Localizador de Defeitos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Transformadores de Medida
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Place the selection bar on the
parameter to be changed with
the keys
press the
and
key.
and
Parâmetros
I1N/I2N TI
I1N/I2N TI
U1N/U2N TT
Atribuição
U1N/U2N TT
Fases: 100.000
Neutro: 100.000
Fases: 100.000
TT 4: TENSÃO RESIDUAL
4: 100.000
¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar
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In case the selected parameter
is part of a password
protected function, it is
necessary to enter it.
Inserir
Password
Scada:§000000
Scada:§
000000
Insira
Password
Antiga:§000000
_
The complete process of entering
password is described in 3.3.2.
¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar
Press
to start the
parameter change. The line
with the selected parameter
will blink and the value can
then be changed using the
keys
and
I1N/I2N TI
I1N/I2N TI
U1N/U2N TT
Atribuição
U1N/U2N TT
3
Fases: 100.000
Neutro: 100.000
Fases: 100.000
TT 4: TENSÃO RESIDUAL
4: 100.000
. At any
time you can press
or
Parâmetros
to end
to cancel the change.
¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar
Parâmetros
I1N/I2N TI
I1N/I2N TI
U1N/U2N TT
Atribuição
U1N/U2N TT
Fases: 100.000
Neutro: 100.000
Fases: 200.000
100.000
TT 4: TENSÃO RESIDUAL
4: 100.000
¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar
After confirming the change
Parâmetros
press
key until the
message
with
the
confirmation request is shown
in the display.
CONFIRMAR ALTERAÇÕES ?
Press
to cancel.
to confirm or
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.5. Parameters change process.
Whenever the parameter of a function is changed, the TPU S420 makes a confirmation request
to the user in order to validate the changes. If this confirmation request is not accepted, that is, if
the changes are not confirmed, the parameters resume their original values.
During the change of parameters the functions that use those parameters continue to use the
most recent group of valid data. When the new parameters are confirmed, the functions start to
use them as soon as they are able to make that update.
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3.3.2. PASSWORDS
In the security philosophy adopted for the TPU S420 settings any user can see all the
information. However the change of values depends on entering the correct password.
The TPU S420 has three security levels to which three default factory defined passwords are
associated:
Protections Password: 000000. Entering this password is necessary to change the settings
of the TPU S420 protection functions.
Scada Password: 000001. Entering this password is necessary to change the settings of the
automation and supervision functions, as well as the TPU S420 configurations.
System Password: 097531. After entering this password, a new item will appear in the
Main Menu: System Menu. The contents and use of this menu are described in Chapter 7 Operation.
Enter a Password
To enter a password the procedure is as follows:
Access the Enter Password
menu and press
.
Menu Principal
Informações
Inserir Password
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Change each number by
pressing the
,
keys
confirming each one with the
Menu Principal
Informações
Inserir
Acertar Password:§000000
Data e Hora
0
key.
¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.6. Entering password process.
Change a Password
To change a password do as follows:
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Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
Enter the password to be
changed as described above.
Menu Principal
Informações
Inserir
Acertar Password:§000000
Data e Hora
0
¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar
After entering the password a
new item will appear in the
main
men:
Change
Password. Select this item
and press
Menu Principal
3
Informações
Inserir Password
Alterar Password
.
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Select the password to be
changed with the selection
bar and press
.
Alterar Password
Password Protecções
Password Scada
Password Sistema
Note: This menu presents only the
previously entered passwords.
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Enter the old password first
changing each number with
the
,
Password Protecções
Insira Password
Inserir
PasswordAntiga:§000000
Antiga:§000000
_0
keys validating
one by one with the
key.
¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar
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Finally
enter
the
new
password in the same way as
before.
Password Protecções
Insira Password Antiga: ******
0
Insira Nova Password:§000000
After confirming the last number,
the new password will be
immediately active.
¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.7. Password changing process
3
3.3.3. MENUS CONTENT
The TPU S420 is equipped with a user-friendly configuration interface using menus. In order to
simplify the use of these menus, all the groups of parameters and information are divided by
function.
When accessing the Menus Interface, the Main Menu will be shown. The content of this menu is
longer than one page; it is therefore necessary to move to the next page to access the full
content.
This menu allows accessing all other menus through the respective items.
Menu Principal
Medida
Registo de Eventos
Localizador de Defeitos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Menu Principal
Linha
Acertar Data e Hora
Informações
Inserir Password
Alterar Password
Menu Sistema
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.8. Main Menu.
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Measurements
The Measurements menu allows accessing the TPU S420 analogue measurements, not only
those directly available in the analogue inputs, but also those internally calculated. It also allows
resetting the maximum values of the phase currents.
Medida
Medida
Aceder Medidas
Limpar Contador de Energia
Limpar Contador de Energia
Limpar Contador de Energia
Limpar Contador de Energia
Limpar Registo de Potência
Limpar Registo de Corrente
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
Emitida
Reac Emitida
Recebida
Reac Recebida
Máxima
Máxima
3
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.9. Measurements Menu.
To see the measurements values in real time it is necessary to go to the Access Measurements
sub-menu.
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Medida
Aceder Medidas
Aceder Medidas
Corrente IA
Corrente IB
Corrente IC
Corrente Inversa
Corrente IN Soma
Corrente IN
Tensão UA
Tensão UB
Tensão UC
Tensão Inversa
Tensão UN
Tensão UAB
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
A
A
A
A
A
A
kV
kV
kV
kV
kV
kV
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Aceder Medidas
Tensão UBC
Tensão UCA
Frequência
Pot Activa
Pot Reactiva
Factor Potência
E Activa Emitida
E Reac Emitida
E Activa Recebida
E Reac REcebida
Tensão UN
Tensão U4
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.000 kV
0.000 kV
0.000 Hz
0.000 kW
0.000 kVAr
1.000 ind
0.0000000 MWh
0.0000000 MVArh
0.0000000 MWh
0.0000000 MVArh
0.000 kV
0.000 kV
3
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Aceder Medidas
Frequência U4
Dif Tensão
Dif Frequência
Dif Fase
Temperatura Fase A
Temperatura Fase B
Temperatura Fase C
Temperatura Média
Temperatura Máxima
Medida Genérica 1
Medida Genérica 2
Medida Genérica 3
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.000 Hz
0.000 kV
0.000 Hz
0.000º
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.000
0.000
0.000
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Aceder Medidas
Medida Genérica
Medida Genérica
Medida Genérica
Medida Genérica
Medida Genérica
Pot Máxima
Corrente Máxima
4
= 0.000
5
= 0.000
6
= 0.000
7
= 0.000
8
= 0.000
= 0.00000 MW 15-07 05:19
= 0.00000 kA 15-07 04:33
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Figure 3.10. Access Measurements Menu.
This menu has several pages due to the high quantity of measurements available in the
TPU S420. To change page press
and
keys.
To reset the maximum values of the phase currents recorded by the TPU S420, it is necessary to
select the chosen item and give the reset command as described in 3.3.4.
Event Logging
The events logged during the TPU S420 operation are associated with state changes of the
automation logic gates.
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Registo de Eventos
Registo de Eventos
Ver Registo de Eventos
Limpar Registo de Eventos
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.11. Event Logging Menu.
3
To see the local event logging it is necessary to access the See Event Logging menu.
Registo de Eventos
Ver Registo de Eventos
Ver Registo de Eventos
-2003-03-18 16:08:26,772
Desligação Protecção
-2003-03-18 16:08:32,000
Ligação Protecção
-2003-03-18 16:08:32,003
Lógica Transform Medida
-2003-03-18 16:08:32,004
Lógica Hora Local
-2003-03-18 16:08:32,014
Entrada Genérica 16
-2003-03-18 16:08:32,039
Saída Genérica 13
- 0->1
- 0->1
- Alteração
- Alteração
- 0->1
- 0->1
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Figure 3.12. See Event Logging Menu.
Since the size of these logs is normally high, only the 256 most recent events are shown in the
Local Interface.
Each event has the following information:
Event occurrence date with 1 millisecond resolution;
Event description;
Description of the change occurred.
The events are ordered by ascending chronological order. To navigate through the various
pages use
and
keys.
Fault Locator
The TPU S420 has a fault locator automation. The last 10 logged faults can be seen in this
menu.
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Localizador Defeitos
Localizador Defeitos
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
Informações
Limpar Informações
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.13. Fault Locator Menu.
3
To see the logged faults it is necessary to access the Information->Fault x menu.
Localizador Defeitos
Informações
Defeito 1
Defeito 1
Data Defeito: 2001-01-01 00:00:00,000
Validade: INVÁLIDO
Loop Defeito: INDISPONIVEL
Distância Defeito = 0.000%
Distância Defeito = 0.000 km
Distância Defeito = 0.000 milha
Resist secundário = 0.000 ohm
Resist primário
= 0.000 ohm
React secundário = 0.000 ohm
React primário
= 0.000 ohm
Resist Defeito
= 0.000 ohm
Desvio padrão
= 0.000 ohm
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.14. Fault 1 Menu.
Load Diagram
The TPU S420 logs the evolution of the most interesting analogue measurements.
Diagrama de Carga
Diagrama de Carga
Diagrama P
Diagrama Q
Limpar Diagramas de Carga
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mudar página; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.15. Load Diagram Menu.
To see a load diagram it is necessary to access the Load Diagram menu and choose one of the
logged measurements.
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Diagrama de Carga
Diagrama P
Diagrama P
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
10:30
10:45
11:00
11:15
11:30
11:45
12:00
12:15
12:30
12:45
13:00
13:15
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.001
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Figure 3.16. Power Diagram Menu.
3
For each one of the measurements average values of 15 minutes are logged. In the Menu
Interface it is possible to see the logs of the last 24 hours.
Each recorded event value has the following information:
Date when the value was calculated with 1 minute resolution;
Measurement average value;
Measurement unit.
The recorded average values are ordered in ascending chronological order. To navigate through
the various pages use the
and
keys.
Apparatus Supervision
The TPU S420 can supervise a great number of control and manoeuvre apparatus.
To see the information about one apparatus it is necessary to access the Apparatus
Supervision menu and choose one of the available apparatus.
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Disjuntor
Seccionador
Seccionador
Seccionador
Seccionador
Seccionador
Seccionador
Terra
Isolamento
Bypass
Barras
Barras 1
Barras 2
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.17. Apparatus Supervision Menu.
When accessing the menu associated with the supervision of a circuit breaker, the following
menu will be shown:
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Supervisão de Aparelhos
Disjuntor
Disjuntor
Parâmetros
Informações
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.18. Circuit Breaker Supervision Menu.
3
In this menu it is possible to access the configuration menus of the various sets - Set 1 to Set 4
of the supervision function, choose the active scenario by using the Set Configuration item and
see the available information for this apparatus.
For circuit breakers the available information is:
Number of opening manoeuvres;
Sum of the square current cut, by phase;
State of maximum square current cut alarm.
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Disjuntor
Informações
Informações
Manobras Disjuntor = 0
Disparos Disjuntor = 0
I Cort A Disjuntor = 0.000
I Cort B Disjuntor = 0.000
I Cort C Disjuntor = 0.000
Soma I² A Disjuntor = 0.000
Soma I² B Disjuntor = 0.000
Soma I² C Disjuntor = 0.000
Estado Alarme Manobras: OFF
Estado Alarme I²: OFF
Limpar Informações
kA
kA
kA
kA²
kA²
kA²
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.19. Information Menu (Circuit Breaker).
In the Delete Information item the user can delete the various logs saved by the TPU by
selecting the chosen item and executing the corresponding order.
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Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Disjuntor
Informações
Limpar Informações
Limpar Informações
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Número de Manobras
Número de Disparos
I Cortada Fase A
I Cortada Fase B
I Cortada Fase C
Soma I² Fase A
Soma I² Fase B
Soma I² Fase C
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
3
Figure 3.20. Delete Information Menu (Circuit Breaker).
When accessing the menu associated with the supervision of a disconnector, the following menu
will be shown.
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Seccionador Isolamento
Seccionador Isolamento
Parâmetros
Informações
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.21. Insulation Disconnector Supervision Menu.
The content and available functions in this menu are similar to the circuit breaker supervision
menu.
For disconnectors the available information is:
Number of opening manoeuvres.
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Seccionador Isolamento
Informações
Informações
Manobras Secc Isol = 0
Estado Alarme Manobras: OFF
Limpar Informações
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.22. Information Menu (Insulation Disconnector).
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When accessing the Delete Information item, the user can delete the recorded number of
opening manoeuvres for this disconnector.
Operation Modes
The Operation Modes menu allows seeing and setting the Operation Modes of the TPU S420.
Protection Functions
This menu shows all the protection functions available in the TPU S420. Its content depends on
the unit’s ordering form.
3
Funções de Protecção
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Corrente de Fases
Máximo de Corrente de Fases 2ª
Máximo de Corrente de Terra
Máximo de Corrente de Terra 2ª
Terras Resistentes
Direccional de Fases
Direccional de Terra
Sequência Inversa
Máximo de Tensão de Fases
Máximo de Tensão de Terra
Mínimo de Tensão de Fases
Frequência
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Funções de Protecção
Sobrecargas
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.23. Protection Functions Menu.
For each function there is a configuration menu:
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Corrente de Fases
Máximo de Corrente de Fases
Cenário 1
Cenário 2
Cenário 3
Cenário 4
Configuração Cenário
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.24. Phase Overcurrent Protection Menu.
This menu allows accessing the setting menus of the various protection function sets - Set 1 to
4 and choosing the active scenario by using the Set Configuration item.
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Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
Automation
This menu shows all the automation functions available in the TPU S420.
Automatismos
Automatismos
Religação
Verificação de Sincronismo
Deslastre/Reposição de Tensão
Deslastre/Reposição de Frequência
Transferência de Protecções
3
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.25. Automation Menu.
For each function there is a setting menu:
Automatismos
Transferência de Protecções
Transferência de Protecções
Cenário 1
Cenário 2
Cenário 3
Cenário 4
Configuração Cenário
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.26. Protection Trip Transfer Menu.
This menu allows accessing the configuration menus of the various automation function sets Set 1 to 4 and choosing the active scenario by using the Set Configuration item.
Inputs and Outputs
The Inputs and Outputs menu allows accessing the configuration of all digital inputs and
outputs boards of the TPU S420. It also allows configuring the complementary time between
double inputs. It is also possible to see the inputs state.
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Entradas e Saídas
Entradas e Saídas
Carta I/O Base
Carta I/O Expansão 1
Carta I/O Expansão 2
Entradas Duplas
Estado das Entradas
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.27. Inputs and Outputs Menu.
3
Communications
In this menu are available the unit’s communications configurations, including the configuration
of the communication protocol with the SCADA system and the configuration of the serial ports.
Its content depends on the unit’s ordering form.
Comunicações
Comunicações
Comunicação Série
Ethernet
IEC104
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.28. Communications Menu.
Human-Machine Interface
In this menu are available the configuration of the alarms page presented in the Supervision and
Command Interface and also the visualization configurations of the TPU S420 graphical display.
Interface Homem-Máquina
Interface Homem-Máquina
Alarmes
Display
Oscilografia
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.29. Human-Machine Interface Menu.
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Measurement Transformers
This menu allows configuring the ratios of the measurement transformers connected to the
analogue inputs of the TPU S420.
Line
This menu allows changing the Line parameters. These parameters are necessary for the
operation of the fault locator.
Set Date and Time
The Set Date and Time menu allows seeing and setting the TPU S420 current date and time
and also accessing the winter time/summer time change configuration menu.
Acertar Data e Hora
Acertar Data e Hora
Data :
2003-03-14
Hora :
19:45:06
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.30. Set Date and Time Menu.
Information
The Information menu allows seeing the firmware definitions of the TPU S420.
The information presented in this menu should be according to the TPU S420 ordering form and
to the identification tag in the back panel. The serial number should also be the same as that
presented in the box.
Informações
Informações
Versão Firmware
Número de Série: 97531
Equipamento: TPU S420-Ed1-S-5A-5A-120V50Hz-D-1-1-ETH4-PT
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.31. Information Menu.
The available information is:
Type of Equipment;
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Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
Firmware serial number;
Nominal values of the TPU S420 and number of available elements. For example: the item CT
Phase: 1.00 (3) indicates that the unit has Current Transformers associated with the phases,
with nominal current of 5 A, in number of 3.
The firmware version of all the TPU S420 microcontrollers can be seen when accessing the
item Firmware Version and selecting the chosen microcontroller. All the versions of BOOT
and NORMAL codes should be the same in all microcontrollers, for each of the type.
Enter Password
By selecting this item and pressing
described in 3.3.2.
key the password entering process will be started as
Change Password
This item is only shown in the menu when a valid password is entered. The Change Password
menu allows configuring passwords according to the process described in 3.3.2.
System Menu
This item is only shown in the menu when the System Password is entered. This menu provides
some special actions which are fully described in Chapter 7 - Operation.
3.3.4. OTHER A CTIONS IN MENUS INTERFACE
Apart from configurations and password entering, the Menus Interface allows performing other
actions in the TPU. An example is deleting the records of maximum values of analogue
measurements or deleting the Chronological Event Logging presented in the Menus Interface.
As in configuration confirmation, whenever the user wants to execute an action available in the
Menus Interface, the TPU S420 makes a confirmation request to the user so that the action is
confirmed. If that confirmation request is not accepted, the TPU will execute no action and
shows the previous menu again.
To illustrate the performance of this type of actions, the procedure for deleting the most recent
Chronological Event Logging is presented:
Access the menu where the
chosen action is by using the
,
and
keys.
Menu Principal
Medida
Registo de Eventos
Localizador de Defeitos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
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Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
Place the selection bar on the
Registo de Eventos
chosen item with
Ver Registo de Eventos
Limpar Registo de Eventos
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
, and press the
and
key.
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
In case the selected action is
protected by a password, it is
necessary to enter it.
3
Inserir
Password
Scada:§000000
Scada:§
000000
Insira
Password
Antiga:§000000
_
The complete process of entering
a password is described in 3.3.2.
¤/¥ alterar; E aceitar; C cancelar
Press
action or
Limpar Registo de Eventos
to confirm the
CARREGUE ENTER PARA LIMPAR !
to cancel.
¤/¥ mudar página; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.32. Command execution process.
Another possible action in the Menus Interface is to change the date and time of the unit. The
procedure to change the date is as follows.
Access the menu Set Date
Menu Principal
and Time and press
Linha
Acertar Data e Hora
Informações
Inserir Password
.
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
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Place the selection bar on the
Acertar Data e Hora
item Date with
Data:§2003-03-14
2003
Hora: 20:27:09
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
and
and press
key. The part
of the date corresponding to
the year starts blinking and
the value can be changed
using
and
any time
keys. At
can be pressed
to end or
change.
to cancel the
When pressing
the part
of the date corresponding to
the month starts blinking and
the value can be changed
using
and
any time
to end or
change.
time
end or
change.
3
Acertar Data e Hora
Data:§2003-03-14
03
Hora: 20:27:09
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
keys. At
can be pressed
to cancel the
When pressing
the part
of the date corresponding to
the day starts blinking and the
value can be changed using
and
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Acertar Data e Hora
Data:§2003-03-14
14
Hora: 20:27:09
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
keys. At any
can be pressed to
to cancel the
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Acertar Data e Hora
When you press
protection date will change.
the
Data:
2003-03-14
Data:§2003-03-14
Hora: 20:27:09
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 3.33. Date Change Process.
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The procedure is similar in case of time change and it is necessary to change the hour, minutes
and seconds.
3
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3.4. OPERATION OF THE SUPERVISION AND
COMMAND INTERFACE
The Supervision and Command Interface is constituted by two elements:
The Alarms Page, formed by the alarm LEDs and associated identification descriptions,
shown in the graphical display;
The Mimic, shown in the graphical display allows: the graphical representation of the bay
configuration to which the TPU S420 is associated, the state of the apparatus and also the
definition of objects for simplified access to TPU S420 functions and configurations.
The Supervision and Command Interface is the default TPU S420 interface. After some time
without pressing any key the TPU S420 will automatically switch to this interface and at the same
time turns off the lighting lamp of the graphical display.
To access the Supervision and Command Interface from the Menus Interface press the
key.
The switch to the Supervision and Command Interface can be done from any menu. When the
interface switch occurs, the TPU S420 records in which menu or mimic page it was; and if the
user decides to go back to the same interface the TPU S420 will show the recorded menu or
mimic page.
3.4.1. ALARMS PAGE
The alarms page is constituted by 8 LEDs to which logical variables can be associated. These
variables reflect events occurring during the TPU S420 operation.
These events may be protection functions start or tripping, current automation state,
interlockings state, etc. Annex E. - Alarm Options table presents all possible configurations for
the LEDs in the alarms page.
The descriptions corresponding to the logical signalling associated with each alarm are shown in
the graphical display and allow a quick view of its meaning.
The alarms page configuration and operation process is described in Chapter 7 - Operation.
3.4.2. MIMIC
Up to two pages with mimics can be defined. The choice of which page is shown in the graphical
display is made through the keys and the TPU S420 shows the Supervision and Command
Interface.
The mimic configuration can only be done by using the WinProt program namely the WinMimic
module.
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Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
The use of the mimic described next is based on an example mimic. It can be easily configured
by the user with the help of the library that comes with the installation program and by reading
the WinProt User’s Manual.
After sending the mimic to the TPU S420 the Supervision and Command Interface will have the
following appearance:
3
1234567890123456789012345678901234567890
Figure 3.34. Appearance of the display with the sample mimic.
In this example every object that constitutes the mimic can be identified:
Static Object
This object normally corresponds to the single phase diagram of the bay to which the TPU S420
is associated with. Interaction with this object is not possible.
Apparatus Object
The objects of the apparatus type can be used to monitor the state of apparatus or other
TPU S420 internal logical signalling. According to the configuration their state can be dynamic,
where representation varies according to the current state of the logical signalling associated
with them. With the correct configuration they can also have associated actions carried out by
pressing the
and
keys.
Command Object
The main function of these objects is to change the state of logical interlocks. With the correct
configuration they can also have associated actions carried out by pressing the
keys.
and
Parameter Object
The use of the Parameter type objects may have two options. The visualizing mode allows
displaying in the Supervision and Command Interface the value of any parameter of the
protection and automation functions or configuration of the TPU S420. In the Change mode it is
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possible to change the settings of any function into pre-defined values by pressing
and
.
Measurement Object
All analogue measurements available in the TPU S420 can be seen in the Supervision and
Command Interface.
0.000
Similarly the apparatus manoeuvres counters can be displayed in the mimic for a quick view.
Measurements and counters are automatically updated in the same way as for the
Measurements Menu in the Menus Interface. The value is updated whenever the change is
higher than the precision guaranteed by the TPU S420 for that measurement.
Interaction with this object is not possible.
Information Line
In the lower line of the Supervision and Command Interface the following information is shown:
1234567890123456789012345678901234567890
Description of the selected objects according to the configuration made with WinMimic;
Information about the actions executed with
and
keys.
Selecting an object
To act on an existing object in the mimic first it is necessary to select it. This can be done by
pressing
as described next.
The first time
Key is pressed,
it will select the first apparatus or
command existing in the current
mimic page. The circuit breaker is
the given example.
When an apparatus is selected, the
area occupied by the corresponding
figure will be represented in inverted
colour.
In the information line the apparatus
description will be shown.
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Chapter 3 - Human Machine Interface
When
key is pressed again
the next object or command in
the current mimic page will be
selected.
All the apparatus and commands of
the current mimic page will be
selected when the key is repeatedly
pressed.
The information line will display the
descriptions corresponding to each
one of them.
3
.
.
.
Figure 3.35. Use of SEL key
There are some particular characteristics in the process of selecting objects in the mimic:
When the last object of the current page is selected, this selection will disappear if
pressed again.
is
Selection will also disappear if:
1.1.
or
keys are pressed;
1.2. The mimic visible page is changed by pressing
1.3.
or
or
keys;
keys are pressed to go to the Menus Interface.
The selection is always cyclical, that is, it will always start in the same object and end in
another one defined in the current page.
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Act on an object
To act on an object
and
keys are used. The action depends on the type of object.
In the case of an Apparatus object with each key is associated the sending of a logical pulse to
an automation logic gate (0->1->0 transition) according to the configuration made with
WinMimic.
For the Command object there is no difference between keys
and
for any state. When
the object is selected by pressing any of these keys, the signalling (0->1 or 1->0) associated
with that state, is sent.
When the user decides to send the order it might be blocked, according to the object
configuration. In that case the order will not be sent. The message Blocked Command will be
shown in the information line!!
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3.5. USE OF WINPROT
The use of the TPU S420 interface application WinProt is the most user-friendly process to
execute all TPU S420 setting and configuration actions, as well as to see all logs produced by it.
3
WinProt can carry out all actions available in the local Human-Machine Interface as well as other
operations, such as:
Configure the automation logic;
Edit the descriptions associated with all logical variables;
Simulate the protection operation;
Draw the mimic;
Upload and see all Chronological Event Logging stored in the TPU;
Upload and see the logged oscillographies ;
Upload and see the load diagrams in graphical format;
Perform commissioning tests;
Update the firmware.
To use WinProt with TPU S420 some previous procedures are necessary to collect information
about the unit for the WinProt database so that all its functions can be used.
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Follow the next instructions step by step to update all necessary information about the TPU S420
to the WinProt database. From that moment on the user can configure the various TPU
functions and see the information produced by it.
Start WinProt
WinProt.exe
After installing the WinProt program, access the Windows Start menu and press Programs ->
WinProt 4 -> WinProt 4.
The user identification and password will be asked for when the program is started. Appropriate
user id and password must be entered to have access to the desired permissions.
3
Communications
The most common serial communication with the TPU S420 is established by using a serial
cable commonly called “transparent” or “direct” which is equipped with a male DB9 type plug at
one end and a female DB9 type plug at the other; this plug is connected to the COM3 connector
of the front panel.
The back serial ports can also be used as long as they are not occupied with specific
communication protocols, such as DNP3.0. Those ports can be RS232, RS485 or plastic or glass
optical fibre type. Communication with WinProt is established in RS232 so in other cases it is
necessary to use converters for connection to the PC.
If the TPU S420 has an Ethernet communication board, it will also be able to communicate with
WinProt through TCP/IP or through the Ethernet board serial port.
In the WinProt program menu click Communication -> Configure Communication ->
Substation -> TPU x420 and choose one of the following communication types:
Serial Port: Used for serial protocol communication. For this communication interface the
address, port, transmission rate, data bits, end bits and parity must be configured.
DNP3.0: Used in DNP3.0 protocol communication. For this communication interface the
TPU and the Central Unit (CU) addresses must be configured. The local IP can be directly
inserted.
Lonworks: Used to configure the communication with the Lonworks local network. For this
communication interface the Location String and the CU addresses must be configured. The
local IP can be directly inserted.
TCP/IP Used to configure the communication with Ethernet local network. For this
communication interface the CU address must be configured.
Add the TPU S420 to the database
In the WinProt main window click the Tools link for database management. The unit’s
management module of the WinProt database will be started.
Click Add Unit.
In the window Add Unit click Upload from Protection. The program shall receive the
information from the TPU S420 and fill in all the window fields except for the Protection
Description one.
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In the Protection Description field insert the name to be used as the TPU identification in the
database. For example: EXAMPLE TPU S420.
Click Add so that the information can be stored in the database.
Click OK to exit Database Management.
Logical Configuration and SOE Descriptions
Press the logical edition module link in the WinProt main window. The WinLogic module will be
started. This module allows configuring the automation logic and the descriptives of the
Chronological Event Logging.
Select the TPU S420 EXAMPLE unit from the units list.
Press
3
button in the taskbar to receive the list of all the TPU’s logical modules.
Associated with the chosen unit the list of all TPU logic modules shall appear.
Select again TPU S420 EXAMPLE unit from the units list and press
.
In the communication window choose Modules, Select All and Ok successively. From this
moment on WinLogic will update the database with all automation logic and SOE
descriptions existing in the TPU.
Functions Parameters
In the WinProt main window press the settings module link. The WinSettings module will be
started. This module allows configuring the parameters of the protection and automation
functions and the TPU S420 configurations.
Select the TPU S420 EXAMPLE unit from the unit list.
Press
button in the taskbar to receive the list of all the TPU’s logical modules.
Associated with the chosen unit the list with all the unit functions shall appear.
Select again TPU S420 EXAMPLE unit from the unit list and press
button.
In the communication window choose Functions, Select All and OK successively. From this
moment on WinSettings will update the database with all the functions including ranges,
libraries and parameters.
Mimic
In the WinProt main window press the mimic configuration module link. The WinMimic module
will be started. This module allows drawing the mimic presented in the Supervision and
Command Interface.
Select the TPU S420 EXAMPLE unit from the units list.
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Press
button in the taskbar to receive the TPU S420’s mimic data. This operation is
necessary to update the database regarding the mimic’s dimensions, maximum number of
apparatus, etc.
Associated with the chosen unit the Mimic item shall appear. By pressing this item the user will
access to the Mimic configuration window.
Logs
In the WinProt main window press the records collection and analysis module link. The
WinReports module will be started. This module allows seeing all information acquired and
produced by the TPU S420.
Select the TPU S420 EXAMPLE unit from the units list.
Press
button in the taskbar to receive information about the types of records
available in the TPU.
Associated with the chosen unit the following items shall appear: Measurements, Load
Diagrams, Record of Events, Oscillography and Hardware Information. By selecting each one
of these items and pressing
unit’s different types of records.
button the user will be allowed to receive and see the
Protection Test
In WinProt main window press the unit test module link. The WinTest module will be started. This
module allows performing commissioning tests in the TPU S420.
Select the TPU S420 EXAMPLE unit from the units list.
Configure value, phase and frequency of each test signal by using the popup menus. Press
button to start the simulation.
While the simulation is in progress, there are four situations that end it: with
button,
when the trigger is activated and the configured transition occurs, in case there is a
communication error or when the type of signal to be simulated corresponds to a pulse and
ends the configured time interval.
Firmware Update
On the WinProt main window click the link of the firmware updating module. The WinCode
module responsible for the TPU S420 firmware updating process will be started.
Select the S Record (S19) file related to the processor to which you want to
download the firmware.
Select the
TPU S420 EXAMPLE protection to configure.
Start the firmware downloading process for the processor flashs by pressing the
Download button.
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If it is necessary to update the firmware of the remaining processors repeat the
process for each protection processor. (MASTER, SLAVE1 and SLAVE2)
At the end check if there was any saving problem executing the operation Restart
Protection.
To have a more complete description of the interface program WinProt and its modules see
WinProt 4.00 User’s Manual.
3
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3.6. WEBPROT USE
The EFACEC’s protection and control units can provide an embedded Web server, WebProt,
which allows seeing the various records and functions of the unit as well as changing the current
settings. No special application is required.
The WebProt server can be accessed from a browser such as Internet Explorer.
3
With WebProt it is possible to:
See general unit information, such as type, ordering form, general description, type of
records, version and serial number;
See the list of available measurements and change those possible to be changed;
See the list of load diagrams available in the unit and access each of them;
See the list of event records available in the unit and access each of them;
See the list of oscillographies available in the unit and access each of them;
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3
See the list of defaults recorded by the unit and access each of them;
See the unit’s functions list;
For each function, see the current setting and when in possession of access password
change that setting.
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Access directly to support email;
Access directly to EFACEC’s web page;
See the number of previous unit’s WebProt accesses;
Print the presented information.
To start WebProt some previous Internet Explorer configurations are necessary.
Internet Explorer Configurations
Access the menu Tools->Internet Options, select Tab General and in Check for newer versions
of stored pages, select the option Every visit to the page.
Access the menu Tools->Internet Options, select Tab Connections and click LAN Settings, click
Advanced and in combo box Exceptions add the unit’s IP address.
Start WebProt
To access the homepage of WebProt configure the browser correctly (as described in the
previous point) and type in the address bar: http:// followed by the unit’s IP.
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4
Chapter
4.
CONFIGURATION
This chapter explains the configuration of the TPU S420 several interfaces: analogue inputs,
digital inputs and outputs and local human-machine. It is described the use of programmable
logic and other base configurations necessary for the correct operation of the protection and
control functions, such as date and time of the protection. The configuration of the local area
network interface has a dedicated chapter.
Chapter 4 - Configuration
TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.1. DATE AND TIME ......................................................................................................4-3
4.1.1. Time Synchronization..................................................................................................4-3
4.1.2. Configuration...............................................................................................................4-4
4.1.3. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................4-7
4.2. MEASUREMENT TRANSFORMERS...................................................................................4-8
4.2.1. Configuration...............................................................................................................4-8
4.2.2. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................4-9
4.3. DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS..................................................................................4-11
4.3.1. Inputs ........................................................................................................................ 4-11
4.3.2. Outputs ..................................................................................................................... 4-13
4.3.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-15
4.3.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-19
4.4. LOCAL INTERFACE..................................................................................................4-21
4.4.1. Display ...................................................................................................................... 4-21
4.4.2. Alarms Page.............................................................................................................. 4-21
4.4.3. Mimic ........................................................................................................................ 4-22
4.4.4. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-28
4.4.5. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-30
4.5. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ...........................................................................................4-31
4.5.1. Logical Variables....................................................................................................... 4-31
4.5.2. Logic Inference ......................................................................................................... 4-35
4.5.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-36
4.6. OPERATION MODES................................................................................................4-42
4.6.1. Operation Modes Types ........................................................................................... 4-42
4.6.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-42
4.6.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-44
4.7. OSCILLOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................4-50
4.7.1. Characteristics .......................................................................................................... 4-50
4.7.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 4-50
4.7.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 4-51
Total of pages of the chapter: 52
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
4.1. DATE AND TIME
The protection date and time configuration is essential for the correct event time-tagging
reported by the TPU S420. It is also necessary to time-tag the changes of the groups of
parameters and other logs produced by the protection. The process used assures an accurate
time-tag and allows time synchronization mechanisms that ensure equal dates in different units.
4.1.1. TIME SYNCHRONIZATION
The protection’s internal time and date update depends on the synchronization type:
Internal synchronization when the protection is not integrated in a local area network;
SCADA Protocol synchronization when the synchronization signal is established by the
SCADA system;
SNTP synchronization when the synchronization is made through the SNTP protocol.
IRIG-B synchronization when the synchronisation is made through an IRIG-B signal.
Internal Synchronization (RTC)
When the TPU S420 operates separately from any communication network event time-tagging is
made automatically. Obviously in this case it is not possible to assure synchronization among
different units.
Current date and time can be configured in the TPU S420 directly from its local interface, as
described in Chapter 3 – Human Machine Interface.
The high accuracy of the internal clock allows obtaining event time-tags with 1ms resolution. A
real time clock (RTC) ensures that, even when the protection is switched off, the time is still
updated, so that periods of power off and start up of the unit do not have serious effect on
time-tagging. The error in this situation is less than 1s.
Event time-tags recorded by the TPU S420 are always made in the local time of the country or
globe zone where it is installed. It is possible to set the deviation of the time zone relative to the
reference given by the GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) time, as well as the day and hour of start
and end of the summer period, according to the legal regulations. With this data configured the
protection is automatically in charge of the time changes during its operation.
SCADA Protocol Synchronization
When the TPU S420 is integrated in a local area network, the time is established by it. The
protection periodically receives a time synchronization signal foreseen in the communication
protocol that assures the events synchronous time-tagging in all substation units. Changes
made to date in the local interface are not effective.
However date and time continue to be refreshed in the RTC so that after a protection’s
temporary power off, even removing the connection to the communication network, time is still
approximately correct, with maximum error of 1 s.
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
The time broadcast in the LAN network can be the local time or can be referred to GMT time.
The last option is preferable because the synchronization signal is received only with a time
interval of a few seconds, which allows the change of the summer period to be made in the
exact moment that it occurs.
If the network broadcasts the time relative to GMT meridian, all data regarding the time zone
and the yearly changes should be configured in the protection to convert GMT time to local time.
If the time signal broadcast in the network is already the local time, including the two changes
per year, then the automatic time change should not be configured in the protection, the
network will be responsible for this function.
SNTP Synchronization
Alternatively to the messages received from SCADA, time synchronization of the TPU S420 can
be implemented by SNTP protocol. Internal updating of date and time in the protection is similar
to that mentioned in the previous point.
IRIG-B Synchronization
It is important sometimes that units that are not connected in network be synchronised among
themselves. In this case the synchronisation can be made using a time server distributor of an
IRIG-B signal. The operation mode of the date and time internal update in the protection is
similar to the previous points.
4.1.2. CONFIGURATION
The Synchronization parameter allows selecting the source of synchronism among the options
INTERNAL (without exterior synchronization), SNTP or SCADA.
To configure local time zone and changes from winter period to summer period and vice-versa,
the data presented next should be configured.
The time difference between local time and GMT time during the winter period can be positive if
local time is advanced regarding GMT time (East zone of Greenwich meridian ), or negative if it is
delayed (West zones). Configure the parameter Offset Winter Time> Signal to POSITIVE or
NEGATIVE. The parameters Offset Winter Time> Hours, Offset Winter Time> Minutes and
Offset Winter Time> Seconds respectively indicate the number of hours, minutes and seconds
of difference.
The time difference during the summer period has similar configuration. The parameter Offset
Summer Time> Signal indicates whether local time is in advance (POSITIVE) or in delay
(NEGATIVE) regarding GMT time. The parameters Offset Summer Time> Hours, Offset
Summer Time> Minutes and Offset Summer Time> Seconds quantify the difference.
Normally the summer period is one hour advanced regarding the winter period.
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Acertar Data e Hora
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Sincronização: INTERNA
Offset Inverno> Sinal: POSITIVO
Offset Inverno> Horas: 0
Offset Inverno> Minutos: 0
Offset Inverno> Segundos: 0
Offset Verão> Sinal: POSITIVO
Offset Verão> Horas: 1
Offset Verão> Minutos: 0
Offset Verão> Segundos: 0
Hora Verão> Estado: ON
Hora Verão> Formato: DIA DA SEMANA
Hora Verão> Dia Ano: 90
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Parâmetros
Hora Verão> Dia Semana: DOMINGO
Hora Verão> Semana: 5
Hora Verão> Mês: MARCO
Hora Verão> Hora: 1
Hora Verão> Minuto: 0
Hora Verão> Segundo: 0
Fim Hora Verão> Estado: ON
Fim Hora Verão> Formato: DIA DA SEMANA
Fim Hora Verão> Dia Ano: 300
Fim Hora Verão> Dia Semana: DOMINGO
Fim Hora Verão> Semana: 5
Fim Hora Verão> Mês: OUTUBRO
4
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Parâmetros
Fim Hora Verão> Hora: 1
Fim Hora Verão> Minuto: 0
Fim Hora Verão> Segundo: 0
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.1. Parameters Menu (Set Date and Time).
The group of data regarding the start of the summer period allows setting the instant/moment
of change from the winter period to the summer period. A similar group of parameters allows
configuring the complementary time change corresponding to the end of the summer period.
For example, in the first case the parameter Summer Time> State indicates if this period is
active. There are two configuration possibilities in Summer Time> Date Format parameter:
DAY OF THE YEAR or DAY OF THE WEEK.
The fist option activates Summer Time> Day of the Year, which indicates the day when time
changes: between 1 and 366, 1 being January 1st and 366 being December 31st. To avoid
changing this parameter in leap years, February 28th always corresponds to the 59th day and
March 1st to the 61st day, independently of existing or not February 29th. The 60th day is
automatically converted to the 61st day in non leap years.
In the second option the date of time change is specified by a weekday configured by the
parameter Summer Time> Day of the Week (from SUNDAY to SATURDAY), Summer Time>
Week (from 1 to 5) and Summer Time> Month (from JANUARY to DECEMBER). Week 1 means
the first occurrence of the day chosen in the indicated month; week 2 means the second
occurrence and so forth. Week 5 means the last occurrence of that same day in the month (in
fact it can be the fifth but also the fourth if in that year and month there is only four weekdays
equal to the chosen one).
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Independently from the chosen option, the data indicating the moment of the day when time
moves forward or backwards must be configured in Summer Time> Hours, Summer Time>
Minutes and Summer Time> Seconds.
Default setting corresponds to data in continental Portugal. The winter time coincides with GMT
time (deviation of 0 hours, 0 minutes and 0 seconds) and in the summer period there is one
hour in advance (positive difference of 1 hour, 0 minutes and 0 seconds). The start of the
summer period occurs at 1 am in the last Sunday of March every year: 1 hour, 0 minutes and 0
seconds of Sunday of the fifth (or fourth) week of March. The summer period also ends at 1 am
in the last Sunday of October every year: 1 hour, 0 minutes and 0 seconds of Sunday of the fifth
(or fourth) week of October. Therefore, the active configuration is the day of the week option.
For any other country in the world, the same parameters must be configured according to the
legal time regulations.
Table 4.1. Time parameters.
Parameter
Range
Current Set
1..1
1
Synchronization
INTERNAL / SNTP /
SCADA / IRIG-B
INTERNAL
Std Time Offset> Sign
POSITIVE / NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
Std Time Offset> Hours
0..14
h
0
Std Time Offset> Minutes
0..59
min
0
Std Time Offset> Seconds
0..59
s
0
Saving Offset> Sign
POSITIVE / NEGATIVE
Saving Offset> Hours
0..14
h
1
Saving Offset> Minutes
0..59
min
0
Saving Offset> Seconds
0..59
s
0
Saving> Status
OFF / ON
ON
Saving> Format
DAY OF THE YEAR /
DAY OF THE WEEK
DAY OF THE
WEEK
Saving> Year Day
1..366
d
90
Saving> Week
1..5
w
5
Saving> Weekday
SUNDAY / MONDAY /
TUESDAY /
WEDNESDAY /
THURSDAY / FRIDAY /
SATURDAY
day
SUNDAY
Saving> Month
JANUARY / FEBRUARY/
MARCH / APRIL / MAY /
JUNE / JULY / AUGUST
/ SEPTEMBER /
OCTOBER /
NOVEMBER /
DECEMBER
month
MARCH
Saving> Hour
0..23
h
1
Saving> Minute
0..59
min
0
Saving> Second
0..59
s
0
End Saving> Status
OFF / ON
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Unit
Default value
4
POSITIVE
ON
4-6
Chapter 4 - Configuration
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
End Saving> Format
YEAR DAY / WEEK DAY
End Saving> Year Day
1..366
Day
300
End Saving> Week
1..5
week
5
End Saving> Weekday
SUNDAY / MONDAY /
TUESDAY /
WEDNESDAY / FRIDAY
/ FRIDAY / SATURDAY
Day
SUNDAY
End Saving> Month
JANUARY / FEBRUARY/
MARCH / APRIL / MAY /
JUNE / JULY / AUGUST
/ SEPTEMBER /
OCTOBER /
NOVEMBER /
DECEMBER
month
OCTOBER
End Saving> Hour
0..23
h
1
End Saving> Minute
0..59
min
0
End Saving> Second
0..59
s
0
WEEK DAY
4
4.1.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
Some logical variables related to the configuration of the protection’s date and time allow the
user to have in the Event Log information of events associated with manual or automatic time
changes. Together with those indicated in Table 4.2, the variables associated with the change of
parameters, logic or descriptions are also available (see Chapter 6.1).
Table 4.2. Description of the time module logical variables.
Id
Name
Description
3584
Daylight Saving Time Start
Indication of the moment when the winter period
changes to the summer period
3585
Daylight Saving Time End
Indication of the moment when the summer period
changes to the winter period
3586
Time MMI
Indication of current time change in the protection
local interface
3587
Unit Restart
Indication of protection’s power on time
3588
Unit Reset
Indication of protection’s power off time
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4.2. MEASUREMENT TRANSFORMERS
The configuration of the measurement transformer is only related to the connections of the
analogue inputs board. The TPU S420 allows configuring, in case of the AC inputs, the ratio of
the current transformer (CT) or the voltage transformer (VT) connected to each one of the
current or voltage inputs, respectively by group of inputs.
n TI
n TT
I nom, prim TI
I nom,sec TI
U nom, prim TT
U nom,sec TT
(4.1)
(4.2)
The configuration of the measurement transformers is necessary for the correct presentation of
the measurements in primary values in the local and remote interface of the TPU S420. The
values observed in the protection inputs (CT or VT secondary) are multiplied by the configured
transformer ratio in order to obtain the corresponding values in the primary.
The protection functions are not affected by this configuration because the respective
operational settings are configured in per unit values of nominal current (or voltage) of the
associated analogue input.
In order to increase the protection functions sensitivity it can be chosen a different nominal value
for the current inputs from the respective CT secondary nominal value. This can be particularly
useful for the fourth current input when observing low value fault currents.
For example, choosing a nominal value of 0.2A for a CT with the secondary 1A allows increasing
5 times the input sensitivity. It must be taken into account the protection functions regulations
should be multiplied, in this case, by 5 relating the required values. The regulation of an
operational threshold to 0.1 pu (10% of 0.2A) corresponds effectively to a real value of 0.2 pu
(2%) concerning the substation CT.
On the other hand, it must be also taken into account that, increasing the input sensitivity, the
acceptable maximum current value is also inferior (on the example referred, 5 times).
4.2.1. CONFIGURATION
There are 5 parameters corresponding to the 4 groups of AC analogue inputs that may be
configured in the TPU S420:
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Transformadores de Medida
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
I1N/I2N TI
I1N/I2N TI
U1N/U2N TT
Atribuição
U1N/U2N TT
Fases: 100.000
Neutro: 100.000
Fases: 100.000
TT 4: TENSÃO RESIDUAL
4: 100.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.2. Measurement Converters Menu.
The I1N/I2N Phase CT parameter is the ratio of the three phase CT mounted in the line; the
U1N/U2N Phase VT parameter is the ratio of the three phase VT. The I1N/I2N Ground CT is the
ratio of the associated CT transformation to the fourth current input: in case of being a toroidal
CT which measures the residual current, it’s that transformer ratio, in case of Holmgreen
connection, the parameter value must be the same of the I1N/I2N Phase CT ratio. The
U1N/U2N VT 4 is the transformation ratio of the VT connected to the fourth voltage input. This
input meaning can be configured on the Assignment VT 4, among the options RESIDUAL VT
(measure of the three phase voltages sum) or a BAR VT (for example, a measure of a bus-bar
phase voltage).
Table 4.3. Measurement converters parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..1
1
I1N/I2N Phase CT
1..10000
100
I1N/I2N Ground CT
1..10000
100
U1N/U2N Phase VT
1..10000
100
Assignment VT 4
RESIDUAL VOLTAGE /
BAR VOLTAGE
RESIDUAL
VOLTAGE
U1N/U2N VT 4
1..10000
100
4.2.2. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The logical module associated with the measurement transformers is composed by several
variables that indicate the state of the voltage transformers. These inputs allow up to two VT
groups to be monitored by binary inputs that do not necessarily need to correspond to the VT
whose voltage is measured in the analogue inputs of the TPU S420. There are also available the
variables associated with the change of parameters, logic or descriptions (see Chapter 6.1).
Table 4.4. Description of the logical variables of the measurement transformers module.
Id
Name
Description
4352
VT 1 Disconnected
Input associated with VT 1 disconnected
4353
VT 1 Connected
Input associated with VT 1 connected
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Id
Name
Description
4354
VT 1 WithDrawn
Input associated with VT 1 extracted
4355
VT 1 Inserted
Input associated with VT 1 inserted
4356
VT 2 Disconnected
Input associated with VT 2 disconnected
4357
VT 2 Connected
Input associated to VT 2 connected
4358
VT 2 WithDrawn
Input associated with VT 2 extracted
4359
VT 2 Inserted
Input associated with VT 2 inserted
4360
VT 1 State
VT 1 state resulting from the two
Connected/Disconnected VT 1 inputs
4361
VT 1 Position
VT 1 position resulting from the two
Extracted/Inserted VT 1 inputs
4362
VT 2 State
VT 2 state resulting from the two
Connected/Disconnected VT 2 inputs
4363
VT 2 Position
VT 2 position resulting from the two
Extracted/Inserted VT 2 inputs
4
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
4.3. DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
Together with the analogue inputs, the digital (or binary) inputs and outputs are the other
important interface with the energy system. The digital inputs allow obtaining the states of the
circuit breakers associated with the bay, as well as the state of other alarms or auxiliary contacts.
The binary outputs allow executing commands on those apparatus or reporting to the exterior
other interesting indications. It is essential that the configuration of the digital inputs and
outputs corresponds exactly to the connections made so that the protection may operate
correctly.
The TPU S420 has 9 digital inputs and 6 binary outputs as base but this number can be
expanded with dedicated expansion boards in a maximum of 2. There are three types of
expansion boards available – one board of 16 inputs, one board of 9 inputs and 6 outputs and
another one of 15 outputs - which can be used in any configuration, as described in Chapter 2 Installation.
4.3.1. INPUTS
Physical and Logical Inputs
The available options of inputs and outputs boards allow a maximum of 73 inputs in the same
protection unit, all isolated among each other. These are the physical inputs as they correspond
to effectively existing contacts.
+
IN x
-
Every binary input is of programmable logic allocation, so the meaning of each contact can be
chosen from a group of available options. These options are the logical inputs that correspond
to logical variables that can be used by the protection and control functions, can affect the
interlockings logic or simply monitor states of the energy system.
There are no restrictions in allocating logical inputs to each of the physical contacts. However,
you should take in consideration that when allocating the same logical variable to more than one
physical input, you may create inconsistent internal states if they are not in accordance. This
situation should be avoided.
The list of logical inputs covers the most frequent applications, especially the states associated
with several circuit breakers and disconnectors. This list can be found in Annex C. - Inputs
Options Table.
Apart from this list there are generic logical variables available (as many as the maximum
number of inputs possible), without default allocated meaning. These generic inputs can be
configured by the user to represent logical states not covered in the previous options. These
variables can only serve to supervise these states but may also have implications in the
remaining automation logic. Therefore, you should use the logic configuration tool provided by
the WinProt (see Chapter 4.5 - Programmable Logic).
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Inputs Validation
The TPU S420 has several validation mechanisms of input transition.
Digital filtering is used on every binary input to eliminate the contacts self-chattering or the
noise from the power equipment. Transitions are only considered if the input remains in the new
state for at least a minimum time (corresponding to a number of configurable confirmations
performed at a rate of one per millisecond).
The filtering mechanism does not affect the correct time-tagging of the start of each state
transition.
Input
t
1ms
T
Status
T
4
Figure 4.3. Digital inputs filtering (example: confirmations nr. equal to 5).
There is also a maximum acceptable number of transitions per second for each input, as shown
in Figure 4.4. When that number is exceeded all posterior transitions are not considered and an
alarm indication is generated. This alarm is cancelled if the input state changes stop and the
input remains stable for one second.
...
Input
1s
1s
...
Status
...
Invalidity
Figure 4.4. Digital inputs validation (example: maximum nr. of state changes per second equal
to 5).
The complementary logical inputs (for example, open circuit breaker and closed circuit breaker)
have one additional validation: the two single inputs cannot be in the same state for longer than
a maximum configurable period, after which an invalid state indication is activated. The state of
the double variable remains in the value it had prior to the invalidity. This situation ends if the
two single inputs become again in complementary states. There is a single complementary
period for all pairs of logical inputs.
If only one of the two inputs is configured, this validation does not take effect and the state
variable is completely defined by the single variable. For example, if only the closed circuit
breaker input is configured, the circuit breaker state will be open if the input is in the level 0 and
closed if in the level 1. If only the open circuit breaker input is configured, the situation will be
the opposite.
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Status 0
Status 1
Two-Status
Invalidity
Complem T.
Figure 4.5. Complementary inputs validation.
4.3.2. OUTPUTS
Physical and Logical Outputs
A
OUT x
B
The available options of inputs and outputs boards allow a maximum of 36 outputs in the same
protection unit, all isolated among each other. These are the physical outputs as they effectively
correspond to existing contacts.
The sixth output of the base board has a fixed meaning and is activated by the internal
watchdog in case of protection failure. This is a double contact (change-over) and is placed in
the normal operation state only after verification of the initial self-tests. Apart from protection
failure, the internal watchdog is activated in situations of serious errors such as:
Errors in the access to the non volatile memory which prevent the update of the parameters
and other logs;
Failure of communication with the microprocessor of the analogue/digital conversion board
which prevents receiving the samples;
Failure of communication among the internal microprocessors that may cause loss of
functionalities;
System resources fully used.
The remaining binary outputs are of programmable logic allocation. So the meaning of each
contact can be chosen from a group of available options. These options are the logical outputs
that correspond to logical variables updated by the protection and control functions, or by the
automation logic.
There are no restrictions in allocating logical outputs to each of those physical contacts. Actually,
the same variable can be allocated to different physical outputs and all are activated
simultaneously.
Two of the TPU S420 base board outputs (one of which the watchdog) and two on each of type 1
expansion boards outputs are double (change-over). In type 3 expansion boards (15 outputs),
the number of these double contacts is six. These outputs allow providing a solution for logic
interlockings that use normally closed contacts, thus not requiring auxiliary relays. Two type 1
expansion boards provide 5 normally closed contacts besides the watchdog contact.
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
The list of logical inputs covers the most frequent applications, especially the commands of the
apparatus associated with the bay and the trippings of the protection functions. This list can be
found in Annex D. - Output Options Table .
Apart from this list there are generic logical variables available (as many as the maximum
number of outputs possible), without default allocated meaning. These generic outputs can be
configured by the user to generate indications to the exterior not covered in the previous
options, for example logical combinations of generic outputs. Therefore, you should use the
logic configuration tool provided by the WinProt (see Chapter 4.5 - Programmable Logic).
Outputs Type
Outputs can be configured as one of two types: indication or pulse.
As indication, the output contact follows exactly the state of the logical variable it is allocated
to: the output is activated when the variable changes to the logical state 1, and resets when
the variable changes to the logical state 0. This type can be used for example as indications
of protection functions start.
The outputs defined as pulse are also activated when the respective variable changes to 1;
but in this case, they remain active for a configurable fixed period, independently from the
state of the variable that originated them. This type should be specifically used for the open
and close commands of the circuit breakers and disconnectors.
INDICATION
Variable
Output
PULSE
Variable
Output
Command T
Command T
Figure 4.6. Outputs operation modes.
The outputs allocated to open and close commands of circuit breakers and disconnectors
should be configured as pulses with duration longer than the opening time of the auxiliary
contact located in the apparatus itself. This procedure is taken in order to prevent that it is the
protection contact to open that highly inductive circuit which could cause high overvoltages and
therefore result in equipment damage.
Independently from the specific configuration, the operations of output contacts are
permanently monitored: after commands are sent, the effective operation of output contacts is
checked by the presence of voltage in the respective coils. Besides, all operations are blocked if
there is voltage in the coils in the absence of ongoing commands to avoid the risk of untimely
commands on the energy equipment. The TPU S420 indicates all operation detected errors.
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
4.3.3. CONFIGURATION
The configuration of digital inputs and outputs is made for each board individually and is
identical for all boards.
The State parameter indicates whether the respective board is ABSENT or PRESENT. The Type
parameter allows choosing the specific board configuration from the four available options (for
expansion boards). Its value should correspond exactly to the physical configuration existing in
the protection, before the configured inputs and outputs are used. For the base board these two
configurations are fixed and correspond to the only possible option.
Entradas e Saídas
Carta I/O Base
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Estado: PRESENTE
Tipo: 9I + 5O
Entradas
Saídas
4
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.7. Parameters Menu (Base I/O Board).
The correct procedure when adding an expansion board to one protection or when replacing an
existing board by a different type should consider the following steps:
Configure the desired expansion board as ABSENT.
Power off the protection.
Introduce the new board or replace the existing board by the new one.
Power on the protection.
Enter the correct parameters according to the new hardware configuration.
Each physical input has three configurable parameters. The E[n]> Config parameter is the
correspondence to the internal logical variable and can be chosen from a list of pre-defined
options, that includes the generic inputs. By choosing the option NO ALLOCATION the respective
input is not used. The E[n]> T Confirmation parameter is the required number of confirmations
necessary to consider valid the transition of a given input. The E[n]> Max Trans/Second
parameter is the maximum number of transitions per second acceptable for a given input, if that
number is exceeded originates an indication of invalidity.
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Entradas e Saídas
Carta I/O Base
Parâmetros
Entradas
Configuração Lógica
Configuração Lógica
E1>
E2>
E3>
E4>
E5>
E6>
E7>
E8>
E9>
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Tempo de Confirmação
Tempo de Confirmação
E1>
E2>
E3>
E4>
E5>
E6>
E7>
E8>
E9>
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
Confirmação:
Confirmação:
Confirmação:
Confirmação:
Confirmação:
Confirmação:
Confirmação:
Confirmação:
Confirmação:
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
4
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Máximo Transições/Segundo
Máximo Transições/Segundo
E1>
E2>
E3>
E4>
E5>
E6>
E7>
E8>
E9>
Max
Max
Max
Max
Max
Max
Max
Max
Max
Trans/Segundo:
Trans/Segundo:
Trans/Segundo:
Trans/Segundo:
Trans/Segundo:
Trans/Segundo:
Trans/Segundo:
Trans/Segundo:
Trans/Segundo:
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.8. Inputs related menus.
Each physical output (except the watchdog) also has three configurable parameters. The S[n]>
Config parameter is the correspondence to the internal logical variable as for the inputs, and can
be chosen from a list of pre-defined options, that includes the generic outputs. The option NO
ALLOCATION corresponds to the non-use of that output. The S[n]> Operation parameter
should be configured to INDICATION if you wish the output to replicate the state of the variable
defined in the previous parameter or PULSE if you wish the contact to remain activated for a
fixed period. That period should be configured in the S[n]> T Pulse parameter.
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Entradas e Saídas
Carta I/O Base
Parâmetros
Saídas
Configuração Lógica
Configuração Lógica
S1>
S2>
S3>
S4>
S5>
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Operação
Operação
S1>
S2>
S3>
S4>
S5>
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
SINALIZACAO
SINALIZACAO
SINALIZACAO
SINALIZACAO
SINALIZACAO
4
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Tempo de Impulso
Tempo de Impulso
S1>
S2>
S3>
S4>
S5>
T
T
T
T
T
Impulso:
Impulso:
Impulso:
Impulso:
Impulso:
0.120
0.120
0.120
0.120
0.120
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.9. Outputs related menus.
The Validation Time parameter indicates the maximum time that single and complementary
inputs can remain in the same state. It is valid for all pairs of complementary logical inputs, but
only for those pairs where both inputs are configured.
Entradas e Saídas
Entradas Duplas
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Tempo Validação: 10.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.10. Double Inputs Parameters Menu.
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Table 4.5. Digital inputs and outputs parameters (base board).
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Current Set
1..1
1
Status
PRESENT
PRESENT
Type
9I + 5O
9I + 5O
I1> Config
I1> Confirm Time
1..128
I1> Max Trans/Second
1..255
ms
20
5
...
I9> Config
I9> Confirm Time
1..128
ms
20
I9> Max Trans/Second
1..255
5
O1> Operation
PULSE / INDICATION
INDICATION
O1> Pulse Time
0,02..5
O1> Config
s
0,12
...
O5> Config
O5> Operation
PULSE / INDICATION
O5> Pulse Time
0,02..5
INDICATION
s
0,12
Table 4.6. Digital inputs and outputs parameters (expansion boards 1 and 2).
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Current Set
1..1
1
Status
ABSENT / /PRESENT
ABSENT
Type
9I + 6O / 16I / 15O
16I
I1> Config
I1> Confirm Time
1..128
I1> Max Trans/Second
1..255
ms
20
5
...
I32> Config
I32> Confirm Time
1..128
ms
20
I32> Max Trans/Second
1..255
5
O1> Operation
PULSE / INDICATION
INDICATION
O1> T Pulse
0,02..5
O1> Config
s
0,12
...
O15> Config
O15> Operation
PULSE / INDICATION
O15> Pulse Time
0,02..5
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s
0,12
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Table 4.7. Complementary inputs parameters.
Parameter
Range
Current Set
1..1
Validation Time
1..30
Unit
Defautl Value
1
s
10
4.3.4. AUTOMATION LOGIC
Each digital input and output board has an associated logic module, composed by several
variables. That list is prepared for boards with a maximum of 16 inputs and 8 outputs, although
some of those variables may have no meaning, depending on the existing hardware
configuration. To learn more about the possible logical configurations, see Chapter 4.5 Programmable Logic.
Table 4.8. Logical variable description of the base board module.
Id
Name
Description
4864
Generic Input 1
...
...
Logical variables without default allocated
meaning, configurable as inputs in any I/O board
4895
Generic Input 32
4896
MainBoard Input 1 State
...
...
4904
MainBoard Input 9 State
4905
MainBoard IN 1 Validity
...
...
4913
MainBoard IN 9 Validity
4914
Generic Output 1
...
...
4929
Generic Output 16
4930
MainBoard Output 1
...
...
4934
MainBoard Output 5
4935
MainBoard Output 1 Error
...
...
4939
MainBoard Output 5 Error
4940
IO Main Board HW Error
Corresponding physical input state (with or without
applied voltage)
Physical input state validity, depending on the
number of transitions detected per second
Logical variables without default allocated
meaning, configurable as outputs in any I/O board
Physical output contact state (open or closed)
Operation error information when executing a
command on the corresponding output
Board state (operational or out of order)
Table 4.9. Logical variable description of the expansion board1 module.
Id
Name
Description
5120
ExpBoard 1 Input 1 State
...
...
Corresponding physical input state (with or without
applied voltage)
5135
ExpBoard 1 Input 16 State
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Id
Name
Description
5136
ExpBoard 1 IN 1 Validity
...
...
Physical input state validity, depending on the
number of transitions detected per second
5151
ExpBoard 1 IN 16 Validity
5152
ExpBoard 1 Output 1
...
...
5166
ExpBoard 1 Output 15
5167
ExpBoard 1 Output 1 Error
...
...
5181
ExpBoard 1 Output 15 Error
5182
IO ExpBoard 1 HW Error
Physical output contact state (open or closed)
Operation error information when executing a
command on the corresponding output
Board state (operational or out of order)
Table 4.10. Logical variable description of the expansion board 2 module.
4
Id
Name
Description
5376
ExpBoard 2 Input 1 State
...
...
Corresponding physical input state (with or without
applied voltage)
5391
ExpBoard 2 Input 16 State
5392
ExpBoard 2 IN 1 Validity
...
...
5407
ExpBoard 2 IN 16 Validity
5408
ExpBoard 2 Output 1
...
...
5422
ExpBoard 2 Output 15
5423
ExpBoard 2 Output 1 Error
...
...
5437
ExpBoard 2 Output 15 Error
5438
IO ExpBoard 2 HW Error
Physical input state validity, depending on the
number of transitions detected per second
Physical output contact state (open or closed)
Operation error information when executing a
command on the corresponding output
Board state (operational or out of order)
The variables corresponding to generic logical inputs and outputs are located in the base board
module because this board is present in every possible hardware configuration. However, these
variables can be allocated to contacts of any of the inputs and outputs board.
Besides the variables indicated in the previous tables, each board has available variables
associated with the change of parameters, logic or descriptions (see Chapter 6.1).
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4.4. LOCAL INTERFACE
The information available in the local human-machine interface of the TPU S420 can be
configured in the most convenient way for the user. This configuration comprises the alarms
page associated with the front panel LEDs and the mimic represented in the display.
4.4.1. DISPLAY
The graphical display of the TPU S420 allows two types of adjustments to facilitate the
visualization: visualization mode and contrast adjustment.
The contrast adjustment allows having more or less display brightness. It is advised to keep
luminosity in the minimum limit without compromising a comfortable visualization in order to
avoid accelerated wearing out of the LCD.
There are two possible visualization modes: white characters in black background or black
characters in white background. The option is chosen by the user.
Menu Principal
Menu Principal
Medida
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Acertar Data e Hora
Medida
Registo de Eventos
Diagrama de Carga
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Modos de Operação
Funções de Protecção
Automatismos
Entradas e Saídas
Comunicações
Interface Homem-Máquina
Transformadores de Medida
Acertar Data e Hora
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.11. LCD visualization modes.
4.4.2. ALARMS PAGE
The alarms page corresponds to the 8 LEDs on the left side of the protection display. Each LED
can be associated with logical variables that report events occurring during the operation of the
TPU S420.
These events can be protection functions starts or trips, current state of automation functions
and interlockings, etc. The Annex E. - Alarm Options table presents all possible configuration
options for the alarms page LEDs.
This list of options includes variables without default allocated logic meaning. These generic
alarms can be configured by the user to represent indications not covered in the previous
options, for example, their logical combinations. Therefore, you should use the logic
configuration tool provided by the TPU S420 (see Chapter 4.5 - Programmable Logic).
The descriptions corresponding to logical indications associated with each alarm are presented
in the graphical display when it is with the Command and Supervision Interface, allowing a quick
view of its meaning. Each descriptive is limited to 20 characters. It can be edited by using the
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
WinSettings module of the WinProt. The descriptive edition cannot be made in the local
interface.
It is also possible to configure the behaviour of the several alarms regarding the state transition
of each associated logical variable. There are two possible configurations:
Latched: when configured as latched the LED state reflects directly the logical variable state,
that is, it will be on when the variable has the logical value 1 and off in the opposite situation.
This configuration should be used to represent for example the state of blocked automation
functions.
Alarm: in this configuration the alarms page LEDs will be on as soon as the associated logical
variable is in the logical state 1, and will stay on even if their logical state changes to 0. To
acknowledge – “delete” – the LEDs that are on in the alarms page it is necessary to press the
key. Then all alarms which associated logical variable has logical value 0 will be deleted.
This configuration is the most appropriate to represent the tripping of the protection
functions because the indication remains active after the fault until it is acknowledged by the
user.
INDICATION
Variable
Alarm
ALARM
Variable
Alarm
Figure 4.12. Alarms operation modes.
4.4.3. MIMIC
In the front display of the TPU S420 it is possible to graphically represent information associated
with the power equipment, whether acquired in the analogue and digital inputs or by the local
area network. This interface also provides an easy operation of that equipment as well as the
execution of other commands on the protection.
The mimic represented in the protection display can be fully configured by the user, in order to
adjust it to the substation specific configuration and to the information one wishes to visualize.
This configuration can only be executed by using the WinMimic module of the WinProt.
The mimic is composed by two different parts: one static part and one dynamic part. The last
part comprises four types of objects: apparatus, commands, parameters and measures.
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Static Mimic
The mimic static graphical information does not depend on variable states or protection
measures. It is used to represent components associated with for example, busbars, lines,
transformers, cable connections between the equipment and the switch devices as well as nonmonitored circuit breakers and disconnectors. The static part may also include text such as bay
or measurements identification.
The static part configuration corresponds to the definition of one bitmap with the drawing of
those components. This bitmap can have one or two pages, each with the size reserved for the
mimic in the protection display (120 128 pixel).
Apparatus Type Objects
Apparatus type objects firstly serve to represent the state of circuit breakers and disconnectors,
which depends on the state of the internal logical variables. The apparatus can be commanded
or not. These objects can also be used to represent variables not associated with apparatus and
to execute other type of commands.
4
Figure 4.13. Apparatus type objects configuration.
The parameters associated with this type of object are the following (example is given for an
object representing a circuit breaker):
X, Y: vertical and horizontal dimensions of the apparatus drawing.
Bitmap State 0: drawing corresponding to logical value 0 of the State variable.
Bitmap State 1: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the State variable.
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Bitmap Undefined State00: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the Undefined
State00 variable, independently from the logical value of the State variable.
Bitmap Undefined State11: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the Undefined
State11 variable, independently from the logical value of the State variable.
Bitmap Background State 0: drawing corresponding to logical value 0 of the Background
State variable.
Bitmap Background State 1: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the Background
State variable.
Bitmap Background Undefined State: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the
Background Undefined State variable, independently from the logical value of the
Background State variable.
Module: logical module to which belong all variables that define the states and the
operations of the apparatus.
State: logical variable representing the apparatus state (for example open or closed circuit
breaker) that defines which of the state associated bitmaps is visualized in each moment.
Undefined State00: logical variable that is activated when the apparatus state is considered
invalid (both inputs with logical value 0). In this situation the associated drawing corresponds
to Bitmap Undefined State00.
Undefined State11: logical variable that is activated when the apparatus state is considered
invalid (both inputs with logical value 1). In this situation the associated drawing corresponds
to Bitmap Undefined State11.
Background State: logical variable that defines the background drawing in the area
reserved to the object. This state can be associated with additional information on the
apparatus, for example the apparatus position (if inserted or extracted).
Undefined Background State: logical variable equivalent to Undefined State, but
associated with the background drawing.
Command Key 0: logical variable that is activated when the object is selected and the
key is pressed. It is frequently used as local command for apparatus opening. The command
is of pulse type, that is, the variable is placed in the Level logical value and then in the
complementary level, Level opposite.
Command Key 1: logical variable that is activated when the object is selected and the
key is pressed (for example the local command for apparatus closing ). The command is of
pulse type as the previous one.
Locked Command Key 0: logical variable that with value 1 indicates that the command
associated with the
key is blocked (for instance blocking the local opening of the circuit
breaker). When in locked situation, the order is not sent and in the instructions line is
displayed the message Locked Command !!.
Locked Command Key 1: logical variable that with value 1 indicates that the command
associated with the
key is blocked (blocking the local closing of the circuit breaker).
When in locked situation, the order is not sent and in the instructions line is displayed the
message Locked Command !!.
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Level: logical value indicated by the user in the configuration.
Validity: all previous variables can be defined or not as an option by enabling the respective
validity field (for example blockings may not be defined for the executed commands).
Descriptive: apparatus identification text displayed in the instructions line when the
apparatus is selected.
The object’s position is automatically defined by its location related to the static part of the
bitmap.
Control Type Objects
Control type objects allow imposing the state of internal logical variables directly from the
protection mimic. The parameters associated with this type of object are the following:
4
Figure 4.14. Command type objects configuration.
X, Y: vertical and horizontal dimensions of the object’s drawing.
Bitmap State 0: drawing corresponding to logical value 0 of the State variable.
Bitmap State 1: drawing corresponding to logical value 1 of the State variable.
State: logical variable (and respective module) representing the object’s state and defining
which of the state associated bitmaps is visualized on each moment. The change of this
variable value should be directly or indirectly associated with the variables defined by the
Command parameter.
Command Type: definition of command type: pulse or indication.
Command: logical variable (and respective module) which state is changed when the object
is selected and one of the
or
keys is pressed, if the State variable is in the
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command corresponding logical level. The command variable is placed in the logical value
configured by the user.
Active Command: logical variable (and respective module) that prevents visualization and
consequent command execution if not in the indicated logical level.
Validity: all previous variables can be defined or not as an option by enabling the respective
validity field (for example there can be no variable defined to activate the command).
Descriptive: object identification text displayed in the instructions line when the apparatus is
selected.
The object’s position is automatically defined by its location related to the static part of the
bitmap.
Parameter Type Objects
Parameter type objects serve to visualize or change the protection parameters value. Its
selection is possible in change mode. In visualization mode they cannot be selected but they
dynamically reflect the most updated value of the configured parameter. The associated
parameters with this type of object are indicated below.
Figure 4.15. Parameter type object configuration.
X, Y: vertical and horizontal dimensions of the object’s drawing (only valid in Change
Operation Mode).
Bitmap: drawing corresponding to the object in Change Operation Mode. In case of Visualize
Operation Mode the protection display represents the value of the configured parameter.
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Operation Mode: selection of object’s application: change or visualize the value of a
parameter.
Function: module to which belongs the parameter to change or visualize.
Parameter: parameter to change or visualize. The parameter identified by the three previous
data, after being selected, can be changed by pressing one of the keys
as the Operation Mode is Change.
or
, as long
Type: type of parameter to change or visualize. The parameter can be one of three types:
byte, short or float. As an option, it is also possible to select if one wants to change the value
of the parameter related to a specific scenario, to the active scenario or to all scenarios
simultaneously.
Value: value desired for the parameter when the change command is executed (valid only if
the Operation Mode is Change).
Identification: object identification text displayed in the instructions line when the apparatus
is selected (valid only if the Operation Mode is Change).
As for the previous objects, the object’s position is automatically defined by its location related
to the static part of the bitmap.
Measure Type Objects
Measure type objects allow visualizing the value of the measures in the mimic. They cannot be
0.000
selected but they dynamically reflect the most updated value of the configured measure. The
associated parameters with this type of object are indicated below:
Figure 4.16. Measurement type objects configuration.
Measure: measure to be presented in the mimic, chosen among the available options
provided by the TPU S420; that list includes analogue measurements and counters, both
internal and received through the local area network. The unit in which the measurement is
visualized is indicated.
Scale Factor: multiplication factor of the measure value to be visualized in the display. This
factor is unitary by default and the unit is adjusted to the values normally observed for each
measure; to represent very low or very high values it is advisable to change this scale factor
to a more convenient value, preferably a 10 multiplier.
The object’s position is automatically defined by its location related to the static part bitmap.
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4.4.4. CONFIGURATION
Regarding the display characteristics, its brightness will be as much intense as higher the
Contrast parameter value. The Inverse Video parameter defines whether the display shows
black characters in white background (OFF value) or the opposite (ON value). In the Screensaver
parameter it is possible to define the period without pressing any key after which the unit
activates the screensaver. These parameters can be adjusted in the menu of the TPU S420
indicated in Figure 4.17.
Interface Homem-Máquina
Display
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Contraste: 20
Video Inverso: OFF
Screensaver: 60
4
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.17. Display Configuration Menu.
The alarms page has three types of parameters: for each alarm you should choose the logical
configuration, the respective operation mode and the associated descriptive.
Regarding logical configuration the Al[n]> Config parameter should be chosen from a list of
supplied options which, besides the most frequently used cases, provides generic alarms with
logical meaning allocated by the user. The option NO ALLOCATION corresponds to the non-use
of that alarm in the local interface.
The operation mode of each Alarm (Al[n]> Operation parameter) can be chosen from two
available options: ALARM or LACHED. The Al[n]> Descriptive parameter is a sentence with a
maximum of 20 characters and can only be edited by using the WinSettings.
To associate logical states with the alarms page LEDs it is necessary to access the menu of the
TPU S420:
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Interface Homem-Máquina
Alarmes
Parâmetros
Configuração Lógica
Configuração Lógica
Al1>
Al2>
Al3>
Al4>
Al5>
Al6>
Al7>
Al8>
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Nada
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
Atribuído
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Modo de Operação
Modo de Operação
Al1>
Al2>
Al3>
Al4>
Al5>
Al6>
Al7>
Al8>
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
ALARME
ALARME
ALARME
ALARME
ALARME
ALARME
ALARME
ALARME
4
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.18. Alarms Page Configuration Menu
The protection mimic can only be edited by using the WinMimic module of the PC interface
program WinProt. For that purpose see the user’s manual of this application.
Table 4.11. Display Parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Current Set
1..1
1
Contrast
10..31
20
Screensaver
1..60
Inverse Video
OFF / ON
min
Default Value
60
OFF
Table 4.12. Alarms page parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Current Set
1..1
1
Al1> Operation
ALARM / INDICATION
ALARM
Al1> Descriptive
' '..'ÿ'
Al1> Config
...
Al8> Config
Al8> Operation
ALARM / INDICATION
Al8> Descriptive
' '..'ÿ'
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4.4.5. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The alarms module provides a group of variables possible to be configured in the local interface
and which logical meaning can be allocated by using the programmable logic tool (see Chapter
4.5 - Programmable Logic).
Table 4.13. Logical variables description of the alarms module.
Id
Name
Description
6912
Generic Alarm 1
...
...
Logical variables without default allocated
meaning, configurable as alarms
6919
Generic Alarm 8
Besides the variables indicated in the previous table, there are also available the variables
associated with the change of parameters, logic or descriptions (see Chapter 6.1).
The modules associated with the mimic and with the display properties only provide the logical
variables related to the change of those three groups of data.
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4.5. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC
In the previous chapters several references were already made to the automation logic provided
by the TPU S420. This logic is completely programmable and besides the traditional logical
functions (OR and AND), it allows implementing timers, delays and other logical combinations.
The flexibility of this parameter can be used to configure additional interlockings to the
protection and control functions or any other more complex logical conditions.
4.5.1. LOGICAL VARIABLES
The elementary structure in which the automation logic of the TPU S420 is based on is the
logical variable, also called gate. To each gate corresponds the internal state of a given variable
related to a protection function, a monitoring or control function, states related to the operation
of the unit itself, etc. All the states represented by the different logical variables are binary states,
that is, they can only be in one of two logical levels: level 0 or level 1.
Organization
The automation logic that defines the different implemented interlockings and remaining logical
functions is based on a network of interconnected logical variables. Regarding their location in
that network, logical variables can be inputs, outputs or intermediate variables.
The state of the input logical variables is defined by processes external to the logic itself that
impose their value to the logical level 0 or 1. The origin of those processes can be related with:
Digital inputs: the logical variables allocated to digital inputs are activated or deactivated by
change of state of the respective contact.
Protection and control functions: the different protection and control functions generate
state changes in several gates as a result of their operation.
User Commands: the state imposition (blockings for example) and command execution
(data change, apparatus control) made by the user also has an effect on logical states.
Local area network variables: another possible origin for the change of the logical state is
the reception of indications from other units in network.
The output logical variables are those resulting from the inference of the automation logic
process and are reflected in some interface with the exterior. Its state can be reflected in:
Digital outputs: determining the operation of output contacts according to the state of those
logical variables.
Local area network indications: sending the state of those variables to other protection
units in the communications network.
Protection and control functions indications: defining specific operating conditions of the
implemented functions.
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Between the input and output logical variables there can exist different levels of auxiliary or
intermediate logical variables whose state is defined by the variables of the preceding levels state
and ultimately by the state of the input variables that influence the state of the variables
connected to them and, consequently the state of the output variables. (Figure 4.19).
Inputs
Intermediate variables
Outputs
TIMER
4
Figure 4.19. Automation logic organization.
This network of logical variables is then divided in more elementary subgroups, each of them
associated with a specific module of the TPU S420. These modules can be:
Protection functions: high priority functions that operate with the purpose of minimizing
the effect of faults in the energy system.
Control and monitoring functions: lower priority functions which main purpose is to restore
the normal operation conditions of the energy system or to optimize its operation as well as
to supervise the several equipments.
Other configurations: necessary to the protection unit operation and generally associated
with components or interfaces of the protection unit.
Each one of these modules is constituted by a group of gates whose number varies from module
to module which represents the logic associated with that function or component. The existing
modules are fixed for each TPU S420 model and each of them can have up to 256 variables.
Each logical variable is identified by the module it belongs to and by its index (module internal
order number). The identification of each variable to the exterior is obtained by the expression:
id
mod ulenumber 256 index
(4.3)
The state of the represented variables can have an effect on other variables of the same or
different module. As for the global logic, it is possible to create in each module a grouping of the
different gates in input variables (those established by the function itself or those which state is
function of other modules variables), output variables (those used by the function or by other
modules) or module internal variables. This organization is represented in Figure 4.20.
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Module 1
Module 3
...
...
Module 4
Module 2
...
...
Figure 4.20. Modular organization of the automation logic.
4
Types
The logical variables of the TPU S420 are one of five possible types:
OR
OR: the variable state is the logical disjunction of its inputs.
AND: the variable state is the logical conjunction of its inputs.
AND
DELAY
DELAY: is a logical variable activated after a time interval if the input remains active.
TIMER: The variable state corresponds to a pulse of configurable duration, activated by the
TIMER
transition of the logical OR of the gate inputs to the logical level 1. The duration of the pulse
is fixed independently from the posterior state of the inputs.
PULSE
while the logical OR of the inputs remains 1, for a previously defined maximum period.
PULSE: this variable works similarly to the previous one but the output state remains 1 only
DELAY
Input
Output
Command T
Command T
Figure 4.21. DELAY logical variable types.
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TIMER
Input
Output
Command T
Command T
PULSE
Input
Output
Command T
Figure 4.22. TIMER and PULSE logical variable types.
4
Constitution
Each variable corresponds to a logical port with 8 inputs and 8 outputs, as represented in Figure
4.23. The inputs and outputs allow defining connections between a given variable and other
gates, in order to create the logical conditions for the operation of the protection.
Type
Timer
Input 1 Status
Output 1 Connection
Input 2 Status
Output 2 Connection
Input 3 Status
Output 3 Connection
Input 4 Status
Output 4 Connection
Input 5 Status
Output 5 Connection
Input 6 Status
Output 6 Connection
Input 7 Status
Output 7 Connection
Input 8 Status
Output 8 Connection
Interfaces
Figure 4.23. Logical variable constitution.
The structure of each logical variable comprises a group of fields where all gate related
information is stored. This information can be divided in two different types: a static part and a
dynamic one.
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The static part does not change during the TPU S420 normal operation. It can only be changed
during the configuration of the logic. It is composed by:
Variable type: should correspond to one of the five mentioned types: OR, AND, DELAY,
TIMER or PULSE.
Outputs configuration: identifies the connections of each output of the variable to other
variables. Each connection is completely defined by the destination variable module and
internal index, as well as by the number of the respective input of that gate; as an option, the
output can be negated, that is, the output can be activated when the variable has the logical
level 0.
Initial state of each of the eight inputs of the Logical Variable: this field should be
compatible with the type of logical variable (if for example the logical variable is AND, the
free inputs should be active) and with the connections to that logical variable.
Time delay: time associated with the variable if it is of DELAY, TIMER or PULSE type (the time
delay of the gate is configured in WinSettings).
Presentation of the event in the Event Logging: indicates whether the change of state of
the variable should be logged in the Event Chronological Log.
The dynamic part of the information related to each gate corresponds to the fields that change
during the protection operation:
Inputs logical state: represents the current logical level of each of the eight gate inputs.
Variable logical state: is the current state of the gate reflected in the respective outputs and
resulting from the state of each of its inputs and the type of variable.
Validity: this field has information about the validity of the variable logical state: possible
causes for the invalidity of this state are for example: for logical variables associated with the
state of circuit breakers and disconnectors, the fact that the associated single inputs (for
example open and closed circuit breaker) are not complementary.
Cause: this field relates to the cause of the last state change of the variable; this information
is especially relevant for the variable related to the state of the circuit breaker because
besides the fact of being open or closed, it is important to know which is the source of the
last opening or closing command.
4.5.2. LOGIC INFERENCE
One important thing to consider in the definition of the specific automation logic for a given
application is the way the logic is inferred, that is, how the state of all variables is defined in each
instant. The mechanism used is of event-driven type, which means that the logic is resolved
from back to front, according to the defined connections, whenever there is a change of state of
any of the input variables and not cyclically as in other traditional programmable logic
controllers.
Therefore whenever a variable changes its logical state, that change is reflected in the variables
to which it is connected, that is, the inputs of the logical variables to which its eight inputs are
connected. The state of each of those gates is then defined by the gate type and by the state of
its eight inputs, being inferred after the occurrence of the state change. If the state changes and
this gate is connected to other gates, for each of these gates the input state associated with this
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connection is updated and the process is resumed for the new logical variable. This recurrent
process is repeated until the end of state transitions or connections.
This mechanism is exemplified with the following simplified logical scheme that indicates the
initial logical level of each of the variables and its inputs:
1
Gate 1 (OR)
Gate 2 (OR)
Gate 3 (AND)
0
0
0
0
Gate 4 (OR)
1
Figure 4.24. Example of logic inference scheme.
Admitting there is a change of state of the variable connected to the first input of the gate 1 and
that it changes to the logical level 1, as the variable is OR type and its state only depends on that
input, the logical sate of the variable changes to logical level 1. This gate is connected to two
variables on which this change will be reflected.
Firstly, the state of the first input of the logical variable 2 changes to level 1. This variable
subsequently changes of state as it is an OR and all its inputs were 0 before the transition. This
change of state is then reflected in the variable 3. However, this variable does not change its
state as it is of AND type and requires all inputs at 1 to be activated. On the other hand the
variable 2 is not connected to any other gate.
The inference process then continues with the inference of the state changes regarding the
second connection of the gate 1, which connects to the first input of the gate 4. The new state of
the inputs of this gate generates a state identical to the previous one. As there are no more
changes of state and no more connections, the mechanism stops here.
The main advantage of this automation logic inference process is its excellent efficiency that
allows to quickly update the state of all defined automation logic with few logical operations.
4.5.3. CONFIGURATION
The automation logic cannot be configured in the TPU S420’s local interface. For that purpose
use the logic edition tool of the WinProt, in the WinLogic module (Figure 4.25).
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4
Figure 4.25. Automation logic configuration with WinLogic
This application allows configuring all the fields that constitute the several available logical
variables.
By default, the TPU S420 provides a fully operational factory automation logic that allows the
operation of the several protection, control and supervision functions. The description of that
logic for each function can be found in Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions.
The connections between the variables are always defined in the variable where that connection
has its origin and for each of the 8 outputs of the variable is defined the gate it is connected to.
The gate is completely defined by the module it belongs to and by the internal index inside that
module, plus the input where the connection will be made. Each output can be negated
independently of the remaining outputs.
Having the factory logic as starting point, connections can be added in not used outputs,
existing connections can be eliminated or configured variables can be changed. However,
special attention should be given to the construction of the new connections so that the group
stays coherent and executes the desired functions.
Caution should be taken when editing the logical connections:
The state changes with origin external to the automation logic (that is, the state changes of
the input variables) directly impose the state of the first input of that gate. Therefore no other
variable can be connected to that reserved input because there is the risk of the defined state
not matching the externally established state and consequently generate inconsistent states.
There cannot be two different logical variables, or two outputs of the same variable
connected to the same input of a given gate. As in the previous point this situation may
cause inconsistent states in the logic, because for that input will always be valid the last
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occurred transition.
Closed loops in the logic that may cause infinite cycles of state changes in the same
variables should be avoided. The simplest example, with only one gate, is presented in
Figure 4.26 where is indicated the initial state of the inputs. In this situation the recurrent
process of automation logic inference will be indefinitely executed, changing the variable
state from 1 to 0 and vice-versa until the protection stops the process to avoid the system
resources to be fully used. This is an undesirable situation and should be avoided.
1
0
1
Figure 4.26. Loop example.
The initial state of the 8 inputs of each gate should also be correctly configured according to the
defined logic. For that purpose the logical state of each input should be in accordance with the
state of the gate that connects to each input.
Most of the variables are initialized with the 0 state (generally all input variables of the logic)
which implicates that many of the inputs will also be initialized with the 0 state. The same is
applicable to type OR variables, the not used inputs should be initialized with the 0 state in order
not to interfere with the logic. However there are some exceptions:
The not used inputs of type AND variables should be initialized with the logical state 1 so
that it is possible to change the variable state according to the remaining inputs.
0
0
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
Figure 4.27. Initialization of gates inputs with AND type variables.
The negated outputs of variables with initial state 0 are in the logical state 1. For that reason
the inputs of the variables to which they are connected should be also initialized with the
level 1. This situation is presented in Figure 4.28, where you can see that the initial state of
the two inputs of gate 1 is different depending on whether the corresponding connection is
negated or not. For the gate 2, the initial state of the single input is 0 because it corresponds
to a negated connection of a variable which initial state is 1.
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0
Gate 1 (OR)
Gate 2 (OR)
0
4
0
1
0
Figure 4.28. Initialization of gates inputs with negated outputs.
Besides the gate type, the connections of each of the eight outputs and the inputs initial state, it
should be defined whether the logical transitions of 0->1 and/or 1->0 of the variable should be
logged in the Event Chronological Log.
The configuration of each logical variable also includes the associated descriptive. The change
of the descriptions has no influence in the protection’s internal operation; it only modifies the
text presented to the user. The user configurable descriptions are:
Gate descriptive: logical variable’s name used for example in the Event Chronological Log,
in the configuration of Inputs, Outputs and Alarms or in the mimic’s configuration.
0 -> 1 State transition descriptive: descriptive that complements the previous one and that
is displayed in the Event Chronological Logging whenever occurs a transition of the logical
state of the gate from 0 to 1.
1 -> 0 State transition descriptive: descriptive that complements the previous one and that
is displayed in the Event Chronological Logging whenever occurs a transition of the logical
state of the gate from 1 to 0.
Figure 4.29. Descriptions configuration of the logical variables with WinLogic.
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Any change in the automation logic implemented with WinLogic and sent to the protection is
valid only after the unit is restarted.
The changes made to the variables descriptions are automatically reflected in the Event
Chronological Log.
Some additional groups of auxiliary logical variables are available to make logic edition easier.
For time delay variables of TIMER or PULSE type there is the additional configuration of the
associated time that is set in tens of milliseconds (minimum possible configuration is 0,01 s).
The TIMER or PULSE type variables in a total of 16 are grouped in a specific module. Some of
them have default allocated functions but the rest can be used to create additional logic
A feature provided by the TPU S420 is the possibility of auxiliary variables associated with
inputs, outputs and logical alarm indications without allocated meaning, thus completely generic
for use in any desired application. They allow configuring inputs, outputs and alarms with logical
variables not foreseen in the default lists.
To configure a generic input do the following:
Using WinLogic, select one generic input not yet used and configure the outputs
connections of that gate to other variables or change its interfaces according to the outcome
required for the new variable.
Change the descriptions associated with the generic input for more adequate names.
Configure a physical input from one of the boards to the chosen generic input (the name
edited by the user will appear in the WinSettings inputs list if the changes have been saved in
WinLogic and in the protection if they were already sent to it).
Restart the protection to validate the change made in the logic.
To configure a generic output do the following:
Using WinLogic, implement the variable combinations necessary to create the desired logic
and make the connection to a generic output not yet used.
Change the descriptions associated with the generic variable for more adequate names.
Configure a physical output from one of the boards to the chosen generic output.
Restart the protection to validate the change made in the logic.
To configure a generic alarm do the following:
Using WinLogic, implement the variable combinations necessary to create the desired logic
and make the connection to a generic alarm not yet used.
Change the descriptions associated with the generic variable for more adequate names.
Configure an alarm of the local interface alarm to the chosen generic alarm.
Restart the protection to validate the change made in the logic.
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For other specific logical interlockings of the application that require additional variables not
directly associated with inputs, outputs or alarms; there are two auxiliary modules, constituted
by 64 variables without allocated meaning or default defined connections, which can be
configured as OR or AND type.
Table 4.14. Logical variables description of the auxiliary logic module 1.
Id
Name
Description
256
Auxiliary Logic 1 Gate 1
...
...
OR or AND type variables available for auxiliary
logic
319
Auxiliary Logic 1 Gate 64
Table 4.15. Logical variables description of the auxiliary logic module 2.
Id
Name
Description
512
Auxiliary Logic 2 Gate 1
...
...
OR or AND type variables available for auxiliary
logic
575
Auxiliary Logic 2 Gate 64
Table 4.16. Logical variables description of the time delay module.
Id
Name
Description
3328
Timer 1
...
...
TIMER or PULSE type variables used in the
default defined logic or available for auxiliary logic
3351
Timer 24
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
4.6. OPERATION MODES
A particular application of logic is the bay Operation Modes. These modes are extremely
important to define the operation mode of the protection and control functions and the blocking
of open and close commands of the circuit breakers and disconnectors.
4.6.1. OPERATION MODES T YPES
There are three base operation modes supported by the TPU S420:
Local/Remote Mode (L/R): this operation mode defines the protection’s behaviour
regarding the commands received from the Supervision and Command System. When in
Local mode, all remote operations are inhibited.
Manual/Automatic Mode (M/A): this operation mode regards all automation executed in the
TPU S420. When in Manual mode all automation functions are blocked. This mode is
essential to perform maintenance operations in the system when it is in service.
Normal/Emergency (N/E) Mode: the Emergency mode refers to the operation of the system
in special conditions. In Emergency mode all user defined logical interlockings of open and
close of circuit breakers are inhibited, allowing free operation of the circuit breaker. The
Normal mode corresponds to the normal situation of operation of the equipment.
Besides these Operation Modes it is also provided the Exploitation Mode which has three
options (Normal, Special A or Special B).
By default, the Special Exploitation A and B modes, on the contrary of the Normal Mode, are
characterized by the instantaneous operation of the Phase Overcurrent Protection and by the
lock of the Resistive Earth Protection and the closing commands generated by control functions.
In A mode the phase-to-earth Overcurrent Protection have instantaneous operation, while in B
mode they are locked.
Associated to each mode there are two logical inputs available for protection trip in case of
external phase-to-earth faults: the temporized trip indication of the external earth detection
causes the Special Mode A trip; the instantaneous indication of the trip causes the trip in the
Special mode B.
The Test Bay Mode is another operation mode of the TPU S420. This mode does not have a
feature attributed being also able to be defined by the user by configuration of the associated
logic.
There are also two generic operation modes, which meaning can be entirely attributed by the
user configuring the logic.
4.6.2. CONFIGURATION
The change of operation mode is equivalent to the change of any other protection’s parameter
and the most current state of each one of the mode types is saved in the non-volatile memory,
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
not being lost even when the protection is powered off. This change can be made in the local
interface, using WinProt or from the Supervision and Command System.
The local interface provides two functional keys
and
, which allow immediately changing
some operation modes. From the existing modes the user can configure the meaning of these
keys. The other modes can be changed in the menus.
As an option, the change of any of the operation modes can be made using binary inputs
connected to selectors external to the protection.
Modos de Operação
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Modo Manual/Automático: MANUAL
Modo Local/Remoto: LOCAL
Modo Normal/Emergência: NORMAL
Modo de Exploração: NORMAL
Modo Genérico 1: OFF
Modo Genérico 2: OFF
Modo Ensaio: OFF
Tecla de Modo 1: L/R
Tecla de Modo 2: M/A
4
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.30. Operation Modes Menu.
The state of the operation mode used by the TPU S420 is the logical OR of the two previous
options (parameter or input), that is why only one of them should be used at a time to prevent
inconsistent states.
Table 4.17. Operation modes parameters.
Parameter
Range
Current Set
1..1
1
Manual/Automatic Mode
MANUAL / AUTOMATIC
MANUAL
Local/Remote Mode
LOCAL / REMOTE
LOCAL
Normal/Emergency Mode
NORMAL /
EMERGENCY
NORMAL
Exploitation Mode
NORMAL / SPECIAL A /
SPECIAL B
NORMAL
Generic Mode 1
OFF / ON
OFF
Generic Mode 2
OFF / ON
OFF
Test Mode
OFF / ON
OFF
Mode Key 1
L/R / M/A / N/E / GEN 1 /
GEN 2 / TEST
L/R
Mode Key 2
L/R / M/A / N/E / GEN 1 /
GEN 2 / TEST
M/A
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Default Value
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
4.6.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The logical variables associated with the operation modes module are grouped in several groups
according to the different ways of changing the modes. Basically they are two: through binary
inputs or by changing a parameter.
Regarding the L/R, M/A and N/E operation modes, the associated inputs are 6 in groups of two
complementary variables (Local Mode and Remote Mode, for example). The result of the
combination of these pairs is accessible in specific variables that are the operation modes
determined by the inputs. On the other hand, there is one variable related to each of the
operating modes with the state resulting from the configuration of the associated parameter.
The indication of each of the operation modes available for the remaining automation functions
and displayed in the local interface is the logical OR of the two previous variables (that
depending on the inputs and that refreshed by configuration).
The principle of the logic associated with the Exploitation Mode and the Bay Test mode is
identical.
The Exploitation Mode has three associated inputs (Normal Mode, Special Mode A and Special
Mode B). There are also three variables associated with each of these options, refreshed by
parameters change. The three final indications are the logical OR of the variables changed by the
respective inputs and configuration.
The logic implemented in the Exploitation Mode prevents two different indications from being
simultaneously active, which might happen if, for example, due to inputs the option of Special
Mode A is selected for inputs and the option Normal Mode is selected due to configuration. The
solution used defines that the Exploitation Mode A has higher priority than the Normal Mode
and that the Exploitation Mode B has higher priority than both of them.
There are also three variables associated with the Bay Test Mode: the input, the one associated
with the parameter and the indication with the logical OR of the two previous variables.
Table 4.18. Logical variables description of the operation modes module.
Id
Name
Description
10240
Local Operation Mode
Local mode (input)
10241
Remote Operation Mode
Remote mode (input)
10242
Manual Operation Mode
Manual mode (input)
10243
Automatic Operation Mode
Automatic mode (input)
10244
Normal Operation Mode
Normal mode (input)
10245
Emergency Operation Mode
Emergency mode (input)
10246
Normal Exploration Mode
Normal Operation Mode Indication
10247
Special A Exploration Mode
Special Exploitation Operation Mode A Indication
10248
Special B Exploration Mode
Special Exploitation Operation Mode B Indication
10249
Generic Op Mode 1 Inactive
Generic mode 1 inactive (input)
10250
Generic Op Mode 1 Active
Generic mode 1 active (input)
10251
Generic Op Mode 2 Inactive
Generic mode 2 inactive (input)
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Id
Name
Description
10252
Generic Op Mode 2 Active
Generic mode 2 active (input)
10253
Test Operation Mode
Bay test mode (input)
10254
L/R Operation Mode
Local or Remote Operation Mode Indication
10255
M/A Operation Mode
Manual or Automatic Operation Mode Indication
10256
N/E Operation Mode
Normal or Emergency Operation Mode Indication
10257
Generic Operation Mode 1
Generic Operation Mode 1 Indication
10258
Generic Operation Mode 2
Generic Operation Mode 2 Indication
10259
HMI L/R Operation Mode
Local or Remote Operation Mode (provided)
10260
HMI M/A Operation Mode
Manual or Automatic Operation Mode (provided)
10261
HMI N/E Operation Mode
Normal or Emergency Operation Mode (provided)
10262
HMI Normal Explor Mode
Normal Exploitation Operation Mode (provided)
10263
HMI Special A Explor Mode
Special Exploitation Mode A (provided)
10264
HMI Special B Explor Mode
Special Exploitation Mode B (provided)
10265
HMI Generic Op Mode 1
Generic Mode 1 (provided)
10266
HMI Generic Op Mode 2
Generic Mode 2 (provided)
10267
HMI Test Operation Mode
Bay test mode (provided)
10268
I/O L/R Operation Mode
Variable resulting from Local Mode and Remote
Mode complementary inputs
10269
I/O M/A Operation Mode
Variable resulting from Manual Mode and
Automatic Mode complementary inputs
10270
I/O N/E Operation Mode
Variable resulting from Normal Mode and
Emergency Mode complementary inputs
10271
I/O Normal Explor Mode
Normal Exploitation Mode (input)
10272
I/O Special A Explor Mode
Special Exploitation Mode A (input)
10273
I/O Special B Explor Mode
Special Exploitation Mode A (input)
10274
I/O Generic Op Mode 1
Variable resulting from the complementary inputs
of the Generic Operation Mode 1
10275
I/O Generic Op Mode 2
Variable resulting from the complementary inputs
of the Generic Operation Mode 2
10276
I/O Test Operation Mode
Variable resulting from the inputs of the Bay test
mode
10277
HMI Blq Change L/R Op Mode
Block of the Local/Remote Mode change in the
local interface
10278
HMI Blq Change M/A Op Mode
Block of the Manual/Automatic Mode change in
the local interface
10279
HMI Blq Change N/E Op Mode
Block of the Normal/Emergency Mode change in
the local interface
10280
HMI Blq Change M1 Op Mode
Block of the Generic Mode 1 change in the local
interface
10281
HMI Blq Change M2 Op Mode
Block of the Generic Mode 2 change in the local
interface
10282
HMI Blq Change Tst Op Mode
Block of the Bay Test Mode change in the local
interface
10283
Op Mode Gnd Dir Inst Trip
Input associated with the instantaneous trip of
external detection of phase to earth faults
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Id
Name
Description
10284
Op Mode Gnd Dir Delay Trip
Input associated with the time delayed trip of
external detection of phase to earth faults
10285
Op Mode Protection Trip
Trip order resulting from the exploitation mode and
the active protection functions
Additionally to the variables referred in Table 4.18, the variables associated with the change of
parameters, logic and descriptions are also available as explained in Chapter 6.1. There is also a
group of auxiliary variables used in the module internal logic.
The connections to exterior variables to the module differ slightly depending on the TPU S420
version.
4
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
10259>
Modo Operação L/R
IHM
OR
10240>
Modo Operação Local
OR
OR
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
10268>
Modo Operação L/R
E/S
OR
10288>
Modo Operação Gate
1
10254>
Modo Operação L/R
41798>Regime L/R Disjuntor
I1
O1
48928>Regime L/R Seccionad Terra
I2
O2
49184>Regime L/R Secc Isolamento
O3
O4
AND
49952>Regime L/R Secc Bypass
O5
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O6
50720>Regime L/R Seccionad Barra
O7
50976>Regime L/R Secc Barra 1
O8
51232>Regime L/R Secc Barra 2
10241>
Modo Operação
Remoto
OR
O1
O2
10261>
Modo Operação N/E
IHM
OR
10244>
Modo Operação
Normal
10290>
Modo Operação Gate
3
10256>
Modo Operação N/E
OR
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
41800>Regime N/E Disjuntor
10270>
Modo Operação N/E
E/S
OR
4
OR
O1
I1
O1
48929>Regime N/E Seccionad Terra
I2
O2
49185>Regime N/E Secc Isolamento
O3
O4
49953>Regime N/E Secc Bypass
O5
AND
O1
I1
O1
O6
50721>Regime N/E Seccionad Barra
O2
I2
O2
O7
50977>Regime N/E Secc Barra 1
O8
51233>Regime N/E Secc Barra 2
I3
10245>
Modo Operação
Emergência
OR
O1
O2
10267>
Modo Operação
Ensaio IHM
10253>
Modo Operação
Ensaio
OR
OR
O1
I1
O2
I2
O1
I3
10276>
Modo Operação
Ensaio E/S
OR
O1
O2
Figure 4.31. Logic diagram of the operation modes module (part 1).
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
10260>
Modo Operação M/A
IHM
OR
10242>
Modo Operação
Manual
OR
OR
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
41799>Regime M/A Disjuntor
I3
O3
38676>Bloqueio Religação
O4
39435>Bloqueio Deslastre Tensão
O5
40203>Bloqueio Deslastre Freq
10269>
Modo Operação M/A
E/S
OR
10289>
Modo Operação Gate
2
10255>
Modo Operação M/A
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I1
O1
I2
O6
I3
10243>
Modo Operação
Automático
OR
O1
O2
10265>
Modo Oper Genérico 1
IHM
10257>
Modo Operação
Genérico 1
OR
10266>
Modo Oper Genérico 2
IHM
OR
O1
I1
O2
I2
O1
OR
O1
I1
O2
I2
I3
10249>
Modo Oper Gener 1
Inactivo
10274>
Modo Oper Genérico 1
E/S
OR
10258>
Modo Operação
Genérico 2
OR
I3
10251>
Modo Oper Gener 2
Inactivo
AND
O1
10275>
Modo Oper Genérico 2
E/S
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
O2
I2
O2
I3
4
I3
10250>
Modo Oper Gener 1
Activo
10252>
Modo Oper Gener 2
Activo
OR
OR
O1
O1
O2
O2
10277>
Modo Op Blq Alter L/R
IHM
OR
10280>
Modo Oper Blq Alter
M1 IHM
OR
OR
I1
10286>
Dados Modo
Operação
O1
I1
10278>
Modo Op Blq Alter M/A
IHM
OR
I1
10281>
Modo Oper Blq Alter
M2 IHM
OR
O1
I1
10279>
Modo Op Blq Alter N/E
IHM
OR
O1
O1
O1
10287>
Lógica Modo
Operação
OR
O1
10282>
Modo Oper Blq Alter
PE IHM
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
Figure 4.32. Logic diagram of the operation modes module (part 2).
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
10262>
Modo Explor Normal
IHM
OR
O1
O2
10291>
Modo Operação Gate
4
10246>
Modo Exploração
Normal
OR
10271>
Modo Explor Normal
E/S
OR
O1
10293>
Modo Operação Gate
6
AND
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I4
O4
I3
O2
I1
O1
17161>Bloqueio Prot Terras
15640>Protecção
Resis
MI Fases
I2
O2
41764>Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj Autom
I3
10263>
Modo Explor Especial
A IHM
10294>
Modo Operação Gate
7
OR
O1
O2
10272>
Modo Explor Especial
A E/S
OR
10292>
Modo Operação Gate
5
AND
10247>
Modo Exploração
Especial A
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I1
O1
I3
O3
I2
O2
I3
O3
16392>Protecção MI Terra
AND
O1
OR
O1
O2
10285>
Modo Oper Disparo
Protec
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
41805>Gate 1 Disjuntor
I3
10284>
Modo Oper Disparo
Temp DTR
10248>
Modo Exploração
Especial B
10295>
Modo Operação Gate
8
I4
I5
AND
I1
O1
O1
I2
O2
O2
I3
OR
OR
O2
10273>
Modo Explor Especial
B E/S
O1
I2
I3
O2
10264>
Modo Explor Especial
B IHM
I1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
10296>
Modo Operação Gate
9
AND
I1
O1
I2
O2
4
OR
O4
16402>Bloqueio Prot MI Terra
O5
17672>Bloqueio Prot 2ª MI Terra
O1
O2
10283>
Modo Oper Disparo
Inst DTR
I3
OR
O6
O1
O2
Figure 4.33. Logic diagram of the operation modes module (part 3).
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
4.7. OSCILLOGRAPHY
The oscillography function allows logging the waveform of the signals in the analogue inputs of
the TPU S420 when certain events occur. This monitoring function is extremely important to
characterize the incidents occurring in the energy system and in a posterior analysis, to verify
the correct operation of the protection.
4.7.1. CHARACTERISTICS
Together with the Chronological Event Log, the Oscillography function is one of the tools
provided by the TPU S420 to analyse faults or other disturbances in the energy system. While in
the Chronological Event Log it is possible to access the sequence of logical events detected or
produced by the protection, the Oscillography allows analysing the corresponding analogue
information.
The characteristics of the oscillographies registered by the TPU S420 are fixed. The signals in the
4 current analogue inputs and in the 4 voltage analogue inputs are recorded with sampling
frequency of 20 samples per cycle of the fundamental harmonic of the AC magnitudes. Up to 40
digital channels can be registered whose correspondence with the TPU S420’s internal logical
variables is configured by the user.
Nevertheless, the conditions that define the registration of new records are completely
configurable by the user, with the programmable logic tool (see Chapter 4.5 - Programmable
Logic), as described further ahead.
The oscillography length is adjustable and completely defined by the configured logical
conditions. The recording starts when any of the function’s start conditions is activated and ends
when all of them reset. It is also possible to store a configurable time of the signals waveforms
prior to the start of the recording (pre-fault time) and another configurable time after the reset
(post-fault time) of the recording. But the length of the record never exceeds a maximum
duration that is also configurable by the user.
The oscillographies are saved in the non-volatile memory to allow storing them in the protection
while they are not uploaded to a PC. In total it is possible to save a number of oscillographies
equivalent to approximately one and a half minute.
The oscillographies can be displayed in a PC at any time by using the WinReports module of the
WinProt.
The oscillographies can be uploaded through the protection’s front serial port or remotely
through the local area network.
4.7.2. CONFIGURATION
The Pre-fault T parameter specifies the duration of the signals prior to the oscillography start,
that is still registered with the oscillography. The Post-fault T parameter is equivalent but
applied to the duration of the signals posterior to the fault. The maximum register duration is
configured in Maximum T.
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Interface Homem-Máquina
Oscilografia
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
T Pré-Defeito: 100
T Pós-Defeito: 60
T Máximo: 1000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 4.34. Parameters Menu (Oscillography).
Table 4.19. Oscillography parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Current Set
1..1
-
1
Pre-fault T
0..200 (50 Hz),
s
100
s
60
s
1000
4
0..240 (60 Hz)
Post-fault T
0..1000 (50 Hz),
0..1200 (60 Hz)
Maximum T
0..1000 (50 Hz),
0..1200 (60 Hz)
4.7.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The logic associated with the oscillography is related with the logical conditions that define the
recording of a new register. These conditions are divided in two groups:
the indications that trigger the recording of an oscillography while they remain active (the
protection functions, for example, where it is desired an oscillography from the start to the
reset of the function);
the ones that originate the recording of an oscillography for a specific period (never longer
than 1 second) defined by an auxiliary logic TIMER (the case of the circuit breaker close
commands, where it is desired to have a recording of the time interval immediately after the
order’s execution).
These different conditions are grouped in a logical variable used by the function to define the
instant of the recording start and end.
Besides the mentioned conditions (protection functions start and circuit breaker close command)
it is also available, by default, a logical input that allows starting oscillography recording by
user’s order or due to a protection’s external event. The oscillographies associated with this
input have a maximum duration defined by TIMER.
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Chapter 4 - Configuration
Table 4.20. Logical variables description of the oscillography module.
Id
Name
Description
8704
Oscillography Recording
Input that triggers the oscillography recording
8705
Oscillography Timed Start
Logical conditions of oscillography recording start
(for a fixed time)
8706
Oscillography Start Gate 1
First group of logical conditions of oscillography
recording start (without associated timer)
8707
Oscillography Start Gate 2
Second group of logical conditions of
oscillography recording start (without associated
timer)
8708
Oscillography
Variable that gathers all three previous logical
conditions
8709
Oscillog Digital Channel 1
...
...
Digital oscillography channels with user allocated
meaning
8748
Oscillog Digital Channel40
4
8705>
Arranque Temp
Oscilografia
8704>
Gravação Oscilografia
OR
OR
O1
O2
41761>Cmd Fecho Disjuntor
I1
O1
I2
O2
3328>Timer 1
I3
8708>
Oscilografia
8706>
Gate 1 Arranq
Oscilografia
OR
3328>Timer 1
OR
I1
15640>Protecção MI Fases
I1
O1
I2
16392>Protecção MI Terra
I2
O2
I3
17155>Sin Arranque Terras Resist
I3
19468>Protec Máximo U Fases
I4
20228>Protec Máximo Tensão Terra
I5
21006>Protec Mínimo U Fases
I6
21780>Protecção Frequência
I7
23304>Protecção Seq Inversa
I8
O1
I4
8707>
Gate 2 Arranq
Oscilografia
OR
I1
O1
O2
Figure 4.35. Logical diagram of the oscillography module.
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5
Chapter
5.
COMMUNICATIONS
This chapter describes the various communication interfaces available in the TPU S420, such as
RS232, RS485, optical fibre connections, Ethernet, Lonworks, etc. On these physical interfaces
various communication protocols for connection to SCADA systems are supported, such as IEC
61850, IEC60870-5-104, DNP3.0, Lonworks, etc. Also available are protocols for horizontal
communication among the various TPU S420 units, such as GOOSE, the Lonworks Distributed
Database and the Ethernet Distributed Database. For each protocol are presented the main
operation features and described the configuration methods of each one of the configurable
parameters, as well as the corresponding default values and ranges.
This chapter also describes the time synchronization through SNTP protocol.
Chapter 5 - Communications
TABLE OF CONTENTS
5.1. SERIAL COMMUNICATION...........................................................................................5-3
Architecture............................................................................................................................5-3
5.1.1. Modem connection......................................................................................................5-3
5.1.2. Configuration...............................................................................................................5-4
5.2. TCP/IP COMMUNICATION.........................................................................................5-5
5.2.1. Architecture .................................................................................................................5-5
5.2.2. Configuration...............................................................................................................5-5
5.2.3. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................5-7
5.3. SCADA PROTOCOLS ...............................................................................................5-8
5.4. DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ..........................................................................................5-10
5.5. LONWORKS PROTOCOL ...........................................................................................5-11
5.5.1. General Architecture................................................................................................. 5-11
5.5.2. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-13
5.5.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-15
5.5.4. Communication with WinProt .................................................................................. 5-18
5.5.5. Lonworks Distributed Database............................................................................... 5-19
5.5.6. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-24
5.6. DNP 3.0 PROTOCOL .............................................................................................5-26
5.6.1. General Architecture................................................................................................. 5-26
5.6.2. Operation Principle................................................................................................... 5-26
5.6.3. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-27
5.6.4. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-30
5.6.5. Communication with WinProt .................................................................................. 5-33
5.7. IEC 60870-5-104 PROTOCOL ..............................................................................5-34
5.7.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-34
5.7.2. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-35
5.7.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-38
5.7.4. Automation Logic..................................................................................................... 5-42
5.8. ETHERNET DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ............................................................................5-43
5.8.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-43
5.8.2. Operation Principles ................................................................................................. 5-43
5.8.3. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-44
5.8.4. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-48
5.9. IEC 61850 PROTOCOL ..........................................................................................5-50
5.9.1. Architecture .............................................................................................................. 5-50
5.9.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 5-50
5.9.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 5-55
5.10. SNTP PROTOCOL................................................................................................5-56
5.10.1. Architecture ............................................................................................................ 5-56
5.10.2. Operation Principles ............................................................................................... 5-56
5.10.3. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 5-56
5.10.4. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 5-57
Total of pages of the chapter: 57
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Chapter 5 - Communications
5.1. SERIAL COMMUNICATION
ARCHITECTURE
All EFACEC’s protection and control units provide one front serial port and at least two rear
ports. When the unit is equipped with the Ethernet board, three rear ports are available. These
serial ports are intended for communication with WinProt, except in the versions that support
DNP3.0 that have COM1 reserved for the protocol and it can’t be used for other purposes.
The rear serial ports identified as COM 1 and COM 2 support RS232 and RS485 connectors,
RS232 converters for glass or plastic optical fibre. The configuration of these ports is
independent of the type of connector used and the change of the type of connector does not
imply updating the unit’s firmware.
By using the various types of converters, several architectures for serial communication with
TPU S420 may be designed, namely:

Ring network using optical converters.

RS485 bus network using RS485 converters.

Point to point connection with RS232 converters.
5
5.1.1. MODEM CONNECTION
The EFACEC’s protection and control units support a connection with WinProt via Modem. For
that purpose it is necessary to have a Modem on the PC side where WinProt is executed and
another Modem on the unit side. Both Modems should be configured so that they are
compatible, having in mind that the characters echo, the flow control and RTS must be disabled.
The configured exit sequence should be ‘+++’.
The Modem on the unit side must be previously configured while the one on the PC side is
configured by WInProt through the Communication window where the desired Start String must
be indicated. It is also necessary to indicate which serial port will be used, the baudrate, the
connection start and end commands and the stand-by time after which the connection should
be terminated.
The connection between WinProt and a unit is established for the first time when WinProt tries to
communicate with that same unit using the Modem as active communication protocol. Once the
connection is established it is shared by the various modules and an icon appears in the
Windows toolbar showing that it is active.
On the other hand, a connection with a unit can be terminated by WinProt in two situations.
Either when nothing is received from the unit during the time period configured in the
configuration window of the Modem parameters; or by using the popup menu activated with the
right-mouse button over the Windows taskbar icon that corresponds to the connection with that
unit.
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5.1.2. CONFIGURATION
The configuration of the serial ports provided by the TPU S420 can be made in WinSettings or in
the unit by using the Communications > Serial Communications > Parameters menu.
Figure 5.1. Configuration menu of the Serial Communication parameters.
5
Table 5.1. Serial Communication parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Serial Address
0 .. 32767
-
0
Front COM> Baudrate
4800 .. 19200
baud
4800
Back COM 1> Baudrate
4800 .. 19200
baud
4800
Back COM 2> Baudrate
4800 .. 19200
baud
4800
Back COM 3> Baudrate
4800
baud
4800
One of the serial communication parameters corresponds to the Serial Address. This parameter
allows identifying the unit when it is in a RS 485 or in an optical fibre network. The configured
value must unique in the network. The Serial Address can have values from 0 to 32767.
It is also necessary to indicate the Baudrate for each one of the ports. All of them allow
baudrates from 4800 to 19200 except for the Ethernet board serial port. This port only allows a
baudrate of 4800 baud. The Baudrate configured for all the ports is 4800 baud.
When the unit executes the BOOT code the Baudrate is 38400 baud for all the ports except for
the front door which is 19200 baud.
In order to allow WinProt to communicate with a unit through a serial port it is necessary to
configure, in the WinProt, the serial protocol option as the active protocol for that unit.
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5.2. TCP/IP COMMUNICATION
5.2.1. ARCHITECTURE
The TPU S420 can be supplied with an Ethernet communication board to communicate through
TCP/ IP. This board serves as basis for several protocols provided by the TPU S420 such as the
direct connection to WinProt through TCP (up to 4 simultaneous connections), the connection to
SCADA systems through the IEC 60870-5-104 protocol or even for horizontal communication
among units through UDP.
The provided Ethernet board has a communication speed of 100 Mbps allowing a high
communication performance. In terms of options two configurations for the Ethernet board are
possible both with two communication ports:
Redundant 100BaseTX Option
This option provides two redundant ports with copper interface. On each moment only one port
is active even if there are valid connections in both ports. Port 1 has preference over port 2, that
is, if there is a valid connection in both ports, only port 1 will be used.
The activation of a port is done in the following situations:
When there is no valid connection in any of the ports and it starts existing in one of them the
corresponding port is activated;
When there is no valid connection in any of the ports and it starts existing in both ports, port
1 is activated;
Redundant 100Base FX Option
This option provides two redundant ports, each one with copper and optical fibre redundant
interface. On each moment only one of the two ports is active even if there are valid connections
in all ports.
As in the previous option, port 1 has preference over port 2. At unit’s start-up the fibre interface
has preference over the copper interface.
To activate a port follow the indications given in the previous option. When no link is detected in
any port, the configured interface will alternate between copper and fibre.
5.2.2. CONFIGURATION
The configuration of the Ethernet board parameters can be made in WinSettings or in the unit by
using the Communications > Ethernet > Parameters menu.
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Comunicações
Ethernet
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Endereço IP: 192. 1. 1. 1
Máscara de Subrede: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192. 1. 1. 1
IP Servidor SNTP: 192. 1. 1. 1
IP Servidor SNTP 2: 192. 1. 1. 1
Tempo Pedidos Servidor: 300
Variação Máxima: 500
Número Mínimo Pacotes SNTP: 5
Timeout Servidor: 300
Modo Funcionamento: MULTICAST
Tempo de Repetição da BDD: 0.100
Tempo de Refrescamento da BDD: 1.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Parâmetros
Tempo Falha de Unidade da BDD: 10.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 5.2. Configuration menu of the Ethernet communication parameters.
5
Table 5.2. Ethernet Parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
IP Address
1.1.1.1 .. 254.254.254.254
-
192.1.1.1
Subnetwork Mask
0.0.0.0 .. 255.255.255.255
-
255.255.255.0
Gateway
1.1.1.1 .. 254.254.254.254
-
192.1.1.1
One of the parameters to be configured corresponds to the Ip Address. This parameter allows
identifying a unit when in a TCP/IP network. The configured value should therefore be unique.
Each IP Address field can have values from 1 to 254. It is not possible to configure Loopback
addresses (127.xxx.xxx.xxx). The default IP Address is 192.1.1.1.
The indication of the Subnetwork Mask is also necessary. The configured default Subnetwork
Mask is 255.255.255.0. Each Subnetwork Mask field can have values from 0 to 255. As in the
previous parameter, loopback addresses cannot be configured for this parameter.
The last parameter necessary for the communication of WinProt with the unit via TCP/IP is
Default Gateway. This parameter is necessary when there is the need to access units not
belonging to the same subnetwork. Each Default Gateway field can have values from 1 to
254 as in the IP Address and loopback addresses are not allowed. The default value of the
Default Gateway parameter is 192.1.1.1.
The Ethernet board MAC address can be seen in the unit through the Communications >
Ethernet > see MAC Address menu. This is a unique address and is stored in the Ethernet
board microcontroller BOOT code.
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5.2.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
Associated with the TCP/IP communication there is a group of logical variables in the Ethernet
module. These variables transmit information about the communication status.
Table 5.3. Description of the logical variables in the Ethernet module.
Id
Name
Description
8192
Communication State
Indicates the communication status.
8193
Ethernet Board Restart
When the Ethernet board starts, a pulse command
is sent to this gate.
8194
Port 1 - 100BaseTX
The state of this gate is active when port 1 is
active and the configured interface corresponds to
the copper interface.
8195
Port 1 - 100BaseFX
The state of this gate is active when port 1 is
active and the configured interface corresponds to
the optical fibre interface.
8196
Port 2 - 100BaseTX
The state of this gate is active when port 2 is
active and the configured interface corresponds to
the copper interface.
8197
Port 2 - 100BaseFX
The state of this gate is active when port 2 is
active and the configured interface corresponds to
the optical fibre interface.
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5.3. SCADA PROTOCOLS
Apart from the unit’s protection and control functions, the TPU S420 allows the connection to a
local area network and the consequent interconnection to substation supervision and control
systems or to remote control centres. Depending on the unit’s version, it can provide one of four
different protocols for interaction with SCADA systems:
IEC60870-5-104 – Available in the ETH version units.
Lonworks – Available in the LON version units.
DNP 3.0 – Available in the DNP version units.
IEC61850 – Available in the 850 version units.
The base architecture of the local protection and control system is based on one or two central
units connected to a network which includes the various protection and control units. The
connection to a local area network also allows the connection to a data concentrator unit that
works as a bridge to the supervision and control system of the network. This hierarchy level is
beyond the scope of this description and it can be based on several network infrastructures
(radio, optical fibre, telephone line, etc.) and on different communication protocols.
Figure 5.3. Typical architecture of the protection and control system.
The functions associated with the connection to the SCADA system through a LAN allow the
TPU S420 to execute a set of operations that are common in terminal units integrated in
supervision and control systems, namely:
Sending logical information to the supervision and control system (single digital indications
and double digital indications);
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Sending analogue information to the supervision and control system (measures, counters,
etc.);
Sending configuration information to the supervision and control system (settings, tables,
etc.);
Reception of controls from the supervision and control system (pulse commands, permanent
commands, analogue commands, etc.);
Reception of information about time synchronization from a synchronization unit integrated
in the supervision and control system.
The time synchronization mechanism can be based on information sent directly by a
synchronization unit (with an integrated GPS system) or indirectly by the local concentrating unit.
It has a precision of 1 ms.
So that the units are synchronized by protocol, the Synchronization parameter in the Set Date
and Time > Parameters menu must be configured with the SCADA value.
In all units that have interaction protocols with SCADA systems, the LAN LED in the front panel
indicates the communication status.
The device profile for the IEC 60870-5-104 and DNP 3.0 protocols and the documents related
with the IEC 61850 protocol can be consulted.
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5.4. DISTRIBUTED DATABASE
Besides the features already presented, the TPU S420 uses the network infrastructure to execute
another type of functions mainly designed for the execution of distributed automation functions
which means they are based on the direct interaction with other units. This function consists in
the horizontal communication among different units through a distributed database associated
with each unit.
Synchronisation
Telecontrol
5
Distributed
Database
Figure 5.4. Distributed database architecture.
The distributed database is a function available in all units of the 420 range. Its main goal is to
quickly transmit information among units in the same LAN. This mechanism allows exchanging
information among any protection and control units of the 420 range, as long as they are
connected in the same local area network.
The main field of application of this function is to carry out distributed automation among the
various units belonging to the same system. These automation functions can perform the
replacement of solutions based on cables, such as the transference of protection tripping as well
as the acceleration of protections, or control functions that use external information, as in the
case of automatic voltage regulation, reactive power control or others.
The units of the 420 range provide two distinct platforms for the distributed database. One of
them is based on the Lonworks protocol while the other is based on UDP. Both will be detailed in
this chapter.
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5.5. LONWORKS PROTOCOL
5.5.1. GENERAL ARCHITECTURE
The base architecture of the local protection and control system is based on one or two central
units connected to a local area network with an optical fibre or twisted pair ring topology and
that integrates the various protection units of the same network. The system can have up to 60
units connected in the same ring.
The ring network topology allows a correct operation in case one of the connections is broken.
However the general operation of the system with the ring open may present a problem if one
more connection is broken thus creating islands composed by some units isolated from the rest
of the system.
The local area network is based on a ring network that has a glass optical fibre communication
media with SMA or ST type connectors. The communication rate is 1.25 Mb/s. The network
protocol is based on the LONTALK protocol upon which the highest level layers are implemented
which is defined in a PUR 2.1 protocol variant. This protocol is thus also implemented in the
EFACEC’s Central Unit and owned by EFACEC.
Entities Types
The following entities are defined in the TPU S420:
Digital variables – These variables correspond to logical indications of the unit.
Analogue measures – They correspond to all the measures processed in the unit including
the calculated ones. They are sent in floating point format.
Counters – They are associated with integer type measures existing in the unit. They are
sent in integer format.
Tables – They correspond to structures of data, records, etc., which have a variable
dimension and that are sent to or received by the unit.
Controls – Normally they are controls generated by the control centre aiming at performing
an operation in the unit.
Parameters – They correspond to the parameters of all functions available in the unit.
Entities Attributes
All defined entities can be received from or sent to the TPU S420. Their transmission normally
has a set of attributes that better describe the entity. These attributes depend on the type of
entity and are created and processed automatically by the unit. The following attributes are
defined:
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Validity – It indicates if the variable is valid or not, that is, if the sent value must be processed
as a correct value or not.
Value – It indicates the entity value and as such it depends on the type of associated entity. If
it is a digital indication, it will contain the logical state; if it is a measure or a counter, it will
contain the respective value; if it is a control, it will contain its associated state or value.
Cause – It indicates the cause that led to the transmission of the entity. In the case of logical
variables, this attribute represents the reason of the logical state transition. It is normally
used to characterize the circuit breaker state changes where it is very useful to know in a
single message the cause associated with the manoeuvre. The defined causes are:
Table 5.4. List of causes
Id
Description
0
No associated cause
1
State change
2
Validity change
3
By request
7
By time delay
128
External local command (button)
129
UAC Local command
130
Remote command
131
Automation command
132
Protections command
5
In the case of analogue measures the transmission cause is configured in WinSettings through
the parameters of the Lonworks function. The defined causes for sending measures are:
Cyclical, after a configurable time delay;
By Jitter, that is, only when the value change exceeds a defined range;
Cyclical plus jitter, combining the previous two.
The logical controls on the unit can be of two different types:
Pulse Controls – Controls that are sent only with the logical state 1. The protection is
responsible for generating a transition with logical state 1 and then other transition with
logical state 0. This procedure allows that only one command from the Central Unit is
needed for commanding apparatus.
Permanent Controls – Controls that are sent with a specific logical state. The unit is only
responsible for generating a transition with that logical state. This type of control is useful for
executing interlockings from remote supervision and control centres.
The parameters, as the logical controls, can be of two different types:
Digital Parameters – They are function parameters which can only have two states: ON or
OFF.
Analogue Parameters – They are parameters associated with the data of the functions.
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5.5.2. OPERATION P RINCIPLES
The correct operation when connecting the unit to the local area network implies the following
conditions:
Have one or more protection units with a Lonworks communication board;
Have a central unit running on a local PC;
Have all the connections infrastructure among the units and the central unit, namely the ring
connection through the optical fibre;
Configure all units connected to the network correctly;
Configure the central unit database correctly.
When all these conditions are fulfilled, the start-up and network configuration is done during the
central unit start-up process. Only after it is started and the correct configuration of each unit it
is possible to normally operate the system.
Although the mechanisms of central unit database configuration are not in the scope of this
document, it is essential that the configuration fulfils the following:
A node corresponding to the unit’s address must be defined.
5
All digital entities defined in the database are being sent by the unit.
All measures defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent
by the unit.
All counters defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent by
the unit.
The system operation essentially consists of sending and receiving data from both ends of the
system: the protection and control terminal units and the local/remote supervision and control
centre. This operation implies a group of configurations which are part of the SCADA system
and not of the unit. An example is the substation’s mimic which is normally in the central unit or
in a remote post.
In what concerns the reception of information, the operator can give controls to the unit, which
include all commands on the manoeuvrable apparatus, interlocking commands or commands
associated with remote configuration actions. Sending information generated by the unit will
include essentially analogue information, usually the bay measures, logical events associated
with state transitions and information about its own status. All the information is received and
processed in the central unit which will store, display and correctly format it, for retransmission
according to the higher hierarchy protocols.
Mechanisms against Communications Failure
Communications failure may have different causes, which vary from a failure in the network
hardware infrastructure to a failure in the units themselves. Therefore some mechanisms were
defined to decrease the consequences of these failures, namely:
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Unit resynchronization – Whenever a communication failure with the unit is detected, the
central unit resynchronizes it as soon as the unit starts-up. This operation consists of
initializing the network board and refreshing all database information associated with the
failed unit, in order to have a permanent coherent image of all unit information.
General Control Request – The general control request consists of enquiring a unit to
obtain the current state of all respective information defined in the central unit database.
Unit Temporary Storing – To avoid temporary failure situations which do not change the
unit synchronization state, the unit has the capability of temporarily store the generated
analogue and digital events that can be transmitted later.
Connection Oriented Protocol – There is another important mechanism which has to do
with the protocol used to transmit messages. To assure that all messages are delivered
correctly this protocol was conceived to be connection oriented, that is, with message
delivery acknowledgment.
A set of information associated with the communication status can be consulted through the
Communications > Lonworks > Information menu or through the WinReports module in the
Hardware Information record. This information contains the number of repeated messages, the
number of errors, among other data.
Debug Mechanisms
To access the unit’s operation, as terminal unit of the SCADA system, the TPU S420 has a group
of menus where the unit’s communication status can be seen in real time. The central unit itself
also provides a communications trace function with which all sent and received information from
the various network units can be seen. This information includes a detailed amount of
information about the status of the internal communication with the network board and
between this and the central unit, namely:

Status of communication with the network.

Internal status of the network board.

Number of synchronization messages.

Number of repeated messages.
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Comunicações
LonWorks
Informações
Informações
Estado Comunicações: ON
Mensagens Erradas: 0
Mensagens Repetidas: 22
Limpar Contadores Mensagens
Reset do Neuron Chip
Enviar Service Pin
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 5.5. LonWorks Communication Information Menu with debug information.
5.5.3. CONFIGURATION
The Lonworks protocol parameters can be configured and consulted in WinSettings in the
Lonworks function. The Location String can also be consulted and configured in the unit’s
menu.
The configuration of the available SCADA functions in the unit implies firstly the definition of the
unit’s address. This information is done by configuring the Location String parameter. This
parameter should have the same value as the corresponding defined value in the central unit
and it should be unique in the network.
You should also be aware that the first two digits of the Location String should contain a
number from 00 to 60, for example 029999, since these two digits define the address for the
other units on the same network and are thus indispensable for the horizontal communication
among units.
Comunicações
LonWorks
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Location String: 029999
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 5.6. Location String Configuration Menu.
If the network board is not correctly configured, its configuration process should be executed
through the LoadNodes application supplied with the central unit. This application allows
configuring the network board firmware, including the address.
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The unit’s network address configuration, when it is done for the first time, needs making a
network board identification operation, namely the identification of the network board
microcontroller – Neuron ID. This identification belongs to each board and is unique in the
global context and is acquired in two distinct ways:
By using the SERV button available at the rear of the unit.
By using the unit local interface through the Communications > Lonworks > Information >
Send Service Pin menu.
It is also possible to restart Communications by pressing the RST key available at the rear of
the unit or through the restart Communications menu. You should select the
Communications > Lonworks > Information > Neuron Chip Reset menu.
Comunicações
LonWorks
Informações
Informações
Estado Comunicações: ON
Mensagens Erradas: 0
Mensagens Repetidas: 22
Limpar Contadores Mensagens
Reset do Neuron Chip
Enviar Service Pin
5
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 5.7. Send Service Pin and Reset Neuron Chip commands access menu.
Measures and Counters
The configuration of the measures and counters to report to SCADA is made in WinSettings. This
is the only way to configure the sending of measures and counters, since there is no other way
of doing it through the unit local menus. The TPU S420 allows sending a maximum of 16
measures and 8 counters.
The sending of SCADA measures can be defined according to the following criteria and
separately for each one of the measures defined in the TPU S420 through the Measure n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the measure index:
If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
Measure > Time parameter.
If it is a jitter sending, it is possible to define the associated jitter by configuring the Measure
n > Jitter parameters. The configured jitter corresponds to a percentage of the measure
nominal value whose variation should be reported in case it is higher than that value. For
example for a measure whose nominal value is 1A, by setting the jitter with the value 20 %,
the measure will only be reported if the difference between the last value sent to SCADA and
the current value is higher than 0,20 A.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure both Measure n > Time and
Measure n > Jitter parameters.
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As in measures, sending counters to SCADA can also be defined according to various criteria
and separately for each one of the counters defined in the unit through the Measure (Int) n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the counter index:
If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
parameter Measure (Int) n > Time.
If it is a jitter sending, in the counters case, as its variation is limited to discrete values it is not
possible to configure the jitter parameter – its value is always 1.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure the Measure (Int) n > Time
parameter.
Digital Indications
The configuration of the single logical indications sent to the LAN should be made in the
WinSettings configuration module which is part of the WinProt application. To activate the
sending of single logical indications to the LAN, you just have to select the desired module and
gate. This is the only way of configuring the sending of single indication since it cannot be done
through the unit’s local menus. The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 128 single
digital indications.
The configuration of double indications sent to the LAN should also be made in WinSettings. To
activate the sending of a double indication to the LAN, select the desired module and gate. The
state reported to SCADA will correspond to the state of the selected gate along with the state of
the following gate. For example, if the Open Circuit Breaker gate of the Circuit Breaker module is
configured as double indication, the state reported to the LAN will correspond to the
combination of the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate with the state of the following gate, in
this case the Closed Circuit Breaker gate. The least significant bit of the state reported to SCADA
will correspond to the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate while the bit immediately to its left
will correspond to the state of the Closed Circuit Breaker gate.
Regarding validity, a double indication becomes invalid if at least one of the single digitals
associated with it becomes invalid. Causal associations for double indications are not supported.
The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 16 double digital indications.
Controls
The configuration of the controls received in the TPU S420 is made in the WinSettings module
such as the sending of indications to SCADA. For that purpose indicate the desired module and
gate in the Command n parameter and the desired type, PULSE or INDICATION in the
Command n > Type parameter. It is possible to configure a maximum of 32 controls.
The configuration of commands of PULSE type allows that single commands received from the
supervision and control system can be processed in the unit as pulse commands, that is, with
the logical state varying automatically from 1 and then to 0. The circuit breaker opening orders
are a typical example.
The configuration of remote indications has as main application the possibility of defining
remote interlockings executed through controls coming from the local or remote supervision
and control system.
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Parameters
The main purpose of the Remote Configuration is to allow the remote configuration of the
various parameters of the unit.
The configuration of the parameters received in the TPU S420 is, as the previous entities, made
in the WinSettings module. For that purpose indicate in the Parameter n parameter the desired
function and parameter. It is possible to configure a maximum of 64 parameters. These
parameters can be interpreted in the central unit as analogue or digital parameters depending
on the configuration made.
Changing data is done parameter by parameter; their check and validation is responsibility of
the unit. The supervision and control centres only have to indicate the parameter identification
and respective value. This means that when you want to change any function with several
parameters that corresponds to a set of changes of values and respective sending of messages.
In functional terms there are several possible hypotheses: the central unit may want to know the
parameter current state before it changes it, it may simply change or consult it only.
Table 5.5. LonWorks protocol parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Location String
000000 .. 999999
-
011000
Measure n
Measures defined in the TPU S420
-
No Allocation
Measure n > Send
OFF / TIME / JITTER /
TIME+JITTER
-
OFF
Measure n > Time
1 .. 60
s
5
Measure n > Jitter
0.5 ... 100
%
0.5
Measure n (Int)
Counters defined in the TPU S420
-
No Allocation
Measure n (Int) > Send
OFF / TIME / JITTER /
TIME+JITTER
-
OFF
Measure n (Int) > Time
1 .. 60
s
5
Indication n
Gates defined in the unit
-
Double Indication n
Gates defined in the unit
-
Command n
Gates defined in the unit
-
Parameter n
Parameters defined in the unit
-
5.5.4. COMMUNICATION
WITH
WINP ROT
The protection and control units in LON version support communication with WinProt through a
connection to EFACEC’s Lonworks Scanner.
For WinProt to comunicate
For WinProt to communicate with a unit through Lonworks, the unit should be correctly
configured in the local network as well as the PC where WinProt is installed. In WinProt it must be
indicated the Location String of the unit one desires to communicate and the central unit
address. The Lonworks protocol must also be configured as active protocol for that unit.
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5.5.5. LONWORKS DISTRIBUTED D ATABASE
The distributed database, as indicated by its name, is the method each unit has to communicate
its information, necessary in other units, to the network and at the same time to access other
units’ information, that is, other distributed databases.
This horizontal communication mechanism has already been implemented in the last generation
units (TPU x410) with the same philosophy. Due to that fact there is a complete compatibility in
information exchange through the distributed database among the units of the 410 and 420
ranges.
The distributed database is based on a group of network variables defined in the Lontalk
protocol. These network variables have a 32 bytes length, but only 23 of them have useful
information. The remaining bytes are used by the system. The information placed in this data
structure is divided into three main types:
Digital Indications: up to 64 digital indications can be transmitted, using for that purpose
the first 8 bytes from the distributed database structure. The indication is represented to the
bit and each one represents the logical state of each one of the digital indications.
Analogue Measures: Up to 3 float type measures can be transmitted; each one occupies 4
bytes.
5
Counters: Up to 3 counters can be transmitted; each one occupies 1 byte.
The database structure is fixed and the user can configure all transmitted information, whether
they are digital entities, analogue entities or counters as can be seen next:
LSB
MSB
Digitials (8 bytes)
Measure 1 (4 bytes)
Measure 2 (4 bytes)
Measure 3 (4 bytes)
Counter 1 (1 byte)
Counter 2 (1 byte)
Counter 3 (1 byte)
Figure 5.8. Data structure of the Distributed Database.
Operation Principles
The distributed database is based on three basic principles:
Each distributed database is broadcast to the network. The sending unit does not need to
know which units will consume information because all receive it.
It is the receiving units’ responsibility to decide which information to process. It is on the
receiving units that the configuration of the databases they are interested in should be made.
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Finally the distributed database refresh mechanism consists in the retransmission, by each
sending node, whenever the associated information changes or periodically, after this
refreshment, after a period defined in the database of the central unit.
From these basic principles the following conclusions can be drawn:
Each unit can simultaneously be a sending node and a reception node.
Each reception node can receive all distributed databases except its own.
The configuration of the information to be received is always made on the side of the receiver
units having in mind what the sending units are transmitting at each moment.
The configuration of the information to be sent is made in the sending units.
Even if a unit starts operating long after the others, it will be refreshed with their updated
information without the need to occur a change of data on those units.
Interaction with the Central Unit
The distributed database function does not need the central unit to be running. However, it is
absolutely necessary that it runs at least once, to execute the network variables bindings that are
used to support the distributed databases. Once the network is initialized, the central unit can be
powered off.
After the central unit powers off, all the units that are added to the network will not have the
distributed database operating correctly. This is also true for the power off and power on of the
units that were in the network. In both cases the central unit must be restarted.
Mechanisms against Communications Failure
The matter of the recovering mechanisms against Communications failures should be analysed
taking into account that each unit can send or receive distributed databases.

Failure in the Sending Unit
The failure of a sending unit is detected in the reception unit by the network board. The
detection process consists in checking the periodically sending of the distributed database by
the sending nodes. If the sending node takes three times longer than the time of retransmission
of the distributed database, each reception node will assume the sending unit as failed and
assume the default data as the information it was receiving from the failed unit. If it was
receiving digital indications, they will be set to the logical state 0. If it was receiving measures or
counters, they will be set to 0. In case it is a temporary failure, as soon as the communications
are restored the protection will be refreshed with the correct information. In the Lonworks
module are available 60 indications [Failure in the Ddb Unit 1 .. Failure in the Ddb Unit 60]
which are activated whenever a sending unit in which the reception unit is interested in is
considered failed.

Failure in the Reception Unit
The failure of the reception unit does not interfere with the sending units. However this failure
may be due to a problem in the communications channel only affecting that unit. In these cases
the procedure is the same as the one used for the case of failure in the sending unit, that is, all
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values are set to the default values. Note that the reception unit may not distinguish a failure in a
sending unit from its powering off from the network.
In case of power off and posterior power on of the unit, the central unit must be operating
correctly, so that the unit can send and receive the distributed database correctly. If this does not
happen, the connected unit will not operate correctly in terms of sending and receiving
distributed database.
Mechanisms of Real Time Analysis
The TPU S420 provides in real time a group of information about the state of all information
received through the distributed database. This information consists in the state of logical
variables and in the values of measures and counters received from the distributed database.
It is possible to consult, using the logic edition module Winlogic, the logical state of each of the
128 logical variables received through the distributed database. For that purpose consult the
gates state [From Ddb: Generic Var 1 . . From Ddb: Generic Var 128] of the Lonworks
module. These gates can be connected to any other gates.
To consult the value of each measure and counter received through the distributed database use
the collect and register analysis module, WinReports, and consult the measures and counters
value referring to the distributed database.
5
Configuration
The configuration of the distributed database consists in the definition of the digital and
analogue information received and transmitted in the distributed database. This information
should consider the needs of the remaining acquisition or protection units in the network and is
done in the function configuration module – WinSettings – and the distributed database
parameters can be found in the Lonworks function.

Digital Indications to Send
The configuration of the 64 digital indications that will be sent to the network is made
exclusively through the WinSettings by indicating for each one the desired module and gate for
the parameters For Ddb> Indication 1 . . For Ddb > Indication 64.

Digital Indications to Receive
The configuration of the logical indications to receive takes the existence of the 128 logical
variables in the Lonworks module into account; these variables can be updated from any
protection unit. For each one of them it must be defined the source protection unit and its
position in the database. The source unit corresponds to the first two digits in that unit’s
Location String and it affects the parameter From Ddb >Indication n - Unit, n from 1 to 128.
The position in the database corresponds to the order of the bit in the database and it is
configured through the parameter From Ddb > Indication n - Index, n from 1 to 128.

Analogue Measures to Send
The configuration of the sent measures consists in the definition of the 3 measures possible to
send through the distributed database. The choice is made from a list of all the defined and
calculated measures in the unit. It is therefore possible to transmit any measure at user’s choice
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in one of 3 possible positions. This configuration is carried out through the For Ddb > Measure
n parameter where n varies from 1 to 3 and has the identification of the measure to be sent.
Sending measures is dependent on the unit precision, that is, whenever the unit detects a
change in a measure, that measure will also be refreshed through the distributed database,
where the jitter is the internal precision of the unit’s measure system. This feature is important
for the implementation of functions that depend on external analogue information, as is the
case of functions such as the reactive power control of capacitors.

Analogue Measures to Receive
The configuration of analogue measures is made in the same way as the digital indications. In
the list of possible measures in the protection is defined a group of 20 measures that can be
received in the distributed database, some of them already with meaning, such as reactive
powers. These measures are important because they can be used for internal functions of the
unit, thus their definition. For example, the reactive powers can be used in the TPU C420 in the
Reactive Power Control automation.
For each one of them it is possible to define the sending unit and the respective measure (from
the 3 measures sent by the sending units) by defining the From Ddb > Measure n - Unit and
From Ddb > Measure n - Index parameters, n varies from 1 to 20.

5
Counters to Send
Counters are configured, such as measures, from a list of counters available in the unit through
the To Ddb > Counter n parameter where n varies from 1 to 3 and has the identification of the
counter to be sent. The counters transmitted in the distributed database are bytes (values from 0
to 255) and have a jitter of 1 unit. Thus, whenever they change value, they are automatically
transmitted to the network.

Counters to Receive
The counters follow the same philosophy as the measures. There is a pre-defined group of
counters – 10 counters – that can be separately configured to be updated from a unit at choice
and the respective counter (from the 3 possible ones) by defining the From Ddb > Counter n Unit and From Ddb > Counter n - Index parameters, n varies from 1 to10.
Table 5.6. Parameters associated with the distributed database.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
From Ddb> Indication n – Unit
0..60
-
0
From Ddb > Indication n – Index
1..64
-
1
From Ddb > Measure n – Unit
0..60
-
0
From Ddb > Measure n – Index
1..3
-
1
From Ddb > Counter n – Unit
0..60
-
0
From Ddb > Counter n – Index
1..3
-
1
To Ddb > Indication n
Indications defined in
the unit
-
To Ddb > Measure n
Measures defined in
the unit
-
NO
ALLOCATION
To Ddb > Counter n
Counters defined in
-
NO
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Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
the unit
ALLOCATION
Configuration Example
The goal of the following application example is to provide a better perception of the distributed
database operation and configuration mode. The system is formed by 3 sending and receiving
units with the Location Strings 010000, 020000 and 600000. The following operation is desired:
Unit 01 should know from unit 60 the Logic Selectivity Blocking state.
Unit 02 should know from unit 01 the circuit breaker state and the observed reactive power.
Unit 60 should know from unit 01 the observed position of the tap changer.
RTU
T
U
P
S3
0
0
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
=
IrIr==
r=
r
22
220
220
00
AA
K2
2
K
VV
U
U
=
IrIr==
r=
r
22
220
220
00
AA
2
K
2
K
VV
60 kV
LAN
5
T
U
P
S3
0UU
0
T
U
P
S3
0UU
0
==
IrIr==
r2r2
220
220
02
0AA
K
2
K
VV
==
IrIr==
r2r2
220
220
02
0AA
KK
2
VV
Changeover
tap
Logical
Trip Lock
TPU 02
Circuit breaker
Status
Active Power
15 kV
T
U
P
S3
0
0
U
U
IrIr==
r2r=
2
220
0AA
220
02
2
K
K
VV
T
U
P
S3
0
0
U
U
IrIr==
r2r=
2
220
0AA
220
02
2
K
K
VV
T
U
P
S3
0
0
U
U
IrIr==
r2r=
2
220
0AA
220
02
2
K
K
VV
TPU 60
T
U
P
S3
0
0
U
U
IrIr==
r2r=
2
220
0AA
220
02
2
K
K
VV
TPU 01
Figure 5.9. Example of the distributed database configuration.
Unit 010000 Configuration
In WinSettings configure, in the Lonworks function, the To Ddb> Indication 64 parameter
with Circuit Breaker in the Value field and Circuit Breaker State in the Value 2 field.
Configure the Indication 1 received from the Ddb to be updated from unit 60 with index 1.
For that purpose configure the From Ddb> Indication 1 – Unit parameter with the value 60
and the From Ddb > Indication 1 - Index parameter with the value 1.
Configure To Ddb > Measure 20 with Reactive Power.
Configure To Ddb > Counter 1 with Tap Changer Position.
Unit 020000 Configuration
In WinSettings configure, in the Lonworks function, the Indication 1 received from the Ddb to
be updated from unit 01 with the index 64. For that purpose configure the From Ddb>
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Indication 1 - Unit parameter with value 01 and the From Ddb > Indication 1 - Index
parameter with the value 64.
Configure the measure Reactive Power of the Ddb to be updated from unit 01 position 64.
For that purpose configure the From Ddb> Measure 2 - Unit parameter with the value 01
and the From Ddb> Measure 2 - index with the value 20.
Unit 600000 Configuration
In WinSettings configure, in the Lonworks function, the To Ddb> Indication 1 parameter with
Overcurrent Protection in the Value field and Logic Selectivity Blocking in the Value 2 field.
Configure the Ddb Tap Changer counter to be updated from unit 01 position 1. For that
purpose configure the From Ddb> Counter 1 - Unit parameter with the value 01 and the
From Ddb > Counter 1 - Index parameter with the value 1.
5.5.6. AUTOMATION LOGIC
Associated with the Lonworks protocol there is a module constituted by a group of logical
variables used for sending and receiving logical indications. These indications are divided into
two large groups. The first one is formed by 5 logical variables that show information regarding
the Lonworks protocol.
The second group of logical variables refers to the variables which are associated with the
distributed database. It is constituted by 60 logical variables for the purpose of failed protection
units indication and by 128 variables that are updated through the reception of databases from
other units.
Table 5.7. Description of the logical variables of the Lonworks module.
Id
Name
Description
7936
LAN Communication Board
This indication shows the Lonworks board status –
Out of Order or Operational.
7937
LAN Communication Status
This gate, as the LAN led, shows
communication status with the central unit.
7938
LAN Invalid Command
When an invalid command is received from the
network, a pulse command is transmitted to this
gate.
7939
LAN Remote Commands Blocked
When this indication is active, the commands
received from the LAN are ignored.
7940
LAN Information Loss
Whenever loss of information in the network
message sending or reception is registered, a
pulse command is sent to this gate.
7941
From Ddb: Generic Var 1
...
...
128 Indications that are updated from
databases received from other units.
8068
From Ddb: Generic Var 128
8069
Ddb Unit 1 Failure
...
...
8128
Ddb Unit 60 Failure
the
the
Indications that are activated whenever a sending
unit which is being received is assumed as failed.
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Additionally to the indications referred in Table 5.7 are also available the variables corresponding
to parameters change and function logic.
5
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5.6. DNP 3.0 PROTOCOL
In the DNP version, the TPU S420 allows the connection to a local area network based on a
DNP 3.0 network and thus the interconnection to the substation supervision and control system
or to remote control centres.
5.6.1. GENERAL ARCHITECTURE
The base architecture of the local protection and control system is based on one or two central
units connected to a local area network with a serial interface in an optical fibre ring topology or
in a RS485 topology.
5.6.2. OPERATION P RINCIPLE
The DNP3.0 network protocol is based on a serial protocol. In units with this firmware version
the serial port identified as COM 1 is exclusively allocated to the protocol.
The local area network can be implemented on a plastic or glass optical fibre ring topology or it
can be based on a RS485 interface, depending on the connector used for COM 1. In both cases
the communication rate is configurable and can have a value from 4800 baud to 19200 baud.
Entities Types
According to the DNP3.0 protocol the following entities are defined in the TPU S420:
Digital Variables – These variables correspond to logical indications of the unit;
Analogue Measures – They correspond to all measures processed in the unit including the
calculated ones. They are sent in floating point format;
Counters – They are associated with integer type measures existing in the unit. They are
sent in integer format.
Controls – Normally they are controls generated by the control centre aiming at performing
an operation in the unit.
Parameters – They correspond to the parameters of all functions available in the unit.
Files – All information exchanged between the unit’s configuration program, WinProt, and
the unit has as basis the file transfer mechanisms foreseen by the protocol.
Entities Attributes
All defined entities can be received from or sent to the TPU S420. Their transmission normally
has a set of attributes that better describe the entity. These attributes depend on the type of
entity and are created and processed automatically by the unit. The following attributes are
defined:
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Validity – It indicates if the variable is valid or not, that is, if the sent value must be processed
as a correct value or not.
Value – It indicates the entity value and as such it depends on the type of associated entity. If
it is a digital indication, it will contain the logical state; if it is a measure or a counter, it will
contain the respective value; if it is a control, it will contain its associated state or value.
In the case of analogue measures the transmission cause is configured in WinSettings through
the parameters of the DNP function. The defined causes for sending measures are:
Cyclical, after a configurable time delay;
By Jitter, that is, only when the value change exceeds a defined range;
Cyclical plus jitter, combining the previous two.
The logical controls on the unit can be of two different types:
Pulse Controls – Controls that are sent only with the logical state 1. The protection is
responsible for generating a transition with logical state 1 and then other transition with
logical state 0. This procedure allows that only one command from the Central Unit is
needed for commanding apparatus.
Permanent Controls – Controls that are sent with a specific logical state. The unit is only
responsible for generating a transition with that logical state. This type of control is useful for
executing interlockings from remote supervision and control centres.
The parameters, as the logical controls, can be of two different types:
Digital Parameters – They are function parameters which can only have two states: ON or
OFF.
Analogue Parameters – They are parameters associated with the data of the functions.
5.6.3. OPERATION P RINCIPLES
The correct operation when connecting the unit to the local area network implies the following
conditions:
Have one or more protection units with the DNP firmware version;
Have a central unit running on a local PC;
Have all the connections infrastructure among the units and the central unit running in the
PC;
Configure all units connected to the network correctly;
Configure the central unit database correctly.
When all these conditions are fulfilled, the start-up and network configuration is done during the
central unit start-up process. Only after it is started and the correct configuration of each unit, it
is possible to normally operate the system.
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Although the mechanisms of the central unit database configuration are not in the scope of this
document, it is essential that the configuration fulfils the following:
A node corresponding to the unit’s address must be defined.
The unit must be correctly configured in the central unit both in application and logical levels.
All digital entities defined in the database are being sent by the unit.
All measures defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent
by the unit.
All counters defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent by
the unit.
The system operation essentially consists of sending and receiving data from both ends of the
system: the protection and control terminal units and the local/remote supervision and control
centre. This operation implies a group of configurations which are part of the SCADA system
and not of the unit. An example is the substation’s mimic which is normally in the central unit or
in a remote post.
In what concerns the reception of information, the operator can give controls to the unit, which
include all commands on the manoeuvrable apparatus, interlocking commands or commands
associated with remote configuration actions. Sending information generated by the unit will
include essentially analogue information, usually the bay measures, logical events associated
with state transitions and information about its own status. All the information is received and
processed in the central unit which will store, display and correctly format it, for retransmission
according to the higher hierarchy protocols.
Mechanisms against Communications Failure
Communications failure may have different causes that vary from a failure in the network
hardware infrastructure to a failure in the units themselves. Therefore some mechanisms were
defined to decrease the consequences of these failures, namely:
Unit resynchronization – Whenever a communication failure with the unit is detected, the
central unit resynchronizes it as soon as the unit starts-up. This operation consists of
initializing the DNP 3.0 protocol and refreshing all database information associated with the
failed unit, in order to have a permanent coherent image of all unit information.
General Control Request – The general control request consists of enquiring a unit to
obtain the current state of all respective information defined in the central unit database.
Class 1 Entities Request – The information request of class 1 entities consists of enquiring
a unit to obtain the events associated with the class 1 entities.
Class 2 Entities Request – The information request of class 2 entities consists of enquiring
a unit to obtain the events associated with the class 2 entities.
Class 3 Entities Request – The information request of class 3 entities consists of enquiring
a unit to obtain the events associated with the class 3 entities.
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Unit Temporary Storing – To avoid temporary failure situations which do not change the
unit synchronization state, the unit has the capability of temporarily store the generated
analogue and digital events that can be transmitted later.
Connection Oriented Protocol – There is another important mechanism which has to do
with the protocol used to transmit messages. To assure that all messages are delivered
correctly this protocol was conceived to be connection oriented, that is, with message
delivery acknowledgment.
A set of information associated with the communication status can be consulted through the
Communications > DNP 3.0 > Information menu or through the WinReports module in the
Hardware Information record. This information contains the number of repeated messages, the
number of errors, among other data.
Debug Mechanisms
To access the unit’s operation, as a terminal unit of the SCADA system, TPU S420 has a group of
menus where the unit’s communication status can be seen in real time, namely:

Network Communication Status.

Number of Messages with error.

Number of Repeated Messages.

Reset Message Counters
5
Comunicações
DNP 3.0
Informações
Informações
Estado Comunicações: ON
Mensagens Erradas: 0
Mensagens Repetidas: 8
Limpar Contadores Mensagens
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 5.10. DNP 3.0 Communication Information Menu with debug information.
The central unit itself also provides a communications trace function with which all sent and
received information from the various network units can be seen. This information includes a
detailed amount of information about the status of the internal communication with the network
board and between this and the central unit.
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5.6.4. CONFIGURATION
The configuration of the available SCADA functions in the unit implies firstly the definition of the
unit’s address. This is done by configuring the DNP Address parameter. This parameter should
have the same value as the corresponding defined value in the central unit and should be unique
in the network. It can be configured with values from 0 to 32767 and its default value is 2. It is
also necessary to indicate the DNP Master Address which corresponds to the central unit
address in the network. This address, as the previous one, can have values from 0 to 32767 and
its default value is 1. These parameters can be configured and consulted in the unit’s menu or
using the WinSettings.
Comunicações
DNP 3.0
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Endereço DNP: 2
Endereço Master DNP: 1
5
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 5.11. Configuration Menu of the DNP 3.0 protocol parameters.
There is another group of parameters that can only be configured in the DNP 3.0 function of
WinSettings. One of these parameters corresponds to Link Confirmation. This parameter can be
configured as NEVER or SOMETIMES, the first one is the default value. The Timeout Link
parameter can have values from 0 to 32767 milliseconds. Its default value is 3000 milliseconds.
Link Resend is the next parameter to configure for DNP 3.0 protocol. It can be configured with
values from 0 to 255 and its default value is 2. The next parameter is Application
Confirmation. It can be configured as ON or OFF, OFF being its default value. The
Communication Timeout parameter corresponds to the interval after which the unit should
assume communication failure with the central unit, if nothing has been received. This time
interval can be configured from 0 to 32767 seconds and its default value is 60 seconds. The
next parameter corresponds to Report by Exception. Its value can be configured as ON or OFF.
It indicates whether the events should be immediately reported to SCADA or not, that is, if its
value is ON the events are immediately reported to SCADA, otherwise the events are only
reported when the central unit enquires the unit with a request of events of the class they belong
to. Its default value is OFF. In a ring network, this parameter should be configured with its
default value. The Indications Class parameter indicates the class to which the indications
belong. It can be configured as NONE, CLASS 1, CLASS 2 or CLASS 3, the first is its default value.
The Measures Class parameter is equivalent to the previous parameter but indicating in which
class the measures and counters should be reported.
Measures and Counters
The configuration of the measures and counters to report to SCADA is made in WinSettings. This
is the only way to configure the sending of measures and counters, since there is no other way
of doing it through the unit local menus. The TPU S420 allows sending a maximum of 16
measures and 8 counters.
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The sending of SCADA measures can be defined according to the following criteria and
separately for each one of the measures defined in the TPU S420 through the Measure n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the measure index:
If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
Measure > Time parameter.
If it is a jitter sending, it is possible to define the associated jitter by configuring the Measure
n > Jitter parameters. The configured jitter corresponds to a percentage of the measure
nominal value whose variation should be reported in case it is higher than that value. For
example for a measure whose nominal value is 1A, by setting the jitter with the value 20 %,
the measure will only be reported if the difference between the last value sent to SCADA and
the current value is higher than 0,20 A.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure both Measure n > Time and
Measure n > Jitter parameters.
As in measures, sending counters to SCADA can also be defined according to various criteria
and separately for each one of the counters defined in the unit through the Measure (Int) n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the counter index:
If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
parameter Measure (Int) n > Time.
If it is a jitter sending, in the counters case, as its variation is limited to discrete values it is not
possible to configure the jitter parameter – its value is always 1.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure the Measure (Int) n > Time
parameter.
Digital Indications
The configuration of the single logical indications sent to the LAN should be made in the
WinSettings configuration module which is part of the WinProt application. To activate the
sending of single logical indications to the LAN, you just have to select the desired module and
gate. This is the only way of configuring the sending of single indication since it cannot be done
through the unit’s local menus. The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 128 single
digital indications.
The configuration of double indications sent to the LAN should also be made in WinSettings. To
activate the sending of a double indication to the LAN, select the desired module and gate. The
state reported to SCADA will correspond to the state of the selected gate along with the state of
the following gate. For example, if the Open Circuit Breaker gate of the Circuit Breaker module is
configured as double indication, the state reported to the LAN will correspond to the
combination of the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate with the state of the following gate, in
this case the Closed Circuit Breaker gate. The least significant bit of the state reported to SCADA
will correspond to the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate while the bit immediately to its left
will correspond to the state of the Closed Circuit Breaker gate.
Regarding validity, a double indication becomes invalid if at least one of the single digitals
associated with it becomes invalid.
The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 16 double digital indications.
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Controls
EFACEC’s protection and control units support all type of single digital controls defined in the
DNP 3.0 protocol.
The configuration of the controls received in the TPU S420 is made in the WinSettings module
such as the sending of indications to SCADA. For that purpose indicate the desired module and
gate in the Command n parameter. It is possible to configure a maximum of 32 controls.
The configuration of commands of PULSE type allows that single commands received from the
supervision and control system can be processed in the unit as pulse commands, that is, with
the logical state varying automatically from 1 and then to 0. The circuit breaker opening orders
are a typical example.
The configuration of remote indications has as main application the possibility of defining
remote interlockings executed through controls coming from the local or remote supervision
and control system.
Parameters
The main purpose of the Remote Configuration is to allow the remote configuration of the
various parameters of the unit.
The configuration of the parameters received in the TPU S420 is, as the previous entities, made
in the WinSettings module. For that purpose indicate in the Parameter n parameter the desired
function and parameter and in Parameter n > Type field the type of desired parameter:
DIGITAL or ANALOGUE. It is possible to configure a maximum of 64 parameters. These
parameters can be interpreted in the central unit as analogue or digital parameters depending
on the configuration made.
The DIGITAL type parameters should only be used for parameters with only two possible values:
ON and OFF.
The ANALOGUE type parameters can be used for all type of parameters (byte, short or float).
Changing data is done parameter by parameter; their check and validation is responsibility of
the unit. The supervision and control centres only have to indicate the parameter identification
and respective value. This means that when you want to change any function with several
parameters that corresponds to a set of changes of values and respective sending of messages.
In functional terms there are several possible hypotheses: the central unit may want to know the
parameter current state before it changes it, it may simply change or consult it only.
Table 5.8. DNP 3.0 protocol parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
DNP Address
0 .. 32767
-
0
DNP Master Address
0 .. 32767
-
1
Link Confirmation
NEVER / SOMETIMES
-
NEVER
Timeout Link
0 .. 32767
ms
3000
Link Resend
0 .. 255
-
2
Application Confirmation
ON / OFF
-
OFF
Application Timeout
0 .. 32767
ms
5000
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Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Communication Timeout
0 .. 32767
s
60
Report by Exception
ON / OFF
-
OFF
Master Synchronization
0 .. 300
s
10
Indications Class
NONE / CLASS 1 / CLASS 2 /
CLASS 3
-
NONE
Measures Class
NONE / CLASS 1 / CLASS 2 /
CLASS 3
-
NONE
Measure n
Measures defined in the UAC 420
-
No Allocation
Measure n > Send
OFF / TIME / JITTER /
TIME+JITTER
-
OFF
Measure n > Time
1 .. 60
s
5
Measure n > Jitter
0.5 ... 100
%
0.5
Measure (Int) n
Counters defined in the UAC 420
-
No Allocation
Measure (Int) n > Send
OFF / TIME / JITTER /
TIME+JITTER
-
OFF
Measure (Int) n > Time
1 .. 60
s
5
Indication n
Gates defined in the unit
-
Double Indication n
Gates defined in the unit
-
Command n
Gates defined in the unit
-
Parameter n
Parameters defined in the unit
-
Parameter n > Type
ANALOGUE / DIGITAL
-
5.6.5. COMMUNICATION
WITH
5
ANALOGUE
WINP ROT
The protection and control units in DNP 3.0 version support communication with WinProt
through a connection to EFACEC’s DNP Scanner.
So that the WinProt communicates with a unit through DNP it is necessary that the unit is
correctly configured in the local network as well as the PC where WinProt is installed. As the
communication of the unit with WinProt has the file transfer as basis, it is necessary that all
associated configuration is correctly made in the central unit. On the WinProt side it is necessary
to indicate the Unit Address with which one desires to communicate and the central unit
address. The DNP 3.0 protocol must also be configured as active protocol for that unit.
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5.7. IEC 60870-5-104 PROTOCOL
5.7.1. ARCHITECTURE
In the ETH version, the TPU S420 allows the connection to a local area network based on an
Ethernet network and thus the interconnection to the substation supervision and control system
or to remote control centres. The local area network is based on TCP/IP network with copper or
optical fibre interface with ST or SC type connectors. The communication rate is 100Mb/s.
The EFACEC’s protection and control units have full compatibility with systems where the
network protocol corresponds to the IEC60870-5-104 protocol.
Entities Types
According to the IEC60870-5-104 protocol the following entities are defined:
Digital Variables – These variables correspond to logical indications in the unit.
Analogue Measures – They correspond to all measures processed in the unit including the
calculated ones. They are sent in a floating point format.
Counters – They are associated with integer type measures existing in the unit. They are
sent in integer format.
Controls – They correspond to controls generated by the control centre aiming at
performing an operation in the unit.
Parameters – They correspond to the parameters of all functions available in the unit.
Entities Attributes
All defined entities can be received from or sent to the TPU S420. Their transmission normally
has a set of attributes that better describe the entity. These attributes depend on the type of
entity and are created and processed automatically by the unit. The following attributes are
defined:
Validity – It indicates if the variable is valid or not, that is, if the sent value must be processed
as a correct value or not.
Value – It indicates the entity value and as such it depends on the type of associated entity. If
it is a digital indication, it will contain the logical state; if it is a measure or a counter, it will
contain the respective value; if it is a control (command or parameter), it will contain the
control associated state or value.
Cause – It indicates the cause that led to the transmission of the entity. In the case of logical
variables, this attribute represents the reason of the logical state transition. It is normally
used to characterize the circuit breaker state changes where it is very useful to know in a
single message the cause associated to the manoeuvre. The defined causes are:
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Table 5.9. List of causes.
Id
Description
0
No associated cause
1
State change
2
Validity change
3
Overflow
4
Underflow
5
By time delay
16
Undetermined cause
17
Automation command
18
Manual command
19
Protections command
In the case of analogue measures the transmission cause is configured in WinSettings through
the parameters of the IEC104 function. The defined causes for sending measures are:
Cyclical, after a configurable time delay;
5
By Jitter, that is, only when the value change exceeds a defined range;
Cyclical plus jitter, combining the previous two.
The logical controls on the unit can be of two different types:
Pulse Controls – Controls that are sent only with the logical state 1. The unit is responsible
for generating a transition with logical state 1 and then other transition with logical state 0.
This procedure allows that only one command from the Central Unit is needed for
commanding apparatus.
Permanent Controls – Controls that are sent with a specific logical state. The unit is only
responsible for generating a transition with that logical state. This type of control is useful for
executing interlockings from remote supervision and control centres.
The parameters, as the logical controls, can be of two different types:
Digital Parameters – They are function parameters which can only have two states: ON or
OFF.
Analogue Parameters – They are parameters associated with the data of the functions.
5.7.2. OPERATION P RINCIPLES
The correct operation when connecting the unit to the local area network implies the following
conditions:
Have one or more protection units with a Ethernet communication board;
Have a central unit running on a local PC;
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Have all the connections infrastructure among the units and the central unit, namely the
connection of all units to the network;
Configure all units connected to the network correctly;
Configure the central unit correctly.
When all these conditions are fulfilled, the start-up and network configuration is done during the
central unit start-up process. Only after it is started and the correct configuration of each unit, it
is possible to normally operate the system.
Although the mechanisms of central unit configuration are not in the scope of this document, it
is essential that the configuration fulfils the following:
A unit with the IP Address of the TPU S420 is defined in the central unit.
It is also necessary that the unit and the central unit are configured in the same network.
The configuration of the time delays made in the unit should be the same as the
configuration made for that unit but in the central unit.
The unit must be correctly configured in the central unit both in application and logical levels.
The common address for the EFACEC’s protection and control units has a length of 2 bytes. It
is defined as being the last two bytes of the unit’s IP address, for example, for a unit with IP
address IP 172.16.2.56, the common address will be 2*256+56=568.
The connection port to the central unit defined for EFACEC units is 2404.
The source address is present in the messages exchanged between the units and the central
unit.
The objects address for EFACEC units has a length of 3 bytes.
All digital entities defined in the database are being sent by the unit.
All measures defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent
by the unit.
All counters defined in the database must be correctly configured, so that they can be sent by
the unit.
All parameters defined in the database must have an associated entity configured in the
central unit for consultation of its value.
The digital parameters have an associated indication with the address 3*256+offset of the
parameter, where offset varies from 1 to 64.
The analogue parameters have an associated measure where the address is obtained in the
same way as in the digital parameters.
The system operation essentially consists of sending and receiving data from both ends of the
system: the protection and control terminal units and the local/remote supervision and control
centre. This operation implies a group of configurations which are part of the SCADA system
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and not of the unit. An example is the substation’s mimic which is normally in the central unit or
in a remote post.
In what concerns the reception of information, the operator can give controls to the unit, which
include all commands on the manoeuvrable apparatus, interlocking commands or commands
associated with remote configuration actions. Sending information generated by the unit will
include essentially analogue information, usually the bay measures, logical events associated
with state transitions and information about its own status. All the information is received and
processed in the central unit which will store, display and correctly format it, for retransmission
according to the higher hierarchy protocols.
Mechanisms against Communications Failure
Communications failure may have different causes that vary from a failure in the network
hardware infrastructure to a failure in the units themselves. Therefore some mechanisms were
defined to decrease the consequences of these failures, namely:
Unit resynchronization – Whenever a communication failure with the unit is detected, the
central unit resynchronizes it as soon as the unit starts-up. This operation consists of
initializing the protocol and refreshing all database information associated with the failed
unit, in order to have a permanent coherent image of all unit information. Resynchronization
can also be periodically done according to the time delay defined in the central unit.
General Control Request – The general control request consists of enquiring a unit to
obtain the current state of all respective information defined in the central unit. The general
control request is made during unit synchronization or resynchronization whenever for some
reason there is loss of transmitted information or according to the time delay configured in
the central unit.
Unit Temporary Storing – To avoid temporary failure situations which do not change the
unit synchronization state, the unit has the capability of temporarily store the generated
analogue and digital events that can be transmitted later.
Connection Oriented Protocol – There is another important mechanism which has to do
with the protocol used to transmit messages. As the IEC60870-5-104 is supported in a
TCP/IP network, the platform itself is in charge of managing the message retransmission
mechanism when communication failures are detected.
A set of information associated with the communication status can be consulted through the
Communications > IEC104 > Information menu or through the WinReports module in the
Hardware Information record. This information contains the number of repeated messages, the
number of errors, among other data.
Debug Mechanisms
To access the unit’s operation, as terminal unit of the SCADA system, the TPU S420 has a group
of menus where the unit’s communication status can be seen in real time, namely:
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Comunicações
IEC104
Informações
Informações
Estado Comunicações: ON
Mensagens Erradas: 0
Limpar Contadores Mensagens
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 5.12. IEC104 Communication Information Menu with debug information.
The central unit itself also provides a communications trace function with which all sent and
received information from the various network units can be seen. This information includes a
detailed amount of information about the status of the internal communication with the network
board and between this and the central unit.
5.7.3. CONFIGURATION
The IEC60870-5-104 protocol parameters can be configured and consulted in the IEC104
function of WinSettings.
The configuration of the available SCADA functions in the unit implies in the first place the
network configuration. The parameters associated with the network configuration, namely IP
Address, Subnetwork Mask and Default Gateway, can be consulted and configured in the
unit’s menu, in Communications > Ethernet > Parameters, or in WinSettings in the Ethernet
function. The IP Address should have the same value as the corresponding defined value in the
central unit and it should be unique in the network.
Comunicações
IEC104
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Tempo Estabelecimento Ligação: 30.000
Tempo Envio APDUs: 15.000
Tempo Confirm Msg ACK: 10.000
Tempo Confirm Msg Teste: 20.000
Diferença Sequência Msg: 12
APDUs após último ACK: 8
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 5.13. Configuration Menu of the IEC60870-5-104 protocol parameters.
Timers
The configuration of the timers associated with the IEC60870-5-104 protocol can be done in
WinSettings or in the unit in Communications > IEC104 > Parameters. The configuration of
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the timers made in the unit must be coherent with the configuration made for the same timers
in the central unit.
One of the timers corresponds to the Connection Establishment Time and can be configured
with values from 1 to 255 seconds. By default this timer is configured for 30 seconds.
Another timer APDUs Send Time, corresponds to the APDUs end time or test. It can be
configured with values from 1 to 255 seconds and its default value is 15 seconds.
The Msg ACK Confirm Time corresponds to a confirmation timer of acknowledged messages
when data messages are not received; it can be configured with values from 1 to 255 seconds.
By default the configured value is 10 seconds. This timer should be configured with a value
higher than the previous time delay.
The last timer Test Msg Confirm Time corresponds to the time to send test frames after a
period when nothing is sent. This time can have values from 1 to 255 seconds and its default
value is 20 seconds.
System Parameters
One of the parameters associated with the IEC60870-5-104 protocol corresponds to the
maximum difference of I format APDUs, in the number of the received sequence, so that the
state variable is sent. This parameter, Msg Sequence Difference, can be configured with values
from 1 to 32767 APDUs and its default value is 12 APDUs.
The other system parameter corresponds to the number of I format APDUs received between
sending acknowledge messages. This parameter, APDUs after last ACK, can have values from
1 to 32767 APDUs and its default value is 8 APDUs. The value configured for this parameter
should not be higher than two thirds of the value configured for the previous parameter.
The configuration of system parameters can be made, as in the case of time delays, in the
WinSettings or in the unit in Communications > IEC104 > Parameters. The configuration
made in the unit must be coherent with the configuration made for the same parameters in the
central unit.
Measures and Counters
The configuration of the measures and counters to report to SCADA is made in WinSettings. This
is the only way to configure the sending of measures and counters, since there is no other way
of doing it through the unit local menus. The TPU S420 allows sending a maximum of 16
measures and 8 counters.
The sending of SCADA measures can be defined according to the following criteria and
separately for each one of the measures defined in the TPU S420 through the Measure n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the measure index:
If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
Measure n > Time parameter.
If it is a jitter sending, it is possible to define the associated jitter by configuring the Measure
n > Jitter parameters. The configured jitter corresponds to a percentage of the measure
nominal value whose variation should be reported in case it is higher than that value. For
example for a measure whose nominal value is 1A, by setting the jitter with the value 20 %,
the measure will only be reported if the difference between the last value sent to SCADA and
the current value is higher than 0,20 A.
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If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure both Measure n > Time and
Measure n > Jitter parameters.
As in measures, sending counters to SCADA can also be defined according to various criteria
and separately for each one of the counters defined in the unit through the Measure (Int) n >
Send parameter, where n corresponds to the counter index:
If it is a cyclical sending, the user should define the associated cycle time by configuring the
parameter Measure (Int) n > Time.
If it is a jitter sending, in the counters case, as its variation is limited to discrete values it is not
possible to configure the jitter parameter – its value is always 1.
If the sending is by cycle and jitter, the user should configure the Measure (Int) n > Time
parameter.
Digital Indications
The configuration of the single logical indications sent to the LAN should be made in the
WinSettings configuration module which is part of the WinProt application. To activate the
sending of single logical indications to the LAN, you just have to select the desired module and
gate. This is the only way of configuring the sending of single indications since it cannot be done
through the protection’s local menus. The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 128
single digital indications.
The configuration of double indications sent to the LAN should also be made in WinSettings. To
activate the sending of a double indication to the LAN, select the desired module and gate. The
state reported to SCADA will correspond to the state of the selected gate along with the state of
the following gate. For example, if the Open Circuit Breaker gate of the Circuit Breaker module is
configured as double indication, the state reported to the LAN will correspond to the
combination of the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate with the state of the following gate, in
this case the Closed Circuit Breaker gate. The least significant bit of the state reported to SCADA
will correspond to the state of the Open Circuit Breaker gate while the bit immediately to its left
will correspond to the state of the Closed Circuit Breaker gate.
Regarding validity, a double indication becomes invalid if at least one of the single digitals
associated with it becomes invalid. Causal associations for double indications are not supported.
The unit allows the configuration of a maximum of 16 double digital indications.
Controls
EFACEC units support all type of single digital controls defined in the IEC60870-5-104 protocol.
The configuration of the controls received in the TPU S420 is made in the WinSettings module
such as the sending of indications to SCADA. For that purpose indicate the desired module and
gate in the Command n parameter. It is possible to configure a maximum of 32 controls.
The control type (PULSE or INDICATION) is defined on the central unit side. The configuration of
commands of PULSE type allows that single commands received from the supervision and
control system can be processed in the unit as pulse commands, that is, with the logical state
varying automatically from 1 and then to 0. The circuit breaker opening orders are a typical
example.
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The configuration of remote indications has as main application the possibility of defining
remote interlockings executed through controls coming from the local or remote supervision
and control system.
Parameters
The main purpose of the Remote Configuration is to allow the remote configuration of the
various parameters of the unit.
Remote Configuration is a generic function which basic principle is the change of data of the
various functions of the unit parameter by parameter, their check and validation is responsibility
of the unit. The supervision and control centres only have to indicate the parameter identification
and respective value.
The configuration of the parameters received in the TPU S420 is, as the previous entities, made
in the WinSettings module. For that purpose indicate in the Parameter n parameter the desired
function and parameter and in the filed Parameter n > Type. The type of parameter desired:
DIGITAL or ANALOGUE. It is possible to configure a maximum of 64 parameters.
The DIGITAL type parameters should only be used for parameters with only two possible values:
ON and OFF. This type of parameter is consulted in the central unit as a digital entity with the
address 3*256+parameter offset where offset varies from 1 to 64.
The ANALOGUE type parameters can be used for all type of parameters (byte, short or float) and
are visualized in the central unit as measures also with the address 3*256+ parameter offset.
The update of the parameters value in the central unit is made in the general control requests.
Table 5.10. IEC60870-5-104 Protocol parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Connection Establishment Time
1 .. 255
s
30
APDUs Send Time
1 .. 255
s
15
Msg ACK Confirm Time
1 .. 255
s
10
Test Msg Confirm Time
1 .. 255
s
20
Msg Sequence Difference
1 .. 32767
APDU
12
APDUs after last ACK
1 .. 32767
APDU
8
Measure n
Measures defined in the unit
-
NO
ALLOCATION
Measure n > Send
OFF / TIME / JITTER /
TIME+JITTER
-
OFF
Measure n > Time
1 .. 60
s
5
Measure n > Jitter
0.5 ... 100
%
0.5
Measure (Int) n
Counters defined in the UAC
420
-
NO
ALLOCATION
Measure (Int) n > Send
OFF / TIME / JITTER /
TIME+JITTER
-
OFF
Measure (Int) n > Time
1 .. 60
s
5
Indication n
Gates defined in the unit
-
Double Indication n
Gates defined in the unit
-
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Parameter
Range
Unit
Command n
Gates defined in the unit
-
Parameter n
Parameters defined in the
unit
-
Default value
5.7.4. AUTOMATION LOGIC
Associated with the IEC60870-5-104 protocol there is a module constituted by a group of
logical variables that convey protocol related information.
Table 5.11. Logical variables description of the IEC104 module.
Id
Name
Description
10496
IEC104 Communication Status
This gate shows, as the LAN led, the status of
communication with the central unit.
10497
IEC104 Invalid Command
Whenever a network invalid command is received,
a pulse command is sent to this gate.
10498
IEC104 Remote Commands
Blocking
When this indication is active, the commands
received from the LAN are ignored.
10499
IEC104 Information Loss
Whenever loss of information is registered in
sending or receiving network messages, a pulse
command is sent to this gate.
10500
IEC104 Protocol Restart
Whenever the protocol is restarted, a pulse
command is sent to this gate.
Additionally to the indications referred in Table 5.7 are also available the variables corresponding
to parameters change and function logic.
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5.8. ETHERNET DISTRIBUTED DATABASE
5.8.1. ARCHITECTURE
The units of the 420 range when equipped with Ethernet board can support the exchange of
information in the network having as base the UDP protocol and according to a distributed
database philosophy. This mechanism of horizontal communication was also implemented in
units with LON version but having as base the Lontalk protocol. Therefore, there is no
compatibility between these two platforms.
The distributed database is based on the objects defined in the IEC60870-5-104 protocol and
allows a maximum network of 100 units. The information transmitted and received is divided
into three main types:
Digital Indications: up to 64 digital indications can be transmitted and up to 128 digital
indications can be received.
Analogue Measures: Up to 8 float type measures can be transmitted and up to 20 float type
measures can be received.
Counters: Up to 4 short type counters can be transmitted and up to 10 short type counters
can be received.
The database structure transmitted to the network depends on the number of entitles
configured for transmission.
5.8.2. OPERATION P RINCIPLES
The distributed database is based on four basic principles:
The Ethernet distributed database is broadcast in the network through UDP packages.
Each distributed database is placed in the network as broadcast to port 49152. The sending
unit does not need to know which units will consume information because all receive it.
It is responsibility of the receiving units to decide which information to process. It is on the
receiving units that the configuration of the databases they are interested in should be made.
Finally the distributed database refresh mechanism consists in the retransmission, by each
sending node, whenever the associated information changes or periodically according to the
time interval defined in the DDB Refresh Time parameter.
From these basic principles the following conclusions can be drawn:
Each unit can simultaneously be a sending node and a reception node.
Each reception node can receive all distributed databases except its own.
The configuration of the information to be received is always made on the side of the receiver
units having in mind what the sending units are transmitting at each moment.
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The configuration of the information to be sent is made in the sending units.
Even if a unit starts operating long after, it will be refreshed with their updated information
without the need to occur a change of data on those units.
Interaction with the Central Unit
The Ethernet distributed database, unlike the Lonworks distributed database has no type of
interaction with the central unit, so the units can operate without it.
Mechanisms against Communications Failure
The matter of the recovering mechanisms against communications failures should be analysed
taking into account that each unit can send or receive distributed databases.
The failure of a sending unit is detected in the reception unit by the network board. The
detection process consists in checking the periodically sending of the distributed database by
the sending nodes. If the sending node takes more than the timer defined in Time Failure in
the DDB Unit without transmitting, each reception node will assume the sending unit as failed.
The sending unit is responsible for placing the default data as the information it was receiving
from the failed unit. If it was receiving digital indications, they will be set to the logical state 0. If
it was receiving measures or counters, they will be to set 0. In case it is a temporary failure, as
soon as the communications are restored the protection will be refreshed with the correct
information.
The failure of the reception unit does not interfere with the sending units. However this failure
may be due to a problem in the communications channel only affecting that unit. In these cases
the procedure is the same as the one used for the case of failure in the sending unit, that is, all
values are set to the default values. Note that the reception unit may not distinguish a failure in a
sending unit from its powering off from the network.
Mechanisms of Real Time Analysis
The TPU S420 provides in real time a group of information about the state of all information
received through the distributed database. This information consists in the state of logical
variables and in the values of measures and counters received from the distributed database.
It is possible to consult, using the logic edition module Winlogic, the logical state of each of the
128 logical variables received through the distributed database. For that purpose consult the
gates state [From Ddb: Generic Var 1 . . From Ddb: Generic Var 128] of the Ethernet module.
These gates can be connected to any other gates.
To consult the value of each measure and counter received through the distributed database use
the collect and register analysis module, WinReports, and consult the measures and counters
value that refers to the distributed database.
5.8.3. CONFIGURATION
The configuration of the distributed database consists in the configuration of the time delays
associated with transmission and reception of information and in the definition of the digital and
analogue information received and transmitted in the distributed database. This information
should consider the needs of the remaining acquisition or protection units in the network.
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The configuration is done in the function configuration module – WinSettings – and the
distributed database parameters can be found in the Ethernet function.
Consider that the unit’s IP Address corresponds to the unit identification in the distributed
database.
Timers
One of the timers associated with the Ethernet distributed database corresponds to the DDB
Repeat Time. This parameter can be configured with values from 0.01 to 1 second and
corresponds to the repetition time used by the transmitting units for retransmission after a
database change in order to avoid that the receiving units loose the new database.
It is also necessary to configure the DDB Refresh Time with a value from 0.1 to 60 seconds.
The transmitting units periodically send their database to the network according to the value
configured in this parameter.
The last timer is associated with the unit failures. If during a time interval higher than the
configured value in Time Failure in the DDB Unit, nothing is received from a unit, the receiving
unit should assume that unit as failed. This parameter can have values from 0.1 to 60 seconds.
5
Figure 5.14. Time Schematic of sending the Ddb to the network.
Digital Indications to Send
The configuration of the 64 digital indications that will be sent to the network is made
exclusively through the WinSettings by indicating for each one the desired module and gate for
the parameters For Ddb> Indication 1 . . For Ddb > Indication 64. The logical state of each of
these 64 gates will be the same as the sate of the entities of the structure of the distributed
database. This philosophy allows that a logical variable is the result of a logical expression
previously implemented with connections among gates.
Digital Indication to Receive
The configuration of the logical indications to receive takes the existence of the 128 logical
variables in the Ethernet module into account; these variables can be updated from any
protection unit. For each one of them it must be defined the source protection unit and its
position in the database. The source unit corresponds to the IP Address of that unit and it
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affects the parameter From Ddb >Indication n - Unit, n from 0 to 255. The position in the
database corresponds to the object’s address in the database and it is configured through the
parameter From Ddb > Indication n - Index, n from 0 to 255.
Analogue Measures to Send
The configuration of the sent measures consists in the definition of the 8 measures possible to
send through the distributed database. The choice is made from a list of all the defined and
calculated measures in the unit. It is therefore possible to transmit any measure at user’s choice
in one of 8 possible positions. This configuration is carried out through the For Ddb > Measure
n parameter where n varies from 1 to 8 and has the identification of the measure to be sent.
Sending measures is dependent on the unit precision, that is, whenever the unit detects a
change in a measure, that measure will also be refreshed through the distributed database
where the jitter is the internal precision of the unit’s measure system. This feature is important
for the implementation of functions that depend on external analogue information, as is the
case of functions such as the reactive power control of capacitor banks.
Analogue Measure to Receive
The configuration of analogue measure is done in the same way as the digital indication. In the
list of possible measure in the protection is defined a group of 20 measures that can be received
in the distributed database, some of them already with meaning, such as reactive powers. These
measures are important because they can be used for internal functions of the unit, thus their
definition. For example, the reactive powers can be used in the TPU C420 in the Reactive Power
Control automation.
For each one of them it is possible to define the sending unit and the respective measure (from
the 8 measures sent by the sending units) by defining the From Ddb > Measure n - Unit and
From Ddb > Measure n - Index parameters, n varies from 1 to 20.
Counters to Send
Counters are configured, such as measures, from a list of counters available in the unit through
the To Ddb > Counter n parameter where n varies from 1 to 4 and has the identification of the
counter to be sent. The counters transmitted in the distributed database are bytes (values from 0
to 255) and have a jitter of 1 unit. Thus, whenever they change value, they are automatically
transmitted to the network.
Counters to Receive
The counters follow the same philosophy as the measures. There is a pre-defined group of
counters – 10 counters – that can be separately configured to be updated from a unit at choice
and the respective counter (from the 4 possible ones) by defining the From Ddb > Counter n Unit and From Ddb > Counter n - Index parameters, n varies from 1 to 10.
Table 5.12. Ethernet distributed database parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
DDB Repeat Time
0.01. .1
second
0.1
DDB Refresh Time
0.1..60
second
0.1
Time Failure in the DDB Unit
0.1..60
second
1
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Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
From Ddb > Indication n – Unit
0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255
-
0.0.0.0
From Ddb > Indication n – Index
1..255
-
1
From Ddb > Measure n – Unit
0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255
-
0.0.0.0
From Ddb > Measure n – Index
1..8
-
1
From Ddb > Counter n – Unit
0.0.0.0..255.255.255.255
-
0.0.0.0
From Ddb > Counter n – Index
1..4
-
1
To Ddb > Indication n
Indications defined in the
unit
-
To Ddb > Measure n
Measures defined in the
unit
-
NO
ALLOCATION
To Ddb > Counter n
Counters defined in the
unit
-
NO
ALLOCATION
Configuration Example
The goal of the following application example is to provide a better perception of the distributed
database operation and configuration mode. The system is formed by 3 sending and receiving
units with the IP addresses 172.16.2.56, 172.16.2.57 and 172.16.2.58.
5
The following operation is desired:
Unit 172.16.2.56 should know from unit 172.16.2.58 the Logic Selectivity Blocking state.
Unit 172.16.2.57 should know from unit 172.16.2.56 the circuit breaker state and the
observed reactive power.
Unit 172.16.2.58 should know from unit 172.16.2.56 the observed position of the tap
changer.
RTU
T
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60 kV
LAN
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Changeover
tap
Logical Trip
Lock
TPU 02
Circuit breaker
Status
Active Power
15 kV
T
U
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S3
0
0
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IrIr==
r2r=
2
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TPU 60
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U
P
S3
0
0
UU
IrIr==
r2r=
2
220
0AA
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TPU 01
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Figure 5.15. Example of the distributed database configuration.
Unit 172.16.2.56 Configuration
In WinSettings configure, in the Ethernet function, the To Ddb> Indication 64 parameter with
Circuit Breaker in the Value field and Circuit Breaker State in the Value 2 field.
Configure the Indication 1 received from the Ddb to be updated from unit 172.16.2.58 with
index 1. For that configure the From Ddb> Indication 1 - Unit parameter with value
172.16.2.58 and the From Ddb > Indication 1 - Index parameter with the value 1.
Configure To Ddb > Measure 8 with Reactive Power.
Configure To Ddb > Counter 1 with Tap Changer Position.
Unit 172.16.2.57 Configuration
In WinSettings configure, in the Ethernet function, the Indication 1 received from the Ddb to
be updated from unit 172.16.2.56 with the index 64. For that configure the From Ddb>
Indication 1 - Unit parameter with value 172.16.2.56 and the From Ddb > Indication 1 Index parameter with the value 64.
Configure the measure Reactive Power of the Ddb to be updated from unit 172.16.2.56
position 8. For that configure the From Ddb> Measure 2 - Unit parameter with value
172.16.2.56 and the From Ddb> Measure 2 - Index with the value 8.
Unit 172.16.2.58 Configuration
In WinSettings configure, in the Ethernet function, the To Ddb> Indication 1 parameter with
Overcurrent Protection in the Value field and Logic Selectivity Blocking in the Value 2 field.
Configure the Ddb Tap Changer counter to be updated from unit 172.16.2.56 position 1. For
that configure the From Ddb> Counter 1 - Unit parameter with value 172.16.2.56 and the
From Ddb > Counter 1 - Index parameter with the value 1.
5.8.4. AUTOMATION LOGIC
Associated with the Ethernet distributed database there is in the Ethernet module a group of
logical variables used for sending and receiving logical indications. These indications are divided
into two large groups.
The first one refers to the variables which are associated with the distributed database. It is
formed by 128 variables that are updated through the reception of databases from other units.
The second group is constituted by 2 logical variables that allow the blocking of the reception
and/or sending of the distributed database.
Table 5.13. Description of the logical variables of the Lonworks module.
Id
Name
Description
8198
From Ddb: Generic Var 1
...
...
128 Indications that are updated from
databases received from other units.
8325
From Ddb: Generic Var 128
8326
Ddb Reception Blocking
the
When this indication is active the unit ignores the
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Id
Name
Description
messages received from the ddb.
8327
Ddb Transmission Blocking
When this indication is active the unit does not
transmit its ddb to the network.
5
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5.9. IEC 61850 PROTOCOL
5.9.1. ARCHITECTURE
In the 850 version, the TPU S420 allows the connection to a local area network based on an
Ethernet network and thus the interconnection to the substation supervision and control system
or to remote control centres. The local area network is based on TCP/IP network with copper of
optical fibre interface with ST or SC type connectors. The communication rate is 100Mb/s.
The EFACEC’s protection and control units are fully integrated in systems which follow the
IEC 61850 architecture.
The conformity document (PICS – Protection Implementation Conformance Statement) describes
the services implemented by the unit.
Data Model
According to part 6 of the standard the definition of the TPU S420 data model is described in
SCL language in the corresponding ICD file that is supplied with the unit.
5.9.2. CONFIGURATION
The IEC 61850 protocol parameters can be configured and consulted in the WinSettings
IEC 61850 function.
The configuration of the available SCADA functions in the unit implies in the first place the
network configuration, namely IP Address, Subnetwork Mask and Default Gateway, can be
consulted and configured in the unit’s menu in Communications > Ethernet > Parameters, or
in the WinSettings in the Ethernet function.
IED Name Parameter
This parameter is generic to all IEC 61850 application and is important both to communication
with IEC 61850 clients and communication among units through GOOSE messages. The IED
Name allows identifying the server in the system and together with the Logical Device ( LD )
name completes the domain name (IEC 61850 – 8 – 1). This identifier should be unique in the
system and can only use characters from the following character set: ( "A" | "a" | "B" | "b" | "C" | "c"
| "D" | " d" | " E" | "e" | "F" | "f" | "G" | "g" | "H" | "h" | "I" | "i" | "J" | "j" | "K" | "k” | "L" | "l" | "M" | "m" |
"N" | "n" | "O" | "o" | "P" | "p" | "Q" | "q" | "R" | "r" | "S" | "s" | "T" | "t" | "U" | "u" | "V" | "v" | "W" | "w" |
"X" | "x" | "Y" | "y" | "Z" | "z" | "_" | "0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9" ).
Command Related Parameters
The Command Type and Timeout Selection parameters define generic default values for all the
commands of the server. These values can then be changed for each particular command
through the write services of the protocol itself. Command Type defines the states machine to
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follow to give a command and Timeout Selection is the maximum time a SBO type command
remains selected.
GGIO node configuration
The GGIO SPCx and GGIO DPCx parameters allow configuring system logical variables by
making them correspond to objects of the generic GGIO node existing in the unit.
Report Control Blocks
The unit has 4 Buffered Report Control Blocks (BRCB) and 2 Unbuffered Report Control Blocks
(URCB). To configure them in WinSettings it is only necessary to configure the variables list of the
associated dataset. It is possible to configure any variables with Functional Constraints (FC) equal
to ST (variables states), MX (measures) or SP (parameters).
5
Figure 5.16. Configuration window of a Dataset.
The dataset configuration window allows exporting/importing the configured variables to a text
file to facilitate the interaction with other tools for configuration of the rest of the system.
GOOSE Messages Publishing
The parameters necessary for the publishing of GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented Substation
Event) messages are the retransmission curve (equal for all GOOSE published by the unit) and
the data relative to each published GOOSE application.
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The retransmission curve has 1 parameter to indicate the number of points of the curve and 16
parameters with the configuration of times for each point. An adequate retransmission curve
should have higher time delays every time and the last valid point is used as refresh time.
For each GoCB (GOOSE Control Blocking) there are several parameters to be configured. The
Dataset Name is the name of the group of data associated with the GoCB. The Priority
message allows separating critical messages from the remaining network traffic. As higher is the
parameter value the more priority the message has. The VID (Virtual ID) allows defining a virtual
network dedicated for GOOSE messages.
The use of virtual LANs depends on the fact that the remaining network devices support them
and they should be configured according to these parameters. In case the remaining network
devices do not support the use of virtual LAN, the Priority and VID parameters are ignored.
The APPID (Application ID) is an identifier that allows differentiating the application. It should be
unique for each system GoCB and the subscriber units should be configured accordingly.
Finally, it is necessary to configure the dataset content. This parameter is of the same type as the
reports parameters and is configured in a similar window. When this parameter is reconfigured,
the WinSettings verifies which units configured in the same database subscribe this GOOSE
application and updates them automatically.
The name of the GoCB published by the unit is not fixed and varies from Publish1 to Publish8.
5
GOOSE Messages Subscription
The parameters associated with the subscription of GOOSE messages allow to identify the
message one desires to subscribe and configure the process data that will reflect the received
values. In GoCB Name should be configured the reference, that is, the full path of the control
name. In case the publisher unit is a X420 unit from EFACEC, the GoCB names vary from
Publish1 to Publish8 and the path is [NameIED]LD/LLN0$GO$Publish1...8. In the Dataset Name
should also be configured a reference (ex: [NameIED]LD/LLN0$[DatasetName]). The VID and
APPID parameters have the same meaning as in the Output GOOSE and should correspond to
the values of the corresponding message. Finally, it is necessary to match the information being
published and the process data that will receive that information in the Dataset Configuration
parameter. This configuration is made in a dedicated window of WinSettings. First it is necessary
to identify the message one desires to subscribe indicating which is the publishing unit and the
required GoCB or indicating that is a unit external to the database.
Figure 5.17. Choosing window of the published GoCB.
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When pressing OK, the GoCB Name, Dataset Name, VID and APPID parameters are
automatically filled with the publishing corresponding data. Then will appear the configuration
window of data match.
5
Figure 5.18. Configuration window of an input Dataset.
The GOOSE input configuration window allows matching the indexes of the variables configured
in the published dataset to process data of the subscriber unit. The list with the configuration
can be exported/imported in suitable format.
Table 5.14. IEC61850 Protocol parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
IED Name
Up to 8 characters (FROM (
"A" | "a" | "B" | "b" | "C" | "c" |
"D" | " d" | " E" | "e" | "F" | "f" |
"G" | "g" | "H" | "h" | "I" | "i" |
"J" | "j" | "K" | "k” | "L" | "l" |
"M" | "m" | "N" | "n" | "O" | "o" |
"P" | "p" | "Q" | "q" | "R" | "r" |
"S" | "s" | "T" | "t" | "U" | "u" |
"V" | "v" | "W" | "w" | "X" | "x" |
"Y" | "y" | "Z" | "z" | "_" | "0" |
"1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" |
"7" | "8" | "9" ))
-
IED01
Command Type
ONLY STATE / DIRECT
NORMAL SECURITY / SBO
NORMAL SECURITY /
DIRECT INCREASED
SECURITY / SBO
INCREASED SECURITY
-
DIRECT
NORMAL
SECURITY
Timeout Selection
20 .. 1000
ms
100
Test Message Conf Time
1 .. 255
s
20
GGIO SPC n
Gates defined in the unit
-
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Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
APDUs after last ACK
1 .. 32767
APDU
8
BRCBxx
Max. 32 variables from the
“Named Variables” list
-
URCBxx
Max. 32 variables from the
“Named Variables” list
-
Retr Curve> Points Number
1 .. 16
-
5
Retr Curve > T1
0 .. 86400000
ms
50
Retr Curve > T2
0 .. 86400000
ms
100
Retr Curve > T3
0 .. 86400000
ms
200
Retr Curve > T4
0 .. 86400000
ms
400
Retr Curve > T5
0 .. 86400000
ms
1000
Retr Curve > T6..16
0 .. 86400000
ms
0
GoOutn> DataSet Name
Up to 65 characters (FROM (
"A" | "a" | "B" | "b" | "C" | "c" |
"D" | " d" | " E" | "e" | "F" | "f" |
"G" | "g" | "H" | "h" | "I" | "i" |
"J" | "j" | "K" | "k” | "L" | "l" |
"M" | "m" | "N" | "n" | "O" | "o" |
"P" | "p" | "Q" | "q" | "R" | "r" |
"S" | "s" | "T" | "t" | "U" | "u" |
"V" | "v" | "W" | "w" | "X" | "x" |
"Y" | "y" | "Z" | "z" | "_" | "0" |
"1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" |
"7" | "8" | "9" ))
-
GoOutn> Priority
4 .. 7
-
4
GoOutn> VID
0 .. 4095
-
0
GoOutn> APPID
0 .. 16383
-
0
GoOutn> DataSet Config
Max. 20 variables from the
“Named Variables” list
-
GoInn> GoCB Name
Up to 65 characters (FROM (
"A" | "a" | "B" | "b" | "C" | "c" |
"D" | " d" | " E" | "e" | "F" | "f" |
"G" | "g" | "H" | "h" | "I" | "i" |
"J" | "j" | "K" | "k” | "L" | "l" |
"M" | "m" | "N" | "n" | "O" | "o" |
"P" | "p" | "Q" | "q" | "R" | "r" |
"S" | "s" | "T" | "t" | "U" | "u" |
"V" | "v" | "W" | "w" | "X" | "x" |
"Y" | "y" | "Z" | "z" | “$” | "_" |
"0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" |
"6" | "7" | "8" | "9" ))
-
GoInn> DataSet Name
Up to 65 characters (FROM (
"A" | "a" | "B" | "b" | "C" | "c" |
"D" | " d" | " E" | "e" | "F" | "f" |
"G" | "g" | "H" | "h" | "I" | "i" |
"J" | "j" | "K" | "k” | "L" | "l" |
"M" | "m" | "N" | "n" | "O" | "o" |
"P" | "p" | "Q" | "q" | "R" | "r" |
"S" | "s" | "T" | "t" | "U" | "u" |
"V" | "v" | "W" | "w" | "X" | "x" |
"Y" | "y" | "Z" | "z" | “$” | "_" |
"0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" |
"6" | "7" | "8" | "9" ))
-
GoInn> VID
0 .. 4095
-
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Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
GoInn> APPID
0 .. 16383
-
0
GoInn> DataSet Configuration
Published GoCBs existing in
the system.
-
5.9.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
Associated with the IEC61850 protocol there is a module constituted by a group of logical
variables that convey protocol related information.
Table 5.15. Logical variables description of the IEC61850 module.
Id
Name
Description
10752
Connected Clients
This gate indicates whether there are IEC61850
clients connected.
10753
Request Errors
Whenever an invalid request is received from the
network, a pulse command is sent to this gate.
10754
SCADA Blocking
When this indication is active, the indications are
not sent to LAN.
10755
IEC61850 Remote Com Blocking
When this indication is active, the commands
received from the LAN are ignored.
10756
Goose Emission Blocking
When this indication is active the GOOSE
messages are not sent to the network.
10757
Goose Reception Blocking
When this indication is active the received
GOOSE messages are ignored.
10758
Goose Reception Failed
If there is failure in GOOSE message reception
this gate is signalized.
10759
..
10798
Goose 1 Transmitting Failed
These gates indicate that are not being received
any
messages
from
the
corresponding
transmitting unit.
..
Goose 40 Transmitting Failed
10799
IEC 61850 Data
Indicates change in the IEC 61850 module data
10800
IEC 61850 Logic
Indicates change in the IEC 61850 module logic
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5.10. SNTP PROTOCOL
5.10.1. ARCHITECTURE
EFACEC’s protection and control units allow time synchronization by SNTP when integrated in a
network with a SNTP/NTP server.
5.10.2. OPERATION P RINCIPLES
Time synchronization by SNTP is based on the following principles:
The unit operates only as client;
The unit may operate in UNICAST mode (makes a request to the server and waits its answer)
or MULTICAST mode (receives broadcasts from the server);
All configuration of the unit necessary to the SNTP protocol is made in the Ethernet function
of WinSettings, or directly in the unit’s local interface in the Communications menu;
As client, the unit foresees the existence of a second backup server in case the main one
fails.
5.10.3. CONFIGURATION
The configuration of the synchronization by SNTP, as mentioned before, can be made in the
functions settings module, WinSettings, or in the unit’s local interface.
All parameters regarding SNTP are found in the Ethernet function, except for the
Synchronization parameter that is in the Date and Time function and allows choosing the unit’s
source of synchronism. So that the synchronization is made by SNTP it is necessary that this
parameter is configured with the SNTP value.
SNTP/NTP Server Identification
One of the parameters necessary for synchronization by SNTP is the IP SNTP Server parameter.
This parameter corresponds to the IP address of the SNTP/NTP server to use.
It is also possible to configure a backup server by using the IP SNTP Server 2 parameter. When
the unit is not able to establish a connection with the server configured in IP SNTP Server, it will
try to connect to the backup server.
If there is no backup server, the IP SNTP Server 2 parameter should be configured with the IP
address of the main server configured in IP SNTP Server.
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Chapter 5 - Communications
SNTP Protocol
One of the parameters associated with the SNTP protocol corresponds to the Server Requests
Time parameter. This parameter can be configured with values from 1 to 1440 minutes and it
corresponds to the time interval between requests made to the SNTP/NTP server.
It is also necessary to configure the Maximum Variation parameter with a value from 1 to 1000
milliseconds. This parameter indicates the maximum variation between the unit’s clock and the
server’s clock.
The Minimum Number Packages parameter indicates the minimum number of answers received
from the server so that the unit updates its clock. It can have values from 1 to 25.
There is another parameter associated with failures of the SNTP/NTP server. If during a time
interval higher than the configured time in Server Timeout is not received an answer from the
server, the unit assumes the server as failed and attempts communication with the backup
server. On the other hand, if it is not able to establish connection with this server, it will try again
the main server and the cycle is repeated until the unit finds a valid server. The Server Timeout
parameter can be configured with values from 1 to 3600 seconds.
The last parameter associated with the SNTP is the Operation Mode parameter. This parameter
allows the selection of the unit’s operation mode, as SNTP client, between UNICAST and
MULTICAST.
Configuration Example
Table 5.16. Configuration example of the SNTP protocol.
Parameter
UNICAST
MULTICAST
Server Requests Time
1m
5m
Maximum Variation
0,1 ms
0,5 ms
Minimum Number SNTP
Packages
1
5
Server Timeout
15 s
300 s
5.10.4. AUTOMATION LOGIC
In the Ethernet module there are two logical variables associated with the SNTP time
synchronization that reflect the status of the main SNTP server and of the backup SNTP server.
Table 5.17. Logical variables description of the Ethernet module associated with the SNTP
protocol.
Id
Name
Description
8328
SNTP Server Status
Indicates the communication status with the SNTP
server.
8329
SNTP 2 Server Status
Indicates the communication status with the SNTP
server 2.
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6
Chapter
6.
PROTECTION AND CONTROL
FUNCTIONS
This chapter describes the protection and control functions available in the TPU S420. For each
of them are described the main operation characteristics, the operation method and the scope
of application. It explains the different operating characteristics and the meaning of each
configurable parameter as well as the respective default values and regulation ranges. It also
analyses the logical schemes associated by default with each function.
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.1. COMMON CHARACTERISITCS ......................................................................................6-5
6.1.1. Functions Modular Organization ................................................................................6-6
6.1.2. Configuration Sets.......................................................................................................6-7
6.1.3. Configuration...............................................................................................................6-8
6.1.4. Automation Logic ........................................................................................................6-8
6.2. PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION ...................................................................6-11
6.2.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-11
6.2.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-18
6.2.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-20
6.3. EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION ...................................................................6-24
6.3.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-24
6.3.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-26
6.3.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-28
6.4. DIRECTIONAL PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION..................................................6-31
6.4.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-31
6.4.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-33
6.4.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-34
6.5. DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION .................................................6-36
6.5.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-36
6.5.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-38
6.5.3. Automation Logic..................................................................................................... 6-40
6.6. SECOND PHASE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION .................................................................6-42
6.6.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-42
6.6.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-42
6.6.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-44
6.7. SECOND EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION........................................................6-46
6.7.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-46
6.7.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-46
6.7.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-48
6.8. RESISTIVE EARTH FAULT PROTECTION..........................................................................6-50
6.8.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-50
6.8.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-52
6.8.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-52
6.9. PHASE OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION ............................................................................6-54
6.9.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................... 6-54
6.9.2. Configuration............................................................................................................ 6-55
6.9.3. Automation Logic ..................................................................................................... 6-55
6.10. ZERO SEQUENCE OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION..............................................................6-58
6.10.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-58
6.10.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-59
6.10.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-60
6.11. PHASE UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION ........................................................................6-62
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6.11.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-62
6.11.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-63
6.11.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-64
6.12. UNDERFREQUENCY AND OVERFREQUENCY PROTECTION..................................................6-67
6.12.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-67
6.12.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-68
6.12.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-70
6.13. PHASE BALANCE OVERCURRENT PROTECTION..............................................................6-73
6.13.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-73
6.13.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-74
6.13.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-76
6.14. OVERLOAD PROTECTION .......................................................................................6-79
6.14.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-79
6.14.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-81
6.14.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-82
6.15. AUTOMATIC RECLOSING ........................................................................................6-84
6.15.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-84
6.15.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-88
6.15.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-90
6.16. SYNCHRONISM AND VOLTAGE CHECK .......................................................................6-92
6.16.1. Operation Method .................................................................................................. 6-92
6.16.2. Configuration ......................................................................................................... 6-94
6.16.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................... 6-98
6.17. VOLTAGE RESTORATION......................................................................................6-103
6.17.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-103
6.17.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-105
6.17.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-106
6.18. FREQUENCY RESTORATION ...................................................................................6-108
6.18.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-108
6.18.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-110
6.18.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-111
6.19. CENTRALISED VOLTAGE RESTORATION ....................................................................6-113
6.19.1. Operation Method................................................................................................ 6-113
6.19.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-115
6.19.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-115
6.20. CENTRALISED FREQUENCY RESTORATION .................................................................6-118
6.20.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-118
6.20.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-120
6.20.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-120
6.21. BLOCKING BY LOGICAL SELECTIVITY ........................................................................6-123
6.21.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-123
6.21.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-124
6.21.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-124
6.22. FAULT LOCATOR ...............................................................................................6-125
6.22.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-125
6.22.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-126
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6.22.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-128
6.23. CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE....................................................................................6-129
6.23.1. Operation method................................................................................................ 6-129
6.23.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-130
6.23.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-130
6.24. TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION ...................................................................................6-133
6.24.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-133
6.24.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-134
6.24.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-134
6.25. PROTECTIONS TRIP TRANSFER ...............................................................................6-135
6.25.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-135
6.25.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-136
6.25.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-136
6.26. CIRCUIT-BREAKER SUPERVISION .............................................................................6-138
6.26.1. Operation Method................................................................................................ 6-138
6.26.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-139
6.26.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-140
6.27. DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION................................................................................6-148
6.27.1. Operation Method ................................................................................................ 6-148
6.27.2. Configuration ....................................................................................................... 6-149
6.27.3. Automation Logic................................................................................................. 6-150
Total of pages of the chapter: 164
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.1. COMMON CHARACTERISITCS
The TPU S420 integrates several protection and control functions of Medium Voltage feeders,
some are base and others are supplied as optional. The optional functions when existing are
indicated next to the respective ANSI number:
Phase Overcurrent Protection (50/51);
Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection (50/51N);
Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent (67);
Directional Earth Fault Overcurrent (67N);
Second Phase Overcurrent Protection (51) – optional;
Second Earth Overcurrent Protection (51N) – optional;
Resisitive Earth Fault (51N);
Overvoltage Protection (59) – optional;
Zero Sequence Overvoltage Protection (59N) – optional;
Undervoltage Protection (27) – optional;
Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection (81) – optional;
6
Phase Balance Overcurrent Protection (46) – optional;
Overload Protection (49);
Automatic Reclosing (79);
Synchronism check and Voltage Presence (25) – optional;
Load Shedding and Restoration after Voltage Trip – optional;
Load Shedding and Restoration after Frequency Trip – optional;
Load Shedding and Restoration after Voltage Trip (centralised version) - optional;
Load Shedding and Restoration after Frequency Trip (centralised version) – optional;
Logical Trip Lock (68);
Fault Locator;
Circuit Breaker Failure (62BF);
Trip Circuit Supervision (62);
Protection Trip Transfer (43);
Circuit Breaker Supervision;
Disconnector Supervision.
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All these functions have particular characteristics detailed in the next sections. This section
analyses the characteristics common to the several functions regarding their configuration and
automation logic.
6.1.1. FUNCTIONS MODULAR ORGANIZATION
All units from the x420 range have an identical structure, modular and object-driven. This
architecture assures a uniform interface with the exterior for all the products of that range,
which allows in particular the existence of only one PC interface application – WinProt – for all of
them.
Each one of the control and protection functions corresponds to a different module, and its
existence in a given unit depends on its type and the considered version. The remaining
modules are associated with the remaining configurations, for example, hardware components
(see Chapter 4 - Configuration).
A specific unit corresponds to a group of several modules that can be protection functions,
automation and control functions or other configurations. The group of modules varies
according to the type of unit; yet identical modules in different units present a similar structure.
The information associated with the identification of the protection can be fully received by the
WinProt, including the list of existing modules, the regulation ranges, the options lists and the
dictionary with the terms used on these options, as well as the group of logical variables.
Each module is composed by:
Parameters: settings of the operational characteristics and other data necessary for the
operation of each function. Associated with the parameters are the respective default values
and the regulation ranges that include the maximum and minimum acceptable limits and the
options lists, in case they exist.
Automation Logic: characteristics of the several logical variables such as the type, initial
state of the inputs or interfaces, as well as definition of the connections of each one of the
outputs to other variables.
Logical Variables: name of the logical variables and their transitions, as they are displayed
in the Chronological Event Log and in the options lists.
Module
Parameters
Default value
Ranges
Automation logic
Descriptions
Algorithm
Data
conversion routine
Figure 6.1. Function modular structure.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
The parameters can be changed both in the protection’s local interface and by using the WinProt
application (WinSettings module). The CLP 500RTU remote configuration tool can also be used
if one desires to change them from the Control Centre.
The logic and variables descriptives can only be changed by using WinProt (WinLogic module).
The default values and the regulation ranges associated with the parameters can not be
changed, they are only used for consultation.
6.1.2. CONFIGURATION SETS
Each one of the protection and automation functions has 4 different groups (sets) of parameters.
In the case of TPU S420, the logical trip lock is an exception, because this function does not have
specific parameters. The remaining modules associated with configurations only have one group
of parameters.
The 4 groups of parameters allow considering different settings for a given function. From the 4
sets only 1 is active in every moment, that is, the function does not use more than 1 group of
settings simultaneously.
The active set can be changed in two different ways:
by user’s command through the local or remote human-machine interface;
by specific logical conditions defined using WinLogic.
The first option assures that independently of whether the configuration was local or remote,
only one of the sets is active in each moment. However, the logical conditions defined by the
user do not assure there are not two groups of different parameters simultaneously activated.
For that to happen, it is sufficient that the logical conditions of more than 1 set are active.
The TPU S420 implements different priorities for the different sets so that only one is active in
each moment: Set 1 is the default set, Set 2 has more priority than Set 1, Set 3 has more priority
than both of the previous ones and so forth.
The active set may not correspond to that defined by the configuration if there is a set activated
by logical conditions with more priority.
By default, the active set is independently regulated for each function so that the logical
conditions associated with the set change can be different for each function.
If desired, the edition of the automation logic can assure the simultaneous change of the active
set in more than one function.
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After set change by configuration or after updating the function’s parameters, they are
immediately saved in non-volatile memory.
However, to avoid operation incoherencies, if the function is already in operation in that moment
(for example if a protection function has started) its operating data is still that prior to the
change. In that situation, the new settings will only be considered by the function when it is back
to resting condition.
6.1.3. CONFIGURATION
For each protection or control function (and only those), the Current Set parameter is available
which allows changing the active set by the user in the local or remote interface. Example is
given in Figure 6.2, for the Phase Overcurrent function.
From each one of the groups of specific parameters of each function, there are 4 groups exactly
identical, corresponding to the 4 available sets, as indicated in the next sections.
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Corrente de Fases
Configuração Cenário
Configuração Cenário
Cenário Actual: 1
6
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.2. Set Configuration Menu (Phase Overcurrent).
6.1.4. AUTOMATION LOGIC
All modules corresponding to fault detection or control functions present a similar logic of active
setting group change, independently of the function. This logic allows implementing the priority
mechanism of the different setting groups mentioned above. Per module there are also logical
variables associated with the change of the function’s data groups, and a logical variable that
indicates if the change is active or not.
The next table identifies these variables where <Function> should be replaced in each case for
the name of the respective protection or automation function.
Table 6.1. Description of the logical variables common to the different modules.
Name
Description
<Function> Settings
Indication of the change of the function’s parameters
<Function> Logic
Indication of the change of the function’s automation logic
<Function> Status
Indication produced by the function showing whether it is on
(Status parameter with value ON) or off line
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Name
Description
<Function> Set 1 Logic
Variables that gather the logical conditions that allow
activating a given setting group. They do not directly define
the active set because it depends on the relative priorities of
the groups of parameters
...
<Function> Set 4 Logic
<Function> Set 1
Indication whether the respective setting group is active
considering the associated priorities; in each moment only
one of the 4 variables of this type has logical value 1
...
<Function> Set 4
Only inputs 2 to 8 of each one of the <Function> Set 1 Logic to <Function> Set 4 Logic
variables should be used to define logical conditions of that set, as the first input is reserved for
the activation of set by the user (parameters change).
<Function>_Set4_Active
<Function>_Set4
<Function>_Set3
<Function>_Set3_Active
<Function>_Set2
<Function>_Set2_Active
6
<Function>_Set1
<Function>_Set_Active
<Function>_Change_Data
<Function>_Change_Logic
<Function>_In_Service
Figure 6.3. Logic diagram common to the different modules.
From the previous scheme a logic of simultaneous change of the active set can be implemented
in more than one function. To do so consider conditions of set change in only one of the
functions and connect the respective indications of set activation to the activation variables of
the sets equivalent in the second function, from that to the third and so forth.
Set 1 should be regulated as current set in the configuration of all functions except eventually in
the first function that defines the set of the remaining functions.
An example of this process is given in Figure 6.4 for the simplest case, that of two functions and
two sets (bearing in mind that Set 1 is the one activated by default).
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<Function1>_Set2
<Function1>_Set2_Active
<Function2>_Set2
<Function2>_Set2_Active
<Function1>_Set1
<Function1>_Set1_Active
<Function2>_Set1
<Function2>_Set1_Active
Figure 6.4. Logic of simultaneous change of active setting groups in more than one function.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.2. PHASE FAULT OVERCURRENT
PROTECTION
The Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection normally is the main function against short-circuits used
in Medium Voltage lines or cables. Despite the extreme simplicity of its operating principle, this
function assures an effective protection against phase-to-phase faults in radial distribution
networks. Yet, it is normally used as backup protection of other protection devices where more
sophisticated protection criterion is necessary.
6.2.1. OPERATION METHOD
The operating principle of the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection is extremely simple and is
based on the difference of the magnitude value of the phase currents in load situation and in
three-phase or two-phase short-circuit situation. In the last, the currents have very high values
as the fault resistances are normally low, which allows the safe trip of the associated protection
function, above a configured threshold.
In distribution networks where topology is radial for the most common exploitation situations,
this criterion is enough and simultaneously assures effective protection of the respective line and
backup of the protections of the downstream segments. The dependence of the short-circuit
currents from the upstream network short circuit power does not hinder its application.
By the setting of the current thresholds or by the time setting, it is possible to achieve the
coordination with others protections. In the first case, the function is configured to be sensitive
only to short-circuit currents in the protection zone (cut-off protection), which clearly hinder its
use as back up function. In the second case, the function is regulated so that it operates with
higher times than the protection ones to which it is coordinated (time-lag protection), being just
required that the function is not sensitive to the load current.
Overall, 9 virtual relays are available in three groups corresponding to three operation levels,
whose algorithm is executed in parallel (full-scheme).
High Set Overcurrent with High-Speed Tripping
As a rule, the High Set Overcurrent with High-Speed Tripping is destined to implement a very
fast protection where the selective coordination is obtained by regulating the value of the
operation threshold (cut-off protection).
The selectivity is achieved by regulating this stage to a threshold higher than the maximum fault
current external to the section of the line to be protected in order to assure that it is not put out
of service for short-circuits outside the protection zone. However, sensitivity to internal faults is
lost, being reserved only for faults above a specified magnitude.
Although it is usual to require an instantaneous operation of the protection function, it is also
possible to configure a selective timer. This feature is important to coordinate with other
protections immediately at downstream, either by different operation thresholds or by logic
interlocking (see 6.21 - Blocking by Logical Selectivity).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Low Set Overcurrent with Definite/Inverse Time
The Low Set Overcurrent function offers higher sensitivity to internal faults than the previous
stage and for selective coordination uses step timings (time-lag protection). TPU S420 provides
both the definite and the inverse time options. The last option complies with International
Standards, which is a guarantee of compatibility with devices of different types and
manufacturers. The standards are IEC 60255-3 and IEEE 37.112.
For the IEC complying option, the time-current functions follow the general expression (6.1),
with the constants defined in Table 6.2:
t op s
a TM
(6.1)
b
I cc I
1
Table 6.2. Constants of the inverse time curves according to standard IEC 60255-3.
Curve
a
b
A
NI
0,14
0,02
16,86
MI
13,5
1
29,7
EI
80,0
2
80,0
LI
120
1
264
For the IEEE complying option, the time-current functions follow the general expression (6.2),
with the constants defined in Table 6.3:
t op s
c
I cc I
d
1
(6.2)
e TM
Table 6.3. Constants of the inverse time curves according to standard IEEE 37.112.
Curve
c
d
e
A
NI
0,103
0,02
0,228
9,7
MI
39,22
2
0,982
43,2
EI
56,40
2
0,243
58,2
LI
56,143
1
21,8592
133,1
Any of the standards has four curve options: Normal Inverse (NI), Very Inverse (VI), Extremely
Inverse (EI) and Long Time Inverse (LI). Their characteristics are represented in Figure 6.5.
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IEC 60255-3: Normally Inverse
IEC 60255-3: Very Inverse
6
IEC 60255-3: Extremely Inverse
IEC 60255-3: Long Time Inverse
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IEEE 37.112: Normally Inverse
IEEE 37.112: Very Inverse
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IEEE 37.112: Extremely Inverse
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Figure 6.5. Tripping characteristics of the Overcurrent Protection with Inverse Time.
Both for the definite time and the inverse time options the operational threshold should be
regulated to a value higher than the maximum load current, considering the possible current
peak observed during the connection due to the cold load and an additional safety margin. A 4%
reset factor in the definite time option assures the necessary operation stability.
In the particular case of the inverse time curves the protection start happens at a value 1,2 times
higher than the configured value in order to avoid inaccuracies resulting from the operation time
for short-circuit current values close to the operational value. These curves already include a
safety margin of 20%.
About the operation time, the setting of the Low Set Overcurrent function should consider the
coordination with downstream protections. This may imply longer operation times, particularly if
it is considered the definite time option. The inverse time curves, on the contrary, allow a
decrease of the operation time at the same time as the fault current increases, adjusting more
naturally to the thermal characteristics of the equipment. In this case, the coordination can be
achieved by adjusting the scale factor (TM - Time Multiplier).
When choosing the Extremely Inverse curve option, the variation of the tripping time with the
fault current is more extreme while with the Normal Inverse curve that variation is minimum. On
the other hand, the dependence of the operation time regarding the upstream short-circuit
power is also higher for the Extremely Inverse curves.
TPU S420 assures the precision of the inverse time curves for all the setting range and for fault
currents between 1.5 to 20 times the operational value according to the standards it complies
with. The IEC 60255-3 standard only specifies the precision of fault currents between 2 and 20
times the operational threshold. In the IEEE C37.112 standard the defined range varies between
1.5 and 20 times that threshold.
TPU S420 allows the dynamic reset option in the inverse type time-lag operation. With this
selected option, the protection function reset after the fault elimination is not instantaneous, but
it follows a time expression depending on the observed current value.
t rearme s
A TM
I I
2
(6.3)
1
The constant A, meaning the reset total time when the current is zero and the scale factor TM is
unitary, is defined in the Table 6.2 and in the Table 6.3 to the different types of curves. These
are presented in Figure 6.6 to both standards and to different available options: Normally
Inverse (NI), Very Intense (VI), Extremely Inverse (EI) and Inverse of Long Time (LI).
The dynamic reset just stirs up the complete reset Overcurrent Protection function after a
defined period. This way, in case of a second fault occurred during the reset, the timer does not
start from zero, improving a faster operation. This mode also allows a dynamic coordination
between the protection and fuses or reclosers connected in the network.
The implementation of the dynamic reset follows the definition of the IEEE 37.112 standard,
making possible a defined mode to evaluative effects. The TPU S420 originally extends the
dynamic reset principle defined by the IEEE 37.112 standard, to the time-current functions
established by the IEC 60255-3 standard.
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IEC 60255-3: Normally Inverse
IEC 60255-3: Very Inverse
6
IEC 60255-3: Extremely Inverse
IEC 60255-3: Long Time Inverse
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
IEEE 37.112: Normally Inverse
IEEE 37.112: Very Inverse
6
IEEE 37.112: Extremely Inverse
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IEEE 37.112: Long Inverse
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Figure 6.6. Dynamic reset characteristics of the Inverse Time Protection.
Definite Time Universal Overcurrent
In parallel and independently of the previous functions, the TPU S420 performs a third
overcurrent function with constant timer. The characteristics of this function are similar to those
of the low set with definite time protection.
The wide setting range of this protection function (called definite time universal protection)
allows several applications:
as an operation time limiter of the low set definite time protection, for situations of low
short-circuit power where the operation times of this function can have important
increments;
as a high set protection second stage, coordinated in time and current with high set
elements of network downstream protections.
The use of this function together with the two previous ones, according to the two described
application examples, allows obtaining for the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection a global
operational characteristic as that indicated Figure 6.7.
6
Example of the universal protection application
as limitation of the operation times.
Example of universal protection as second of
high threshold.
Figure 6.7. Operational characteristic of the Overcurrent Protection.
6.2.2. CONFIGURATION
The Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection parameters are grouped in three independent groups:
one for each of the stages.
The high set protection must be activated by changing the value of the High Set > Status
parameter from OFF to ON.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
The High Set > Iop parameter is the current value above which this stage operates. It should be
regulated to a value higher than the highest external short-circuit current of the section of the
line to protect in order to operate only for faults in the respective protection zone.
The time between the fault occurrence and the operation of the high set protection is defined by
the High Set > Top parameter. Its value can be made null if one wishes an operation as fast as
possible. In case of blocking by logical selectivity, this timer should be adjusted to a value higher
than the time guaranteed for the reception of the trigger indication of the downstream
protections.
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Corrente de Fases
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Amp> Estado: OFF
Amp> Iop: 2.000
Amp> Top: 0.000
Def/Inv> Estado: OFF
Def/Inv> Operação: TEMPO DEFINIDO
Def> Iop: 0.500
Def> Top: 0.040
Inv> Norma: C.E.I.
Inv> Curva: NI
Inv> Rearme: ESTÁTICO
Inv> Iop: 0.500
Inv> TM: 0.050
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Cenário 1
Univ> Estado: OFF
Univ> Iop: 0.500
Univ> Top: 0.040
6
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.8. Set 1 Menu (Phase Overcurrent).
To activate the low set stage, the Low Set > Status parameter should be configured with ON
value. The Low Set > Operation parameter allows choosing the operation mode from the two
possible options: DEFINITE TIME or INVERSE TIME.
When choosing the DEFINITE TIME option, configure the two parameters: Def> Iop and Def>
Top. The first is the current value above which the protection will operate and that should be
regulated considering the maximum load current; the second is the respective operational time,
which enables the coordination with downstream protections.
When choosing the INVERSE TIME option, configure the parameters: Inv> Standard allows
choosing the standard with which the inverse time curve complies (IEC or IEEE) and Inv> Curve
allows choosing the type of curve (NI, VI, EI or LI). The function reset can be STATIC (default
option) or DYNAMIC (situation in which the attack time follows the expression (6.3)), by
selecting the parameter value Inv> Reset.
The Inv> Iop parameter defines the point of the inverse time curve where the trip time is infinite.
However, be aware that the current value that triggers the protection operation is 120% of that
current. The operation time is not configurable as it is function of the fault current. Instead one
should configure the Inv> TM parameter. This scale factor allows adjusting the operational
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
times of the time-lag stage and, this way, finding the optimal point for coordination with the
other downstream inverse time protections.
Regarding the universal stage, the parameters are similar to those of the low set definite time
stage. The Univ> Status parameter indicates whether the function is active, Univ> Iop is the
value above which the function operates and Univ> Top defines the trip time. Its setting should
be coordinated with that of the two other stages according to one of the two examples
presented or according to other criterion defined by the user.
Table 6.4. Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..4
1
High Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
High Set> Iop
0,2..40
pu
2
High Set> Top
0..60
s
0
Low Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Low Set > Operation
DEFINITE TIME /
INVERSE TIME
DEFINITE TIME
Def> Iop
0,2..20
pu
0,5
Def> Top
0,04..300
s
0,04
Inv> Iop
0,2..20
pu
0,5
Inv> TM
0,05..1,5
s
0,05
Inv> Standard
I.E.C. / I.E.E.E.
I.E.C.
Inv> Curve
NI / VI / EI / LI
NI
Inv> Reset
STATIC / DYNAMIC
STATIC
Univ> State
OFF / ON
OFF
Univ> Iop
0,2..40
pu
0,5
Univ> Top
0,04..300
s
0,04
6
6.2.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection module includes all start and trip indication of this
function, discriminated by stage (high set, low set and universal) and by phase. These variables
are then grouped by stage and constrained by the existence of blockings established by the user
or by other logical variables.
The blocking by logical selectivity is a particular case to which corresponds a variable that can be
configured in a physical input or to which can be connected a variable received from the local
area network. By default, this blocking is connected to the similar blocking of the earth
protection. By default, the blocking by logical selectivity only affects the high set stage.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Table 6.5. Description of the logical variables of the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection module.
Id
Name
Description
15616
Def Time OC Prot Phase A
…
...
Start indication of the low set definite time stage
discriminated by phase (indications produced by
the functions) .
15618
Def Time OC Prot Phase C
15619
Def Time OC Prot Ph A Trip
...
...
15621
Def Time OC Prot Ph C Trip
15622
Inv Time OC Prot Phase A
...
...
15624
Inv Time OC Prot Phase C
15625
Inv Time OC Prot Ph A Trip
...
...
15627
Inv Time OC Prot Ph C Trip
15628
Universal OC Prot Phase A
...
...
15630
Universal OC Prot Phase C
15631
Univers OC Prot Ph A Trip
...
...
15633..
Univers OC Prot Ph C Trip
15634
High Set OC Prot Phase A
...
...
15636
High Set OC Prot Phase C
15637
High Set OC Prot Ph A Trip
...
...
15639
High Set OC Prot Ph C Trip
15640
Phase Overcurrent Protect
Start of the function.
15641
Phase OC Low Set
Start of the low set stage.
15642
Phase OC High Set
Start of the high set stage.
15643
Phase OC Universal
Start of the universal stage.
15644
Phase OC Protection Trip
Trip of the function.
15645
Phase OC Low Set Trip
Trip of the low set stage.
15646
Phase OC High Set Trip
Trip of the high set stage.
15647
Phase OC Universal Trip
Trip of the universal stage.
15648
Phase OC MMI Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface.
15649
Phase OC LAN Lock
Blocking of the function by the remote interface.
15650
Phase OC Protection Lock
Indication of general function blocking.
15651
Phase OC High Set Lock
Blocking by logical selectivity received in a input or
by the local area network.
Trip indication of the low set definite time stage
discriminated by phase (indications produced by
the functions) .
Start indication of the low set inverse time stage
discriminated by phase (indications produced by
the functions) .
Trip indication of the low set inverse time stage
discriminated by phase (indications produced by
the functions) .
Start indication of the universal set definite time
stage discriminated by phase (indications
produced by the functions) .
Trip indication of the universal set definite time
stage discriminated by phase (indications
produced by the functions).
Start indication of the high set stage discriminated
by phase (indication produced by the functions).
Trip indication of the high set stage discriminated
by phase (indication produced by the functions).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Additionally to the indications mentioned on Table 6.5, the variables corresponding to the
parameter changes, logic or function description are also available, as well as the gates
associated to the set logic and to the function activation. There is also a set of auxiliary variables
used in the internal logic of the module.
6
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
15616>
Protec MI Temp Def
Fase A
OR
O1
O2
33280>Loop A Localiz Defeitos
O3
15617>
Protec MI Temp Def
Fase B
OR
O1
O2
33281>Loop B Localiz Defeitos
15618>
Protec MI Temp Def
Fase C
O3
15622>
Protec MI Temp Inv
Fase A
OR
OR
O1
O1
O2
O2
33280>Loop A Localiz Defeitos
33282>Loop C Localiz Defeitos
O3
15623>
Protec MI Temp Inv
Fase B
O3
15641>
Protec MI Cronom
Fases
15663>
Gate 1 Max Intens
Fases
AND
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
OR
17927>Prot MI Fases Crono Direc
O1
O2
17923>Disp MI Fases Crono Direc
I5
OR
I6
O1
15643>
Protec MI Universal
Fases
I7
O2
OR
O2
I4
I4
15624>
Protec MI Temp Inv
Fase C
15628>
Protec MI Universal
Fase A
O1
I2
I3
33281>Loop B Localiz Defeitos
O3
I1
33282>Loop C Localiz Defeitos
AND
O3
O1
O2
15664>
Gate 2 Max Intens
Fases
33280>Loop A Localiz Defeitos
15629>
Protec MI Universal
Fase B
O3
O1
O2
33281>Loop B Localiz Defeitos
15630>
Protec MI Universal
Fase C
O3
15634>
Protec MI Amperim
Fase A
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
O1
I2
O2
15640>
Protecção MI Fases
OR
17925>Disp MI Fases Univ Direc
OR
OR
I1
I3
I4
17928>Prot MI Fases Univ Direc
17420>Protec 2ª MI Cronom Fases
I4
I1
O1
8706>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia
I2
O2
10293>Modo Operação Gate 6
I3
O3
38656>Corrente Religação
I4
O4
I5
OR
OR
O1
O1
O2
O2
33282>Loop C Localiz Defeitos
33280>Loop A Localiz Defeitos
O3
15635>
Protec MI Amperim
Fase B
O3
O1
O2
15642>
Protec MI Amperim
Fases
15665>
Gate 3 Max Intens
Fases
OR
AND
OR
33281>Loop B Localiz Defeitos
15636>
Protec MI Amperim
Fase C
O3
OR
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
17926>Prot MI Fases Amper Direc
17921>Disp MI Fases Amper Direc
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
I4
I4
O1
15619>
Disparo MI Temp Def
Fase A
I1
O2
33282>Loop C Localiz Defeitos
O3
OR
O1
O2
15620>
Disparo MI Temp Def
Fase B
OR
15666>
Gate 4 Max Intens
Fases
O1
O2
15621>
Disparo MI Temp Def
Fase C
OR
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
O2
I3
O2
15626>
Disparo MI Temp Inv
Fase B
I3
I4
I5
I6
OR
O1
O2
I7
15627>
Disparo MI Temp Inv
Fase C
OR
15631>
Disparo MI Univers
Fase A
O1
OR
15667>
Gate 5 Max Intens
Fases
O1
15632>
Disparo MI Univers
Fase B
OR
15647>
Disparo MI Universal
Fases
OR
O2
O2
17923>Disp MI Fases Crono Direc
I4
O1
6
AND
I1
O1
OR
15625>
Disparo MI Temp Inv
Fase A
15645>
Disparo MI Cronom
Fases
OR
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O1
O2
17925>Disp MI Fases Univ Direc
I4
I3
I4
15633>
Disparo MI Univers
Fase C
15644>
Disparo Prot MI Fases
OR
15637>
Disparo MI Amperim
Fase A
OR
O1
15668>
Gate 6 Max Intens
Fases
O2
OR
O1
O2
15638>
Disparo MI Amperim
Fase B
15646>
Disparo MI Amperim
Fases
OR
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
OR
O1
O2
I3
I4
17921>Disp MI Fases Amper Direc
15639>
Disparo MI Amperim
Fase C
17421>Disparo 2ª MI Cronom Fases
I1
O1
41730>Ordem Abert Disjunt Protec
I2
O2
38657>Disparo Corrente Religação
I3
O3
41984>Sin Arranque Falha Disjunt
I4
O4
33284>Arranque Loc Defeitos
I5
O5
I4
I5
OR
O1
15648>
Bloqueio MI Fases MMI
O2
15650>
Bloqueio Protec MI
Fases
OR
OR
O1
O2
15649>
Bloqueio MI Fases
LAN
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
O1
O4
O2
O5
O6
O7
15651>
Bloq Select Lógica MI
Fase
OR
I1
O1
O2
16403>Bloq Select Lógica MI Terr
O3
Figure 6.9. Logical diagram of the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection module.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.3. EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT
PROTECTION
Similarly to the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection, this function performs the main protection
function of Medium Voltage lines, but for short-circuit earth faults. Besides the simplicity of its
operation principle, its high sensitivity assures an important role, not only in the distribution
network protection but also in other equipments of the Power System.
6.3.1. OPERATION METHOD
The Earth Overcurrent Protection function presents a high sensitivity for the detection of faults,
once it is based on the earth current value, which is almost zero in a normal load situation,
besides the unbalance motivated by the lines’ asymmetries. On the other hand, it is not
necessary to consider the load current in each one of the phases, as it is the case in the Phase
Fault Overcurrent Protection function.
Nevertheless, it is important to consider, in the function setting, the capacitive current that is in
the line when there is an earth fault in another network point. In fact, when a phase-earth shortcircuit occurs in a line, the fault current emerges in the loop established by the earth link of the
substation transformer but also by the distributed abilities in the remaining lines. The capacitive
earth current value in each healthy line is as bigger as the extension of that line and it
constitutes a sensitivity minimum threshold for the phase-earth fault detection.
In the faulty line, the fault current strongly depends on the impedance existing in the earth
connection to the ground.
If the earth is strongly connected to the ground, the fault current will reach extremely high
values. If there is a limiter impedance (resistance or reactance), the fault current is limited to
lower values, but that still enable the distinction among faulty and healthy lines. For high
resistance faults, it is necessary to complement the Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection with
directionality (see Chapter 6.5 - Directional Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection) or use a more
sensitive protection (see Chapter 6.8 - Resistive Earth Fault Protection
).
For slight fault currents earth regimes (isolated or compensated earth) it is normally difficult to
distinguish, simply by the amplitude, the fault currents and the capacitive currents in other lines.
In those cases, a common choice corresponds to adding a directional feature to the Earth
Overcurrent Protection.
The value effectively used by the function is the residual current, which is three times the zerosequence current and it is easily obtained by the sum of the three phase currents:
I res
IA
IB
IC
(6.4)
TPU S420 is prepared to observe the residual current on the line on its fourth current input,
obtained either from the connection between the neutral of the phase current inputs, or from a
line toroidal transformer. However, TPU S420 also calculates internally the line residual current,
directly from the virtual sum of the three phase currents.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
TPU S420 allows the origin selection of the observed residual current for each one of the three
elements of protection against earth faults. This allows combining the observation of high
phase-to-earth fault currents recovering the large range of the phases CT operation with a
higher sensitivity to very resistive faults resulting from the roroidal CT. The sensitivity can be still
increased by chosing for the fourth current a nominal value a more reduced value than the
nominal value from the secondary CT.
Overall, 3 virtual relays are available, corresponding to three levels of operation, which algorithm
is executed in parallel (full-scheme).
High Set Overcurrent with High-Speed Tripping
As a rule, the High Set Overcurrent with High-Speed Tripping is destined to implement a very
fast protection where the selective coordination is obtained by regulating the value of the
operation threshold (cut-off protection).
Although it is usual to require an instantaneous operation of the protection function, it is also
possible to configure a selective timer. This feature is important to coordinate with other
protections, either by different operation thresholds or by logic interlocking (see 6.21 - Blocking
by Logical Selectivity).
Low Set Overcurrent with Definite/Inverse Time
The Low Set Overcurrent function offers higher sensitivity to internal faults than the previous
stage and for selective coordination uses step timings (time-lag protection). TPU S420 provides
both the definite and the inverse time options.
The last option complies with International Standards, which is a guarantee of compatibility with
devices of different types and manufacturers. The standards are IEC 60255-3 and IEEE 37.112.
The generic expressions followed for each one of the standards are indicated on chapter 6.2, for
different types of curves: Normaly Inverse, Very Inverse, Extremely Inverse and Inverse of Long
Time. Their characteristics are presented on Figure 6.5.
The operational threshold can be set to a relatively low value, according with the precision
assured by the protection and by the CT (Current Transformers). A 4% reset factor in the definite
time assures the required operation stability. The inverse time curves regard a 20% additional
margin, once the function pickup value is 1.2 times higher than the configured one.
The setting of the operation time of the Earth Overcurrent Protection function should consider
the coordination with the protections of other lines, if that one is sensitive to external faults. This
may bear too long operation times, in particular if the definite time option is considered.
Otherwise, the inverse time curves allow an operation time reduction as the fault current
increases. In this case, the coordination is achieved by scale factor adjustment. TPU S420
guarantees the inverse time curves precision to all the setting range and for fault currents
between 1.2 and 20 times the operational value.
In the time-lag functioning of inverse type, TPU S420 also enables the dynamic reset option.
With that selected option, after the fault elimination, the protection function reset is not
instantaneous, guarantying a faster operation in case of successive faults. Therefore, it is
possible to achieve a dynamic coordination between the protection and fuses or reclosers placed
in the network.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
To carry out the dynamic reset it is followed the IEEE 37.112 standard definition, according to
the expression (6.3), extending the principle to the time-current functions established by the IEC
60255-3 standard.
Definite Time Universal Overcurrent
In parallel and independently of the previous functions, TPU S420 performs a third overcurrent
protection function with constant timer. The characteristics of this function are similar to those
of the low set with definite time protection.
The wide setting range of this protection function (called definite time universal protection)
allows several applications:
as a limiter of the operation time of the low set definite time protection, for situations of low
short-circuit power where the operation times of this function can have important
increments;
as a high set protection second stage, coordinated in time and current with high set
elements of network downstream protections.
The use of this function together with the two previous ones, according to the two described
examples, allows obtaining for the Earth Overcurrent Protection a global operational
characteristic as that indicated on Figure 6.7 for the protection against faults between phases.
6.3.2. CONFIGURATION
The Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection parameters are grouped in three independent groups:
one for each of the stages.
The high set protection must be activated by changing the value of the High Set> Status
parameter from OFF to ON. The origin of the earth current measure to be used must be chosen,
by regulating the High Set> I0 Source parameter: this can be defined as EXTERNAL TRANSF if
the current to be used is a measure on the fourth input or INTERNAL SUM if choosing the sum of
the three phase currents obtained by software.
The High Set > Iop parameter is the current value above which this stage operates. It should be
set to a high value that clearly identifies the presence of a fault in the line. The time between the
fault occurrence and the operation of the high set protection is defined by the High Set > Top
parameter. Its value can be made null if one wishes an operation as fast as possible. In case of
blocking by logical selectivity, this timer should be adjusted to a value higher than the time
guaranteed for the reception of the pickup indication regarding the downstream protections.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Corrente de Terra
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Amp> Estado: OFF
Amp> Origem I0: TRANSF EXTERNO
Amp> Iop: 0.500
Amp> Top: 0.000
Def/Inv> Estado: OFF
Def/Inv> Operação: TEMPO DEFINIDO
Def/Inv> Origem I0: TRANSF EXTERNO
Def> Iop: 0.200
Def> Top: 0.040
Inv> Norma: C.E.I.
Inv> Curva: NI
Inv> Rearme: ESTÁTICO
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Cenário 1
Inv> Iop: 0.200
Inv> TM: 0.050
Univ> Estado: OFF
Univ> Origem I0: TRANSF EXTERNO
Univ> Iop: 0.200
Univ> Top: 0.040
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.10. Set 1 Menu (Earth Overcurrent).
To activate the low set stage, the Low Set > Status parameter should be configured with ON
value. The Low Set > Operation parameter allows choosing the operation mode from the two
possible options: DEFINITE TIME or INVERSE TIME. It also must be chosen the earth current origin
to be used, by regulation of the Low Set > I0 Source parameter, as for the high threshold.
When choosing the DEFINITE TIME option, two parameters should be configured: Def> Iop and
Def> Top. The first is the current value above which the protection will operate; the second is
the operational time that allows the coordination with downstream protections.
With the INVERSE TIME option several parameters must be regulated: Inv> Standard allows to
chose the standard to which the inverse time curve follows (IEC or IEEE) and Inv> Curve the
curve of type (NI, VI, and EI). The function reset can be STATIC (default option) or DYNAMIC (the
reset time follows the expression (6.3)), by selecting the Inv> Reset parameter value selection.
The Inv> Iop parameter defines the point of the inverse time curve where the trip time is infinite.
However, be aware that the current value that triggers the protection operation is 120% of that
current. The operation time is not configurable as it is function of the default current. Instead
configure the Inv> TM data. This scale factor allows adjusting the operational times of the timelag stage and, this way, finding the optimal point for the coordination with the inverse time
protections of the other lines.
Regarding the universal stage, the parameters are similar to those of the low set definite time
stage. The Univ> State parameter indicates whether the function is active, Univ> Iop is the
value above which the function operates and Univ> Top defines the trip time. Its setting should
be coordinated with that of the two other stages according to one of the two examples
presented or according to other criterion defined by the user.
There is the additional Univ> IO Source parameter, that allows to chose if this stage works with
the fourth current input value (EXTERNAL TRANSF option) or with the residual current obtained
from the virtual sum of the phase currents (INTERNAL SUM option).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
All operational currents are regulated in values per unit of the nominal value of their currents
inputs: if the chosen option is the sum of the three phase currents, the reference nominal value
is the one of phase inputs; if the chosen option is the fourth current input, the nominal value is
of this input.
Table 6.6. Earth Overcurrent Protection parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..4
1
High Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
High Set> I0 Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF/
VIRTUAL SUM
EXTERNAL
TRANSF
High Set > Iop
0,1..40
pu
0,5
High Set > Top
0..60
s
0
Low Set > Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Low Set > I0 Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF/
VIRTUAL SUM
EXTERNAL
TRANSF
Low Set > Operation
DEFINITE TIME /
INVERSE TIME
DEFINITE TIME
Def> Iop
0,1..20
pu
0,2
Def> Top
0,04..300
s
0,04
Inv> Iop
0,1..20
pu
0,2
Inv> TM
0,05..1,5
0,05
Inv> Standard
I.E.C. / I.E.E.E.
I.E.C.
Inv> Curve
NI / VI / EI / LI
NI
Inv> Reset
STATIC / DYNAMIC
STATIC
Univ> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Univ> IO Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF/
VIRTUAL SUM
EXTERNAL
TRANSF
Univ> Iop
0,1..40
pu
0,2
Univ> Top
0,04..300
s
0,04
6
6.3.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection module includes all start and trip indications produced by
the function, discriminated by stage (high set, low set and universal). The indications to use in
other functions or in binary outputs are obtained from these indications and they are
constrained by blockings defined by the user.
The blocking by logical selectivity is a particular case to which corresponds a variable that can be
configured in a physical input or to which can be connected a variable received from the local
area network. By default, the corresponding blocking by logical selectivity against phase faults is
connected to this gate, so the variable to configure as input is the phase protection input. By
default, the blocking by logical selectivity only affects the high set stage.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Table 6.7. Description of the logical variables of the Earth Overcurrent Protection module.
Id
Name
Description
16384
Def Time Gnd Overcurrent
Start indication of the low set definite time
(produced by the function).
16385
Def Time Ground OC Trip
Trip indication of the low set definite time
(produced by the function).
16386
Inv Time Gnd Overcurrent
Start indication of the low set inverse time
(produced by the function).
16387
Inv Time Ground OC Trip
Trip indication of the low set inverse time
(produced by the function).
16388
Universal Gnd Overcurrent
Start indication of the universal set definite time
(produced by the function).
16389..
Universal Ground OC Trip
Trip indication of the universal set definite time
(produced by the function).
16390
High Set Gnd Overcurrent
Start indication of the high set stage (produced by
the function).
16391
High Set Ground OC Trip
Trip indication of the high set stage (produced by
the function).
16392
Ground Overcurrent Protect
Start of the function.
16393
Low Set Ground OC
Start of the low set stage.
16394
Universal Ground OC
Start of the universal set stage.
16395
High Set Ground OC
Start of the high set stage.
16396
Ground Overcurrent Trip
Trip of the function.
16397
Low Set Ground OC Trip
Trip of the low set stage.
16398
Universal Ground OC Trip
Trip of the universal set stage.
16399
High Set Ground OC Trip
Trip of the high set stage.
16400
Ground OC MMI Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface.
16401
Ground OC LAN Lock
Blocking of the function by the remote interface.
16402
Ground OC Protection Lock
Indication of general function blocking.
16403
Ground OC High Set Lock
Blocking by logical selectivity received in a input or
by the local area network.
6
Additionally to the indications referred in Table 6.7, are also available the variables
corresponding to change of parameters, logic or function descriptions as well as gates
associated with setting groups logic and function activation. There are also some auxiliary
logical variables used in the module internal logic.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
16384>
Protec MI Temp Def
Terra
16415>
Gate 1 Max Intens
Terra
OR
16393>
Protec MI Terra
Cronom
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
18695>Prot MI Terra Crono Direc
18691>Disp MI Terra Crono Direc
16386>
Protec MI Temp Inv
Terra
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
I4
OR
O1
O2
16388>
Protec MI Universal
Terra
16392>
Protecção MI Terra
16394>
Protec MI Terra
Universal
OR
O1
8706>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia
I1
O1
I2
O2
10294>Modo Operação Gate 7
I2
O2
I3
O3
38656>Corrente Religação
I4
O4
33283>Loop N Localiz Defeitos
I5
O5
OR
AND
O1
O2
18696>Prot MI Terra Univ Direc
O3
18693>Disp MI Terra Univ Direc
I3
17668>Protec 2ª MI Terra Cronom
I4
16390>
Protec MI Amperim
Terra
I1
16395>
Protec MI Terra
Amperim
OR
AND
O1
O2
O3
18694>Prot MI Terra Amper Direc
18689>Disp MI Terra Amper Direc
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
I4
16385>
Disparo MI Temp Def
Terra
16416>
Gate 2 Max Intens
Terra
OR
16397>
Disparo MI Terra
Cronom
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I2
O2
16387>
Disparo MI Temp Inv
Terra
I3
18691>Disp MI Terra Crono Direc
I3
I4
OR
O1
16396>
Disparo Protec MI
Terra
O2
16389>
Disparo MI Universal
Terra
16398>
Disparo MI Terra
Universal
OR
O1
41730>Ordem Abert Disjunt Protec
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
38657>Disparo Corrente Religação
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
41984>Sin Arranque Falha Disjunt
I4
O4
33284>Arranque Loc Defeitos
I5
O5
OR
AND
18693>Disp MI Terra Univ Direc
I3
17669>Disparo 2ª MI Terra Cronom
I4
16391>
Disparo MI Amperim
Terra
16399>
Disparo MI Terra
Amperim
OR
16400>
Bloqueio MI Terra MMI
I1
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
OR
O1
I3
O2
18689>Disp MI Terra Amper Direc
16401>
Bloqueio MI Terra LAN
OR
I5
16402>
Bloqueio Prot MI Terra
OR
O1
O2
10248>Modo Exploração Especial B
I4
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
I4
O4
O5
O6
O7
16403>
Bloq Select Lógica MI
Terr
OR
15651>Bloq Select Lógica MI Fase
I1
O1
I2
O2
Figure 6.11. Logical diagram of the Earth Overcurrent Protection module.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.4. DIRECTIONAL PHASE FAULT
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
The criterion associated to Phase Overcurrent Protection applied independently may not be
enough to discriminate correctly fault situations that are internal or external to the protection
zone. The TPU S420 provides for that purpose the Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent
Protection, which complements the previous function adding to the currents magnitude
information the corresponding phase information.
6.4.1. OPERATION METHOD
In distribution radial networks where each line power has an exact meaning, the Overcurrent
function is enough to ensure the selectivity among several network protections. In fact, in this
situation, the protection will only notice downstream short-circuits (in the load sense), either on
the line or in a derivation, so the protection must be coordinated by thresholds or times with the
remaining protections.
This simple criterion is no longer applicable in networks where there are two possible directions
for the short-circuit current due to the existence of one point where the fault can be feeded.
This happens, for example, in networks with independent producers. As exemplified on Figure
6.12, the line 1 protection is sensitive to faults on the protected line, as well as in line 2, due to
the generator located on its end.
Line 2
Line 2
~
~
Line 1
Line 1
~
~
Figure 6.12. Faults between phases in a network with self-producers.
However, it can be verified that the current direction is different depending if the fault is intern or
extern to the protection zone associated to the unit of line 1. That principle allows the
directionality’s successful application as an additional criterion to get the required selectivity.
The Phase Directional Protection may also be necessay in other situations, for example:
When, in the same unit, it is intended to protect simoultaneously the downstream line and
operate in reserve to the protections in the upstream bus-bar;
When several possible network configurations that lead to different directions for the shortcircuit current in a line, without the selectivity may be reached for all situations only with
Overcurrent setting.
On TPU S420, the Directional Protection closely interacts with the Overcurrent Protection, and its
function is the trip lock in case of fault in a non-required direction.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
The short-circuit current direction is determined by the phase difference calculation between
each one of the currents and one suitable polarising voltage. For a specific phase current,
TPU S420 uses, as a polarizing voltage, the phase-to-phase one between the other two phases.
Using this option it is selected the voltage that has less chances to be annulled when occurring a
short-circuit in a certain phase, maximizing therefore the protection sensitivity.
The previous choice corresponds to the Directional Protection traditional scheme
implementation with a 90º assembly and it corresponds to the operational characteristic
presented on Figure 6.13.
Figure 6.13. Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection.
The application of this criterion is equivalent to a power calculation. Its value is calculated for
each one of the referred current-voltage pairs, and then the sum that corresponds to the three
phase power is obtained. This is the last value compared with the operational characteristic and
it determines the Directional Protection operation for any one of the phases.
The maximum power angle is eligible from 30º to 60º. For the used scheme this range
comprises all values that this angle may have so the protection correctly describes all possible
three or two-phase faults.
A 5º angle dead band assures the operation stability of the Directional Protection.
The blocking by the directional function can be independently allocated to each one of the
stages of Overcurrent against faults among phases (high set, low set and universal). The
direction of its operation can also be configured independently for each one of the previous
stages.
When occuring a very close three-phase fault, voltages are almost void, disabling their using to
determine the direction. In that case, TPU S420 uses for the calculations the previous voltages
values, which are kept in memory during about 2.5 seconds.
After that timer runs out, and keeping the null voltage conditions, the decision of directional
function stops to correspond to the determined by the operational characteristic and it begins to
depend exclusively of the user defined setting. Two options are possible: inhibition of the
directional criterion, allowing the Overcurrent Protection trip if that’s the case, or that function
blocking while the fault remains. The conditions for voltage annulment checking are fixed,
corresponding to 1% of the nominal voltage.
The Directional Protection mode in case of voltage annulment is independently set for each one
of the Overcurren stages.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.4.2. CONFIGURATION
The Directional Protection is independently set for each one of the Phase Overcurrent stages.
The High Set> Status parameter allows activating the determination of direction of the high set
stage while the High Set> Direction parameter defines which is the direction of the function
operation. This direction can be regulated to allow FORWARD (in the direction of the line)
operations or reverse (in the direction of the busbar) operations. So that this correspondence is
correct it is necessary that the voltage and current connections are made as indicated in Section
2.4.5 - Current and voltage connections.
The operation of the function in case of absence of the polarization measurement (phase-tophase voltage) by a time longer than the memory time of its value is regulated in the High Set>
Umin Op parameter. This parameter can be defined as NON DIRECTIONAL if the Overcurrent
Protection is allowed to operate in this situation independently of the directional criterion or as
BLOCKED if it permanently blocks the protection operation.
Similarly for the low set stage there are the Low Set> Status, Low Set> Direction and Low
Set> Umin Op parameters, and for the universal stage the Univ> Status, Univ> Direction and
Univ> Umin Op parameters.
The Caract Angle is the maximum binary angle of the directional characteristic and is common
to all stages of the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection.
Funções de Protecção
Direccional de Fases
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
6
Ângulo Caract: 45.000
Amp> Estado: OFF
Amp> Direcção: FRENTE
Amp> Op Umin: NÃO DIRECCIONAL
Def/Inv> Estado: OFF
Def/Inv> Direcção: FRENTE
Def/Inv> Op Umin: NÃO DIRECCIONAL
Univ> Estado: OFF
Univ> Direcção: FRENTE
Univ> Op Umin: NÃO DIRECCIONAL
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.14. Setting group 1 Menu (Directional Phase).
Table 6.8. Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection parameters.
Parameter
Range
Current Set
1..4
Caract Angle
30..60
High Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
High Set> Direction
FORWARD/ REVERSE
FORWARD
High Set> Umin Op
NON DIRECTIONAL /
BLOCK
NON
DIRECTIONAL
Low Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Low Set> Direction
FORWARD/ REVERSE
FORWARD
Low Set> Umin Op
NON DIRECTIONAL /
BLOCK
NON
DIRECTIONAL
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
Unit
Default value
1
º
45
6-33
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Univ> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Univ> Direction
FORWARD/ REVERSE
FORWARD
Univ> Umin Op
NON DIRECTIONAL /
BLOCK
NON
DIRECTIONAL
6.4.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
By default, the start variables of each one of the stages are connected to the starts of the
corresponding stages of the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection. It is during the period of time
when these variables are activated that the Directional Protection executes its algorithm to
determine the direction of the currents.
The trip permission indications are the result of the operation of the Directional Protection. After
being constrained by possible function-specific blockings, the resulting variables directly enable
the operation (start and trip) of the Overcurrent function.
Table 6.9. Description of the logical variables of the Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent
Protection module.
Id
Name
Description
17920
High Set Ph Dir Trip Perm
Directional trip permission indication of the high
set stage (produced by the function).
17921
High Set Phase Dir OC Trip
Directional trip permission indication of the high
set stage (subjected to blocking).
17922
Low Set Ph Dir Trip Perm
Directional trip permission indication of the low set
stage (produced by the function).
17923
Low Set Phase Dir OC Trip
Directional trip permission indication of the low set
stage (subjected to blocking).
17924
Univers Ph Dir Trip Perm
Directional trip permission indication of the
universal set stage (produced by the function).
17925
Univers Phase Dir OC Trip
Directional trip permission indication of
universal set stage (subjected to blocking).
17926
High Set Phase Dir OC Prot
Start conditions of the high set directional stage.
17927
Low Set Phase Dir OC Prot
Start conditions of the low set directional stage.
17928
Univers Phase Dir OC Prot
Start conditions of the universal directional stage.
17929
Phase Direct MMI Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface.
17930
Phase Direct LAN Lock
Blocking of the function by the remote interface.
17931
Phase Direct Protec Lock
Indication of general function blocking.
the
Additionally are also available the variables corresponding to change of parameters, logic or
function descriptives as well as gates associated with scenarios logic and function activation.
Logic on the Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent module on version S is slightly different from
others versions of the TPU S420.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
17920>
Perm Disp Amper
Fases Dir
OR
17921>
Disp MI Fases Amper
Direc
AND
O1
I1
O1
15642>Protec MI Amperim Fases
O2
I2
O2
15646>Disparo MI Amperim Fases
I3
O3
17922>
Perm Disp Crono
Fases Dir
OR
17926>
Prot MI Fases Amper
Direc
OR
15666>Gate 3 Max Intens Fases
I1
O1
15641>Protec MI Cronom Fases
O2
I2
O2
15645>Disparo MI Cronom Fases
I3
O3
O1
I2
17923>
Disp MI Fases Crono
Direc
AND
O1
I1
17927>
Prot MI Fases Crono
Direc
OR
15664>Gate 1 Max Intens Fases
I1
O1
I2
17924>
Perm Disp Univ Fases
Dir
OR
17929>
Bloqueio Dir Fases
MMI
OR
17925>
Disp MI Fases Univ
Direc
AND
O1
I1
O1
15643>Protec MI Universal Fases
O2
I2
O2
15647>Disparo MI Universal Fases
I3
O3
17928>
Prot MI Fases Univ
Direc
OR
15665>Gate 2 Max Intens Fases
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I1
O1
I2
17931>
Bloqueio Prot Dir
Fases
OR
O4
17930>
Bloqueio Dir Fases
LAN
OR
O1
O2
Figure 6.15. Logical diagram of the Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection module (version I and C).
17920>
Perm Disp Amper
Fases Dir
OR
17921>
Disp MI Fases Amper
Direc
AND
O1
I1
O1
15642>Protec MI Amperim Fases
O2
I2
O2
15646>Disparo MI Amperim Fases
I3
O3
17922>
Perm Disp Crono
Fases Dir
OR
17926>
Prot MI Fases Amper
Direc
OR
15666>Gate 3 Max Intens Fases
I1
O1
15641>Protec MI Cronom Fases
O2
I2
O2
15645>Disparo MI Cronom Fases
I3
O3
6
O1
I2
17923>
Disp MI Fases Crono
Direc
AND
O1
I1
17927>
Prot MI Fases Crono
Direc
OR
15664>Gate 1 Max Intens Fases
I1
O1
I2
17924>
Perm Disp Univ Fases
Dir
OR
17929>
Bloqueio Dir Fases
MMI
OR
17928>
Prot MI Fases Univ
Direc
OR
O1
I1
O1
15643>Protec MI Universal Fases
O2
I2
O2
15647>Disparo MI Universal Fases
I3
O3
17420>Protec 2ª MI Cronom Fases
15665>Gate 2 Max Intens Fases
I1
O4
17421>Disparo 2ª MI Cronom Fases
17437>Gate 1 2ª Max Intens Fases
I2
17931>
Bloqueio Prot Dir
Fases
OR
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
17930>
Bloqueio Dir Fases
LAN
OR
17925>
Disp MI Fases Univ
Direc
AND
O5
O1
I3
O4
O1
O2
Figure 6.16. Logical diagram of the Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection module (version S).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.5. DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
Independently of the Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection, the TPU S420 performs the
Directional Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection, in complement to the Overcurrent Protection
against earth faults. This function allows the correct discrimination of faults in the direction of
the protected line from the external faults in the other direction, using the phase information of
the zero sequence short-circuit current.
6.5.1. OPERATION METHOD
It is normally necessary to complement Overcurrent Protection against faults to earth with some
protection additional criterion, even in distribution radial networks, on the contrary to what
happens to phase-to-phase faults. This happens because there is a current that closes itself by
the capacitances of each one of the lines when occurring a short-circuit to earth in some point of
the network.
6
Figure 6.17. Phase-to-earth faults in a distribution network.
Except for certain groundings where the residual current on the faulty line is sufficiently high
when compared with the current of capacitive origin, the discrimination made only by the
magnitude value of the residual current is not generally enough, in particular when the fault
resistance is too high. In those situations it can be successfully used the corresponding phase
information, concerning to a common reference. On TPU S420 that reference is the residual
voltage, that is, the three phase-to-earth voltages sum.
In a healthy line, the residual current is in quadrature and in advance towards the residual
voltage (capacitive current), independently from the earth regime. In the faulty line, the phase
ratio is dependent on the way neutral is connected to earth:
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
For isolated neutral systems, the residual current on the faulty line is also in quadrature but
delayed towards the residual voltage, and the residual reative power sign can be used to
describe the fault location;
On the other hand, for compensated neutral systems, the fault can be detected by the
presence of an active component on the residual power, of a bigger value when it is placed a
resistence in parallel with the Petersen coil;
The previous criterion can also be applied to neutral systems with limitation impedance,
since it has a minimum of resistive component.
These criteria application constitutes the Directional Earth Fault Protection, which works
independently from the Overcurrent Protection, being its function the trip locking when it is not
on the required direction. The residual power measurement is equivalent to the measurement of
the fault current phase ratio with the residual voltage.
TPU S420 implements an operational characteristic as shown on Figure 6.18, which is valid for
all referred neutral systems.
6
Figure 6.18.Operational characteristic of the Earht DIrectional Protection.
The maximum power angle (concerning the difference of phase between the residual current
and the symmetric residual voltage) is selectable between -90º and 90º.
For a compensated neutral system it is advisible a 0º angle, while for an isolated neutral system
it should be regulated a 90º value. For systems with a limitation impedance it is advisible a 0º
angle or higher in accordance with the resistive component of the impedance.
A dead band of a 7º angle assures the Directional Protection operation stability.
The blocking by the directional function can be independently allocated to each one of the
Overcurrent stages against faults among phases (high set, low set and universal set). For each of
the previous stages the respective operation direction can also be independently configured.
The source of the zero sequence current can be chosen, as in the Overcurrent Protection, from
two options: the current measured in the fourth current input, obtained by a toroidal
transformer or by a Holmgreen assembly; or the sum of the three phase currents internally
calculated by software.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
In addition, the zero sequence voltage used for polarization of the characteristic can be obtained
from two possible sources: by internal sum of the values of the three phase voltages or directly
from the fourth voltage input, in case it is connected to a second core of the VTs, mounted in
broken-delta.
The zero sequence voltage has, for faults with a relatively low resistance, a value high enough
for polarization of the characteristic; but as the fault resistance increases, its value decreases
especially when there is limitation impedance in the neutral. When a specific fault resistance is
achieved, it is no longer possible to determine the direction of the current.
While the null voltage conditions remain, the decision of the directional function no longer
corresponds to that determined by the operational characteristic and starts depending only on
the regulation defined by the user. Two options are possible: inhibition of the directional
criterion allowing the trip of the Overcurrent Protection if that is the case or the blocking of this
function while the fault persists. The threshold for verification of the zero sequence voltages
annulment conditions is configurable by the user.
The Protection mode in case of voltages annulment is independently regulated for each of the
Overcurrent stages.
6.5.2. CONFIGURATION
The Directional Protection is regulated independently for each of the Earth Overcurrent stages.
The High Set> Status parameter allows activating the determination of direction of the high set
stage while the High Set> Direction parameter defines which is the direction of the function
operation. This direction can be regulated to allow FORWARD (in the direction of the line)
operations or reverse (in the direction of the busbar) operations. So that this correspondence is
correct it is necessary that the voltage and current connections are made as indicated in Section
2.4.5 - Current and voltage connections.
The zero sequence current used in the algorithm is defined in the High Set> I0 Source
parameter, and it can correspond to the fourth current input (EXTERNAL TRANSF option) or to
the sum of the three phase currents internally made by the protection (INTERNAL SUM option). In
general, it will be similar to that used by the corresponding stage of the Earth Fault Overcurrent
Protection.
The operation of the function in case of absence of the polarization measurement (zero
sequence voltage) is regulated in the High Set> Umin Op parameter. This parameter can be
defined as NON DIRECTIONAL if the Overcurrent Protection is allowed to operate in this situation
independently of the directional criterion or as BLOCKED if it permanently blocks the protection
operation.
Similarly for the low set stage there are the Low Set> Status, Low Set> Direction, Low Set> I0
Source and Low Set> Umin Opparameters, and for the universal stage the Univ> Status,
Univ> Direction, Univ> I0 Source and Univ> Umin Op parameters.
The Caract Angle is the maximum binary angle of the directional characteristic and is common
to all stages of the Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection. The Polarising Limit parameter is also
common to all stages and is the minimum threshold of polarization voltage below which the
Directional Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection stops following the defined characteristic and is
only function of the regulation of the High Set> Umin Op, Low Set> Umin Op and Univ> Umin
Op parameters. The polarization voltage threshold is regulated in values per unit of the nominal
zero sequence voltage (triple of the phase-earth nominal voltage).
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
The zero sequence voltage used for polarization can correspond to the fourth voltage input
(EXTERNAL TRANSF option) or to the sum of the three phase voltages internally made by the
protection (INTERNAL SUM option). This configuration should be made in the U0 Source
parameter. In case the fourth voltage input has allocated a meaning different from the zero
sequence voltage, the Directional Earth Fault Protection will use the sum of the three phase
voltages, independently of the value of that parameter.
Funções de Protecção
Direccional de Terra
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Origem U0: SOMA INTERNA
Ângulo Caract: 0.000
Lim Polarização: 0.010
Amp> Estado: OFF
Amp> Origem I0: TRANSF EXTERNO
Amp> Direcção: FRENTE
Amp> Op Umin: BLOQUEIO
Def/Inv> Estado: OFF
Def/Inv> Origem I0: TRANSF EXTERNO
Def/Inv> Direcção: FRENTE
Def/Inv> Op Umin: BLOQUEIO
Univ> Estado: OFF
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Cenário 1
Univ> Origem I0: TRANSF EXTERNO
Univ> Direcção: FRENTE
Univ> Op Umin: BLOQUEIO
6
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.19. Setting group 1 Menu (Directional Earth).
Table 6.10. Directional Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection parameters.
Parameter
Range
Current Set
1..4
1
U0 Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF/
INTERNAL SUM
INTERNAL SUM
Caract Angle
0..90
º
0
Polarising Limit
0,005..0,8
pu
0,01
High Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
High Set> I0 Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF/
INTERNAL SUM
EXTERNAL
TRANSF
High Set> Direction
FORWARD / REVERSE
FORWARD
High Set> Umin Op
NON DIRECTIONAL /
BLOCKING
BLOCKING
Low Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Low Set> I0 Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF/
INTERNAL SUM
EXTERNAL
TRANSF
Low Set> Direction
FORWARD / REVERSE
FORWARD
Low Set> Umin Op
NON DIRECTIONAL /
BLOCKING
BLOCKING
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Univ> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Univ> I0 Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF/
INTERNAL SUM
EXTERNAL
TRANSF
Univ> Direction
FORWARD / REVERSE
FORWARD
Univ> Umin Op
NON DIRECTIONAL /
BLOCKING
BLOCKING
6.5.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
By default, the start variables of each one of the stages are connected to the starts of the
corresponding stages of the Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection. It is during the period of time
when these variables are activated that the Directional Protection executes its algorithm to
determine the direction of the currents.
The trip permission indications are the result of the operation of the Directional Protection. After
being constrained by possible function-specific blockings, the resulting variables directly enable
the operation (start and trip) of the Overcurrent function.
Table 6.11. Description of the logical variables of the Directional Earth Fault Overcurrent
Protection module.
Id
Name
Description
18688
High Set Gnd Dir Trip Perm
Directional trip permission indication of the high
set stage (produced by the function).
18689
High Set Gnd Dir OC Trip
Directional trip permission indication of the high
set stage (subjected to blocking).
18690
Low Set Gnd Dir Trip Perm
Directional trip permission indication of the low set
stage (produced by the function).
18691
Low Set Ground Dir OC Trip
Directional trip permission indication of the low set
stage (subjected to blocking).
18692
Univers Gnd Dir Trip Perm
Directional trip permission indication of the
universal set stage (produced by the function).
18693
Univers Ground Dir OC Trip
Directional trip permission indication of
universal set stage (subjected to blocking).
18694
High Set Gnd Dir OC Prot
Start conditions of the high set directional stage.
18695
Low Set Gnd Dir OC Prot
Start conditions of the low set directional stage.
18696
Univers Gnd Dir OC Prot
Start conditions of the universal directional stage.
18697
Ground Direct MMI Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface.
18698
Ground Direct LAN Lock
Blocking of the function by the remote interface.
18699
Ground Direct Protec Lock
Indication of general function blocking.
the
Additionally are also available the variables corresponding to change of parameters, logic or
function descriptives as well as gates associated with sets logic and function activation.
The logic of the Earth Directional Protection module on version S is slightly different from other
versions of TPU S420.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
18688>
Per m Disp A mper
Terra Dir
OR
18689>
Disp MI Terra Amper
Direc
AND
O1
I1
O1
16395>Pr otec MI Terra Amperim
O2
I2
O2
16399>Disparo MI Terra Amperim
I3
O3
18690>
Per m Disp Crono Terra
Dir
OR
16390>Pr otec MI A mperim Terra
I1
O1
I2
18691>
Disp MI Terra Crono
Direc
AND
O1
I1
O1
16393>Pr otec MI Terra Cronom
O2
I2
O2
16397>Disparo MI Terra Cronom
I3
O3
18692>
Per m Disp Univ Terra
Dir
OR
18694>
Prot MI Terra Amper
Direc
OR
18695>
Prot MI Terra Crono
Direc
OR
16416>Gate 1 Max Intens Terra
I1
O1
I2
18693>
Disp MI Terra Univ
Direc
AND
O1
I1
O1
16394>Pr otec MI Terra Universal
O2
I2
O2
16398>Disparo MI Terra Universal
I3
O3
18696>
Prot MI Terra Univ
Direc
OR
16388>Pr otec MI Universal Terra
I1
O1
I2
18697>
Bloqueio Dir Terra MMI
OR
O1
O2
18698>
Bloqueio Dir Terra LAN
OR
18699>
Bloqueio Pr ot Dir Terra
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
O4
O1
O2
Figure 6.20. Logical diagram of the Directional Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection module (versions I and C).
18688>
Perm Disp Amper
Terra Dir
OR
O1
I1
O1
16395>Protec MI Terra Amperim
O2
I2
O2
16399>Disparo MI Terra Amperim
I3
O3
18690>
Perm Disp Crono Terra
Dir
OR
18698>
Bloqueio Dir Terra LAN
OR
16390>Protec MI Amperim Terra
18691>
Disp MI Terra Crono
Direc
AND
I1
O1
16393>Protec MI Terra Cronom
O2
I2
O2
16397>Disparo MI Terra Cronom
I3
O3
I1
6
O1
18695>
Prot MI Terra Crono
Direc
OR
16416>Gate 1 Max Intens Terra
I1
O1
I2
18693>
Disp MI Terra Univ
Direc
AND
O1
I1
O1
16394>Protec MI Terra Universal
O2
I2
O2
16398>Disparo MI Terra Universal
I3
O3
17668>Protec 2ª MI Terra Cronom
O4
17669>Disparo 2ª MI Terra Cronom
18696>
Prot MI Terra Univ
Direc
OR
16388>Protec MI Universal Terra
I1
17685>Gate 1 2ª Max Intens Terra
I2
O5
18697>
Bloqueio Dir Terra MMI
OR
O2
18694>
Prot MI Terra Amper
Direc
OR
I2
O1
18692>
Perm Disp Univ Terra
Dir
OR
O1
18689>
Disp MI Terra Amper
Direc
AND
O1
I3
18699>
Bloqueio Prot Dir Terra
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
O4
O1
O2
Figure 6.21. Logical diagram of the Directional Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection module (version S).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.6. SECOND PHASE OVERCURRENT
PROTECTION
TPU S420 has a fourth Phase Overcurrent stage, as an option, adding to the three existing
stages by default (high set, low set and universal). This option can be useful if is intended that
the simoultaneous protection of the line and bus-bar by the same unit, by suitably configuring
the associated directionality.
6.6.1. OPERATION METHOD
TPU S420 allows to independently defining, for each stage, the application or not of
directionality, as well as the corresponding operation direction. Nevertheless, it only offers a
stage with inverse time option, which is sufficient for most applications.
Nevertheless, for applications where the TPU S420 simoultaneously assures the protection in
both directions (for example, the protection of the line on one hand and from the bus-bar that is
connected by another), and it can be necessay the existence of one more stage, in particular if it
is used the inverse time option.
For that purpose, it is available an additional protection of Phase Overcurrent, with a stage that
can be configured to work with definite or inverse time. The directionality of this stage is not
independent, and its configuration is identical to the universal stage.
A possible joint application available of the four Phase Overcurrent stages is the following:
Configuration of the operation direction of the original high and low threshold stage
(definite or inverse time) to FORWARD;
Configuration of the operation direction of the universal stage to REVERSE, configuring it as
a high threshold stage;
Configuration of the fourth stage as low threshold protection (definite or inverse time),
being its associated direction similar to the one of the previous stage, that is, REVERSE.
Like this, there will be two stages (one of high and another of low threshold) to protect in each
one of the directions.
6.6.2. CONFIGURATION
These function parameters, corresponding to a fourth Overcurrent stage, are similar to the low
threshold stage of the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection.
To activate this stage, the Low Set> Status must be configured with the ON value. The Low
Set> Operation parameter allows choosing the operation mode of the two possible options:
DEFINITE TIME or INVERSE TIME.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
When the DEFINITE TIME option is chosen, there are two parameters to define: Def> Iop and
Def> Top. The first one is the current value above which the protection will operate and that
should be regulated considering the higher load current; the second is the operational time that
allows the coordination with downstream protections.
When choosing the INVERSE TIME option, several parameters should be regulated: Inv>
Standard allows choosing the standard with which the inverse time curve complies (IEC or IEEE)
and Inv> Curve allows choosing the type of curve (NI, VI, EI or LI). The function reset can be
STATIC (default option) or DYNAMIC (situation on which the attack time follows the expression
(6.3)), by selecting the value of Inv> Reset parameter.
The Inv> Iop parameter defines the point of the inverse time curve where the trip time is infinite.
However, be aware that the current value that triggers the protection operation is 120% of that
current. The operation time is not configurable as it is function of the default current. Instead
configure the Inv> TM data. This scale factor allows adjusting the operational times of the timelag stage, and like this, to find the optimal point for the coordination with others downstream
protections of inverse time.
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Corrente de Fases 2ª
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Def/Inv> Estado: OFF
Def/Inv> Operação: TEMPO DEFINIDO
Def> Iop: 0.500
Def> Top: 0.040
Inv> Norma: C.E.I.
Inv> Curva: NI
Inv> Rearme: ESTÁTICO
Inv> Iop: 0.500
Inv> Top: 0.050
6
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.22. Setting Group 1 Menu (2nd Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection).
Table 6.12. Parameters of the second Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection.
Parameter
Range
Current Set
1..4
1
Low Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Low Set> Operation
DEFINITE TIME /
INVERSE TIME
DEFINITE TIME
Def> Iop
0,2..20
pu
0,5
Def> Top
0,04..300
s
0,04
Inv> Iop
0,2..20
pu
0,5
Inv> Top
0,05..1,5
s
0,05
Inv> Standard
I.E.C. / I.E.E.E.
I.E.C.
Inv> Curve
NI / VI / EI / LI
NI
Inv> Reset
STATIC / DYNAMIC
STATIC
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6.6.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection module includes all pickup and trip indications of the
fourth stage discriminated by phase. These variables are constrained by the existence of
blockings established by the user or by other logical variables.
Table 6.13. Logical variables description of the second Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection
module.
Id
Name
Description
17408
Def Time 2nd OC Phase A
…
...
Start indications of the second low set definite
time stage discriminated by phase (indications
produced by the functions).
17410
Def Time 2nd OC Phase C
17411
Def Time 2nd OC Ph A Trip
...
...
17413
Def Time 2nd OC Ph C Trip
17414
Inv Time 2nd OC Phase A
...
...
17416
Inv Time 2nd OC Phase C
17417
Inv Time 2nd OC Ph A Trip
...
...
17419
Inv Time 2nd OC Ph C Trip
17420
2nd Phase OC Low Set
Start of the second low set stage.
17421
2nd Phase OC Low Set Trip
Trip of the second low set stage.
17422
2nd Phase OC MMI Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface.
17423
2nd Phase OC LAN Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface.
17424
2nd Phase OC Protec Lock
Function blocking conditions.
Trip indications of the second low set definite time
stage discriminated by phase (indications
produced by the functions).
Start indications of the second low set inverse
time stage discriminated by phase (indications
produced by the functions).
Trip indications of the second low set inverse time
stage discriminated by phase (indications
produced by the functions).
6
The variables that correspond to the change of parameters, logic or function descriptions, as
well the gates associated to scenario logic and the function activation are also available.
Moreover, there are some auxiliary logical variables used in the module internal logic.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
17408>
Prot 2ª MI Temp Def
Fase A
OR
O1
O2
17409>
Prot 2ª MI Temp Def
Fase B
OR
O1
O2
17410>
Prot 2ª MI Temp Def
Fase C
OR
17414>
Prot 2ª MI Temp Inv
Fase A
OR
I1
O1
O1
I2
O2
O2
I3
O3
O1
O2
17437>
Gate 1 2ª Max Intens
Fases
OR
17420>
Protec 2ª MI Cronom
Fases
AND
17928>Prot MI Fases
Univ Direc
17925>Disp MI Fases Univ Direc
I4
I1
O1
I2
O2
15640>Protecção MI Fases
I3
I4
I5
17415>
Prot 2ª MI Temp Inv
Fase B
OR
I6
I7
O1
O2
17416>
Prot 2ª MI Temp Inv
Fase C
OR
17411>
Disp 2ª MI Temp Def
Fase A
OR
O1
O2
O1
O2
17412>
Disp 2ª MI Temp Def
Fase B
OR
O1
O2
17413>
Disp 2ª MI Temp Def
Fase C
OR
17417>
Disp 2ª MI Temp Inv
Fase A
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
O2
I3
O1
O2
17421>
Disparo 2ª MI Cronom
Fases
AND
17438>
Gate 2 2ª Max Intens
Fases
OR
17925>Disp MI Fases
Univ Direc
I4
15644>Disparo Prot MI Fases
I3
I4
I5
17418>
Disp 2ª MI Temp Inv
Fase B
OR
I6
I7
O1
O2
17419>
Disp 2ª MI Temp Inv
Fase C
OR
O1
O2
17422>
Bloqueio 2ª MI Fases
MMI
OR
O1
O2
17423>
Bloqueio 2ª MI Fases
LAN
OR
17424>
Bloqueio Prot 2ª MI
Fases
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
6
O1
O2
Figure 6.23. Logiccal diagram of the second Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection module.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.7. SECOND EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT
PROTECTION
As the protection against faults between phases, TPU S420 optionally offers a fourth stage of
Earth Overcurrent, in addition to the default existing three stages (high set, low set and
universal).
6.7.1. OPERATION METHOD
A fourth function against earth faults has a similar application than the corresponding phase
faults function. In fact, this additional stage allows to obtain a second inverse time protection
(definite time as an option), operating with the opposite direction of the first one, to do
simultaneous protection of the line and the upstream bus-bar.
The directionality of this stage is similar to the universal stage of definite time, and it is not
possible to configure it independently.
A possible application of the 4 available stages of Earth Overcurrent is the following:
Configuration of the operating direction of the original high set stage and low set stage
(definite or inverse time) for FORWARD;
Configuration of the operating direction of the universal stage for REVERSE, configuring it as
a high set stage;
Configuration of the 4th stage as a low set stage protection (definite or inverse time), and the
associated direction is identical to the previous stage, that is, for REVERSE.
This way, there will be two stages (one of high set stage and another of low set stage) protecting
in each one of the directions.
6.7.2. CONFIGURATION
The parameters of this function, which correspond to a 4th Overcurrent stage, are identical to the
low set stage of the Earth Faults Overcurrent Protection.
To activate this stage, the Low Set> Status parameter should be configured with the ON value.
The Low Set> Operation parameter allows choosing the operation mode from the two possible
options: DEFINITE TIME or INVERSE TIME. It also should be chosen the source of the residual
current measurement to use by regulating the Low Set> I0 Source.
When choosing the DEFINITE TIME option, configure the two parameters: Def> Iop and Def>
Top. The first is the current value above which the protection will operate; and the second is the
operational time that enables the coordination with downstream protections.
When choosing the INVERSE TIME option, configure the parameters: Inv> Standard allows
choosing the standard with which the inverse time curve complies (IEC or IEEE) and Inv> Curve
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
allows choosing the type of curve (NI, VI, EI or LI). The function reset can be STATIC (default
option) or DYNAMIC (situation on which the reset time follows the expression (6.3)), by selecting
the Inv> Reset parameter value.
The Inv> Iop parameter defines the point of the inverse time curve where the trip time is infinite.
However, be aware that the current value that triggers the protection operation is 120% of that
current. The operation time is not configurable as it is function of the default current. Instead
configure the Inv> TM data. This scale factor allows adjusting the operational times of the timelag stage, and like this to find the optimal point to coordinate with other donwstream inverse
time protections.
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Corrente de Terra 2ª
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Def/Inv> Estado: OFF
Def/Inv> Operação: TEMPO DEFINIDO
Def/Inv> Origem I0: TRANSF EXTERNO
Def> Iop: 0.200
Def> Top: 0.040
Inv> Norma: C.E.I.
Inv> Curva: NI
Inv> Rearme: ESTÁTICO
Inv> Iop: 0.200
Inv> TM: 0.050
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.24. Setting group 1 Menu (2nd Earth Overcurrent).
All the operational currents are regulated in values per unit of the nominal value of the
respective current inputs: if the option chosen is the sum of the three phase currents, the
reference nominal value is that of the phase inputs; if the option chosen is the fourth current
input the nominal value is the value of that input.
Table 6.14. Second Earth Overcurrent Protection parameters.
Parameter
Range
Current Set
1..4
1
Low Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Low Set> I0 Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF /
INTERNAL SUM
EXTERNAL
TRANSF
Low Set> Operation
DEFINITE TIME /
INVERSE TIME
DEFINITE TIME
Def> Iop
0,1..20
pu
0,2
Def> Top
0,04..300
s
0,04
Inv> Iop
0,1..20
pu
0,2
Inv> TM
0,05..1,5
0,05
Inv> Standard
I.E.C. / I.E.E.E.
I.E.C.
Inv> Curve
NI / VI / EI / LI
NI
Inv> Reset
STATIC / DYNAMIC
STATIC
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.7.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The second Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection module includes all start and trip indications of
the fourth stage. These variables are constrained by blockings defined by the user or other logic
variables.
Table 6.15. Logic variables description of the second Earth Overcurrent Protection module.
Id
Name
Description
17664
DefTime 2nd Ground Overcur
Start indication of the second low set definite time
(produced by the function).
17665
DefTime 2nd Ground OC Trip
Trip indication of the second low set definite time
(produced by the function).
17666
InvTime 2nd Ground Overcur
Start indication of the second low set inverse time
(produced by the function).
17667
InvTime 2nd Ground OC Trip
Trip indication of the second low set inverse time
(produced by the function).
17668
Low Set 2nd Ground OC Lock
Start of the second low set stage.
17669
Low Set 2nd Ground OC Trip
Trip of the second low set stage.
17670
2nd Ground OC MMI Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface.
17671
2nd Ground OC LAN Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface.
17672
2nd Gnd OC Protection Lock
Function blocking conditions.
The variables corresponding to change of parameters, logic or function descriptions as well as
gates associated with scenarios logic and function activation are also available. There are also
some auxiliary logical variables used in the module internal logic.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
17664>
Prot 2ª MI Temp Def
Terra
OR
17685>
Gate 1 2ª Max Intens
Terra
OR
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
17666>
Prot 2ª MI Temp Inv
Terra
OR
17668>
Protec 2ª MI Terra
Cronom
AND
18696>Prot MI Terra Univ Direc
18693>Disp MI Terra Univ Direc
I1
O1
I2
O2
16392>Protecção MI Terra
I3
I4
O1
O2
17665>
Disp 2ª MI Temp Def
Terra
OR
O1
O2
17667>
Disp 2ª MI Temp Inv
Terra
OR
17686>
Gate 2 2ª Max Intens
Terra
OR
17669>
Disparo 2ª MI Terra
Cronom
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
18693>Disp MI Terra Univ Direc
16396>Disparo Protec MI Terra
I3
I4
O1
O2
17670>
Bloqueio 2ª MI Terra
MMI
OR
O1
O2
17671>
Bloqueio 2ª MI Terra
LAN
OR
O1
O2
10248>Modo Exploração Especial B
17672>
Bloqueio Prot 2ª MI
Terra
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
I4
Figure 6.25. Logic diagram of the second Earth Overcurrent Protection module.
6
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.8. RESISTIVE EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
The Resistive Earth Fault Protection is a very sensitive protection function against earth faults in
aerial lines of Medium Voltage. A specific operational characterisitic allows the detection of very
resistive earth short-circuits and, simultaneously, to assure the protections coordination on
several substation feeders.
6.8.1. OPERATION METHOD
The earth short-circuits can reach relatively high fault resistences, depending on the soil
characteristics, starting fault currents of a very low value on those situations. These faults are
hardly visible by the traditional Overcurrent Protection because they are very often under its
maximum sensitivity threshold even if complemented with directionality.
The Resistive Earth Fault Protection is an Overcurrent protection of dependent time, with an
inverse time characteristic, specially made to detect earth-to-phase faults in a large range of
short-circuits current values. The trip time follows the expression:
(6.5)
6
where Ipu is the current in values per unit referred to nominal value of the fourth current input
and TM is the adjustable scale factor that allow the definition the operation times.
In order to use properly the Resistive Earth Protection the residual current must be observed on
the fourth current input from a toroidal transformer with a convertion ratio equal to 20 (for
example: 100/5). That input must have a nominal value of 0,2A.
With these particular choices it is obtained a sensitivity of 0,5A on the line and operational times
given by the following expression (Figure 6.26).
(6.6)
where Icc is the fault current on the line. To a raising factor equal to 0.2, this equation follows
the EPATR curve, according with EDF standard.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Figure 6.26. Resistive Earth Protection Characteristic.
It is important to say that unlike the inverse time curves of the IEC and IEEE standards, the trip
time of the inverse time curve doesn’t tend to infinite for currents close to the operational
threshold.
As an option, the residual current can be observed on the fourth current input by Holmgreen
connection of the phase currents. In this situation, the function is sensitive to erros resulting
from the measure of the phase CT.
In order to assure the function sensitivity in all operation range, the TPU S420 does an automatic
calibration that compensate the residual current measure errors. The false residual current
observed for different load current values is logged (in magnitude and phase) being after
discounted on the fault current.
Besides great sensitivity, the selective operation in case of fault is assured by the inverse time
curve, for earth systems with limitation impedance. In fact, in these neutral systems, the residual
current on the faulty line is largely superior to capacitive current in any of the healthy lines,
which leads that the trip time on that line is inferior to the remaining ones and, therefore, that
line is disconnected.
For other neutral systems, the ratio among current magnitudes on several lines may not be as
mentioned above, so the Resistive Earth Protection function may not be applicable.
For the line reconnection after the fault clearance a current threshold can be defined as higher
than the protection pickup, which is independent from this one. Thus, one can assure that a line
reconnection is attempted only for faults above a specific value, preventing inconsequential
closing manouvres over very resistive faults that normally show broken conductors.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.8.2. CONFIGURATION
The Status parameter allows activating the Resistive Earth function. It should be also mentioned
the earth current source measured on the fourth current input, by regulating the IO Source
parameter: This can be defined as EXTERNAL TRANSF if the input is connected to a toroidal
transformer or EXTERNAL SUM if, otherwise, the residual current is obtained from a Holmgreen
connection. This parameter is important to define if the operation of auto-calibration is
executed (EXTERNAL SUM option) or not.
The Iop parameter defines the residual current above which the function picks up. It should be
chosen the lowest value enabled by the measurement precision that is available (including the
substation CT) and by the recognition of the unbalanced currents originated by the network
asymmetries. The operation time is not configured because it is a function of the fault current.
To replace it the TM parameter should be configured. This scale factor allows adjusting the
protection operational times.
Finally, the I Reclosing parameter corresponds to a Iop distint threshold, normally with a higher
value than this one and that defines the current value above which it is generated for the
reclosing pickup, after detecting the Resisitive Earth Protection fault.
Funções de Protecção
Terras Resistentes
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Estado: OFF
Origem I0: TRANSF EXTERNO
Iop: 0.125
TM: 0.200
I Religação: 0.375
6
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.27. Set 1Menu (Resistive Earth).
Table 6.16. Resistive Earth Protection Parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Current Set
1..4
1
Status
OFF / ON
OFF
I0 Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF /
EXTERNAL SUM
EXTERNAL
TRANSF
I Reclosing
0,125..5
pu
0,375
Iop
0,125..5
pu
0,125
TM
0,05..1,5
0,2
6.8.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The three fist variables indicated on Table 6.17 are the pickup indications, trip and pickup for
reclosing produced by the function. The indications to be used in other functions or directly on
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
the command logic of the disconnector are obtained by combining them with the existence of
active blockings.
There still is a variable to force the re-starting of the function auto-calibration, when the
connections corresponding to a Holmgreen connection are made.
Table 6.17. Description of logic variables of the Resistive Earth Protection module.
Id
Name
Description
17152
Resistive Ground Protec
Pickup indication (produced by the function)
17153
Resistive Ground Prot Trip
Trip indication (produced by the function)
17154
HighSet Resistive Gnd Prot
Pickup indication for reclosing (produced by the
function)
17155
Resistive Ground Signal
Pickup of the function (subjected to blocking)
17156
Resistive Ground Trip Sign
Function trip (subjected to blocking)
17157
HighSet Resist Gnd Trip
Function trip for reclosing (subjected to blocking)
17158
Resist Gnd Calibration Cmd
Order of the auto-calibration initialization
17159
Resistive Ground MMI Lock
Function blocked by local interface
17160
Resistive Ground LAN Lock
Function blocked by remote interface
17161
Resistive Ground Prot Lock
Function blocking conditions
Additionaly to indications referred on Table 6.17 there are also available the variables
corresponding to the parameters, logic or function descriptions change, as well as the gates
associated with the scenario logic and the function activation.
17152>
Protec Terras
Resistentes
OR
17155>
Sin Arranque Terras
Resist
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
8706>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia
I3
17154>
Protec TResist Limiar
Alto
OR
17157>
Disparo TResist Limiar
Alt
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
38656>Corrente Religação
I3
17153>
Disparo Terras
Resistentes
OR
17156>
Sin Disparo Terras
Resist
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
41730>Ordem Abert Disjunt Protec
I3
O3
41984>Sin Arranque Falha Disjunt
O4
38657>Disparo Corrente Religação
17159>
Bloqueio Terras Resist
MMI
OR
O5
O1
O2
17160>
Bloqueio Terras Resist
LAN
OR
O1
O2
10246>Modo Exploração Normal
17161>
Bloqueio Prot Terras
Resis
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
17158>
Cmd Calibra Terras
Resist
OR
I4
O1
Figure 6.28. Logic diagram of the Resistive Earth Protection module.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.9. PHASE OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
The Phase Overvoltage Protection protects the electric power system against overvoltages that
may endager the power device, stirring up insulators by-pass or ineffective attemps of the load
voltage regulators to decrease the voltage value.
6.9.1. OPERATION METHOD
Overvoltages on Power Systems can be transient or permanent. Associated to each one of these
types of phenomenon there are different causes and protection mechanisms.
The transient overvoltages are originated by electric discharges on the conductors or by
switching actions. They correspond normally to wave forms with grouth times extremely
reduced, usually overvoltage dischargers are used as protection.
Phases Overvoltage Protection only protects against overvoltages of permanent type, that is,
those that manifest themselves by the increment of the fundamental component of voltage in
one or more phases, and they stay high until the associated causes are eliminated. These causes
can be:
Incorrect operation of voltage regulator or manual order of the tap change;
Sudden load disconnection or voltage restoration in a deenergized situation after load
shedding;
Phase-to-earth faults, especially in earth systems not solidly connected to earth.
For the last situation, the Earth Overcurrent Protection allows to eliminate efectively the
overvoltage source. For the first two, the Overvoltage Protection is essential.
Since the phase-to-earth voltages are more subjected to variations of their value, particularly for
certain earth systems, the TPU S420 uses the phase-to-phase voltages, calculated from the
phase-to-earth voltages. The operation is independent for each one of the voltages between
phases, even if the asymmetric fault conditions are detected by the protection.
TPU S420 has two Overvoltage Protection stages of definite time completely independent. These
stages are very similar, and they should be regulated with operational thresholds and different
times in order to give two levels of operation: a faster one, for extremely high overvoltage values
and another with a slower operation, but sensitive to slight magnitude overvoltages.
Any of the stages presents a 4% dead band around the operational threshold which assures the
operation stability.
In the particular case of the TPU S420 application to power independent producers, the Phases
Overvoltage Protection is normally one of the protection functions to connect them to the
transmission network. In that situation, this function assures the disconnection of auto
producers for overvoltages that show significant disturbances of the system.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.9.2. CONFIGURATION
The Phase Overvoltage Protection parameters are grouped in two independent sets, one for each
one of the stages.
The first stage must be activated changing the value of the Stg1> Status parameter from OFF to
ON.
The Stg1> Uop parameter is the phase-to-phase voltage value above which this stage operates.
Its regulation is made in values per unit of the nominal voltage (phase-to-phase) of voltage
inputs. The time between the fault appearance and the stage operation is defined by the Stg1>
Top parameter.
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Tensão de Fases
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Esc1>
Esc1>
Esc1>
Esc2>
Esc2>
Esc2>
Estado: OFF
Uop: 1.200
Top: 1.000
Estado: OFF
Uop: 1.100
Top: 2.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.29. Set 1 Menu (Phase Overvoltage).
For the secont stage, the Stg2> Status , Stg 2> Uop and Stg 2> Top parameters have
equivalent meanings to the corresponding parameters of fist stage.
Table 6.18. Phases Overvoltage Protection parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Current Set
1..4
1
Stg1> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Stg 1> Uop
0,5..1,5
pu
1,2
Stg 1> Top
0,04..300
s
1
Stg 2> Status
OFF / ON
Stg 2> Uop
0,5..1,5
pu
1,1
Stg 2> Top
0,04..300
s
2
OFF
6.9.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The Phase Overvoltage Protection module includes all start and trip indications of this function,
discriminated by stage (1 or 2) and by the corresponding pair of phases. The indications to use
in other functions or in binary outputs are obtained from these and they are constrained to
blockings defined by the user.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Table 6.19. Logical variables description of the Phases Overvoltage Protection module.
Id
Name
Description
19456
AB Phase Overvoltage Stg 1
…
...
Pickup indications of the first stage discriminated
by phase (indications produced by the function)
19458
CA Phase Overvoltage Stg 1
19459
AB Ph Overvoltage St1 Trip
...
...
19461
CA Ph Overvoltage St1 Trip
19462
AB Phase Overvoltage Stg 2
...
...
19464
CA Phase Overvoltage Stg 2
19465
AB Ph Overvoltage St2 Trip
...
...
19467
CA Ph Overvoltage St2 Trip
19468
Phase Overvoltage Protec
Function start
19469
Phase Overvoltage Stg 1
First stage start
19470
Phase Overvoltage Stg 2
Second stage start
19471
Phase Overvoltage Trip
Trip function
19472
Phase Overvoltage St1 Trip
First stage trip
19473
Phase Overvoltage St2 Trip
Second stage trip
19474
Phase Overvoltage MMI Lock
Function blocking by the local interface
19475
Phase Overvoltage LAN Lock
Function blocking by the remote interface
19476
Phase Overvoltage Lock
Function blocking conditions
Trip indications of the first stage discriminated by
phase (indications produced by the functions)
Start indications of the second stage discriminated
by phase (indications produced by the functions)
Trip indications of the second stage discriminated
by phase (indications produced by the functions)
6
Additionally to the indications mentioned on Table 6.19, the variables corresponding to the
parameter, logic or function description changes are also available, as well as the gates
associated to the scenario logic and to the function activation. There is also a set of auxiliary
variables used in the internal logic of the module.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
19456>
Protec MaxU Fases
AB Esc1
OR
19489>
Gate 1 Max Tensão
Fases
OR
O1
O2
19457>
Protec MaxU Fases
BC Esc1
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I3
I4
O1
O2
19469>
Protec Máximo U
Fases Esc1
AND
19458>
Protec MaxU Fases
CA Esc1
OR
O1
O2
19462>
Protec MaxU Fases
AB Esc2
OR
19490>
Gate 2 Max Tensão
Fases
OR
O1
O2
19463>
Protec MaxU Fases
BC Esc2
OR
19468>
Protec Máximo U
Fases
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I3
8706>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia
I3
I4
O1
O2
19470>
Protec Máximo U
Fases Esc2
AND
19464>
Protec MaxU Fases
CA Esc2
OR
O1
O2
19459>
Disparo MaxU Fases
AB Esc1
OR
19491>
Gate 3 Max Tensão
Fases
OR
O1
O2
19460>
Disparo MaxU Fases
BC Esc1
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I3
I4
O1
O2
19472>
Disparo Max U Fases
Esc 1
AND
19461>
Disparo MaxU Fases
CA Esc1
OR
O1
O2
19465>
Disparo MaxU Fases
AB Esc2
OR
19492>
Gate 4 Max Tensão
Fases
OR
O1
O2
19466>
Disparo MaxU Fases
BC Esc2
OR
O2
19471>
Disparo Máximo U
Fases
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I3
O1
19473>
Disparo Max U Fases
Esc 2
AND
41730>Ordem Abert Disjunt Protec
I3
I4
19467>
Disparo MaxU Fases
CA Esc2
OR
O1
6
O2
19474>
Bloqueio Max U Fases
MMI
OR
O1
O2
19475>
Bloqueio Max U Fases
LAN
OR
O1
19476>
Bloqueio Prot Max U
Fases
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
O4
O5
O2
Figure 6.30. Logic diagram of the Phases Overvoltage Protection module.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.10. ZERO SEQUENCE OVERVOLTAGE
PROTECTION
Complementing the Earth Overcurrent Protection it can be used the Zero Sequence Overvoltage
Protection as an additional element for earth faults detection on the network.
6.10.1. OPERATION METHOD
The zero sequence voltage is a good indicator of the existence on some point of the network of
a fault involving earth. In general, the magnitude effectively used is not the zero sequence
voltage but the residual voltage, which is three times higher, and it can be easily obtained by
summing the three phase voltages (6.7).
U res
U A UB
UC
(6.7)
In the particular case of TPU S420, the residual voltage is obtained by software, internally adding
the three phase voltages to the protection; in option, it can be used the value of the fourth
voltage input, in case it is configured as residual voltage.
In fact, in normal situation of balanced three-phase load or faults between phases, the residual
voltage is almost null, and the low observed value is due to the network asymmetries. However,
for earth faults, the residual voltage have most of the times very significative values.
Its magnitude depends on several factors, particularly on the adopted neutral system and fault
resistance. For networks with isolated or compensated networks, its value in a normal earth fault
situation is extremely high, and its order of magnitude is three times the phase-to-earth
nominal voltage, independently from the point on the network where the short-circuit occurred,
not suffering great variations with the fault resistance. When neutral is connected to earth using
a low value limitation impedance, the residual voltage also have a high value in case it is a lowimpedance fault case, but it decreases as the fault resistance increases or drives us out from the
point when the fault occurred.
For phase-phase-earth faults, the fault resistance dependence is also significative, but in those
cases, the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection assures the required device protection.
In many situations the Zero Sequence Overvoltage Protection offers an effective way to detect
earth faults, but it isn’t able to identify the fault location. Nevertheless, it can be used combining
with the Earth Overcurrent Protection, for example:
as a configured reserve protection with a long operation time;
as earth faults detector, afecting the internal automation logic or indicating other protections.
In network points where it is not possible the circulation of the current residual component, for
example, next to delta transformer windings and with earth isolated neutral, the Zero Sequence
Overvoltage Protection is essential for phase-to-earth faults detection.
TPU S420 has two completely independent stages of Overvoltage Protection of definite time.
These stages are very similar, and they can be regulated with operational thresholds and
different times in order to provide two sensitivity levels.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Any of the stages presents a 4% dead band around the operational threshold which assures the
operation stability.
6.10.2. CONFIGURATION
The Zero Sequence Overvoltage Protection parameters are grouped in two independent sets,
one for each one of the stages.
In order to enable the first stage the Stg1> Status parmeter must be configured to ON.
The Stg1> Uop parameter is the residual voltage value above which this stage operates. Be
aware that its regulation is made in values per unit three times the simple nominal voltage
(phase-to-earth) of the voltage inputs (which is almost the maximum value that the residual
voltage can reach to a phase-to-earth fault). Time between the fault appearance and the stage
operation is settled by the Stg1> Top parameter.
It must be also chosen the measurement source of the residual voltage to wear, by regulating
the Stg1> U0 Source: this can be defined as EXTERNAL TRANSF if the voltage to wear is the
measurement of the fourth input or INTERNAL SUM if one chooses the sum of the phase three
voltages obtained by software.
Funções de Protecção
Máximo de Tensão de Terra
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Esc1>
Esc1>
Esc1>
Esc1>
Esc2>
Esc2>
Esc2>
Esc2>
Estado: OFF
Origem U0: SOMA INTERNA
Uop: 0.200
Top: 1.000
Estado: OFF
Origem U0: SOMA INTERNA
Uop: 0.100
Top: 2.000
6
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.31. Set 1 Menu (Earth Overvoltage).
For the second stage, the Stg2> Status, Stg2> U0 Source, Stg2> Uop and Stg2> Top
parameters have equivalent meanings to corresponding parameters of the first stage.
Table 6.20. Zero Sequence Overvoltage Protection parameters.
Parameter
Range
Current Set
1..4
1
Stg1> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Stg 1> U0 Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF /
INTERNAL SUM
INTERNAL SUM
Stg 1> Uop
0,005..0,8
pu
0,2
Stg 1> Top
0,04..300
s
1
Stg 2> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Stg 2 U0 Source
EXTERNAL TRANSF /
INTERNAL SUM
INTERNAL SUM
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Unit
Default Value
6-59
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Stg2> Uop
0,005..0,8
pu
0,1
Stg2> Top
0,04..300
s
2
6.10.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The Zero Sequence Overvoltage Protection includes all start and trip indications produced by the
function, discriminated by stage (1 or 2). The indications to use in other functions or in binary
outputs are obtained from these indications and they are constrained by blockings defined by
the user.
Table 6.21. Logical variables description of the Zero Sequence Protection module.
Id
Name
Description
20224
Ground Overvoltage Stg 1
Start indication of the first stage (produced by the
function)
20225
Ground Overvoltage Stg 2
Start indication of the second stage (produced by
the function)
20226
Gnd Overvoltage Stg 1 Trip
Trip indication of the first stage (produced by the
function)
20227
Gnd Overvoltage Stg 2 Trip
Trip indication of the second stage (produced by
the function)
20228
Ground Overvoltage Protec
Start of the function
20229
Gnd Overvolt St1 Start Sig
Start of the first stage
20230
Gnd Overvolt St2 Start Sig
Start of the second stage
20231
Ground Overvoltage Trip
Trip of the function
20232
Gnd Overvolt St1 Trip Sig
Trip of the first stage
20233
Gnd Overvolt St2 Trip Sig
Trip of the second stage
20234
Ground Overvolt MMI Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface
20235
Ground Overvolt LAN Lock
Blocking of the function by the remote interface
20236
Ground Overvoltage Lock
Function blocking conditions
6
Additionally to indications referred in Table 6.21, are also available the variables corresponding
to change of parameters, logic or function descriptions as well as gates associated with scenario
logic and function activation.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
20224>
Protec MaxU Terra
Esc1
OR
20229>
Sin Arranque Prot
MaxUh 1
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
20225>
Protec MaxU Terra
Esc2
OR
20230>
Sin Arranque Prot
MaxUh 2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
20228>
Protec Máximo Tensão
Terra
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
8706>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia
I3
I3
20226>
Disparo MaxU Terra
Esc1
OR
20232>
Sin Disparo Prot
MaxUh Es1
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
20227>
Disparo MaxU Terra
Esc2
OR
20234>
Bloqueio Max U Terra
MMI
OR
O1
O2
20235>
Bloqueio Max U Terra
LAN
OR
O1
O2
20233>
Sin Disparo Prot
MaxUh Es2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
20231>
Disparo Max Tensão
Terra
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
41730>Ordem Abert Disjunt Protec
I3
I3
20236>
Bloqueio Protec MaxU
Terra
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
O4
O5
6
Figure 6.32. Logic diagram of the Zero Sequence Overvoltage Protection module.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.11. PHASE UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
As the overvoltages, voltage sags are also disturbances of the Power System that must be
detected in order to minimize their effect over consumers. For those situations, the TPU S420
provides the Phase Undervoltage Protection.
6.11.1. OPERATION METHOD
The voltage sags (or undervoltage) normally occurs when the magnitude of the fundamental
voltage component decreases in just one or more phases. Their causes can be associated to:
Incorrect operation of the voltage regulator or manual control of the tap changer;
Extreme overload;
Faults occurrence, particularly between phases, together with the ones located upstream in
the network.
The Undervoltage Protection function is mainly used in interaction with load shedding programs,
to selective disconnection of consumers if disturbances occur as a result of a voltage drop. It can
be equally used in specific logic for detection and indication of faults or protections operation
blocking. On the other hand, it is essential to estimate voltage lack conditions that may hinder
the equipment service restoration.
In the particular case of the TPU S420 application for power independent producers, the Phase
Undervoltage Protection is normally one of the protection functions required for the producers’
connection to the transmission network. In these circumstances, this function assures the
disconnection of the auto-producers when voltage sags occur, pointing out significant system
disturbances.
Because phase-earth voltages are more subject to changes of their value, particularly for specific
earth regimes, TPU S420 uses phase-phase voltages, calculated from the phase-earth voltages.
The calculation is independent for each one of the voltages between phases, so, even
asymmetric faulty conditions are detected by the protection function.
The TPU S420 has two completely independent stages of Undervoltage Protection of definite
time. These stages are entirely similar and they have to be set with distinct operational
thresholds and times in order to provide two operation levels: a faster one, for extremely low
undervoltage values, and another one with a slower operation, but sensitive to voltage sags of
slighter magnitude.
Each one of the stages presents a 4% dead band relative to the operational threshold that grants
the stability of the operation.
The Undervoltage Protection function, simply used without any associated supervision
mechanism, has a limitation due to its sensitivity to the voltages annulment, in one or more
phases, not due to system disturbances but to circuit failure of the voltages measures. To avoid
that possibility, TPU S420 implements two different blocking mechanisms for the function.
Firstly, it is possible to consider a tri-phase operation which the trip is indicated only when all
the phase-to-phase voltages check the configured conditions, instead of an independent
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
function operation to each pair of phases. This way, it is prevented, for example, the protection
operation in situations where the measure circuit of the VT (voltage transformer) is protected by
fuses in each one of the phases, once the voltage remains stable in the other two phases, even
in the occurrence of an operation of one of those fuses. This measure takes in consideration that
the simultaneous operation of the three protection elements is extremely doubtful.
This solution is not enough for the situations where the VT circuit is protected by a tri-phase
circuit breaker. To prevent the protection operation in those cases, the TPU S420 implements an
additional blocking by current: in case of simultaneous annulment of the three phase voltages,
the operation is blocked if there is current in some of the phases, since that is an indication of
voltage in the network, and therefore, a VT failure. The only situation where a current may exist
in the network without voltage, is the one associated to a non-resistive tri-phase fault
immediately next to the measure transformers; nevertheless, the Overcurrent Protection quickly
eliminates that situation. The tri-phase operation actuation option should also be configured in
this situation.
The conditions for voltage and current annulment checking are fixed, corresponding to 1% of
the nominal voltage and 3% of the nominal current.
6.11.2. CONFIGURATION
The Phase Undervoltage Protection function parameters are grouped in two independent sets,
one for each of the stages.
The first stage should be activated by changing the parameter value Stg1> Status from OFF to
ON.
The Stg1> Uop parameter is the phase-to-phase voltage value below which this stage operates.
Its setting is performed in values per unit of the nominal voltage (phase-to-phase) of the voltage
inputs. The time between the fault appearance and the stage operation is defined by the Stg1>
Top parameter.
Funções de Protecção
Mínimo de Tensão de Fases
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Esc1> Estado: OFF
Esc1> Uop: 0.500
Esc1> Top: 1.000
Esc2> Estado: OFF
Esc2> Uop: 0.800
Esc2> Top: 2.000
Bloq Umin> 3 Fases: OFF
Bloq Umin> Corrente: OFF
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.33. Setting group 1 Menu (Phase Undervoltage).
For the second stage, the Stg2> Status, Stg2> Uop and Stg2> Top parameters have equivalent
meanings concerning those of the first stage.
The function operation becomes tri-phase by regulating the Umin Bloq> 3 Phase parameter to
ON, that is, only when it is detected a voltage decrease in all phases it is produced the trip
indication. The Umin Bloq> Current parameter activates the VT fault verification by current
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
presence in some of the phases. By activating this parameter it should be also activated the
previous one. Any of these parameters have an effect on both stages simultaneously.
Table 6.22. Phase Undervoltage Protection parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..4
1
Stg1> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Stg1> Uop
0.05..1
pu
0.5
Stg1> Top
0.04..300
s
1
Stg2> Status
OFF / ON
Stg2> Uop
0.05..1
pu
0.8
Stg2> Top
0.04..300
s
2
Umin Bloq> 3 Phase
OFF / ON
OFF
Umin Bloq> Current
OFF / ON
OFF
OFF
6.11.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The Phase Undervoltage Protection module includes all start and trip indications produced by
the function, separated by stage (1 or 2) and by pair of correspondent phases. Additionally to
the three phase-to-phase voltages, it is also considered the tri-phase trip indication when the
corresponding option is activated. The indication to use in others functions or in binary outputs
are obtained from these, being conditioned by blocking logic defined by the user.
A particular case of blocking implemented by default is the case of the resulting of the VT
failures. This blocking is the result of the blocking by the presence of current, when the
respective option is activated, or from other conditions of VT supervision connected to a specific
logic. In addition to the logic conditions, this blocking is implemented in the function algorithm
for safety reasons.
Table 6.23. Description of the logical variables of the Phase Undervoltage Protection module.
Id
Name
Description
20992
AB Phase Undervoltage Stg1
…
...
Start indications of the first stage discriminated by
phase (indications produced by the functions)
20994
CA Phase Undervoltage Stg1
20995
AB Ph Undervolt Stg 1 Trip
…
...
20997
CA Ph Undervolt Stg 1 Trip
20998
ABC Ph Undervolt Stg1 Trip
Tri-phase trip indication of the first stage
(produced by the function)
20999
AB Phase Undervoltage Stg2
...
...
Start indications of the second stage discriminated
by phase (indications produced by the functions)
21001
CA Phase Undervoltage Stg2
Trip indications of the first stage discriminated by
phase (indications produced by the functions)
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Id
Name
Description
21002
AB Ph Undervolt Stg 2 Trip
...
...
Trip indication s of the second stage discriminated
by phase (indications produced by the functions)
21004
CA Ph Undervolt Stg 2 Trip
21005
ABC Ph Undervolt Stg2 Trip
Tri-phase trip indiction of the second stage
(produced by the function)
21006
Phase Undervoltage Protec
Function start
21007
Phase Undervoltage Stage 1
First stage start
21008
Phase Undervoltage Stage 2
Second stage start
21009
Phase Undervoltage Trip
Trip function
21010
Ph Undervoltage Stg 1 Trip
First stage trip
21011
Ph Undervoltage Stg 2 Trip
Second stage trip
21012
Phase Undervolt MMI Lock
Function blocking by the local interface
21013
Phase Undervolt LAN Lock
Function blocking by the remote interface
21014
Phase Undervoltage Lock
Function blocking conditions
21015
VT Circuit Failure
Conditions of voltage lack by VT failure
21016
VT Supervision Lock
Function blocking by VT failure
Additionally to the indications mentioned on Table 6.23, the variables corresponding to the
parameter, logic or function description changes are also available, as well as the gates
associated to the setting group logic and to the function activation. There is also a set of
auxiliary variables used in the internal logic of the module.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
20992>
Protec MinU Fases AB
Esc1
OR
O1
O2
21029>
Gate 1 Min Tensão
Fases
OR
20993>
Protec MinU Fases BC
Esc1
OR
O2
20999>
Protec MinU Fases AB
Esc2
OR
O1
O2
20994>
Protec MinU Fases CA
Esc1
OR
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
21006>
Protec Mínimo U Fases
OR
I3
21030>
Gate 2 Min Tensão
Fases
OR
O2
21000>
Protec MinU Fases BC
Esc2
OR
O2
O1
I2
I4
O1
O1
I1
I3
O1
21007>
Protec Mínimo U Fases
Esc1
AND
21008>
Protec Mínimo U Fases
Esc2
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I1
O1
I2
O2
8706>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia
I3
I3
I4
21001>
Protec MinU Fases CA
Esc2
OR
O1
O2
20995>
Disparo MinU Fases
AB Esc1
OR
O1
O2
21031>
Gate 3 Min Tensão
Fases
OR
20996>
Disparo MinU Fases
BC Esc1
OR
O1
O2
20997>
Disparo MinU Fases
CA Esc1
OR
O1
O2
21010>
Disparo Min U Fases
Esc1
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I3
I4
I4
I5
21009>
Disparo Mínimo U
Fases
OR
20998>
Disparo MinU
FasesABC Esc1
OR
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
41730>Ordem Abert Disjunt Protec
39448>Gate 1 Deslastre Tensão
O2
21002>
Disparo MinU Fases
AB Esc2
OR
O1
O2
21032>
Gate 4 Min Tensão
Fases
OR
21003>
Disparo MinU Fases
BC Esc2
OR
O1
O2
21004>
Disparo MinU Fases
CA Esc2
OR
21011>
Disparo Min U Fases
Esc2
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I3
I4
I4
I5
O2
21005>
Disparo MinU
FasesABC Esc2
OR
O1
21012>
Bloqueio Min U Fases
MMI
OR
O2
O1
O2
21013>
Bloqueio Min U Fases
LAN
OR
6
21015>
Avaria Circuito TT
OR
O1
4360>Estado do TT 1
I1
4362>Posição do TT 1
I2
21014>
Bloqueio Prot Min U
Fases
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
O1
I3
O4
O1
O5
O2
21016>
Bloqueio Vigilancia TT
OR
I1
O1
O2
O3
Figure 6.34. Logic diagram of the Phases Undervoltage Protection module.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.12. UNDERFREQUENCY AND
OVERFREQUENCY PROTECTION
All the previous protection functions are prepared to operate in system disturbance situations
where, nonetheless, the operation frequency is kept stable. The Underfrequency and
Overfrequency Protection complements these funtions, reacting to deviations of that magnitude
concerning the nominal value.
6.12.1. OPERATION METHOD
The electric power networks operate in an almost constant frequency, kept in an extremely
limited range of values. These conditions assure the synchronism between different generators
and the maintenance of power transmission rhythms between the aproximately constants points
in the network, to a certain profile of generation and consumption.
The network short-circuits with consequent lines or generators disconnection can affect this
balance. The faults occurred in the transport network are the responsible for bigger
disturbances, and they can seriously affect the synchronism between several points of the
network, detected by the variation of frequency concerning the nominal value. In most serious
situations, measures start necessarily by consumers disconnection. One of the Frequency
Protection main applications is interacting with load shedding programs by the decrease of the
frequency value.
Another application of this function is in networks with diffuse generation of energy in small
producers, like the associated to renewable energy and cogeneration. When occurring faults, the
possible insulation of the system sections, composing “islands” constituted by some generators
and consumers, leads to frequent unbalanced actions between generation and consumption,
which means frequency variations. The Frequency Protection function is advisable in those
situations, that’s why it is normally demanded for the network interconnection protection of
those independent producers.
The used algorithm on the frequency calculation assures the measurement precision for
protection efects in all regulation range.
The frequency measurement is calculated from the voltage direct sequence. So that this
measurement is correct it is necessary to do the connections of the three phase voltage in
accordance with the scheme presented on the Chapter 2.4.5 – Current and voltage connections.
The phases exchange has a frequency null value and a consequent non-operability of the
function.
In situations of a network section insulation, the voltage can remain in that section for more a
few cycles after circuit-breaker opening due to, for example, the drive load of significative
power. In that situation, the frequency is gradually moderated, being able to lead to non-desired
operations of the Frequency Protection. Still, the simultaneous reduction of the voltage
magnitude supplies a valid discrimination criterion.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
In order to avoid incorrect operations of the Frequency Protection, the frequency calculation is
made only for voltages higher than the value configured by the user.
It is possible to use only one voltage in order to measure the frequency value, but, this is not
advisible because the measure in this circumstances is less accurate, so, the operation is more
instable. Besides this, the regulation of the trip voltage threshold must be done for a three times
inferior value to configured in a normal situation.
Underfrequency
TPU S420 has two completely independent stages of Underfrequency Protection of definite time.
Each one of these stages operate at the end of a configured time as the frequency reduces from
the respective operational threshold.
The first stage can be regulated to operate as a protection of negative variation rate of
frequency. In that case, this stage only operates when the frequency is inferior to the configured
operational threshold and, at the same time, its decrease happens in a rate higher than a specific
value.
The two Underfrequency stages can be used, for example, as two levels of load shedding. For
example, the first stage can be configured to operate for slight frequency variations (therefore,
more quickly), but only for variation rates above a certain value that show very serious
disturbances of the system balance.
Overfrequency
TPU S420 has also two independent stages of Overfrequency Protection of definite time. Each
one of these stages operates at the end of a configured time as the frequency rises above the
respective operational threshold.
The first stage can be configured to work as a protection of positive variation rate of frequency.
In that case, this stage only operates when the frequency is superior to the configured
operational threshold and, at the same time, its increase happens in a rate higher than a specific
value.
The coordination between the two levels can be similarly done to the Underfrequency Protection,
using the variation rate stage to foresee the trip for more serious disturbances, and the second
stage to operate when the frequency surpasses an excessive value.
6.12.2. CONFIGURATION
The Underfrequency and Overfrequency parameters are grouped in four independent sets, one
for each one of the stages.
The first Underfrequency stage is activated changing the value of the MinF 1> Status
parameter from OFF to ON.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
The MinF 1> Fop parameter is the frequency value under which this stage operates. It is
regulated in values per unit of the nominal frequency. The time between a fault appearance and
the protection operation is defined by the MinF 1> Top parameter.
Concerning this stage it can be also set the MinF 1> Var Rate parameter: only for faster
frequency variations than the ones that were defined by this rate. If one doesn’t require the
function of negative variation of frequency it is enough to set this parameter with the zero value.
Funções de Protecção
Frequência
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
MinF> Ubloq: 0.800
MinF 1> Estado: OFF
MinF 1> Taxa Var: 1.000
MinF 1> Fop: 0.980
MinF 1> Top: 0.070
MinF 2> Estado: OFF
MinF 2> Fop: 0.960
MinF 2> Top: 0.070
MaxF 1> Estado: OFF
MaxF 1> Taxa Var: 1.000
MaxF 1> Fop: 1.020
MaxF 1> Top: 0.070
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Cenário 1
MaxF 2> Estado: OFF
MaxF 2> Fop: 1.040
MaxF 2> Top: 0.070
6
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.35. Setting group 1 Menu (Frequency).
The configuration of the second Underfrequency stage is similar to the first one, and they should
be regulated MinF 2> Status, MinF 2> Fop and MinF 2> Top. There isn’t a parameter for the
frequency variation because that option is not available in this stage.
Both Overfrequency stages are like the Underfrequency stages in terms of configuration: the
only difference is that the function operation happens for frequency values above the defined
operational thresholds.
The first Overfrequency stage corresponds to a relay of positive frequency variation rate but it
can, as an alternative, operate as a simple protection of frequency if the MaxF 1> Var Rate
parameter is annulled.
There is an addittional parameter, which is common to all these stages – Blocking Voltage: is
the direct voltage value, set in values per unit of the nominal voltage, under which the frequency
is not calculated and the protection algorithm is blocked. A typical value of 70-80% is advisible.
Table 6.24. Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection parameters.
Parameter
Range
Current Set
1..4
1
MinF 1> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
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Default Value
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
MinF 1> Fop
0,8..1
pu
0,98
MinF 1> Top
0,07..60
pu
0,07
MinF 1> Var Rate
0..10
pu
1
MinF 2> Status
OFF / ON
MinF 2> Fop
0,8..1
pu
0,96
MinF 2> Top
0,07..60
pu
0,07
MaxF 1> Status
OFF / ON
MaxF 1> Fop
1..1,2
pu
1,02
MaxF 1> Top
0,07..60
pu
0,07
MaxF 1> Var Rate
0..10
pu
1
MaxF 2> Status
OFF / ON
MaxF 2> Fop
1..1,2
pu
1,04
MaxF 2> Top
0,07..60
pu
0,07
Blocking Voltage
0,05..1
pu
0,8
OFF
OFF
OFF
6.12.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection module includes all start and trip indications
of this function, discriminated by stage (2 of minimum and 2 of maximum). These variables are
constrained to the existence of blockings imposed by the user or by other logic variables. One of
these blockings is produced by the function and it is associated to the voltage value reduction.
Table 6.25. Logic variables description of the Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection
module.
Id
Name
Description
21760
Underfrequency Prot Stage1
…
...
Start indications of the underfrequency stages
(indications produced by the functions)
21761
Underfrequency Prot Stage2
21762
Underfreq Prot Stage1 Trip
…
...
21763
Underfreq Prot Stage2 Trip
21764
Underfrequency Protection
Function start (minimum)
21765
Underfreq Prot Stage1 Sign
Start of the first stage of minimum
21766
Underfreq Prot Stage2 Sign
Start of the second stage of minimum
21767
Underfrequency Protec Trip
Function trip (minimum)
21768
Underfreq Stage1 Trip Sign
Trip of the first stage of minimum
21769
Underfreq Stage2 Trip Sign
Trip of the second stage of minimum
21770
Overfrequency Prot Stage 1
…
...
Start indications of the overfrequency stages
(indications produced by the functions)
21771
Overfrequency Prot Stage 2
Trip indications of the underfrequency stages
(indications produced by the functions)
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Id
Name
Description
21772
Overfreq Prot Stage 1 Trip
…
...
Trip indications of the overfrequency stages
(indications produced by the functions)
21773
Overfreq Prot Stage 2 Trip
21774
Overfrequency Protection
Function Start (maximum)
21775
Overfreq Prot Stage 1 Sign
Start of the first stage of maximum
21776
Overfreq Prot Stage 2 Sign
Start of the second stage of maximum
21777
Overfrequency Protec Trip
Trip of the function (maximum)
21778
Overfreq Stage 1 Trip Sign
Trip of the first stage of maximum
21779
Overfreq Stage 2 Trip Sign
Trip of the second stage of maximum
21780
Frequency Protection
Start of the function
21781
Frequency Protection Trip
Trip of the function
21782
Freq Lock by UnderVoltage
Undervoltage blocking indication (produced by the
function)
21783
Underfrequency MMI Lock
Function blocking of minimum by the local
interface
21784
Underfrequency LAN Lock
Function blocking of minimum by the remote
interface
21785
Overfrequency MMI Lock
Function blocking of maximum by the local
interface
21786
Overfrequency LAN Lock
Function blocking of maximum by the remote
interface
21787
Underfrequency Protec Lock
Function blocking by the local interface
21788
Overfrequency Protec Lock
Function blocking by the remote interface
6
Additionally to the indications referred in Table 6.25, there are also available the variables
corresponding to the change of parameters, logic or function descriptives as well as gates
associated with scenarios logic and function activation.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
21760>
Protec Mínimo Freq
Esc 1
OR
21765>
Sin Arranque Min Freq
Esc1
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
21761>
Protec Mínimo Freq
Esc 2
OR
21766>
Sin Arranque Min Freq
Esc2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
21764>
Protec Mínimo
Frequência
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
21780>
Protecção Frequência
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
8706>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia
I3
21770>
Protec Máximo Freq
Esc 1
OR
21775>
Sin Arranque Max
Freq Esc1
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
21774>
Protec Máximo
Frequência
OR
I3
21771>
Protec Máximo Freq
Esc 2
OR
21776>
Sin Arranque Max
Freq Esc2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
I3
21762>
Disparo Mínimo Freq
Esc 1
OR
21768>
Sin Disparo Min Freq
Esc1
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
21763>
Disparo Mínimo Freq
Esc 2
OR
21769>
Sin Disparo Min Freq
Esc2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
21767>
Disparo Mínimo
Frequência
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
21781>
Disparo Prot
Frequência
OR
I3
21772>
Disparo Máximo Freq
Esc 1
OR
21778>
Sin Disparo Max Freq
Esc1
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
21773>
Disparo Máximo Freq
Esc 2
OR
21783>
Bloqueio Mínimo Freq
MMI
OR
O2
21784>
Bloqueio Mínimo Freq
LAN
OR
O1
O2
I2
O2
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
O4
O5
O2
21785>
Bloqueio Máximo Freq
MMI
OR
O2
I1
I1
O1
O1
O1
21787>
Bloqueio Prot Mínimo
Freq
OR
O1
21779>
Sin Disparo Max Freq
Esc2
AND
I1
O1
41806>Gate 1 Disjuntor
I2
O2
40216>Gate 1 Deslastre Frequênc
I3
O3
21777>
Disparo Máximo
Frequência
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
6
I3
I3
21782>
Bloq Freq por Min
Tensão
OR
I1
O1
21788>
Bloqueio Prot Máximo
Freq
OR
21786>
Bloqueio Máximo Freq
LAN
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
O1
O4
O2
O5
Figure 6.36. Logic diagram of the Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection module.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.13. PHASE BALANCE OVERCURRENT
PROTECTION
As an option, the TPU S420 provides the Phase Balance Overcurrent Protection. Together with
the other Overcurrent protections, this function allows an effective and complete protection
against all types of short-circuits, extending the application field of the unit to other fault
situations, for example the detection of broken conductors.
6.13.1. OPERATION METHOD
With the exception of symmetrical three-phase faults, which are quite rare and for which the
Overcurrent Protection provides efficient protection; all other types of faults cause more or less
asymmetry in the three-phase currents system that has as consequence the presence, in more
or less significant percentages, of other components besides the direct component.
Similarly to the residual component used for the detection of earth faults, the negative sequence
component of the currents can also be used as criterion for asymmetrical fault detection,
especially for two-phase faults for which the Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection cannot be
applied. The use of the Phase Balance Protection can increase the protection’s sensitivity for this
type of short-circuits.
However, the main application of this function is the detection of another type of faults: the
detection of phase absence or broken conductors. In these situations, there may not be contact
to ground or, if there is, the fault resistance, depending of the type of ground where the
conductor falls, can be extremely high. These reasons explain why the earth fault Protection
using the residual component of the currents can be ineffective. This protection is also very
dependent on the neutral system.
On the contrary, the negative sequence is generally high enough to allow the detection of this
type of situations, enabling the application of an Overcurrent Protection operating with the value
of this component.
Three virtual relays are provided, corresponding to two operation levels, which algorithm is
executed in parallel (full-scheme).
High Set Phase Balance Overcurrent
The High Set Phase Balance Overcurrent Protection is generally destined to a very fast protection
for a fast clearance of asymmetrical faults above a specified magnitude (cut-off protection). The
protection operates when the negative sequence of the currents exceeds a specified threshold.
Although it is usual to desire an instantaneous protection operation, it is also possible to
configure a selective timer. This characteristic can be important in order to coordinate the
immediately downstream protections, as by different operation thresholds, or logic interlocking
(see 6.21 - Blocking by Logical Selectivity).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Low Set Phase Balance Overcurrent
The Low Set Phase Balance Overcurrent Protection must be used, rather to obtain more
sensitivity to asymmetric faults than the previous stage, using a timers staggering (time-lag
protection) for the selective coordination. The constant timer and inverse type options are
available in the TPU S420.
The definite time option, as a result of the need to coordinate with downstream protections, may
demand too long operation times. The inverse time curves allow, otherwise, a decrease of the
operation time as the fault current increases. In this last option, the standards and curve options
which the function follows are similar to the ones of other Overcurrent functions and the reset
can also be static or dynamic.
The operational threshold can regulated to a relatively low value, in accordance with the
presicion assured by the protection and by the CT’s. In the definite time option the reset factor is
4%; the inverse time option has an additional margin of 20%.
Direct and Negative Sequence Ratio Overcurrent
In parallel and independently of the previous function, the TPU S420 executes a second Phase
Balance Overcurrent Protection with definite time. This stage is different from the previous one
because it operates according to the percentage of negative component regarding the respective
direct component of the currents.
The value of the negative current above which the protection operates is therefore a function of
the defined threshold as well as of the current that circulates in the CTs. For low operation
thresholds and low magnitude currents, the negative sequence corresponding to the protection
operation may have very low values, below the measurement precision of the TPU S420. For this
reason, the sensitivity of this function is limited to 10% of the nominal value of the phase current
inputs.
As an example: for a ratio of negative and direct sequences configured for 20% and a direct
component of 100% of the nominal value, it will be necessary a negative current of 20% of the
nominal value. For half the direct component the operation will take place when the negative
current is at least 10% . For lower values of the direct current, the function will operate with the
same value of 10% of the nominal current, not considering the configured ratio.
6.13.2. CONFIGURATION
The Phase Balance Overcurrent Protection parameters are grouped in three independent groups,
one for each stage.
The high set protection should be activated by changing the value of the High Set > Status
parameter from OFF to ON.
The High Set > Iop parameter is the value of the negative component of the current above
which this stage is activated. The time between the fault occurrence and the operation of the
high set protection is defined by the High Set > Top parameter. Its value can be made null if one
wishes an operation as fast as possible. In case of blocking by logical selectivity, this time delay
should be adjusted to a value higher than the time guaranteed for the reception of this
indication.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Funções de Protecção
Sequência Inversa
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Amp> Estado: OFF
Amp> Iop: 0.500
Amp> Top: 0.000
Def/Inv> Estado: OFF
Def/Inv> Operação: TEMPO DEFINIDO
Def> Iop: 0.200
Def> Top: 0.040
Inv> Norma: C.E.I.
Inv> Curva: NI
Inv> Rearme: ESTÁTICO
Inv> Iop: 0.200
Inv> TM: 0.050
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Cenário 1
Razão Inv/Dir> Estado: OFF
Razão Inv/Dir> Razão: 0.200
Razão Inv/Dir> Top: 0.040
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.37. Setting group 1 Menu (Phase Balance).
In order to enable the low set stage, the Low Set> Status parameter must be configured with
the value ON. The Low Set> Operation parameter allows to choose the working mode between
two possible options: DEFINITE TIME or INVERSE TIME.
When the DEFINITE TIME option is chosen, there are two parameters to adjust: Def> Iop and
Def> Top. The first value is the current value (phase balance) above which the protection
operates and it can be set to a very low value, in compliance with the possible precision; the
second is the operational time that allows the coordination with downstream protections.
With the INVERSE TIME option, several parameters must be set: the Inv> Standard allows
choosing the standard with which the inverse time curve complies (IEC or IEEE) and Inv> Curve
allows choosing the type of curve (NI, VI, EI or LI). The function reset can be STATIC (default
option) or DYNAMIC (situation on which the attack time follows the expression (6.3)), by
selecting the parameter value Inv> Reset.
The Inv> Iop parameter defines the point of the inverse time curve where the trip time is infinite.
However, be aware that the current value that triggers the protection operation is 120%. The
operation time is not configurable as it is function of the default current. Instead configure the
Inv> TM data. This scale factor allows adjusting the operational times of time-lag stage.
The Inv> Iop parameter defines the point of the inverse time curve where the trip time is infinite.
However, be aware that the current value that triggers the protection operation is 120% of that
current. The operation time is not configurable as it is function of the default current. Instead
configure the Inv> TM data. This scale factor allows adjusting the operational times of the timelag stage, and thus, to find the optimal point to coordinate with the other downstream
protections of inverse time.
As for the current negative and direct sequences ratio the available parameters are: Neg/Pos
Ratio> Status parameter that indicates if the function is active; the Neg/Pos Ratio> Ratio
parameter that is the percentage value of the current negative sequence regarding the
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
corresponding direct sequence above which the function is triggered and the Neg/Pos Ratio>
Top parameter that defines the tripping time.
Table 6.26. Phase Balance Overcurrent Protection parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Current Set
1..4
1
High Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
High Set> Iop
0,1..40
pu
0,5
High Set> Top
0..60
s
0
Low Set> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Low Set> Operation
DEFINITE TIME /
INVERSE TIME
DEFINITE TIME
Def> Iop
0,1..20
pu
0,2
Def> Top
0,04..300
s
0,04
Inv> Iop
0,1..20
pu
0,2
Inv> TM
0,05..1,5
s
0,05
Inv> Standard
I.E.C. / I.E.E.E.
I.E.C.
Inv> Curve
NI / VI / EI / LI
NI
Inv> Reset
STATIC / DYNAMIC
STATIC
Neg/Pos Ratio> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Neg/Pos Ratio> Ratio
0,2..1
%
0,2
Neg/Pos Ratio> Top
0,04..300
s
0,04
6
6.13.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The Phase Balance Overcurrent Protection module includes all start and trip indications of this
function discriminated by stage (high set and ratio of negative and direct sequences). These
variables are then constrained by the existence of blockings established by the user or by other
logical variables.
The blocking by logical selectivity is a particular case to which corresponds a variable that can be
configured in a physical input or to which can be connected a variable received from the local
area network. By default, this blocking by logical selectivity only affects the high set stage.
Table 6.27. Description of the logical variables of the Phase Balance Overcurrent Protection
module.
Id
Name
Description
23296
Def Time Neg Seq Overcurr
Start indication of the low set definite time
(produced by the function).
23297
Def Time Neg Seq OC Trip
Trip indication of the low set definite time
(produced by the function).
23298
Inv Time Neg Seq Overcurr
Start indication of the low set inverse time
(produced by the function).
23299
Def Time Neg Seq OC Trip
Trip indication of the low set inverse time
(produced by the function).
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Id
Name
Description
23300
High Set Neg Seq Overcurr
Start indication of the high set stage (produced by
the function).
23301
High Set Neg Seq OC Trip
Trip indication of the high set stage (produced by
the function).
23302
Neg Seq/ Pos Seq Overcurr
Start indication of the inverse/direct ratio stage
(produced by the function).
23303
Neg Seq/ Pos Seq OC Trip
Trip indication of the inverse/direct ratio stage
(produced by the function)
23304
Neg Seq Overcurrent Protec
Start of the function.
23305
Low Set Neg Seq OC Protec
Start of the low set stage
23306
High Set Neg Seq OC Protec
Start of the high set stage.
23307
Neg Seq/ Pos Seq OC Protec
Start of the negative/direct ratio stage.
23308
Neg Seq Overcurrent Trip
Trip of the function.
23309
Low Set Neg Seq OC Trip
Low set stage trip.
23310
High Set Neg Seq OC Trip
High set stage trip.
23311
Neg Seq/ Pos Seq OC Trip
Negative/direct ratio stage trip.
23312
Neg Sequence OC MMI Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface.
23313
Neg Sequence OC LAN Lock
Blocking of the function by the remote interface.
23314
Neg Seq OC Protection Lock
Indication of general function blocking.
23315
Neg Seq OC High Set Lock
Blocking by logical selectivity received in a input or
by the local area network.
6
Additionally to the indications referred in Table 6.27, are also available the variables
corresponding to change of parameters, logic or function descriptions as well as gates
associated with scenarios logic and function activation.
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23296>
Protec Seq Inv Temp
Def
OR
O1
O2
23298>
Protec Seq Inv Temp
Inv
OR
O1
O2
23328>
Gate 1 Seq Inversa
OR
23305>
Protec Seq Inversa
Cronom
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I3
23300>
Protec Seq Inv
Amperim
OR
23306>
Protec Seq Inversa
Amperim
AND
I1
O1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I3
23302>
Protec Razão Seq
Inv/Dir
OR
O2
23299>
Disparo Seq Inv Temp
Inv
OR
23307>
Protec Seq
Inversa/Directa
AND
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
23329>
Gate 2 Seq Inversa
OR
23309>
Disparo Seq Inversa
Cronom
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I3
O1
O2
8706>Gate 1 Arranq Oscilografia
I4
O1
23297>
Disparo Seq Inv Temp
Def
OR
O1
23304>
Protecção Seq Inversa
OR
23301>
Disparo Seq Inv
Amperim
OR
23310>
Disparo Seq Inversa
Amper
AND
23308>
Disparo Protec Seq
Inversa
OR
I1
O1
41806>Gate 1 Disjuntor
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
41984>Sin Arranque Falha Disjunt
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I3
I4
I4
23303>
Disparo Razão Seq
Inv/Dir
OR
23312>
Bloqueio Seq Inversa
MMI
OR
O1
O2
23313>
Bloqueio Seq Inversa
LAN
OR
23311>
Disparo Seq
Inversa/Direct
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
6
23314>
Bloqueio Prot Seq
Inversa
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
O1
O4
O2
O5
O6
O7
23315>
Bloq Select Lógica
Seq Inv
OR
O1
O2
Figure 6.38. Logical diagram of the Phase Balance Overcurrent Protection module.
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6.14. OVERLOAD PROTECTION
The purpose of the Overload Protection is the equipment protection against thermal stress of
electric source, particularly, to the protection against quite low value overflows, that do not
correspond to short-circuits and to which the Overcurrent functions are not sensitive, however
overflows can provoke damages on the equipment when they take too long.
6.14.1. OPERATION METHOD
Losses by the Joule effect due to not null resistance of the conductors stir their temperature
increase toward the exterior. That’s an important temperature increase, considering the
expression of active power associated to losses, it is almost equivalent to the square of the
current that is on the equipment.
Ploss
(6.8)
I 2R
As a consequence, the increase of the conductors temperature causes the early ageing of the
insulator material and, therefore, the decrease of the equipment lifetime.
The Overload Protection implements a simplified model of the temperature evolution on the
equipment, using the currents value. The already mentioned losses by the Joule effect and the
cooling time constant are considered in this thermal model.
As a result, this model allow to get an image of the conductors temperature difference
comparing with environment and explain their exponential increase (or decrease) up to the
stationary value defined by the current that is on the equipment. The current variations through
time are easily included with this model and they allow the appropriate simulation of the system
dynamic behaviour.
The function implementation complies with the IEC 60255-8 standard. It is defined a trip current
that corresponds to the temperature acceptable in a stationary system, above which it starts a
fast degradation process of the equipment lifetime. For bigger currents, that temperature is
reached in a limited time which decreases as the current increases, at the end of which a trip
order must be produced. In compliance with the standard, considering a current earlier to null
overload, that time is given by:
t op min
ln
I2
I2
I tr2
where I is the measured current (considered as stationary), Itr is the definite trip set and
characteristic time constant.
(6.9)
is the
The previous expression changes, and the operation time reduces if the source of overload
occurrence is a not null current situation. In particular, in case there is a stationary load current
of Ip value that is preceding the overload, the expression for the trip time starts to be given by:
t op min
ln
I2
I p2
I2
I tr2
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
The trip time curves are presented on Figure 6.39 for different values of the time constant, with
current preceding null overload, and for different values of the current that precedes the
overload, keeping the time constant of 100 min.
6
Time constant varies.
The current previous to overload varies.
Figure 6.39. Trip characteristics of the Overload Protection.
The TPU S420 additionally has an alarm level configured in percentage of the trip temperature,
that enable to generate an indication before the function operation. The reset temperature value
is also configurable by the user, according with the trip level.
The temperature is calculated separately for each one of the phases using the respective current.
As an alternative defined by the user, the Overload Protection decisions are made according with
the medium or maximum value of the previous values.
After the protection reset, the temperature value is not immediately known, thus the protection
might have been disconnected during an arbitrary time without measuring current values. Once
the temperature of the equipment is unknown, it is assumed an initial value, defined by the user
according with the trip level. This way, in the first moments of the protection functioning, it is
not assured that the calculated temperature corresponds to its real temperature; nevertheless, it
can be considered that, at the end of 4 or 5 multiples of the constant of time that value will be
almost reached.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.14.2. CONFIGURATION
The Status parameter must be changed from OFF to ON in order to activate the function. The
Source parameter shows the magnitude to be considered regarding the operation thresholds:
the AVERAGE of the three estimated temperatures, or the associated MAXIMUM value.
The remaining parameters of the Overload Protection are united in a single stage.
The Stg1 > Time Constant parameter defines the time constant which is the device
characteristic, regulated in minutes. This constant means that, in a stationary current situation,
the difference between the instantaneous and the permanent system temperature is 5% of the
initial value of that difference at the end of almost 3 multiples of time constant, and, the
temperature already reached 99% of the final value at the end of 5 times the same constant.
The base current for the function remaing parameters is defined with the Stg1> Base Current
parameter. The current associated to the trip set, Stg1> Trip Threshold, is regulated in
percentage of the base current. Its value shows the current that corresponds to the acceptable
maximum temperature in permanent regime on the equipment. For superior currents that
temperature is reached in limited time, which decreases as the current increases. The function
trip occurs when that temperature is reached.
The alarm and reset threshols, Stg1>Alarm Level and Stg1>Reset Level respectively, are
configured in percentage of the temperature associated to trip set, that is, their indications are
issued when those temperature levels are reached. If the Stg1>Reset Level parameter is
configured with the value of 100%, the function reset occurs when the current decreases of the
configured trip set. It is necessary to wait the temperature decreases to the parameter value
before the function resets for any other regulation.
It must be also configured the equipment initial temperature Stg1>Initial Temperature, as well
in accordance with the trip temperature.
Funções de Protecção
Sobrecargas
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Estado: OFF
Origem: MAXIMO
Esc1> Constante de Tempo: 10.000
Esc1> Corrente Base: 1.000
Esc1> Limiar Disparo: 105.000
Esc1> Nível Alarme: 80.000
Esc1> Nível Rearme: 60.000
Esc1> Temperatura Inicial: 50.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.40. Setting group 1 Menu (Overload).
Table 6.28.Overload Protection Parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Status
OFF / ON
-
OFF
Source
AVERAGE / MAXIMUM
-
MAXIMUM
Stg1> Time Constant
1..500
min
10
Stg 1> Base Current
0,2..4,0
pu
1,0
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Stg1> Trip Threshold
50,0..250,0
%
105,0
Stg 1> Alarm Level
50,0..100,0
%
80,0
Stg 1> Reset Level
10,0..100,0
%
60,0
Stg 1> Initial Temperature
10,0..100,0
%
50,0
6.14.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The Overload Protection module includes the pickup, alarm and trip indications produced by the
function. The indications to be used in other functions or directly on the circuit-breaker
command logic are obtained through their combination with active blockings. The variable for
the change of the function active stage is not applied on the TPU S420.
Table 6.29. Logical variables description of the Overload Protection module.
Id
Name
Description
25600
Thermal Overload
Pickup indication (produced by the function)
25601
Thermal Overload Alarm
Alarm indication (produced by the function)
25602
Thermal Overload Trip
Trip indication (produced by the function)
25603
Therm Overload Signal
Function pickup (subjected to blocking)
25604
Therm Overload Alarm Sign
Function alarm (subjected to blocking)
25605
Therm Overload Trip Sign
Function trip (subjected to blocking)
25606
Thermal Overload MMI Lock
Function blocking by the local interface
25607
Thermal Overload LAN Lock
Function blocking by the remote interface
25608
Thermal Overload Prot Lock
Function blocking conditions
25609
Thermal Overload
Stage change indication
6
Additionally to indications referred on Table 6.29, are also available the variables corresponding
to change of parameters, logic or function descriptions as well as gates associated with setting
groups and function activation.
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25603>
Arranque Prot
Sobrecargas
25600>
Protec Sobrecargas
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
3329>Timer 2
I3
25601>
Alarme Prot
Sobrecargas
25604>
Sin Alarme Prot
Sobrecarga
OR
AND
O1
I1
O2
I2
O1
I3
25602>
Disparo Prot
Sobrecargas
25605>
Sin Disparo Prot
Sobrecarg
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
41805>Gate 1 Disjuntor
I3
25606>
Bloqueio Sobrecargas
MMI
25608>
Bloqueio Prot
Sobrecargas
OR
OR
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
25607>
Bloqueio Sobrecargas
LAN
OR
O4
25609>
Mudança Escalão
Sobrecarga
6
OR
O1
O1
O2
Figure 6.41. Logic diagram of the Overload Protection module.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.15. AUTOMATIC RECLOSING
The Automatic Reclosing function main purpose is the service restoration of the line after the
clearance of temporary or intermittent faults, common in aerial networks. The TPU S420 allows
the execution of up to five reclosing cycles, completely configurable in terms of parameters and
interlocking logic.
6.15.1. OPERATION METHOD
The operating principle of the Automatic Reclosing function consists in the temporary
disconnection of a line after fault detection and respective isolation for a specified time. Then
follows the reclosing command based on the probability that the fault was cleared in the
meantime.
Since the opening of the circuit breaker to the closing command there is a dead time to allow
fault clearance. After that time, the Reclosing function commands the circuit breaker to close.
Once the command is executed, if the fault is cleared, there is a blocking time fault in order to
confirm the absence of fault. If, on the contrary, after circuit breaker closure the fault remains,
reclosing will go to the next cycle, if configured, otherwise it leaves the circuit breaker open and
signalizes a definitive trip.
The TPU S420 provides a group of five reclosing cycles completely independent in terms of
configuration, that is, with different dead times and confirmation times associated with each
cycle. Each one of these cycles can still be configured according with two pre-defined types,
namely fast cycles and slow cycles.
Fast Cycles
This type of cycle is intended for transient fault situations with very low clearance time, typically
associated to lightning strokes in aerial lines. When in a fast cycle phase, the Reclosing function
working makes an instantaneous disconnection followed by the restoration command.
The circuit-breaker command, given by the Automatic Reclosing, is generated after any pickup
of the Overcurrent Protection functions, without expecting its trip, that is, without considering
selectivity criteria with other protections.
Additionally, fast cycles may imply a slight delay in the trip command, in order to avoid
reconnections caused by very fast disturbances that do not provoke trip, but only the protection
functions pickup. That delay is configurable.
Slow Cycles
Slow cycles are different from fast cycles because their operating mode. While in fast cycles the
opening command of the circuit-breaker is given by the Reclosing function after the pickup of
the Overcurrent Protection functions, in the slow cycles the protection functions give the
opening command of the circuit-breaker, and the Automatic Reclosing is responsible by its
restoration.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Therefore, the slow reclosing is intended to clear faults with bigger extinction time, as the case
of an earth short-circuit through a tree.
Function Algorithm
The actions performed by Automatic Reclosing can be summarized to a sequence of states
where the transition between them is triggered by a group of events, whose configuration can
be changed in the programmable logic associated with the function. This sequence of states is
shown in Figure 6.42 and is explained next.
In RESTING condition, the Reclosing function has two possible choices. When the function
starts if the circuit breaker is open the function will go to the CLOSE_CIRC BREAK state, if the
circuit breaker is closed it will go to the START state.
In the CLOSE_CIRC BREAK state, the function waits indefinitely for the transition of the circuit
breaker state to close. If that transition occurs, the function will go to BLOCKING state.
The purpose of this BLOCKING state is to confirm that after a close command from an external
source to the Reclosing function, a reclosing cycle will not be triggered. Therefore, even if after
the close of the circuit breaker the Overcurrent Protection functions operate, the Automatic
Reclosing will not perform the reclosing normal sequence, it will only wait for those protection
functions to reset. Therefore, when the blocking time of the 1st cycle runs out without any of the
protection functions starting, the Reclosing function will go to RESTING state, otherwise will go
to PROT_RESET.
The PROT_RESET state is achieved whenever there is a start of the protection functions and will
only leave this state and go to RESTING state when all functions reset.
The START state is intended to detect the operation of the Overcurrent Protection functions. If
that happens and if the Reclosing function is in a slow cycle it will directly turn to RESET state.
In case the configured cycle is a fast type, the function will hold the trip time of fast reclosing
and after this time, if the protection functions does not reset, the Reclosing function will give an
opening command to the circuit-breaker. In this case the function will turn to RESET_TRIP
state.
Two different events in the RESET_TRIP state may happen. Or the protection functions reset
before the trip time runs out and the function will directely turn to RESTING state, or the
functions do not reset and the function will give opening command of the circuit-breaker,
turning to RESET state.
When reaching the RESET state, the Automatic Reclosing will wait that all the protection
functions reset. In case they reset without being given the opening command of the circuitbreaker, if it’s a slow cycle the function will turn to RESTING state, and in the fast cycle it will
turn to OPEN_CIRC BREAK state, in order to check the opening command success.
In the OPEN_CIRC BREAk state the function will turn to DEAD TIME state if the opening
command was successful, if not, it turns to RESTING state, indicating the definitive trip.
In the DEAD TIME state, if the circuit-breaker turns to a close state due to an external cause of
the Reclosing function, it will interrupt the normal sequence and it will turn to the BLOCKING
state. If otherwise, nothing occurs and if the configured dead time runs out for the running
cycle, the Reclosing will give the circuit-breaker a close command and it will turn to
CLOSE_CIRC BREAK state.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
If during the CLOSE_CIRC BREAK state, the circuit breaker does not change its state the action
is considered as unsuccessful and the function turn to RESTING state. Otherwise, the function
will turn to the next CONFIRMATION state.
The purpose of the CONFIRMATION is to verify if the fault originating the open of the circuit
breaker remains after the circuit breaker is closed. If the fault is not cleared and the blocking
time of the running cycle has ended, the function will go to RESTING state. If, on the other
hand, the fault reappears within the blocking time and if there are more defined cycles the
function will go back to the RESET state to start a new cycle. If there are no more defined cycles
the function will only wait for the reset of the protection functions producing a definitive trip
indication and go to the RESET_PROT state.
D
DE-ENERGIZED
CB Closed?
START-UP
CB_CLOSED
Startup
CB closed
TRIP_RESET
LOCK
Timer end
Current Protections Trip
Current Protections Startup
6
CB_OPEN
RESET_PROT
Current Protecions Reset
Open Circuit Breaker
INSULATION
Current Protections Reset
Reclosing Command
CB_CLOSED
Timer End
Closed Circuit Breaker
CONFIRMATION
Timer End
Current Protections Startup
Figure 6.42. Automatic Reclosing operation sequence.
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Operation Examples
In order to exemplify the operation of the Reclosing automatism, some time diagrams
associated with the function’s typical operation are presented next.
The first case corresponds to a successful fast reclosing cycle and is shown in Figure 6.43. After
the start of the protection functions and the end of the respective operation time, the open
command of the circuit breaker is given. A DeadT time after the effective circuit breaker opening
the close command is given. After the circuit breaker is closed, the ConfirmT blocking time
starts and when it ends the function goes to the resting condition because the fault did not
reappear.
Prot Startup
Opening Cmd
Closing Cmd
TripT
InsulT
ConfirmT
Figure 6.43. Successful fast Reclosing.
The second example shown in Figure 6.44 corresponds to an unsuccessful fast reclosing. After
the fast reclosing closes the circuit breaker and during the blocking time a new fault appears –
the protections start – the Automatic Reclosing function assumes it is the same fault that was
not cleared. It then waits the protection operational time and if the fault remains after that time it
gives the definitive command of circuit breaker opening.
Prot Startup
Opening Cmd
Closing Cmd
TripT
InsulT
ConfirmT
Top
Figure 6.44. Unsuccessful fast Reclosing.
The next example assumes that a fast and a slow cycle were configured. After the effective
opening of the circuit-breaker (following the fast reclosing attempt), the dead time DeadT_I of
the second cycle starts and when it ends a new close command is given to the circuit breaker.
Again, the ConfirmT blocking time starts to confirm that the fault has been cleared.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Prot Startup
Opening Cmd
Closing Cmd
TripT
InsulT
ConfirmT
InsulTl
Top
Figure 6.45. Unsuccessful fast Reclosing followed by second successful reclosing.
6.15.2. CONFIGURATION
To activate the Automatic Reclosing function configure the Status parameter to ON. Then
choose the maximum number of cycles that can be sequentially executed by the function –
configure the Num Shots parameter.
The Top Rapid AR parameter indicates the time a fast cycle should wait before giving an
opening command to the circuit-breaker. This parameter purpose is to avoid the reclosings
caused by very fast pickup and reset of the protection functions, that is, it works as their pickup
confirmation.
The CB Op Time parameter should be configured considering the times associated with the
circuit breaker manoeuvre, both open and close. Therefore, it should be a value higher than the
longest manoeuvre time of the circuit breaker. If, after a command from the reclosing function,
the circuit breaker does not change state during that time the reclosing function will assume the
circuit breaker as malfunctioning.
Associated to each one of the five possible cycles of the Automatic Reclosing, there is a set of
similar parameters. The Shot n> Operation parameter defines the cycle type, and it is possible
to chose fast or slow cycles.
The Shot n> Dead Time should be configured with the desired dead time, considering the
estimated time to clear the fault. The Shot 1> Reclaim Time parameter concerns the timer that
results after the circuit-breaker closing command given by Automatic Reclosing function to
confirm if there is or not a fault. If after that time a fault appears it will be considered as new
fault.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Automatismos
Religação
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Estado: OFF
Num de Ciclos: 2
Top Disjuntor: 0.300
Top Rápida: 0.020
Ciclo 1> Operação: RÁPIDA
Ciclo 1> T Isolamento: 0.300
Ciclo 1> T Bloqueio: 5.000
Ciclo 2> Operação: LENTA
Ciclo 2> T Isolamento: 15.000
Ciclo 2> T Bloqueio: 5.000
Ciclo 3> Operação: LENTA
Ciclo 3> T Isolamento: 15.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Cenário 1
Ciclo
Ciclo
Ciclo
Ciclo
Ciclo
Ciclo
Ciclo
3>
4>
4>
4>
5>
5>
5>
T Bloqueio: 5.000
Operação: LENTA
T Isolamento: 15.000
T Bloqueio: 5.000
Operação: LENTA
T Isolamento: 15.000
T Bloqueio: 5.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.46. Setting group 1 Menu (Reclosing).
Table 6.30. Automatic Reclosing Parameters.
Parameter
Range
Current Set
1..4
1
Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Num Shots
1..5
2
CB Op Time
0,05..60
s
0,3
Top Rapid AR
0..1
s
0,02
Shot 1> Operation
FAST / SLOW
Shot 1> Dead Time
0,1..60
s
0,3
Shot 1> Reclaim Time
1..60
s
5
Shot 2> Operation
FAST / SLOW
Shot 2> Dead Time
0,1..60
s
15
Shot 2> Reclaim Time
1..60
s
5
Shot 3> Operation
FAST / SLOW
Shot 3> Dead Time
0,1..60
s
15
Shot 3> Reclaim Time
1..60
s
5
Shot 4> Operation
FAST / SLOW
Shot 4> Dead Time
0,1..60
s
15
Shot 4> Reclaim Time
1..60
s
5
Shot 5> Operation
FAST / SLOW
Shot 5> Dead Time
0,1..60
s
15
Shot 5> Reclaim Time
1..60
s
5
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
Unit
Defautl value
FAST
SLOW
SLOW
SLOW
SLOW
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.15.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The function start conditions are based on the starts of the several protection functions of
Overcurrent Protection and on the circuit breaker state. In any case, the function start depends
on the defined blocking conditions. By default only the Manual Mode blocks the Reclosing
function.
The function reset conditions are based on the reset tripping of all the protection functions.
However, the function reset is not blocked as its algorithm is already in execution.
Finally the connections to the Circuit Breaker module, both open command and close command,
should be referred. Both commands are then interlocked by the blocking conditions defined in
that module.
Table 6.31. Description of the logical variables of the Automatic Reclosing module.
Id
Nome
Descrição
38656
Reclosing Current
Start conditions of the overcurrent protection
functions.
38657
Reclosing Current Trip
Trip conditions of the overcurrent protection
functions.
38658
Recloser C Breaker State
Image of circuit breaker state.
38659
Automatic Reclosing
Function start condition.
38660
End Automatic Reclosing
Function reset condition.
38661
Recloser CB Close Cmd Lock
Blocking condition of reclosing command.
38662
Automatic Reclosing
Running function indication.
38663
Fast Automatic Reclosing
Running fast cycle indication.
38664
Slow Automatic Reclosing
Running slow cycle indication.
38665
Confirmation Aut Reclosing
Function confirmation time indication
38666
Reclosing Cycle 1
Indication of each of 5 running reclosing cycles.
...
...
38670
Reclosing Cycle 5
38671
Auto Recloser Open CB Cmd
Circuit breaker open command by Reclosing
38672
Auto Recloser Close CB Cmd
Circuit breaker close command by Reclosing
38673
Auto Recloser Final Trip
Definitive trip indication
38674
Auto Recloser MMI Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface
38675
Auto Recloser LAN Lock
Blocking of the function by the remote interface.
38676
Auto Recloser Lock Signal
Indication of general function blocking.
38677
Auto Recloser Ready
Indication of reclosing ready (active, in resting
condition and not blocked).
6
Additionally to the indications referred in Table 6.31, are also available the variables
corresponding to change of parameters, logic or function descriptives as well as gates
associated with scenarios logic and function activation. There are also auxiliary logical variables
used in the module internal logic.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
38658>
Estado Disjuntor
Religação
OR
41775>Estado Disjuntor
38659>
Ínicio Religação
Automatic
AND
38689>
Gate 1 Religação
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
O3
I3
O1
I3
38656>
Corrente Religação
OR
I1
O1
16392>Protecção MI Terra
I2
O2
17157>Disparo TResist Limiar Alt
I3
O3
15640>Protecção MI Fases
38660>
Fim Religação
Automática
OR
I4
38657>
Disparo Corrente
Religação
OR
I1
15644>Disparo Prot MI Fases
I1
O1
I3
16396>Disparo Protec MI Terra
I2
O2
I4
17156>Sin Disparo Terras Resist
I3
38674>
Bloqueio Religação
MMI
OR
O1
I2
I4
O1
O2
38676>
Bloqueio Religação
OR
38675>
Bloqueio Religação
LAN
OR
O1
O2
10256>Modo Operação M/A
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
I4
38661>
Fecho Disjuntor
Religação
OR
I1
O1
38666>
Religação Ciclo 1
OR
38671>
Abert Disjuntor
Religação
OR
O1
O1
41731>Ordem Abert Disjunt Autom
O2
38662>
Religação Automática
OR
O1
38663>
Religação Rápida
OR
O1
38664>
Religação Lenta
OR
O1
38665>
Religação
Confirmação
OR
O1
38667>
Religação Ciclo 2
OR
O1
38672>
Fecho Disjuntor
Religação
OR
O1
38668>
Religação Ciclo 3
OR
6
41755>Cmd Fecho Disjuntor Autom
O2
O1
38669>
Religação Ciclo 4
OR
38673>
Disparo Definitivo
Religac
OR
O1
O1
38670>
Religação Ciclo 5
OR
O1
Figure 6.47. Logical Diagram of Automatic Reclosing.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.16. SYNCHRONISM AND VOLTAGE CHECK
The close of a circuit breaker between two parts of the network in load can have serious stability
consequences if there are significant differences in the voltages, frequencies and phases
between the networks.
The Synchronism and Voltage Check module constrains the circuit breaker close commands
evaluating if all conditions are acceptable according to the different synchronism types.
As the commands can be manual or automatic, the Synchronism Check module has two
independent verification elements that operate simultaneously allowing different parameters
according to the type of close command.
6.16.1. OPERATION METHOD
The Synchronism and Voltage Check is a function that operates only when a close circuit breaker
command is given although it continuously characterises the line and the busbar state through
the evaluation of the voltage and frequency measurements.
The module uses the measurement of one of the line voltages and the measurement of the
voltage in the busbar and it is necessary to configure the fourth voltage input of the TPU S420
accordingly. There are no restrictions regarding the assembly of the voltage transformer in the
busbar and voltage can be obtained from any single or composed voltage. The allocation of the
measurement type in the line is made automatically, it is only necessary to indicate the phase or
phases from which to make the busbar measurement. In terms of construction, the voltage
transformers can have different transformation ratios as the function allows the compensation in
magnitude. The phase compensation is also possible which is especially useful if there is a
transformer in the line.
The voltage and frequency measurements are continuously compared with configurable
threshold values for the characterization of the line and the busbar:
Line or live Busbar (energized);
Line or dead Busbar (deenergized);
Voltage above a maximum value in the Line or Busbar;
Frequency below a minimum value in the Line or Busbar;
Frequency above a maximum value in the Line or Busbar.
Synchronism Check Types
The Synchronism Check allows 5 types of verification conditions depending on the presence or
absence of voltage in the busbar and in the line:
LLLB – Live line and live busbar;
LLDB – Live line and dead busbar;
DLLB – Dead line and live busbar;
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
DLDB – Dead line and dead busbar;
Release.
Table 6.32 summarizes the necessary conditions for each type of synchronism.
Table 6.32. Necessary conditions for each type of synchronism.
LLLB
Line
DLLB
DLDB
U > Ulive
U > Ulive
U < Umax
U < Umax
U < Udead
U < Udead
f > fmin
VT line ok
VT line ok
f > fmin
f < fmax
Busbar
LLDB
U > Ulive
U Dif < Uop dif
Phase Dif < Phase_op dif
Without
any
verification
type
f < fmax
U > Ulive
Freq Dif < Freq_op dif
U < Umax
U < Udead
U < Umax
U < Udead
f > fmin
VT busbar ok
f > fmin
VT busbar ok
f < fmax
Release
f < fmax
The LLLB mode needs additional verifications of voltage, frequency and phase differences
between the busbar and the line so that the transients are minimized after circuit breaker close.
Once all conditions associated with a certain verification type (LLLB, LLDB, DLLB, DLDB) are
fulfilled, a configurable time is waited for confirmation of the stability of these conditions, after
which the presence of synchronism conditions is signalized to execute close manoeuvres.
The release mode, when activated, overrides the remaining synchronism and voltage check
types and allows the instantaneous execution of circuit breaker close commands.
Manual/Automatic Operation Mode
The Synchronism and Voltage Check function has two distinct elements: each with its group of
parameters that constitute the Manual and Automatic operation modes. Therefore, it is possible
to have different parameters and some types of synchronism check activated for an operation
mode and others (or the same) for the other operation mode.
In the TPU S420, the Manual mode constrains the close command given by remote, local and
external commands; the Automatic mode constrains the close command given by automatic
reclosing.
A circuit breaker close command indicates a close request that activates the verification for a
configurable time – Command Time. If the synchronism conditions are already fulfilled, the close
permission is given and the successful command is signalized (Figure 6.48); if the conditions are
not fulfilled, and after the end of the timer associated with the request, the close command is
not executed and the unsuccessful command is signalized (Figure 6.49). If during the timer
associated with the close command request, the synchronism conditions are fulfilled, a
configurable confirmation time is initiated to ensure the stability of the conditions; after which if
the request is still active, the close permission is given (Figure 6.50).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Closing request
Synch under Validation
Synchronism OK
Closing Permiss
Closing Cmd
Figure 6.48. Operation example (synchronism conditions fulfilled).
Closing Request
Synch under Validation
Command time
Synchronism OK
Closing Permiss
Closing Cmd
6
Figure 6.49. Operation example (synchronism conditions not fulfilled).
Closing Request
Synch under Validation
Synchronism OK
Confirmation time
Closing Permiss
Closing Cmd
Figure 6.50. Operation example (synchronism conditions present during the command time).
The confirmation and command times can be different for the two Manual/Automatic operation
modes.
6.16.2. CONFIGURATION
The Synchronism and Voltage Check function is activated by changing the Status parameter
from OFF to ON.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
When the Synchronism and Voltage Check function is OFF, all circuit breaker close commands
(manual or automatic) are blocked. To allow close commands, the function should be activated
and the desired synchronism verification types (or the release mode) should be selected.
There are three parameters for the configuration and adjustment of the busbar voltage
measurement. The Bus Voltage parameter defines whether the voltage measurement of the
busbar is a single or composed voltage and which are the phases involved; for example if the
voltage transformer makes the measurement of phases B and C composed voltage, then one
should change the Bus Voltage parameter to BC. The magnitude compensation should be
made if the transformers have different transformation ratios by changing the U Bus/Line Ratio
parameter, for example if the transformation ratio of the busbar transformer is 100:1 and the
line transformer is 120:1, then the U Bus/Line Ratio parameter should have the value 1,2. The
phases compensation of the busbar transformer should be made by changing the U Bus Angle
parameter.
For the correct operation of the Synchronism and Voltage Check function, the fourth voltage
input of the TPU S420 should have allocated the BUSBAR VOLTAGE meaning.
The Udead parameter defines the voltage threshold below which the line or the busbar is
assumed dead (without voltage). The line or the busbar is assumed live (with voltage) if the
voltage measurement is higher than the value configured in the Ulive parameter. The value in
the Umax parameter defines the voltage level above which is no longer possible to close the
circuit breaker for synchronism types LLLB, LLDB or DLLB.
The values defined in the Fmin and Fmax parameters respectively define the minimum and
maximum frequency values acceptable for synchronisms involving elements with voltage (LLLB,
LLDB or DLLB).
There are two groups of equal parameters referring to the Manual Mode and the Automatic
Mode. The synchronism verification types in the Manual Mode are activated by changing from
OFF to ON the Manual> LLLB, Manual> LLDB, Manual> DLLB and Manual>DLDB parameters.
For the Automatic Mode the parameters are Automatic> LLLB, Automatic> LLDB,
Automatic> DLLB and Automatic>DLDB.
If it is desired that the circuit breaker close command is not constrained by the operation of the
Synchronism and Voltage Check in one of the modes, change the Manual> Release or
Automatic> Release parameter according to the corresponding mode.
The Release mode, although being a parameter, can be logically activated. Therefore, logical
schemes can be built where the Release mode is temporarily activated for certain close
commands, without the need to change the parameter.
If the Release mode is active by parameter, none of the other synchronism verification types will
be operational.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
In the LLLB type verification, the voltage, frequency and phase differences between the busbar
and the line are evaluated. The threshold values are defined in the Manual> Volt Dif, Manual>
Freq Dif and Manual> Phase Dif parameters for the Manual mode, and the Automatic> Volt
Dif, Automatic> Freq Dif and Automatic> Phase Dif parameters for the Automatic mode.
The synchronism verification types are independent between the Manual Mode and the
Automatic Mode. Therefore, it is possible to configure the LLLB type in both modes with
different parameters.
The timer associated with the synchronism confirmation after fulfilment of the necessary
conditions is defined for the Manual and Automatic mode in the Manual> Reclaim Time and
Automatic> Reclaim Time parameters.
The duration of the close command that determines the waiting time for the fulfilment of
synchronism conditions is configurable in the Manual> Command Time and Automatic>
Command Time parameters respectively for the Manual and Automatic modes.
The operational time associated with the Circuit Breaker Supervision should be higher than the
Synchronism Check command time. Therefore, it is assured that there will be no manoeuvre
malfunction indication while the Synchronism Check, during the command time, waits for the
synchronism conditions.
6
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Automatismos
Verificação de Sincronismo
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Estado: OFF
Tensão Barra: A
Razão U Barra/Linha: 1.000
Ângulo U Barra: 0.000
Udead: 0.200
Ulive: 0.800
Umax: 1.100
Fmin: 47.000
Fmax: 53.000
Manual> LLLB: OFF
Manual> LLDB: OFF
Manual> DLLB: OFF
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Cenário 1
Manual> DLDB: OFF
Manual> Release: OFF
Manual> Dif Tensão: 0.050
Manual> Dif Freq: 0.100
Manual> Dif Fase: 10.000
Manual> Tempo Confirm: 0.100
Manual> Tempo Comando: 1.000
Automático> LLLB: OFF
Automático> LLDB: OFF
Automático> DLLB: OFF
Automático> DLDB: OFF
Automático> Release: OFF
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Cenário 1
Automático>
Automático>
Automático>
Automático>
Automático>
Dif Tensão: 0.050
Dif Freq: 0.100
Dif Fase: 10.000
Tempo Confirm: 0.100
Tempo Comando: 1.000
6
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.51. Setting group 1 Menu (Synchronism check).
Table 6.33. Synchronism and Voltage Check function parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..4
-
1
Status
OFF / ON
-
OFF
U Bus/Line Ratio
0.1..10.00
-
1.00
U Bus Angle
-180.0..180.0
º
0.00
Udead
0.05..0.80
pu
0.20
Ulive
0.20..1.20
pu
0.80
Umax
0.50..1.50
pu
1.10
Fmin
47.00..50.00
Hz
47.00
Fmax
50.00..53.00
Hz
53.00
Manual> LLLB
OFF / ON
-
OFF
Manual> LLDB
OFF / ON
-
OFF
Manual> DLLB
OFF / ON
-
OFF
Manual> DLDB
OFF / ON
-
OFF
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Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Manual> Release
OFF / ON
-
OFF
Manual> Volt Dif
0.01..0.50
pu
0.05
Manual> Freq Dif
0.02..4.00
Hz
0.10
Manual> Phase Dif
2.00..60.00
º
10.00
Manual> Reclaim Time
0.00..60.00
s
0.10
Manual> Command Time
0.00..600.00
s
1.00
Automatic> LLLB
OFF / ON
-
OFF
Automatic> LLDB
OFF / ON
-
OFF
Automatic> DLLB
OFF / ON
-
OFF
Automatic> DLDB
OFF / ON
-
OFF
Automatic> Release
OFF / ON
-
OFF
Automatic> Volt Dif
0.01..0.50
pu
0.050
Automatic> Freq Dif
0.02..4.00
Hz
0.10
Automatic> Phase Dif
2.00..60.00
º
10.00
Automatic> Reclaim Time
0.00..60.00
s
0.10
Automatic> Command Time
0.00..600.00
s
1.00
6.16.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The Synchronism and Voltage Check function module generates indications discriminated by the
voltage state (magnitude and frequency) of the line and the busbar and by the magnitude, phase
and frequency difference between both voltages.
The existence of synchronism conditions for the several synchronism types (LLLB, LLDB, DLLB
and DLDB) is obtained by logic for both the Manual and the Automatic modes.
The close command requests (both manual and from reclosing) are received by logic and after
being combined with the information of synchronism conditions or command release, the close
commands and the successful or unsuccessful manoeuvres are indicated by the function.
Table 6.34. Logical variables description of the Synchronism and Voltage Check module.
Id
Name
Description
55552
Line Voltage Dead
...
...
Indications referring
characteristic.
55554
Line Voltage Max
55555
Line Freq Min
55556
Line Freq Max
55557
Bus Voltage Dead
...
...
55559
Bus Voltage Max
55560
Bus Freq Min
55561
Bus Freq Max
to
the
line
voltage
Indications referring
characteristic.
to
the
line
frequency
Indications referring
characteristic.
to
the
busbar
voltage
Indications referring to the busbar frequency
characteristic.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Id
Name
Description
55562
Voltage Diff OK Manual Cmd
…
…
Indications referring to voltage, frequency and
phase differences – Manual mode.
55564
Phase Diff OK Manual Cmd
55565
Voltage Diff OK Autom Cmd
...
...
55567
Phase Diff OK Autom Cmd
55568
Synchrocheck LLLB
...
...
55571
Voltage Check DLDB
55572
Sync Cond Manual Cmd
55573
Sync Cond Automatic Cmd
55574
Manual Sync in Progress
55575
Autom Sync in Progress
55576
Synchronism Manual Cmd
55577
Synchronism Automatic Cmd
55578
Man Cmd Async Release
55579
Aut Cmd Async Release
55580
Manual Close Override
55581
Automatic Close Override
55582
Manual Close Request
55583
Autom Close Request
55584
Manual Close Release Sinc
55585
Autom Close Release Sinc
55586
Manual Close Cmd Synchro
55587
Autom Close Cmd Synchro
55588
Man Close Cmd Sucessfull
55589
Man Close Cmd Unsucessfull
55590
Aut Close Cmd Sucessfull
55591
Aut Close Cmd Unsucessfull
55592
Unsucess Man Cmd Volt Diff
...
...
55594
Unsucess Man Cmd Phas Diff
55595
Unsucess Aut Cmd Volt Diff
...
...
55597
Unsucess Aut Cmd Phas Diff
55598
Line VT Status Sinchro
55599
Bus VT Status Synchro
Indications referring to voltage, frequency and
phase differences – Automatic mode.
Signals the fulfilment of the conditions for each
type of verification.
Signals the synchronous conditions for the Manual
and Automatic modes.
Signals the synchronism verification by the
function for the Manual and Automatic modes.
Associated with the command time.
Signals the synchronous conditions after the
confirmation time for the Manual and Automatic
modes.
Not applicable in the TPU S420.
Signals the close permission without any type of
verification – Release mode – for Manual and
Automatic modes.
Request indication of circuit breaker close
command for the Manual and Automatic modes.
Permission indication ot circuit breaker close after
validation of the verification types for the Manual
and Automatic modes.
Indication of close circuit breaker command for the
Manual and Automatic modes.
Indication of successful verification and close
command for the Manual mode.
Indication of successful verification and close
command for the Automatic mode.
Indications of unsuccessful verification reasons in
LLLB mode – Manual mode, after command time.
Indications of unsuccessful verification reasons in
LLLB mode – Automatic mode, after command
time.
Indications of the voltage transformers states in
the line and in the busbar
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Id
Name
Description
55600
Mode LLLB Manual Cmd
...
...
Indications of the verification types states –
Manual mode.
55603
Mode DLDB Manual Cmd
55604
Mode LLLB Automatic Cmd
...
...
55607
Mode DLDB Automatic Cmd
55608
Synchrocheck MMI Lock
Blocking of the function by the local interface.
55609
Synchrocheck LAN Lock
Blocking of the function by the remote interface.
55610
Synchrocheck Lock
Indication of general function blocking.
Indications of the verification types states –
Automatic mode.
Additionally to the indications referred in Table 6.34, are also available the variables
corresponding to change of parameters, logic or function descriptions as well as gates
associated with Setting groups logic and function activation. There are also auxiliary logical
variables used in the module internal logic.
6
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55562>
Dif Tensão OK Cmd
Manual
55565>
Dif Tensão OK Cmd
Autom
OR
OR
O1
O1
O2
O2
O3
O3
55552>
Tensão Linha Morta
OR
O1
55566>
Dif Freq OK Cmd
Autom
55563>
Dif Freq OK Cmd
Manual
O2
OR
OR
O3
55553>
Tensão Linha Viva
OR
O1
O1
O2
O2
O3
O3
O1
O2
O3
55567>
Dif Fase OK Cmd
Autom
55564>
Dif Fase OK Cmd
Manual
55554>
Tensão Max Linha
OR
OR
OR
O1
O1
O2
O2
O3
O3
O1
O2
O3
55556>
Freq Max Linha
55622>
Gate 1 Verif
Sincronismo
OR
O1
O2
O3
55568>
Sincroniz LLLB
I1
O1
I2
55555>
Freq Min Linha
AND
AND
O2
55600>
Modo LLLB Cmd
Manual
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
I4
I3
O3
I4
O4
O1
I5
I5
O5
O2
I6
O2
I6
O6
O3
I7
O7
I8
O8
OR
O1
OR
55623>
Gate 2 Verif
Sincronismo
AND
55604>
Modo LLLB Cmd
Automatico
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
I4
OR
55557>
Tensão Barra Morta
OR
O1
I5
O2
I6
O1
6
O2
O3
55601>
Modo LLDB Cmd
Manual
55558>
Tensão Barra Viva
55624>
Gate 3 Verif
Sincronismo
OR
OR
O1
O2
55569>
Sincroniz LLDB
55572>
Cond Sinc Cmd Manual
OR
I1
AND
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O1
AND
I3
O3
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
I4
I5
55559>
Tensão Max Barra
I4
OR
55625>
Gate 4 Verif
Sincronismo
55605>
Modo LLDB Cmd
Automatico
AND
OR
I5
O1
I6
O2
I7
I1
O1
O1
I2
O2
O2
I3
O3
55602>
Modo DLLB Cmd
Manual
55560>
Freq Min Barra
OR
O1
O2
55561>
Freq Max Barra
OR
O1
O2
I3
O3
O2
I5
O3
I6
O1
O2
I2
O2
55573>
Cond Sinc Cmd
Automático
OR
55627>
Gate 6 Verif
Sincronismo
55606>
Modo DLLB Cmd
Automatico
I7
I1
O1
I3
I2
O2
I4
O2
I3
55603>
Modo DLDB Cmd
Manual
55571>
Sincroniz DLDB
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
I1
O1
I2
O2
I1
O1
I3
O3
I2
O2
I4
O3
I5
OR
4362>Estado do TT 2
I5
55628>
Gate 7 Verif
Sincronismo
AND
55599>
Estado TT Barra Verif
Sinc
O1
I2
O1
OR
O3
I1
AND
OR
OR
I2
O1
O2
AND
I2
I4
I1
I1
I3
I1
O1
55598>
Estado TT Linha Verif
Sinc
AND
O1
55570>
Sincroniz DLLB
O3
4360>Estado do TT 1
55626>
Gate 5 Verif
Sincronismo
OR
55607>
Modo DLDB Cmd
Automatico
55629>
Gate 8 Verif
Sincronismo
AND
I1
O1
O1
I2
O2
O2
I3
OR
Figure 6.52. Part 1 of the logical diagram of the Synchronism and Voltage Check module.
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
55582>
Pedido Fecho Manual
Sinc
55589>
Cmd Fecho Man Mal
Sucedida
55586>
Cmd Fecho Manual Vrf
Sincr
OR
OR
O1
41757>Gate Fecho Disjunt Local
I1
O2
41758>Gate Fecho Disjunt Remoto
I2
O3
41760>Gate Fecho Disjunt Externo
I3
O1
OR
55574>
Sinc Manual em
Validação
O1
OR
55592>
Insucesso Cmd Man
Dif Tens
O4
O1
I4
AND
I1
41761>Cmd Fecho Disjuntor
O2
55576>
Sincronismo Cmd
Manual
O1
55584>
Permiss Fecho Manual
Sinc
OR
I2
OR
O1
I1
O2
I2
O1
I3
55588>
Cmd Fecho Man Bem
Sucedida
OR
O1
I4
I3
55578>
Permiss Cmd Man Não
Sinc
55593>
Insucesso Cmd Man
Dif Freq
I4
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
I3
55580>
Perm Fecho Man Sem
Verific
I4
OR
55594>
Insucesso Cmd Man
Dif Fase
O1
I2
AND
I1
O2
O1
I2
I3
55591>
Cmd Fecho Aut Mal
Sucedida
I4
OR
55583>
Pedido Fecho Autom
Sinc
O1
55575>
Sinc Autom em
Validação
OR
O2
O3
41759>Gate Fecho Disjunt Autom
55595>
Insucesso Cmd Aut Dif
Tens
O4
I1
55587>
Cmd Fecho Autom Vrf
Sincro
OR
O1
O1
OR
O1
I2
AND
I1
O1
I2
55585>
Permiss Fecho Autom
Sinc
OR
OR
I3
O1
I1
I4
O2
I2
O1
I3
55596>
Insucesso Cmd Aut Dif
Freq
55579>
Permiss Cmd Aut Não
Sinc
AND
I1
41761>Cmd Fecho Disjuntor
O2
55577>
Sincronismo Cmd
Automático
55590>
Cmd Fecho Aut Bem
Sucedida
OR
O1
I4
OR
O1
6
O1
I2
O2
I3
55581>
Perm Fecho Aut Sem
Verific
I4
OR
55597>
Insucesso Cmd Aut Dif
Fase
O1
AND
I1
I2
O2
O1
I2
I3
I4
55608>
Bloqueio Verif Sincron
MMI
55610>
Bloqueio Verif
Sincronismo
OR
OR
O1
I1
O2
I2
O1
I3
55609>
Bloqueio Verif Sincron
LAN
OR
O1
O2
Figure 6.53. Part 2 of the logical diagram of the Synchronism and Voltage Check module.
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.17. VOLTAGE RESTORATION
TPU S420 is able to perform the Load Shedding and Restoration Voltage automatism. The main
purpose of this function is the disconnection after a voltage drop and the subsequent line or bay
automatic reclosing, after its regularization, being normally a common function to all the
substation automation system.
The voltage instability results from two main types of causes: lack of voltage caused by faults on
the source feeder of the shedded busbar, that may repeat or not, and lack of voltage due to the
instability of the electric power global system.
6.17.1. OPERATION METHOD
The Voltage Restoration is an automatism normally used in distribution systems and its general
goal is the sequential load restoration, after a load shedding by Undervoltage. For this reason it’s
a function that can be analysed from the substation automation point of view and not only from
the bay or the line associated to the protection.
This automatism is closely connected to the Undervoltage Protection, which is executed in the
unit. The working principle consists in the surveillance of the Undervoltage Protection and
circuit-breaker state in order to take actions of its connection and disconnection, according with
the voltage value.
This function is made independently in each one of the output substation protections. To make
a sequential restoration of all loads it is necessary to properly scale the stable voltage
confirmation time of each one of the protections inserted in the restoration cycle, as one can
observe on Figure 6.54.
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
I rI r==
r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
t = 10 s
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
=r=
I rI r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
t = 15 s
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
=r=
I rI r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
t =20 s
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
I rI r==
r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
t = 25 s
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
I rI r===
r r=
22
220
0A
220
0
KA
K
2
2
VV
t = 30 s
Figure 6.54. Units configuration example inserted on the Voltage Restoration.
The working mechanism of this automatism consists in a states sequence and actions
associated to well defined transitions of state. All the transtions are conceived through logical
conditions that may be changed on the programmable logic of the function. The algorithm can
be visualized on Figure 6.56.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Function algorithm
The first state, called as LOAD SHEDDING, is the state where the function is when it starts. The
transition of that state is caused by the trip of the Undervoltage Protection functions. When that
happens, the function turns to to RESET state and enables the running load shedding
indication.
The function confers the circuit-breaker state during that state and immediately before starting
the load shedding, in order to know if the circuit-breaker is already open, or if it’s the function
which will open it. This is a fundamental check for the restoration phase, once the function will
only make the restoration if it was the responsible for the circuit-breaker opening.
The function remains in the RESET state while the Undervoltage Protection functions does not
reset. If this happens it will turn to CONFIRMATION state.
The CONFIRMATION state purpose is to check the voltage stability. In this state the function
holds while the configurable time the Voltage Protection functions do not operate. If this
happens the function turns again to the RESET state, otherwise, and depending on the
configured program it will change of state. If the program only includes load shedding or during
the load shedding phase the circuit-breaker is already open, the function will turn to RESTING
as the timer runs out, if not, it will turn for the RESTORATION state.
In the RESTORATION state the function will change for the next state if the start conditions to
start the restoration are gathered, so one expects indefinitely for these conditions. As soon as
they are gathered the state will change to DELAY. However, during this state, a new load
shedding can occur due to the lack of voltage, so the function returns for the RESET state.
The DELAY state appears before the restoration command. It is intended to give a time between
gathering the restoration conditions and the effective restoration command. Thus, once the
timer runs out, the function will give a closing order of the circuit-breaker and changes to
RESTING state. During that state it might happen again a lack of voltage that can cause the
operation of the Undervoltage Protection functions, returning to the RESET state.
The source of this state results on the need to serially organize different units inserted on the
restoration program. So it is possible, for example, to use a remote command in order to
activate the restoration of all units simoultaneously. After that, it is enough to correctly scale the
delay times of each one of the units in order to get a sequencial restoration, as exemplified on
Figure 6.54.
Voltage trip
Load shed running
Restoration running
Restoration cmd
ConfirmT
PassT
Figure 6.55. Time Diagram of Voltage Restoration.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
LOAD SHEDDING
Voltage ProtectionTrip
RESET
Voltage Protecion Reset
LS+Rest
ic ?
No
Yes
CONFIRMATION
Voltage ProtectionTrip
Timer End
RESTORATION
Voltage ProtectionTrip
Restoration Permission
6
PASSAGE
Voltage ProtectionTrip
Timer End
Figure 6.56. Sequence of the Load Shedding and Voltage Restoration operation.
6.17.2. CONFIGURATION
In order to activate the Voltage Restoration function, the Status parameter should be configured
with the ON value. Than the Operation state should be configured for the function, that is, if it
will be executed only load shedding or load shedding and restoration.
The Reclaim Time parameter concerns the time the function takes to consider the normal
voltage, after the Undervoltage Protection functions reset. This parameter is intended to
decrease the probability of executing a high number of manoeuvres (restoration with new load
shedding and subsequent restoration).
Note that the operation time of the load shedding function after a voltage lack is defined on the
Undervoltage Protection parameters, so this protection function should be enabled.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
The Delay Time indicates the time the function waits after having the conditions to reset and
the restoration effective command. This time should be configured taking into consideration all
the units inserted on the substation restoration program.
Automatismos
Deslastre/Reposição de Tensão
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Estado: OFF
Operação: DESLAST + REPOS
T Confirmação: 60.000
T Passagem: 5.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.57. Set 1 Menu (Load Shedding/ Voltage Restoration).
Table 6.35. Voltage Restoration parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Current Set
1..4
1
Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Operation
LOAD SHEDDING /
LOAD SHEDDING +
RESTORATION
LOAD
SHEDDING +
RESTORATION
Reclaim Time
1..300
s
60
Delay Time
0..300
s
5
6.17.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The function pickup results from the Undervoltage Protection operation, conditioned to the
function blocking conditions. These conditions are, by default, the Manual Operation Mode. The
reset is reached with the Undervoltage Protection reset.
About the connections to the Circuit-breaker, the load shedding command is connected to the
opening command by automatisms in order to open the circuit-breaker. It is also used to block
the closing of the remaining automatisms. By its turn, the restoration command is connected to
the automatisms closing command, which is locked by the interlockings defined on the Circuitbreaker module.
A variable is also available to block only the restoration without afecting the load shedding, and
together with the indications the algorithm state, that is, if the load shedding or the restoration
are running.
Table 6.36. Logical variables description of the Voltage Restoration module.
Id
Name
Description
39424
Voltage Shedding
Start conditions of the function
39425
End Voltage Shedding
Reset condition of the function
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Id
Name
Description
39426
Voltage Shedd CB Status
Image of circuit breaker state
39427
Voltage Shedding Status
Indication of the running load shedding
39428
Voltage Restoration Status
Indication of the running restoration
39429
Volt Restoration Command
Restoration command given by the function
39430
Volt Restoration MMI Lock
General conditions of the restoration local
blocking
39431
Volt Restoration LAN Lock
General conditions of restoration remote
blocking
39432
Voltage Restoration Lock
General conditions of restoration blocking
39433
Voltage Shedding Lock MMI
General conditions of function local blocking
39434
Voltage Shedding Lock LAN
General conditions of the function remote
blocking
39435
Voltage Shedding Lock
General conditions of the function blocking
Additionally to the variables referred on the Table 6.31, are also available the indications
corresponding to the parameters change, logic or descriptions, as well as gates associated with
scenarios logic and function activation. There are also auxiliary logical variables used in the
module internal logic.
39448>
Gate 1 Deslastre
Tensão
OR
21009>Disparo Mínimo U Fases
39433>
Bloqueio Deslast Tens
MMI
OR
39424>
Deslastre Tensão
AND
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
O3
I3
6
O1
O1
O2
39435>
Bloqueio Deslastre
Tensão
OR
39434>
Bloqueio Deslast Tens
LAN
OR
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
39425>
Fim Deslastre Tensão
OR
I1
O2
10256>Modo
Operação M/A
I3
39430>
Bloqueio Reposic Tens
MMI
OR
O1
O2
39432>
Bloqueio Reposição
Tensão
OR
I1
39431>
Bloqueio Reposic Tens
LAN
OR
O1
O2
O1
I2
I4
39426>
Estado Disj Deslastre
Tens
OR
41775>Estado Disjuntor
I1
O1
I2
O1
I2
39427>
Estado Deslastre
Tensão
OR
I3
39428>
Estado Reposição
Tensão
OR
O1
O1
41731>Ordem Abert Disjunt Autom
O2
41764>Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj Autom
O3
39429>
Ordem Reposição
Tensão
OR
O1
41755>Cmd Fecho Disjuntor Autom
O2
Figure 6.58. Logic diagram of Voltage Restoration.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.18. FREQUENCY RESTORATION
TPU S420 can perform the Frequency Shedding and Restoration automatism. This function has
as main goal the disconnection after a frequency drop and the subsequent line or bay automatic
restoration, after its regularization, being normally a common function to all the power network
system.
The frequency instability is basically due to differences between the generated and consumed
power on the system. So, the frequency value changing gives a clue about serious problems to
be quickly solved on the power network exploitation. That solution is the very fast loads
shedding in order to achieve the system stability.
6.18.1. OPERATION METHOD
The Frequency Restoration is a typical automatism in power systems and its general goal is the
load sequential restoration, after a load shedding by underfrequency. That is why this is a
function that should to be analysed from the automation system point of view of the entire
network and of course of the substation.
This automatism is closely connected to the Underfrequency Protection, which is executed on
the unit. The working principle consists on the surveillance of the Underfrequency Protection and
the circuit-breaker state in order to take disconnection and connection actions, according with
the frequency value.
This function is independently made in each one of the substation outputs protections. In order
to do the load sequential restoration, as shown on the Voltage Restoration, it is necessary to
stage the constant frequency confirmation time of each one of the protections inserted on the
restoration cycle, as shown on Figure 6.59.
T
U
P
S3
T
U
P
S3
T
U
P
S3
UU
=
I rI r==
r r=
22
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
UU
I rI r==
r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
UU
I rI r==
r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
0
0
t = 10 s
0
0
t = 15 s
0
0
t =20 s
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
=r=
I rI r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
t = 25 s
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
I rI r==r=r=
22
220
0A
220
0
KA
K
2
2
VV
t = 30 s
Figure 6.59. Units configuration example inserted on the Frequency Restoration.
This automatism functioning mechanism is a sequence of states and actions associated to well
defined state transitions. All the transitions are conceived through logical conditions that may be
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
changed on the function programmable logic. The algorithm is described and shown below on
Figure 6.61.
Function algorithm
The first state, called LOAD SHEDDING, is where the function is when it starts. The transition of
this state is caused by the Underfrequency Protection functions trip. When this happens the
RESET state is enabled and the load shedding indication is running.
During this state, and immediately before starting the load shedding, the function enquires the
circuit-breaker state, in order to know if it’s already open, or if it’s the function which will do it.
This check is essential for the restoration phase, once the function will only do the restoration if
it’s the responsible for the circuit-breaker opening.
The function remains in the RESET state while the Underfrequency Protection functions does
not reset. In case that happen it will change for the CONFIRMATION state.
The CONFIRMATION state purpose is to check the frequency stability. In this state the function
holds while the configurable time the Frequency Protection functions do not operate. If this
happens the function turns again to the RESET state, otherwise, and depending on the
configured program it will change of state. If the program only includes load shedding or during
the load shedding phase the circuit-breaker is already open, the function will turn to RESTING
as the timer runs out, if not, it will turn for the RESTORATION state.
In the RESTORATION state the function will change for the next state if the start conditions to
start the restoration are gathered, so one expects indefinitely for these conditions. As soon as
they are gathered the state will change to DELAY. However, during this state, a new load
shedding can occur due to the lack of voltage, so the function returns for the RESET state.
The DELAY state appears before the restoration command. It is intended to give a time between
gathering the restoration conditions and the effective restoration command. Thus, once the
timer runs out, the function will give a closing order of the circuit-breaker and changes to
RESTING state. During that state it might happen again a lack of voltage that can cause the
operation of the Underfrequency Protection functions, returning to the RESET state.
This state result on the need to organize serially different units inserted on the restoration
program. So it is possible, for example, to use a remote command in order to activate the
restoration of all units simoultaneously. After that, it is enough to correctly scale the delay times
of each one of the units in order to get a sequential restoration, as exemplified on Figure 6.59.
Frequency trip
Load Shed running
Restoration running
Restoration Cmd
ConfirmT
PassT
Figure 6.60. Frequency Restoration time diagram.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
LOAD SHEDDING
Voltage Protection Trip
RESET
Voltage Protection Reset
LS+Restor
ic ?
No
Yes
CONFIRMATION
Voltage ProtectionTrip
Timer End
RESTORATION
Voltage ProtectionTrip
Restoration Permission
6
PASSAGE
Voltage ProtectionTrip
TimerEnd
Figure 6.61. Operation sequence of the Frequency Shedding and Restoration.
6.18.2. CONFIGURATION
In order to activate the Frequency Shedding and Restoration, the Status parameter should be
configured with the value ON. Then, it should be configured the Operation state for the
function, that is, if it will be executed only the shedding or shedding and restoration.
The Reclaim Time parameter concerns the time the function takes to consider the normal
frequency, after the Underfrequency Protection functions reset. This parameter is intended to
reduce the probability of a manoeuvres number execution (restoration as a new shedding and
later restoration).
Note that the load shedding function operation time after a frequency lack is defined on the
Underfrequency Protection parameters, so this protection function should be enabled.
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
The Delay Time indicates the time the function waits after having the conditions to reset and
the restoration effective command. This time should be configured taking into consideration all
the units inserted on the substation restoration program.
Automatismos
Deslastre/Reposição de Frequência
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Estado: OFF
Operação: DESLASTRE + REPOSIÇÃO
T Confirmação: 60.000
T Passagem: 5.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.62. Set 1 Menu ( Frequency Shedding / Restoration).
Table 6.37. Frequency Restoration parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..4
1
Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Operation
SHEDDING / SHEDDING
+ RESTORATION
SHEDDING +
RESTORATION
Reclaim Time
1..3600
s
60
Delay Time
0..300
s
5
6
6.18.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The function start results from the Underfrequency Protection operation, conditioned to the
function blocking conditions. These conditions are, by default, the Manual Operation Mode. The
reset is reached with the Underfrequency Protection reset.
About the connections to the Circuit-breaker, the load shedding command is connected to the
opening command by automatisms in order to open the circuit-breaker. It is also used to block
the closing of the remaining automatisms. By its turn, the restoration command is connected to
the automatisms closing command, which is locked by the interlockings defined on the Circuitbreaker module.
A variable is also available to block only the restoration without afecting the load shedding, and
together with the indications the algorithm state, that is, if the load shedding or the restoration
are running.
Table 6.38. Logical variables description of the Frequency Restoration module.
Id
Name
Description
40192
Frequency Shedding
Function start condition
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Id
Name
Description
40193
End Frequency Shedding
Function reset condition
40194
Frequency Shedd CB Status
Image of the Circ-breaker state
40195
Frequency Shedding Status
Running shedding indication
40196
Frequency Restoration Stat
Running restoration indication
40197
Freq Restoration Command
Restoration command given by the function
40198
Freq Restoration MMI Lock
General conditions of restoration local blocking
40199
Freq Restoration LAN Lock
General conditions of the restoration remote
blocking
40200
Frequency Restoration Lock
General conditions of restoration blocking
40201
Freq Shedding Lock MMI
General conditions of the function local blocking
40202
Freq Shedding Lock LAN
General conditions of the function remote
blocking
40203
Frequency Shedding Lock
General conditions of the function blocking
Additionally to the variables referred in Table 6.38, are also available the variables corresponding
to change of parameters, logic or function descriptions as well as gates associated with
scenarios logic and function activation. There are also auxiliary logical variables used in the
module internal logic.
40201>
Bloqueio Deslast Freq
MMI
OR
21781>Disparo
Prot Frequência
40216>
Gate 1 Deslastre
Frequênc
OR
40192>
Deslastre Frequência
AND
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
O3
I3
6
O1
O1
O2
40203>
Bloqueio Deslastre
Freq
OR
40202>
Bloqueio Deslast Freq
LAN
OR
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
40193>
Fim Deslastre
Frequência
OR
I1
O2
10256>Modo
Operação M/A
I3
40198>
Bloqueio Reposic Freq
MMI
OR
O1
O2
40200>
Bloqueio Reposição
Freq
OR
I1
40199>
Bloqueio Reposic Freq
LAN
OR
O1
O1
I2
I4
40194>
Estado Disj Deslastre
Freq
OR
41775>Estado Disjuntor
I1
O1
I2
O1
I2
I3
40195>
Estado Deslastre
Frequênc
OR
O2
O1
41731>Ordem Abert Disjunt Autom
O2
41764>Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj Autom
O3
40196>
Estado Reposição
Frequênc
OR
O1
40197>
Ordem Reposição
Frequência
OR
O1
41755>Cmd Fecho Disjuntor Autom
O2
Figure 6.63. Logic diagram of the Frequency Restoration.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.19. CENTRALISED VOLTAGE RESTORATION
TPU S420 can perform the Shedding and Voltage Restoration automatism, interacting with a
busbar unit, the TPU B420. This function shares its goal with the Voltage Restoration described
already, however, its implementation is completely different.
While on the distributed implementation the automatism is entirely made on the protection, in
this version the shedding and restoration control of each one of the output units are made by a
managing unit, namely the TPU B420, which is the only one that needs to access the voltage
values. This interaction can be performed through the communication by the local area network,
particularly through the distributed database.
6.19.1. OPERATION METHOD
On this automatism centralised implementation, the TPU S420 does not requires the
Undervoltage Protection, once this function is made by the managing unit. The TPU S420 only
requires receiving and executing the commands given by the managing unit, and that are
obtained through the local area network.
This function is independently performed in each one of the substation output protections and
obviously on the managing unit, the TPU B420. In order to make a sequential restoration of all
the loads, it is necessary to stage properly the confirmation time of the stable voltage in each
one of the inserted protection on the restoration cycle, as can be seen on Figure 6.64, which is
entirely configured on the managing unit. About the TPU S420 configuration, it basically consists
on the function activation.
TPU B420
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
==
IrIr=r2=r2
220
0AA
220
K
0
K
22
VV
Response
T
U
P
S3
0
UU
IrIr==
r=r=
22
220
220
02
0AA
K
K
2
VV
TPU S420
Load shedding and
restoration command
T
U
P
S3
0
UU
IrIr==
r=r=
22
220
220
02
0AA
K
K
2
VV
TPU S420
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
==
IrIr==
rr2
20 A
220
220
K2
0
KA
2
VV
TPU S420
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
=
IrIr==
r=
r
22
220
220
0
0
K
2AA
2K
VV
TPU S420
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
=
IrIr==
r=
r
22
220
220
0
0
K
2AA
2K
VV
TPU S420
Figure 6.64. Voltage Centralised Restoration Functioning.
The functioning principle, from the TPU S420 side, is characterized by the reception of shedding
and restoration commands and by the decision taking concerning each one. That decision
taking implies the analysis of all the conditionings, interlockings and the following response to
the managing unit. This response can be the received command confirmation or that command
denial, depending the defined interlockings.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
This automatism working mechanism consists on a state and actions sequence associated to
well defined state transitions. All the transitions are conceived through logical conditions that
may be changed on the function programmable logic. The algorithm can be observed on the
Figure 6.65 that is described next.
Function Algorithm
The first state, called SHEDDING, is the state where the function is when it picks up. The
transition of this state is provoked by the activation of the DeslUCS_Pickup_Shedding variable.
The shedding command sent by the managing unit must be connected to this variable, through
the distributed database. When this happens the function turns to RESET state and enables the
running load shedding indication.
Once the load shedding is running, the variable defined as DeslUCS_State_Answer has the
result of the answer to be sent to the managing unit. For that purpose, this variable should be
sent for the distributed database. This variable has information about the circuit-breaker state in
order to check if the load shedding is the responsible for the circuit-breaker opening.
The function remains on the RESET state while the managing unit keeps the starting variable
enabled. When the managing unit disables this variable the function will turn to RESTORATION
state.
On the RESTORATION state the function will turn to the next state when the managing unit
sends
the
restoration
command.
This
command
is
received
on
the
DeslUCS_Startup_Restoration variable and it will have as a result the activation of the answer
variable showing the received operation result. So, if the circuit-breaker has meanwhile been
closed the answer will show the non-acceptance of the restoration command, on the contrary,
the restoration will be initiated.
It may happen that, during the RESTORATION state and before receiving the restoration
command, the load shedding will be activated once more. In this situation, the function will turn
to RESET state.
LOAD SHEDDING
Load Shedding command
RESET
Load Shedding reset
RESTORATION
Load Shedding startup
Restoration command
Figure 6.65. Operation sequence of Load Shedding and Voltage Centralised Restoration.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.19.2. CONFIGURATION
In order to enable the Centralised Voltage Restoration function, the Status parameter should be
configured with the value ON. Then it must be configured the Operation parameter for the
function, that is, if it will be executed only for the load shedding or for the load shedding and
restoration.
The remaning parameters associated the load shedding and restoration cycle are fully made on
the managing unit, the TPU B420.
Automatismos
Deslastre/Reposição de Tensão
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Estado: OFF
Operação: DESLASTRE + REPOSIÇÃO
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.66. Set Menu 1 (Load Shedding/Voltage Restoration).
Table 6.39. Centralised Voltage Restoration.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..4
1
Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Operation
LOAD SHEDDING /
LOAD SHEDDING +
RESTORATION
LOAD
SHEDDING +
RESTORATION
6.19.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The function starting-up results from the logic variable activation of load shedding starting-up,
which the command coming from the distributed database must be connected. Besides that
information the pickup is still conditioned to the TPU S420 local interlockings, for example the
manual operation mode. The restoration is enabled through the activation of the logical variable
of restoration starting-up, which, like the load shedding, is conditioned to the protection local
interlockings.
Another important part on the Voltage Centralised Restoration logic is related to the answer of
the managing unit commands, both load shedding and restoration. For each case the circuitbreaker and its interlockings are taken into account.
The connections to the Circuit-Breaker module are similar to distributed Voltage Restoration, the
load shedding command is connected to the opening command by the automatisms to opening
circuit-breaker uses. It is also used to block the remaing automatisms closing. The restoration
command is connected by its turn to the automatisms closing command, which is locked by the
interlocking defined on the Circuit-breaker module.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
A variable for the restoration blocking is also available without disturbing the load shedding, and
a set of indications that show the algorithm state, that is, if the load shedding or the running
restoration.
Table 6.40. Logical variables description of the Centralised Voltage Restoration module.
Id
Name
Description
39936
Voltage Shedding
Startup load shedding condition
39937
Voltage Restoration
Restoration reset condition
39938
Voltage Shedd CB Status
Circuit-breaker state image
39939
Voltage Response Status
Answer condition to the received commands
39940
Voltage Shedding Status
Indication of the running load shedding
39941
Voltage Restoration Status
Indication of the running restoration
39942
Volt Restoration MMI Lock
General conditions of restoration local blocking
39943
Volt Restoration LAN Lock
General conditions of restoration remote block
39944
Voltage Restoration Lock
General conditions of restoration blocking
39945
Volt Shedding Lock MMI
General conditions of the function local blocking
39946
Volt Shedding Lock LAN
General conditions of the function remote block
39947
Voltage Shedding Lock
General conditions of the function blocking
Additionally to the variables referred on the Table 6.40, are also available the indications
corresponding to the parameters, logic and descriptions change, as well as gates associated with
sets logic and function activation. There are also auxiliary logical variables used in the module
internal logic.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
39945>
Bloqueio Deslast Tens
MMI
OR
O1
O2
39936>
Deslastre Tensão
AND
39946>
39947>
Bloqueio Deslast Tens
Bloqueio Deslastre
LAN
Tensão
OR
OR
O1
I1
O1
O2
10256>Modo Operação M/A
I2
O2
I3
O3
O1
I2
I3
I4
39942>
Bloqueio Reposic Tens
MMI
OR
O1
O2
39937>
Reposição Tensão
AND
39944>
Bloqueio Reposição
39943>
Tensão
Bloqueio Reposic Tens
OR
LAN
I1
O1
OR
O1
I2
O2
O2
I3
O3
O1
I2
I3
39938>
Estado Disj Deslastre
Tens
OR
41775>Estado Disjuntor
39960>
Gate 1 Deslastre
Tensão
AND
39962>
Gate 3 Deslastre
Tensão
AND
39939>
Estado Resposta
Tensão
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
I2
O2
I3
I3
O3
I3
39961>
Gate 2 Deslastre
Tensão
OR
I3
39963>
Gate 4 Deslastre
Tensão
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
39940>
Estado Deslastre
Tensão
OR
O1
I3
O1
O2
41731>Ordem Abert Disjunt Autom
O3
41764>Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj Autom
O4
6
39941>
Estado Reposição
Tensão
OR
O1
O2
41755>Cmd Fecho Disjuntor Autom
O3
Figure 6.67. Logic diagram of the Voltage Centralised Restoration.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.20. CENTRALISED FREQUENCY
RESTORATION
TPU S420 can perform the Load Shedding and Frequency Restoration automatism, interacting
with the bus-bar unit, the TPU B420. This function shares the objective with the Frequency
Restoration described behind, however, its implementation is different.
On the distributed implementation the automatism is fully made on the protection, on this
version the shedding control and restoration of each output units is made by a managing unit,
namely the TPU B420, which is the only one that needs to have access to voltages. This
interaction is based on the communications by the local area network, in particular through the
distributed database.
6.20.1. OPERATION METHOD
On this automatism centralised implementation, the TPU S420 does not requires the
Underfrequency Protection, once this function is made by the managing unit. The TPU S420 only
requires receiving and executing the commands given by the managing unit, and that are
obtained through the local area network.
This function is independently performed in each one of the substation output protections and
obviously on the managing unit, the TPU B420. In order to make a sequential restoration of all
the loads, it is necessary to stage properly the confirmation time of the stable voltage in each
one of the inserted protection on the restoration cycle, as can be seen on Figure 6.64, which is
entirely configured on the managing unit. About the TPU S420 configuration, it basically consists
on the function activation.
TPU B420
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
IrIr==
r=r=
22
220
220
0
AA
K0
2
K
2
VV
Response
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
IrIr==
r2r=
2
220
0AA
220
K
0
K
22
VV
TPU S420
Load shedding and
restoration command
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
IrIr==
r2r=
2
220
0AA
220
K
0
K
22
VV
TPU S420
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
=
IrIr==
r=
r
22
220
220
0
K0
2
KAA
2
VV
TPU S420
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
IrIr==
r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
K2
0
K
2
VV
TPU S420
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
IrIr==
r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
K2
0
K
2
VV
TPU S420
Figure 6.68. Frequency Centralised Restoration Functioning.
The functioning principle, from the TPU S420 side, is characterized by the reception of shedding
and restoration commands and by the decision taking concerning each one. That decision
implies the analysis of all the conditionings, interlockings and the following response to the
managing unit. This response can be the received command confirmation or that command
denial, depending the defined interlockings.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
This automatism functioning mechanism consists on a sequence of states and actions
associated to well defined state transitions. All the transitions are conceived through logic
conditions that may be changed on the function programmable logic. The algorithm can be seen
on Figure 6.69, described next.
Function algorithm
The first state, called SHEDDING, is the state where the function is when it picks up. The
transition of this state is provoked by the activation of the DeslUCS_Pickup_Shedding variable.
The shedding command sent by the managing unit must be connected to this variable, through
the distributed database. When this happens the function turns to RESET state and enables the
running load shedding indication.
Once the load shedding is running, the variable defined as DeslUCS_State_Answer has the
result of the answer to be sent to the managing unit. For that purpose, this variable should be
sent for the distributed database. This variable has information about the circuit-breaker state in
order to check if the load shedding is the responsible for the circuit-breaker opening.
The function remains on the RESET state while the managing unit keeps the starting variable
enabled. When the managing unit disables this variable the function will turn to RESTORATION
state.
On the RESTORATION state the function will turn to the next state when the managing unit
sends
the
restoration
command.
This
command
is
received
on
the
DeslUCS_Startup_Restoration variable and it will have as a result the activation of the answer
variable showing the received operation result. So, if the circuit-breaker has meanwhile been
closed the answer will show the non-acceptance of the restoration command, on the contrary,
the restoration will be initiated.
It may happen that, during the RESTORATION state and before receiving the restoration
command, the load shedding will be activated once more. In this situation, the function will turn
to RESET state, as can be seen on Figure 6.69.
LOAD SHEDDING
Load shedding command
RESET
Load Shedding reset
RESTORATION
Load Shedding startup
Restoration command
Figure 6.69. Operation sequence of the Load Shedding and Frequency Centralised Restoration.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.20.2. CONFIGURATION
In order to activate the Centralised Frequency Restoration, the Status parameter should be
configured with the value ON. Then, the Operation state should be configured for the function,
that is, if it will be executed only for the load shedding or the load shedding and restoration.
The remaining parameters associated to the load shedding and restoration cycle are fully made
on the managing unit, the TPU B420.
Automatismos
Deslastre/Reposição de Frequência
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Estado: OFF
Operação: DESLASTRE + REPOSIÇÃO
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.70. Setting group Menu 1 (Load Shedding/Frequency Restoration).
Table 6.41. Centralised Frequency Restoration Parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..4
1
Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Operation
LOAD SHEDDING /
LOAD SHEDDING +
RESTORATION
LOAD
SHEDDING +
RESTORATION
6.20.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The function starting-up results from the logic variable activation of load shedding starting-up,
which the command coming from the distributed database must be connected. Besides that
information the pickup is still conditioned to the TPU S420 local interlockings, for example the
manual operation mode. The restoration is enabled through the activation of the logical variable
of restoration starting-up, which, like the load shedding, is conditioned to the protection local
interlockings.
Another important part on the Centralised Frequency Restoration logic is related to the answer
of the managing unit commands, both load shedding and restoration. For each case the circuitbreaker and its interlockings are taken into account.
The connections to the Circuit-Breaker module are similar to distributed Frequency Restoration,
the load shedding command is connected to the opening command by the automatisms to
opening circuit-breaker uses. It is also used to block the remaing automatisms closing. The
restoration command is connected by its turn to the automatisms closing command, which is
locked by the interlocking defined on the Circuit-breaker module.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
A variable for the restoration blocking is also available without disturbing the load shedding, and
a set of indications that show the algorithm state, that is, if the load shedding or the running
restoration.
Table 6.42. Logic variables description of the Centralised Frequency Restoration.
Id
Name
Description
40704
Frequency Shedding
Load shedding pickup condition
40705
Frequency Restoration
Restoration reset condition
40706
Frequency Shedd CB Status
Circuit-breaker state image
40707
Frequency Response Status
Answer condition to the received commands
40708
Frequency Shedding Status
Indication of the running load shedding
40709
Frequency Restoration Stat
Indication of the running restoration
40710
Freq Restoration MMI Lock
General conditions of restoration local blocking
40711
Freq Restoration LAN Lock
General conditions of restoration remote
blocking
40712
Frequnecy Restoration Lock
General conditions of restoration blocking
40713
Freq Shedding Lock MMI
General conditions of the function local blocking
40714
Freq Shedding Lock LAN
General conditions of the function remote
blocking
40715
Frequency Shedding Lock
General conditions of the function blocking
Additionally to the variables referred on the Table 6.42, are also available the indications
corresponding to the parameters change, logic or descriptions, as well as gates associated with
sets logic and function activation. There are also auxiliary logical variables used in the module
internal logic.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
40713>
Bloqueio Deslast Freq
MMI
OR
O1
O2
40704>
Deslastre Frequência
AND
40714>
40715>
Bloqueio Deslast Freq
Bloqueio Deslastre
LAN
Freq
OR
OR
O1
I1
O1
O2
10256>Modo Operação M/A
I2
O2
I3
O3
O1
I2
I3
I4
40710>
Bloqueio Reposic Freq
MMI
OR
O1
O2
40705>
Reposição Frequência
AND
40712>
Bloqueio Reposição
40711>
Freq
Bloqueio Reposic Freq
OR
LAN
I1
O1
OR
O1
I2
O2
O2
I3
O3
O1
I2
I3
40706>
Estado Disj Deslastre
Freq
OR
41775>Estado Disjuntor
40728>
Gate 1 Deslastre
Frequênc
AND
40730>
Gate 3 Deslastre
Frequênc
AND
40707>
Estado Resposta
Frequência
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
I2
O2
I3
I3
O3
I3
40729>
Gate 2 Deslastre
Frequênc
OR
I3
40731>
Gate 4 Deslastre
Frequênc
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
40708>
Estado Deslastre
Frequênc
OR
O1
I3
O1
O2
41731>Ordem Abert Disjunt Autom
O3
41764>Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj Autom
O4
6
40709>
Estado Reposição
Frequênc
OR
O1
O2
41755>Cmd Fecho Disjuntor Autom
O3
Figure 6.71. Logic diagram of the Centralised Frequency Restoration.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.21. BLOCKING BY LOGICAL SELECTIVITY
The Blocking by Logical Selectivity, also called protections acceleration, is a simple logic
interlocking that allows an additional optimization of the substation protection units
coordination. On the TPU S420 it is associated to the Overcurrent Protection.
6.21.1. OPERATION METHOD
The Overcurrent Protection on the secondary side of the transformer works as a reserve to the
protections located in each one of the substation outputs. In a first analysis, to guarantee the
coordination it is necessary that the regulated timers on the transformer unit, for all the
Overcurrent stages, have to be higher than the biggest timer suitable on the outputs protections.
The operation threshold of the reserve protection should also be bigger to ensure that, in case of
its overrange, there isn’t selectivity loss.
However, this solution originates a very high fault elimination time by the reserve protection, in
particular for bus-bar faults, which are not observed by the outputs protections and are
extremely serious.
The Logic Selectivity intends to accelerate the unit trip that protects the bus-bar, through the
interaction of the downstream protections. For that, the high threshold stage is blocked after
receiving the indication of some of the Overcurrent functions pickup of any outputs. This
indication can be transmitted by cabling, using the available options for the physical inputs, or
local area network, through horizontal communication among units.
This way, the operational time of the bus-bar high threshold can be effectively reduced, and it is
enough to engage a security margin sufficient to receive the indication. If the fault is on the busbar, only the protection will see it, eliminating it after that short timer (Figure 6.72). If, otherwise,
the fault occurs on an output, the corresponding protection will pickup and block immediately
the upstream protection trip (Figure 6.73).
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
=r=
I rI r=r=
22
220
220
0
K0
2AA
K
2
VV
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
I rI r==
r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
=r=
I rI r=r=
22
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
r2
I rI r==
r==
2
220
0AA
220
0
K2
K
2
VV
Figure 6.72. Fault elimination on the bus-bar.
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6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
==
IrIr==
r2r2
220
0AA
220
K
0
K
22
VV
Prot startup
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
==
IrIr==
rr2
20 A
220
220
K
0
KA
22
VV
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
IrIr==
rr=
2
2
220
220
0
K0
2
KAA
2
VV
T
U
P
S3
0
0
UU
IrIr==
r r=
2
2
220
220
0
AA
K0
2
K
2
VV
Figure 6.73. Fautl elimination on an output (Logic Selectivity).
The Logic Selectivity interlocking can be different for faults between phases and phase-to-earth,
or it can even be the same. In this last solution, implemented by default, the Earth Fault
Overcurrent Protection pickup indication generated by the installed protections on the outputs
should be mandatorily directional, because the earth short-circuits on the bus-bar are also
observed by these protections.
With this feature the independence between several units operation is lost, since they stay
associated by an information exchange, either for cable or optical fibre. However, the
functioning is always from the security side, once in the absence of this connection the fault
continues to be eliminated, in spite of losing selectivity.
6.21.2. CONFIGURATION
This function doesn’t have an associated configuration, and only the corresponding digital
inputs or the distributed database should be configured if one choses a local area network
communication.
6.21.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The effects on the automation logic of Logic Selectivity Blocking can be seen on the logic that
corresponds to Earth or Phase Fault Overcurrent Protections, on Chapters 6.2 and 6.3,
respectively.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.22. FAULT LOCATOR
The fast location of a short-circuit after it has been cleared is essential because the availability of
the line is influenced by the time necessary to locate and repair the fault.
The TPU S420 has a module to rapidly and accurately locate a short-circuit just after it has been
cleared by the Earth or Phase Fault Overcurrent Protections. The results referring to the most
recent fault are available to be sent to SCADA. They can be remotely accessed and without the
obligation of local consultation in the unit.
6.22.1. OPERATION METHOD
In the TPU S420, the Fault Locator is an independent function from any other protection
function, although its operation is triggered, by default by the tripping of the Earth or Phase
Fault Overcurrent Protections.
The Fault Locator continuously receives the indication of the fault phases sent through the logic
by the Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection (A, B and C) and the pickup indication of the Earth
Fault Overcurrent Protection (N), until the moment of tripping, when it starts the calculations
referring to that fault.
Table 6.43 shows the pre-selection of loops depending on the fault phases.
6
Table 6.43. Pre-selection of loops depending on the fault phases.
Fault Phases
Possible fault loops
A, B and
C
A and
B
B and
C
C and
A
A
B
C
N
-
AB
AB
BC
CA
A
B
C
A
AB
BC
AB
AB
CA
B
CA
CA
BC
BC
C
BC
CA
The final fault loop selected by the Fault Locator is, among those possible for each case, that
which presents a calculated impedance value more suitable to the image of a line fault. The
impedance calculations are made over a time window of the current and voltage signals
determined according to the moment of the tripping signal send, in order to avoid as much as
possible the transients on the signals in the moments following the appearance of the shortcircuit or during the circuit breaker opening. The statistical processing of the results ensures
high accuracy of the final presented values, with an error less than 2% for sinusoidal signals.
The records of the last ten occurred faults are saved in non-volatile memory. Besides the exact
date and time of the fault, the recorded results include:
Fault loop;
Result validity;
Distance to the fault (in km, in miles and in percentage);
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Fault resistance (in Ω secondary);
Reactance and resistance (in Ω primary and secondary);
Reactance standard deviation (in Ω secondary).
The calculation algorithm of Fault Locator makes the necessary compensations for phase-toearth short-circuits, using the ko factor defined in the Line parameters.
The Fault Locator calculation is constrained by the Supervision of VTs function: in case of failure
of the voltage transformers circuits, the Fault Locator registers the fault with the result invalid.
6.22.2. CONFIGURATION
The Status parameter should be configured to ON when one desires to activate the Fault
Locator.
Localizador Defeitos
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Estado: ON
6
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.74. Fault Locator Menu.
The parameters referring to the line should be accessed in the Line menu.
For correct operation of the Fault Locator, it is necessary to configure the data related with the
protected line.
If these parameters are not correctly configured, the results presented may not be accurate.
The Rated Voltage and Rated Power parameters characterize the protected line. They are not
necessary for the operation of the Fault Locator. The Impedance Values parameter defines
whether the remaining parameters associated to impedances are configured in ohm concerning
to the primary or to the secondary of the substation’s primary CT and VT. The relation between
primary and secondary values is function of the ratios of CT and VT and automatically calculated
by the TPU S420:
Z primário
nTT
Z secundário
nTI
(6.11)
The parameters indicated next are important for the Fault Locator function: the line length in Km
or Miles (Length (km) and Length (mile)), the selection of which of the previous parameters
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should be considered (Length Unit) and the reactance and impedance angle of the line (Line
Reactance and Line Angle).
Lastly, the line parameters include the k0 (6.12) compensation factor in the calculation of the
direct impedance for short-circuits to earth. This factor is a complex number and is entered in
magnitude and angle (ko> Magnitude and ko> Angle).
k0
1 Z0
3 Zd
(6.12)
1
Linha
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Tensão Nominal: 60.000
Potência Nominal: 20.000
Valores Impedância: SECUNDARIO
Unidade Comprimento: KM
Comprimento (km): 100.000
Comprimento (milhas): 62.100
Reactância Linha: 5.000
Ângulo Linha: 80.000
Ko> Amplitude: 1.000
Ko> Ângulo: 0.000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.75. Parameters Menu (Line).
Table 6.44. Fault Locator parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Status
OFF / ON
-
ON
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..1
-
1
Rated Voltage
1,00..1000.0
kV
60,0
Rated Power
1,00..1000.0
MVA
20,0
Impedance Values
PRIMARY /
SECONDARY
-
SECONDARY
Length Unit
Km / MILES
-
Km
Length (km)
1,00..1000.0
Km
100,0
Length (mile)
0,65..650,0
Mile
62,1
Line Reactance
0,05 / In..500,0 / In
Ohm
5,00 / In
Line Angle
30,0..90,0
º
80,0
Ko> Magnitude
0,00..4,00
-
1,00
Ko> Angle
-180,0..180,0
º
0,00
Table 6.45. Line parameters.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.22.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The indications of the fault phases allow the Fault Locator function selecting the correct fault
loop to mesure the distance to the fault. The pickup indication shows when those calculations
have to be made.
Table 6.46. Logic variables description of the Fault Locator module.
Id
Name
Description
33280
Loop A Fault Locator
Indication of the fault phases.
...
...
33283
Loop N Fault Locator
33284
Start Fault Locator
Start of Fault Locator.
33285
VT Malfunction Fault Lctr
Failure indication of the voltage transformer.
33286
Valid Calculation Flt Loc
Valid calculation indication.
33287
Invalid Calc Fault Locator
Invalid calculation indication.
33284>
Arranque Loc Defeitos
33286>
Cálculo Válido Loc Def
OR
15644>Disparo Prot MI Fases
I1
16396>Disparo Protec MI Terra
I2
OR
O1
O1
I3
33280>
Loop A Localiz
Defeitos
33287>
Cálculo Inválido Loc
Def
OR
15616>Protec MI Temp Def Fase A
I1
15622>Protec MI Temp Inv Fase A
I2
15628>Protec MI Universal Fase A
I3
15634>Protec MI Amperim Fase A
I4
OR
O1
33288>
Dados Localiz
Defeitos
6
OR
O1
O1
I5
33281>
Loop B Localiz
Defeitos
33289>
Lógica Localiz
Defeitos
OR
15617>Protec MI Temp Def Fase B
I1
15623>Protec MI Temp Inv Fase B
I2
15629>Protec MI Universal Fase B
I3
15635>Protec MI Amperim Fase B
I4
OR
O1
O1
I5
33282>
Loop C Localiz
Defeitos
OR
15618>Protec MI Temp Def Fase C
I1
15624>Protec MI Temp Inv Fase C
I2
15630>Protec MI Universal Fase C
I3
15636>Protec MI Amperim Fase C
I4
O1
I5
33283>
Loop N Localiz
Defeitos
33285>
Avaria TT Loc
Defeitos
OR
16392>Protecção MI Terra
I1
33290>
Estado Localiz
Defeitos
OR
O1
I1
OR
O1
O1
I2
Figure 6.76. Logic diagram of the Fault Locator module.
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6.23. CIRCUIT BREAKER FAILURE
The Circuit Breaker Failure is a function of extreme importance and frequently used, that allows
the fast operation of the back-up protections in case of a fault not cleared by the circuit
breaker(s) closest to the point where the short-circuit occurred. The TPU S420 provides this
function for the line circuit breaker.
6.23.1. OPERATION METHOD
A hypothesis normally considered in the project of protections’ coordination is the existence of
one or more back-up protections to ensure the clearance of fault in case of failure of the main
protection system (relay, circuit-breaker and cabling). The back-up protections should be
coordinated in time or otherwise with the main protection to avoid incorrect trippings of the
main protection.
Additionally or alternatively, the Circuit Breaker Failure allows recognizing failure situations in the
protection system that can be effectively due to non-operation of the circuit breaker but also
due to other causes, such as the incorrect connection or configuration of the trip circuit or its
malfunction. The measure implemented in these situations is equivalent to the operation of a
back-up protection function and it corresponds to the clearance of the fault by opening of an
upstream circuit breaker, closer to the generation.
The Circuit Breaker Failure starts with a tripping order from any protection function. After that
order, a timer is initiated to allow the circuit breaker operation, the fault clearance and the
consequent reset of all protection functions. If this reset does not occur before the end of the
timer, which indicates the impossibility of circuit breaker operation in useful time, the tripping
indication of Circuit Breaker Failure is generated.
The failure indication is cancelled after the reset of all protection functions.
Prot.Startup
Prot. Trip
CB Failure
OpT
OpT
Figure 6.77. Time diagram of Circuit Breaker Failure operation.
The Circuit Breaker Failure indication should be configured in a physical output and that contact
should be directly connected to the trip circuit of an upstream circuit breaker or, as an option, to
an input of a back-up protection unit. This information can also be transmitted by the local area
network, although this option should not be considered, as it will make a critical function
depend on the good operation of communications among the units and create an additional
delay.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
In the occurrence of a Circuit Breaker Failure trip, the part of the energy system that is isolated
from the rest of the network is higher than the minimum possible, which causes a loss of
selectivity, against an operation safety warranty.
6.23.2. CONFIGURATION
To activate the Circuit Breaker Failure the CB Fail> Status parameter should be configured as
ON.
The CB Fail> Top parameter represents the time from the circuit breaker trip order until the
indication of Circuit Breaker Failure is sent, if in the meantime the reset of the protection
functions does not occur. It should be regulated to a value higher than the time guaranteed for
circuit breaker opening plus the longest reset time of the active protection.
Automatismos
Falha Disjuntor
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Falha Disj> Estado: OFF
Falha Disj> Top: 0.200
Sup Circ Disparo> Estado: OFF
Sup Circ Disparo> T Confirm: 0.200
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
6
Figure 6.78. Setting group 1 Menu (Circuit Breaker Failure).
The parameters associated with the Circuit Breaker Failure function appear together with the
respective Trip Circuit Supervision function, described in the next section.
Table 6.47. Circuit Breaker Failure parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Current Set
1..1
1
CB Fail> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
CB Fail> Top
0,05..10
s
Default value
0,2
6.23.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The start conditions of the Circuit Breaker Failure, usually protection functions trips, are gathered
in a dedicated variable. This variable is subjected to a possible blocking defined by the user
before being used by the function. After the configured timer, the function trip is sent, which can
also be blocked.
The Circuit Breaker Failure logic also includes the logic of the Trip Circuit Supervision function
described in the next chapter. This function starts when, with the circuit breaker closed, the
variable associated with the supervision input changes to the 0 state. The start is also
constrained by the function activation. When the respective timer ends, the corresponding failure
indication is generated.
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The logic of this function interacts with the logic of the previous function: the failure indication
produces, together with that of the start of the Circuit Breaker Failure, immediate trip of the
Circuit Breaker Failure.
Table 6.48. Description of the logical variables of the Circuit Breaker Failure module.
Id
Name
Description
41984
CB Failure Start Signal
Start conditions of the circuit breaker failure.
41985
CB Failure Protection
Start conditions of the circuit breaker failure
(subject to blocking).
41986
CB Failure Protection Trip
Trip indication of the circuit breaker failure
(produced by the function).
41987
CB Fail Protec Trip Signal
Circuit breaker failure trip (subject to blocking).
41988
CB Failure Protection Lock
Blocking conditions of the circuit breaker failure
function.
41989
CB Coil Supervision
State of the circuit breaker trip circuit, accessible
in an input.
41990
CB Supervis Circuit Status
Circuit breaker state to be used by the trip circuit
supervision function.
41991
CB Coil Failure
Start conditions of the trip circuit supervision
function.
41992
CB Coil Supervision Lock
Blocking conditions of the trip circuit supervision
function.
41993
CB Coil Failure Signal
Failure indication of the trip circuit.
Additionally to the indications referred in Table 6.48, are also available the variables
corresponding to change of parameters, logic or function descriptives as well as gates
associated with scenarios logic and function activation. There are also auxiliary logical variables
used in the module internal logic.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
41997>
Estado Falha Disjuntor
OR
O1
41984>
Sin Arranque Falha
Disjunt
OR
O2
41985>
Protecção Falha
Disjuntor
AND
I1
15644>Disparo Prot MI Fases
I1
O1
I2
16396>Disparo Protec MI Terra
I2
O2
I3
17156>Sin Disparo Terras Resist
I3
O3
I4
23308>Disparo Protec Seq Inversa
I4
O1
I5
41999>
Gate 2 Falha Disjuntor
AND
41993>
Avaria Supervisão
Bobine
OR
41998>
Gate 1 Falha Disjuntor
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
41986>
Disparo Falha
Disjuntor
OR
I3
O1
O1
O2
O2
I3
41988>
Bloqueio Falha
Disjuntor
OR
I1
O1
I1
O2
I2
O3
I3
41989>
Supervisão Bobine
Disjunt
OR
O2
41807>Gate 2 Disjuntor
O1
41994>
Dados Falha Disjuntor
OR
O1
41990>
Estado Disjunt
Supervisão
OR
41987>
Sin Disparo Falha
Disjunt
AND
O1
41991>
Arranque Avaria Sup
Bobine
AND
I1
I1
O1
I2
I2
O2
I3
O1
41995>
Lógica Falha Disjuntor
OR
O1
I4
41992>
Bloqueio Supervisão
Bobine
OR
I1
O1
41996>
Strings Falha Disjuntor
OR
6
O1
O2
Figure 6.79. Logical Diagram of the Circuit Breaker Failure module.
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6.24. TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION
In close interaction with the Circuit Breaker Failure, the TPU S420 implements the Trip Circuit
Supervision of the circuit breaker. This function allows better discrimination of malfunction
situations and consequent failure of future operations on the circuit breaker.
6.24.1. OPERATION METHOD
One of the reasons for the non-operation of the circuit breaker after a trip order is a malfunction
in the circuit that connects the protection output contact to the respective coil. The Circuit
Breaker Failure function previously described covers this situation. However, it is possible to
implement an additional supervision scheme that allows a special and more effective handling of
this case.
For this purpose, the continuity of the trip circuit should be permanently monitored in a binary
input configured for that purpose. In normal situation, the state of that contact should coincide
with the state of the circuit breaker, except in the transition periods, when they can be in
momentary disagreement.
+
+
_
Opening
command
Trip circuit
supervision
6
_
Circuit breaker
Figure 6.80. Trip Circuit Supervision.
The Trip Circuit Supervision function starts when, with closed circuit breaker, is detected a
discontinuity in the circuit. If, after a configured timer, this situation remains without circuit
breaker state change, the existence of malfunction is assumed and an alarm indication is
produced.
Circuit status
CB status
Circuit failure
Time
Time
Figure 6.81. Time diagram of the Trip Circuit Supervision operation.
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The malfunction indication is cancelled as soon as the circuit breaker changes to open state or if
the supervision input again indicates the circuit continuity.
While these conditions remain valid, the success of circuit breaker opening operation is not
guaranteed. For that reason, in case of trip circuit malfunction, the TPU S420 constrains the
operation of the Circuit Breaker Failure function: if there a trip order from any of the protection
functions, the circuit breaker failure is immediately indicated without any associated time delay
so that the fault is cleared as soon as possible.
6.24.2. CONFIGURATION
To activate the trip circuit supervision function, the Trip Circ Sup> Status parameter should be
configured to ON.
The Trip Circ Sup> Confirm Time parameter represents the maximum time that the
supervision input can be at zero with the circuit breaker closed before the circuit malfunction is
indicated. Its value should be enough to allow that the temporary disagreement of states during
the circuit breaker normal operations will not trigger this indication.
The regulation of these parameters is made together with the Circuit Breaker Failure function.
Table 6.49. Trip Circuit Supervision parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Current Set
1..1
1
Trip Circ Sup> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Trip Circ Sup> Confirm Time
0,05..10
s
Default value
6
0,2
6.24.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The logic associated with the Trip Circuit Supervision can be consulted in Section 6.22, related to
the Circuit Breaker Failure.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.25. PROTECTIONS TRIP TRANSFER
The trip transfer orders is an important function in substations whose topology allows the use of
a back-up circuit breaker during periods of unavailability of the circuit breaker associated with
the bay. By default, the TPU S420 provides an automation of protection transfer to the line circuit
breaker.
6.25.1. OPERATION METHOD
Several substations present a topology similar to that indicated in Figure 6.82. This configuration
allows doing maintenance of the line circuit breaker without loosing selectivity in the protections
operation.
B byp
BI
Sbar
Dint
Sbyp
SisoI
6
Figure 6.82. Substation topology with bypass busbar.
In this situation, insulation disconnectors (Sisol) and the busbar disconnector (Sbar) are open to
ensure that the maintenance actions are safely performed; at the same time, the bypass
disconnector (Sbyp) is closed and connects the equipment directly to the bypass busbar. This
busbar is connected to the busbar in service by the Bus Coupler Circuit Breaker (Dint). This is the
circuit breaker that will open in case of fault in the equipment whose trip orders are transferred.
This configuration assumes that from the several equipment that can be connected to the same
bypass busbar, only one circuit breaker is unavailable at a time because the bus coupler circuit
breaker serves as back-up for all of them.
The Protection Trip Transfer only affects the tripping orders of the protection functions. They
start to operate directly on bus coupler circuit breaker. The manual opening commands are not
transferred so that it is possible to operate the circuit breaker in maintenance.
The TPU S420 automatically activates the Protection Trip Transfer if the respective bypass
disconnector is closed. The user can also activate this function by means of parameter change in
the local or remote interface.
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6.25.2. CONFIGURATION
The Status parameter should be set to ON when one desires to activate the transfer of
protection trip orders to the bus coupler circuit breaker, independently of the state of the bypass
disconnector.
Automatismos
Transferência de Protecções
Cenário 1
Cenário 1
Estado: OFF
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.83. Setting group 1 Menu (Protection Trip Transfer).
Table 6.50. Protection Trip Transfer parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default Value
Current Set
1..4
1
Status
OFF / ON
OFF
6
6.25.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
In the function state variable is indicated the activation of trip transfer to the bus coupler circuit
breaker. It can be activated by the parameter defined by the user or by the close of the
respective bypass disconnector. Function blocking is available with user defined conditions.
The command of the bus coupler circuit breaker can be configured in an output that is activated
in case of trip from a protection function.
Table 6.51. Description of the logical variables of the Protection Trip Transfer module.
Id
Name
Description
40960
Protection Transfer Trip
Tripping of protection functions.
40961
Protection Transfer Cmd
Open command of the bus coupler circuit breaker
by protection trip transfer.
40962
Protection Transfer State
State of protection trip transfer, activated by the
close of the bypass disconnector or by user’s
command.
40963
Protection Transfer Lock
Blocking conditions of the function.
There are also available the indications corresponding to change of parameters, logic or function
descriptions as well as gates associated with scenarios logic and function activation.
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40960>
Disparo Transfer
Protecção
OR
41735>Gate Abert Disjunt Protec
40966>
Automat Transfer
Protec
40975>
Gate 1 Transferência
Prot
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
O1
O2
49946>Estado Secc Bypass
40961>
Cmd Transfer
Protecções
40962>
Estado Transfer
Protecções
AND
I1
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I3
O1
I2
41764>Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj Autom
I3
40963>
Bloqueio Transfer
Protec
OR
I1
O1
O2
Figure 6.84. Logic diagram of the Protection Trip Transfer module.
6
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6.26. CIRCUIT-BREAKER SUPERVISION
The TPU S420 provides supervision functions for the manoeuvres of the line circuit breaker and
additional information about its operation and implements a full command and control logic for
this apparatus.
6.26.1. OPERATION METHOD
Besides the automation functions associated with the circuit breaker already described, the
TPU S420 executes the supervision of its manoeuvres. This function allows controlling its
operation and indicating different types of failures.
The purpose of the manoeuvre supervision is to monitor the correct execution of the commands
sent to the circuit breaker.
For the correct operation of the manoeuvre supervision function, the inputs corresponding to
the circuit breaker state (closed, open or both) should be configured and cabled. The respective
commands should also be configured and connected to the opening and closing circuits.
When an opening or closing command is sent, a timer starts and after its end, if the expected
state change has not occurred, a manoeuvre failure indication is triggered. Different timers can
be configured for the opening and closing manoeuvres. The failure indications are cancelled by
the change of state of the circuit breaker.
Opening Cmd
Closing Cmd
CB status
Opening Man Failure
Closing Man Failure
Closing Tman
Opening Tman
Figure 6.85. Time diagram of circuit breaker supervision operation.
The supervision of the respective spring is also provided, which state can be configured to be
accessible in a binary input. This function assumes that after a trip order there is an acceptable
time before the spring reset occurs. If the time when the contact of loose spring remains active
exceeds a user configured value, a spring failure indication will be generated. This indication is
cancelled as soon as the spring resets.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Loose spring
Spring failure
SpringT
SpringT
Figure 6.86. Time diagram of the circuit breaker spring supervision operation.
A counter with the number of opening manoeuvres and another counter only with the number
of trips originated by the protection functions are also available. The commands with source
external to the protection (for example those originated directly in the apparatus itself) are also
considered in the manoeuvres counter. The cut currents by each pole of the circuit breaker are
also calculated and the sums of the respective squares are accumulated in non-volatile memory.
This information is important to evaluate the use of a specific circuit breaker and the strains it
was submitted to, in order to calculate the probability of the circuit breaker operating incorrectly
in the next manoeuvres and the need for its maintenance.
For this purpose, the TPU S420 generates an alarm indication when the sum of the cut currents
by any of the circuit breaker poles reaches a maximum threshold specified in the function data.
An alarm indication is also generated when the number of opening manoeuvres equals a
specified value.
6.26.2. CONFIGURATION
To activate the circuit breaker manoeuvres supervision the CB Sup> Status parameter should
be set to ON.
The CB Sup> Open Time and CB Sup> Close Time parameters indicate the maximum time
allowed for each of these manoeuvres. If after the opening or closing order, the respective timer
ends before the correct change of state, the manoeuvre failure will be indicated. These times
should be regulated to values higher than the respective opening and closing circuit breaker
times also counting with the confirmation time of the binary inputs where the apparatus state is
monitored.
The Spring Sup> Status parameter allows activating the spring supervision function if set to
ON.
The Spring Sup> Confirm Time parameter is associated with this function: if the loose spring
contact is active for a time higher than the configured, the corresponding failure indication will
be generated. This time should consider the maximum guaranteed time for the spring reset
after a trip manoeuvre.
The circuit breaker maximum acceptable cut currents can be defined by regulating the CB Sup>
I² Alarm parameter. As soon as the sum of square currents cut exceeds this limit in any of the
poles, the respective alarm indication will be generated. The parameter equivalent for the
maximum number of circuit breaker manoeuvres is CB Sup> Trip Count Alarm.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Disjuntor
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Sup
Sup
Sup
Sup
Sup
Sup
Sup
Disj>
Disj>
Disj>
Disj>
Disj>
Mola>
Mola>
Estado: OFF
T Abertura: 0.100
T Fecho: 0.100
Alarme Manobras: 1000
Alarme I²: 100.000
Estado: OFF
T Confirm: 0.100
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.87. Setting group 1 Menu (Circuit Breaker).
Table 6.52. Circuit Breaker Manoeuvres Supervision parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..1
1
CB Sup> Status
OFF / ON
OFF
CB Sup> Open Time
0,05..60
s
0,1
CB Sup> Close Time
0,05..60
s
0,1
CB Sup> Trip Count Alarm
1..25000
CB Sup> I² Alarm
1..99999
Spring Sup> Status
OFF / ON
Spring Sup> Confirm Time
0,05..60
1000
kA²
100
OFF
s
6
0,1
6.26.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The module associated with the circuit breaker includes the logic of open and close commands.
Logical variables are available for each of those manoeuvres to which the several open and close
orders should be connected. The orders are organized according to their causes:
Protections Order: commands originated by protection functions;
Automation Order: commands originated by automation functions;
Local Command: user command given in the local interface (for example by functional
keys);
Remote Command: user command given in the remote interface (local area network);
External Command: manual command received in a protection input normally given in a
button of the apparatus itself.
The cause associated with protection functions is only available by default for opening
commands. These causes have a direct correspondence with those that are part of the
communications protocol with the SCADA system (see Chapter 5.3 - SCADA).
The separation of the several orders by the associated cause allows considering different
blocking conditions for each of them. These conditions can be specific for a certain cause or
general to all manoeuvres of a specific type.
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For manual commands, it is considered the hypothesis of a bypass to the active blockings in
case there are certain user defined conditions. By default, those conditions refer only to the
Normal/Emergency Mode.
The several opening orders of the circuit breaker, after constrained by the respective blockings,
connect to command variables that can be configured in the protection outputs.
A command variable is available exclusively associated with protection function trips and
another for the remaining causes (opening by control functions or manual command). This
option allows considering different circuits of trip and of circuit breaker opening with the
respective orders configured in different contacts.
It is also available a variable of general command of circuit breaker opening that should be used
in case the trip circuit is unique.
Regarding the close command, as it cannot be originated by the protection functions, there is
only one variable for all possible orders which can be configured in an output contact.
Besides the variables directly related with the opening and closing commands, in this module are
considered several other gates.
On one end, there are several variables available that can be configured as inputs and which
correspond to the several indications related with the apparatus that can be monitored, such as
the contacts associated with the circuit breaker state and position, the SF6 loss levels, the spring
status or the absence of direct voltage in the bay. There are also available inputs associated with
commands such as trip orders of the external protection functions, commands executed directly
in the circuit breaker or indications of cell’s internal arc to open the circuit breaker.
On the other hand, are considered the several indications generated by the TPU S420 associated
with the supervision functions of open and close manoeuvres, circuit breaker spring and the
sum of the square currents cut.
Table 6.53. Description of the logical variables of the Circuit Breaker Supervision module.
Id
Name
Description
41728
C Breaker Local Open Order
...
...
Conditions of circuit breaker open order for each
of the 5 causes.
41732
CB External Open Order
41733
C Breaker Local Open Gate
...
...
41737
CB External Open Gate
41738
CB Open Command Protection
Circuit breaker open command when the cause
is associated with the protection functions.
41739
CB Open Command Control
Circuit breaker open command when the cause
is not associated with the protection functions.
41740
Circ Breaker Open Command
Circuit breaker general open command.
41741
CB Local Open Cmd Lock
...
...
Blocking conditions of opening for each of the 5
opening causes.
41745
CB Extern Open Cmd Lock
Circuit breaker open order associated with each
of the causes (considering possible blocking).
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Id
Name
Description
41746
CB Open Command Lock
General conditions of open blocking.
41747
Permission CB Local Open
...
...
41749
Permission CB Extern Open
Permission of open commands for each of the
causes associated with manual commands,
resulting from the absence of the respective
blocking or active bypass conditions.
41750
CB Open Local Lock Bypass
...
...
41752
CB Open Extern Lock Bypass
41753
C Breaker Local Close Cmd
...
...
41756
CB External Close Cmd
41757
CB Local Close Gate
...
...
41760
CB External Close Gate
41761
CB Close Command
Circuit breaker general close command.
41762
CB Local Close Cmd Lock
...
...
Blocking conditions of close for each of the 4
closing causes.
41765
CB Extern Close Cmd Lock
41766
CB Close Command Lock
General conditions of close blocking.
41767
Permission CB Local Close
...
...
41769
Permission CB Extern Close
Permission of close commands for each of the
causes associated with manual commands,
resulting from the absence of the respective
blocking or active bypass conditions.
41770
CB Close Local Lock Bypass
...
...
41772
CB Close Extern Lock Bypas
41773
Circuit Breaker Opened
Input associated with open circuit breaker.
41774
Circuit Breaker Closed
Input associated with close circuit breaker.
41775
Circuit Breaker State
Circuit breaker state resulting from the two
inputs Open Circuit Breaker / Close Circuit
Breaker.
41776
Circ Breaker Invalid State
Circuit breaker invalid state.
41777
Circuit Breaker Withdrawn
Input associated with extracted circuit breaker.
41778
Circuit Breaker Introduced
Input associated with inserted circuit breaker.
41779
Circuit Breaker Position
Circuit breaker position resulting from the two
inputs Extracted/Inserted Circuit Breaker.
41780
C Breaker Invalid Position
Circuit breaker invalid position.
41781
C Breaker External Trip
Input associated with trip indication external to
the protection.
41782
Close Circuit Breaker MMI
Input associated with external close order by
button.
41783
Open Circuit Breaker MMI
Input associated with external open order by
button.
Bypass conditions to open blockings for the
causes associated with manual commands.
Conditions of circuit breaker close order for each
of the 4 causes.
Circuit breaker close order associated with each
of the causes (considering possible blocking).
Bypass conditions to the close blockings for the
causes associated with manual commands.
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Id
Name
Description
41784
C Breaker Command Lock
Input associated with circuit breaker command
blocking (local mode level 0, commands only
allowed in the circuit breaker itself).
41785
CB SF6 Leakage Level 1
Input associated with 1 level of SF6 loss.
41786
CB SF6 Leakage Level 2
Input associated with 2
41787
C Breaker Loose Spring
Input associated with circuit breaker spring
status.
41788
C Breaker DC Absence
41789
CB Motor DC Absence
Inputs associated with direct voltage absence of
supply in the bay.
41790
CB BUS Arcing Fault
...
...
41792
CB CCC Arcing Fault
41793
CB Loose Spring Failure
Failure indication of circuit breaker spring.
41794
C Breaker Open Failure
Failure indication of open manouevre.
41795
C Breaker Close Failure
Failure indication of close manouevre.
41796
C Breaker Command Failure
Manoeuvre failure indication.
41797
CB Maximum I² Alarm
Indication of maximum sum of square currents
cut.
41798
Circuit Breaker L/R Mode
...
...
Bay operation
command.
41800
Circuit Breaker N/E Mode
41801
CB Alarm Max Operations
Indication of
manoeuvres.
41815
Circuit Breaker State 11
Undefined state of the circuit breaker (open and
close circuit breaker inputs both at 1).
41816
Circuit Breaker State 00
Undefined state of the circuit breaker (open and
close circuit breaker inputs both at 0).
st
nd
level of SF6 loss.
Inputs associated with internal arcs in the
compartments: mobile part, motor or cable end
box.
modes
maximum
for
circuit
number
breaker
of
open
Additionally to the variables referred in Table 6.53, are also available the indications
corresponding to change of parameters, logic or function descriptives as well as gates
associated with scenarios logic and function activation. There are also auxiliary logical variables
used in the module internal logic.
The connections to variables external to the logic module associated with the circuit breaker
have slight variations depending on the TPU S420’s version.
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41781>
Disparo Externo
Disjuntor
41730>
Ordem Abert Disjunt
Protec
OR
41805>
Gate 1 Disjuntor
OR
41790>
Arco Interno CB
O2
21781>Disparo Prot Frequência
I1
O1
23308>Disparo Protec Seq Inversa
I2
O2
10285>Modo Oper Disparo Protec
25605>Sin Disparo Prot Sobrecarg
OR
O1
O2
I1
O1
I2
O2
15644>Disparo Prot MI Fases
I3
I3
16396>Disparo Protec MI Terra
I4
I4
17156>Sin Disparo Terras Resist
I5
I5
19471>Disparo Máximo U Fases
I6
I6
20231>Disparo Max Tensão Terra
I7
I7
41791>
Arco Interno CPM
OR
O1
21009>Disparo Mínimo U Fases
41735>
Gate Abert Disjunt
Protec
AND
I8
41743>
Bloq Cmd Abert Disj
Protec
I8
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
40960>Disparo Transfer Protecção
O4
OR
O1
O2
41731>
Ordem Abert Disjunt
Autom
41792>
Arco Interno CCFC
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
O1
O2
41785>
Fuga SF6 Nível 1
Disjuntor
AND
38671>Abert Disjuntor Religação
I1
O1
I1
O1
39427>Estado Deslastre Tensão
I2
O2
I2
O2
40195>Estado Deslastre Frequênc
I3
I3
I4
41744>
Bloq Cmd Abert Disj
Autom
OR
41746>
Bloq Cmd Abert
Disjuntor
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I1
I3
O1
I2
O2
41747>
Permissão Abert Disj
Local
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I1
O1
I1
O1
O4
I2
O2
I2
O2
OR
O2
OR
O5
O6
O3
I3
41750>
Bypass Bloq Abert
Local
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
41729>
Ordem Abert Disjunt
Remoto
OR
I1
41799>
Regime M/A Disjuntor
O1
41742>
Bloq Cmd Abert Disj
Remoto
OR
O2
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
O3
I3
41798>
Regime L/R Disjuntor
OR
10254>Modo Operação L/R
I1
O2
I3
41741>
Bloq Cmd Abert Disj
Local
O1
10255>Modo Operação M/A
AND
O1
O1
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
41733>
Gate Abert Disjunt
Local
OR
OR
41784>
Comando Disjuntor
Inibido
I2
41728>
Ordem Abert Disjunt
Local
OR
O1
41786>
Fuga SF6 Nível 2
Disjuntor
41736>
Gate Abert Disjunt
Autom
OR
41748>
Permissão Abert Disj
Remot
OR
41751>
Bypass Bloq Abert
Remota
41734>
Gate Abert Disjunt
Remoto
AND
I1
O1
O2
I1
O1
I2
I2
O2
I3
I3
6
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
41783>
Desligar Disjuntor TPL
41732>
Ordem Abert Disjunt
Extern
OR
O3
41745>
Bloq Cmd Abert Disj
Extern
OR
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
OR
41800>
Regime N/E Disjuntor
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
10256>Modo Operação N/E
I1
O1
I2
O2
41752>
Bypass Bloq Abert
Externa
OR
41749>
Permissão Abert Disj
Exter
41737>
Gate Abert Disjunt
Extern
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
O2
I3
OR
O3
I1
O1
I2
O4
I2
O2
I3
O5
O6
O7
Figure 6.88. Logic diagram of the Circuit-breaker module (opening commands).
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41738>
Cmd Abert Disjunt
Protec
41807>
Gate 3 Disjuntor
AND
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
I3
41808>
Gate 4 Disjuntor
AND
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
41740>
Cmd Abertura
Disjuntor
41811>
Gate 7 Disjuntor
OR
OR
I1
O1
I1
41809>
Gate 5 Disjuntor
I2
O2
I3
O3
I4
O1
I2
AND
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
I3
I5
41814>
Gate 10 Disjuntor
41773>
Disjuntor Aberto
41812>
Gate 8 Disjuntor
OR
41775>
Estado Disjuntor
OR
AND
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I3
O4
O5
41739>
Cmd Abert Disjunt
Controlo
41810>
Gate 6 Disjuntor
I1
O1
O2
O4
I1
O1
I2
O5
I2
O2
I3
O6
41813>
Gate 9 Disjuntor
OR
AND
I3
O7
39426>Estado Disj Deslastre Tens
O8
40194>Estado Disj Deslastre Freq
AND
41774>
Disjuntor Fechado
OR
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
41806>
Gate 2 Disjuntor
O2
OR
O3
O4
41815>
Estado Disjuntor 11
41776>
Estado Indefinido
Disjunt
AND
O5
I1
O1
41990>Estado Disjunt Supervisão
I2
O2
49159>Bloq Cmd Abert Secc Isol
O3
49171>Bloq Cmd Fecho Secc Isol
O4
49927>Blq Cmd Abert Secc Bypass
O5
49939>Blq Cmd Fecho Secc Bypass
O6
48903>Bloq Cmd Abert Secc Terra
O7
48915>Bloq Cmd Fecho Secc Terra
O8
38658>Estado Disjuntor Religação
OR
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
I3
O1
I3
41816>
Estado Disjuntor 00
AND
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
Figure 6.89. Logic diagram of the Circuit-breaker module (state).
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41819>
Gate 15 Disjuntor
41777>
Disjuntor Extraído
41817>
Gate 13 Disjuntor
41779>
Posição Disjuntor
OR
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I3
OR
AND
I3
O4
O5
41818>
Gate 14 Disjuntor
AND
41778>
Disjuntor Introduzido
I1
O1
O1
I2
O2
O2
I3
OR
O3
O4
41820>
Gate 16 Disjuntor
41780>
Posição Indefinida
Disjunt
AND
O5
OR
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
I3
O1
I3
41821>
Gate 17 Disjuntor
AND
I1
O1
I2
O2
6
I3
Figure 6.90. Logic diagram of the Circuit-breaker module (position).
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41755>
Cmd Fecho Disjuntor
Autom
OR
38672>Fecho Disjuntor Religação
I1
O1
39429>Ordem Reposição Tensão
I2
O2
40197>Ordem Reposição Frequência
I3
41759>
Gate Fecho Disjunt
Autom
I4
41764>
Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj
Autom
O1
55583>Pedido Fecho Autom
55587>Cmd
Sinc
Fecho Autom Vrf Sincro
I1
O1
O1
I2
O2
55586>Cmd Fecho Manual Vrf Sincr
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
39427>Estado Deslastre Tensão
I3
40195>Estado Deslastre Frequênc
I4
40962>Estado Transfer Protecções
I5
41753>
Cmd Fecho Disjuntor
Local
I6
I7
41766>
Bloq Cmd Fecho
Disjuntor
I1
41787>
Mola Frouxa Disjuntor
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I1
O1
I3
O3
I2
O2
O1
O4
O2
O5
8705>Arranque Temp Oscilografia
I3
41757>
Gate Fecho Disjunt
Local
OR
AND
O1
41762>
Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj
Local
OR
OR
I1
I1
OR
10246>Modo Exploração Normal
41761>
Cmd Fecho Disjuntor
AND
41767>
Permissão Fecho Disj
Local
O2
OR
41770>
Bypass Bloq Fecho
Local
O1
I2
O2
O1
I2
O2
41788>
Falta CC Disjuntor
55582>Pedido Fecho Manual Sinc
OR
O1
I3
OR
I1
I1
41789>
Falta CC Motor
OR
I3
O1
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
41793>
Avaria Mola Frouxa
Disjunt
OR
O1
41754>
Cmd Fecho Disjuntor
Remoto
41758>
Gate Fecho Disjunt
Remoto
OR
I1
AND
O1
41763>
Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj
Remoto
41768>
Permissão Fecho Disj
Remot
O2
OR
I1
41797>
Alarme Máximo I²
Disjuntor
I1
O1
I2
O2
55582>Pedido Fecho Manual Sinc
O1
41801>
Alarme Max Manobras
Disj
I3
OR
O1
OR
I1
O1
41802>
Dados Disjuntor
OR
OR
I2
41771>
Bypass Bloq Fecho
Remota
O2
I3
I2
O2
O1
O1
I3
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
41803>
Lógica Disjuntor
OR
O1
41756>
Cmd Fecho Disjuntor
Extern
41782>
Ligar Disjuntor TPL
OR
41760>
Gate Fecho Disjunt
Externo
OR
O1
O2
41765>
Bloq Cmd Fecho Disj
Extern
AND
I1
O1
I2
O2
41769>
Permissão Fecho Disj
Exter
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
55582>Pedido Fecho Manual Sinc
41804>
Estado Automat
Disjuntor
I3
OR
OR
O1
I2
I1
41772>
Bypass Bloq Fecho
Externa
O2
I1
O1
I2
O2
O1
I3
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
41796>
Avaria Manobra
Disjuntor
41794>
Avaria Abertura
Disjuntor
OR
OR
41822>
Gate 18 Disjuntor
41823>
Gate 19 Disjuntor
I1
41824>
Gate 20 Disjuntor
OR
OR
O1
I1
O1
I1
O2
I2
41795>
Avaria Fecho Disjuntor
O1
I3
OR
O1
OR
O1
I1
O1
O2
Figure 6.91. Logic diagram of the Circuit-breaker module (closing commands).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
6.27. DISCONNECTOR SUPERVISION
Similarly to what is done for the circuit breaker, for the several disconnectors associated with a
line bay, the TPU S420 also provides manoeuvre supervision functions. To complete those
functions, it is implemented by default a full command logic for each of the disconnectors.
6.27.1. OPERATION METHOD
The TPU S420 allows the supervision of a maximum of six disconnectors associated with the line
bay. The maximum configuration is that presented in Figure 6.92. Are considered:
Earth disconnector (Sterr): makes the connection of the equipment (line) to earth when the
respective circuit breaker is disconnected;
Isolation disconnector (SIsol): makes the connection between the equipment and the
respective circuit breaker;
Bypass disconnector (Sbyp): makes the direct connection of the equipment to the bypass
busbar;
Busbar disconnector (Sbar, Sbar1, Sbar2): makes the connection between the circuit
breaker and a specific busbar.
6
B byp
B II
BI
Sbar1
Sbar
Sbar2
Sbyp
SisoI
Sterr
Figure 6.92. Line bay configuration.
However, other configurations are possible. The bypass disconnector should keep its logical
meaning due to the existing interaction with the protection trip transfer.
For each disconnector is executed as an option the supervision of the manoeuvres.
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For the correct operation of the supervision function, the inputs corresponding to the
disconnector state (closed, open or both) should be configured and cabled. The respective
commands should also be configured and connected to the opening and closing circuits.
When an opening or closing command is sent, a timer starts and after its end, if the expected
state change has not occurred, a manoeuvre failure indication is triggered. Different timers can
be configured for opening and closing manoeuvres. In the situation where the contacts
corresponding to open and close disconnector are simultaneously monitored, the timer stops as
soon as the transition of one of the two inputs is detected (situation where the apparatus is in
undefined state, which indicates it has started the manoeuvre). The failure indications are
cancelled by the change of state of the disconnector.
Opening Cmd
Closing Cmd
Disconnector status
Opening Man Failure
Closing Man Failure
Closing Tman
Opening Tman
6
Figure 6.93. Time diagram of disconnector supervision operation.
The information of the number of opening manoeuvres is provided by the TPU S420. This
information is also refreshed if are detected commands on the disconnector external to the
protection (for example, directly in the apparatus itself). An alarm indication is generated when
the number of opening manual actions is equal to the specified value.
6.27.2. CONFIGURATION
To activate the disconnector manoeuvres supervision the Status parameter should be set to ON.
The Open Time and Close Time parameters indicate the maximum time allowed for each of
these manoeuvres. If after the opening or closing order, the respective timer ends before the
correct change of state, the manoeuvre failure will be indicated. These times should be regulated
to values higher than the respective opening and closing disconnector times also counting with
the confirmation time of the binary inputs where the disconnector state is monitored.
The maximum acceptable number of disconnector manoeuvres can be defined by configuring
the Trip Count Alarm parameter.
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Supervisão de Aparelhos
Seccionador Isolamento
Parâmetros
Parâmetros
Estado: OFF
T Abertura: 0.100
T Fecho: 0.100
Alarme Manobras: 1000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 6.94. Setting group 1 Menu (Insulation Disconnector).
This group of parameters is identical for each of the disconnectors monitored by the TPU S420.
Table 6.54. Disconnectors Manoeuvres Supervision parameters.
Parameter
Range
Unit
Default value
Current Set
1..1
1
Status
OFF / ON
OFF
Open Time
0,05..60
s
0,1
Close Time
0,05..60
s
0,1
Trip Count Alarm
1..25000
1000
6
6.27.3. AUTOMATION LOGIC
The module associated with each disconnector includes the logic of open and close commands.
Logical variables are available for each of those manoeuvres to which the several open or close
orders should be connected. When comparing with the circuit breaker are only considered two
causes by default:
Local Command: user command given in the local interface (for example by functional
keys);
Remote Command: user command given in the remote interface (local area network).
Specific blocking conditions are considered for each of the commands causes as well as general
blocking conditions to all manoeuvres of a specific type.
It is considered the hypothesis of a bypass to the active blockings in case there are certain user
defined conditions. By default those conditions refer only to the Normal/Emergency Mode.
The several opening orders of the disconnector, after constrained by the respective blockings,
connect to command variables that can be configured in the protection outputs. There are two:
one for opening and one for closing.
Besides the variables directly related with the opening and closing commands, in this module are
considered several other gates. These can be variables associated with physical inputs such as
the commands associated with the apparatus state or the inhibition of non-local commands; or
can be indications generated by the opening and closing manoeuvres supervision.
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Table 6.55. Description of the logical variables of the Insulation Disconnector Supervision
module.
Id
Name
Description
49152
Isol Discon Loc Open Cmd
49153
Isol Discon Rem Open Cmd
Conditions of disconnector open order for each of
the 2 causes.
49154
Isol Discon Loc Open Gate
49155
Isol Discon Rem Open Gate
49156
Isolation Discon Open Cmd
Disconnector general open command.
49157
Isol Dis Loc Open Cmd Lock
49158
Isol Dis Rem Open Cmd Lock
Blocking conditions of opening for each of the 2
opening causes.
49159
Isol Discon Open Cmd Lock
General conditions of open blocking.
49160
Isol Dis Loc Open Permiss
49161
Isol Dis Rem Open Permiss
Permission of open commands for each of the
causes, resulting from the absence of the
respective blocking or active bypass conditions.
49162
Isol Dis Loc Open Lock Byp
49163
Isol Dis Rem Open Lock Byp
49164
Isol Discon Loc Close Cmd
49165
Isol Discon Rem Close Cmd
49166
Isol Discon Loc Close Gate
49167
Isol Discon Rem Close Gate
49168
Isolation Discon Close Cmd
Disconnector general close command.
49169
Isol Discon Loc Close Lock
49170
Isol Discon Rem Close Lock
Blocking conditions of close for each of the two
closing causes.
49171
Isol Discon Close Cmd Lock
General conditions of close blocking.
49172
Isol Dis Loc Close Permiss
49173
Isol Dis Rem Close Permiss
Permission of close commands for each of the
causes, resulting from the absence of the
respective blocking or active bypass conditions.
49174
Isol Dis Loc Clos Lock Byp
49175
Isol Dis Rem Clos Lock Byp
49176
Isolation Disconnec Opened
Input associated with open disconnector.
49177
Isolation Disconnec Closed
Input associated with close disconnector.
49178
Isolation Disconnect State
Disconnector state resulting from the two inputs
Open Disconnector / Closed Disconnector.
49179
Isol Discon Invalid State
Disconnector invalid state.
49180
Isolation Discon Cmd Lock
Input associated with disconnector command
blocking (local mode level 0, commands only
allowed in the disconnector itself) .
49181
Isolat Discon Open Failure
Failure indication of open manouevre.
49182
Isolat Disc Close Failure
Failure indication of close manouevre.
49183
Isolat Discon Cmd Failure
Manouevre failure indication.
49184
Isolation Discon L/R Mode
Bay operation modes for disconnector command.
49185
Isolation Discon N/E Mode
49186
Isol Disc Alarm Max Operat
Disconnector open order associated with each of
the causes (considering possible blocking).
Bypass conditions to open blockings for each of
the causes.
Conditions of disconnector close order for each of
the two causes.
Disconnector close order associated with each of
the causes (considering possible blocking).
Bypass conditions to the close blockings for each
of the causes.
Indication of
manouevres.
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maximum
number
of
open
6-151
6
Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
Id
Name
Description
49193
Isolation Discon State 11
Undefined state of the disconnector (open and
close disconnector inputs both at 1).
49194
Isolation Discon State 00
Undefined state of the disconnector (open and
close disconnector inputs both at 0).
Additionally to the variables referred in Table 6.55, are also available the indications
corresponding to change of parameters, logic or function descriptives as well as gates
associated with scenarios logic and function activation. There are also auxiliary logical variables
used in the module internal logic.
The previous list given as example for the isolation disconnector is identical to all disconnectors.
6
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
48896>
Cmd Abert Sec Terra
Local
48898>
Gate Abert Sec Terra
Local
OR
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
48903>
Bloq Cmd Abert Secc
Terra
48901>
Bloq Cmd Abert S
Terra Loc
OR
41806>Gate 2 Disjuntor
48904>
Perm Abert SecTerra
Local
OR
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
48900>
Cmd Abertura Secc
Terra
OR
I3
I1
48906>
Byp Blq Abert
SecTerra Loc
OR
I3
I1
O1
I2
O2
48897>
Cmd Abert Sec Terra
Remoto
48899>
Gate Abert Sec Terra
Remot
OR
I2
O1
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
48928>
Regime L/R Seccionad
Terra
OR
10288>Modo Operação Gate 1
48902>
Bloq Cmd Abert S
Terra Rem
OR
I1
O1
O2
I1
O1
I2
I2
O2
I3
I3
O3
48905>
Perm Abert SecTerra
Remota
OR
48907>
Byp Blq Abert
SecTerra Rem
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
OR
48924>
Comando Secc Terra
Inibido
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
O1
I2
O2
48929>
Regime N/E Seccionad
Terra
O3
48908>
Cmd Fecho Sec Terra
Local
OR
OR
10290>Modo Operação Gate 3
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O3
48910>
Gate Fecho Sec Terra
Local
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
6
I3
O4
O5
48913>
Bloq Cmd Fecho S
Terra Loc
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
48916>
Perm Fecho SecTerra
Local
48912>
Cmd Fecho Secc
Terra
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
I1
O1
I3
I2
48918>
Byp Blq Fecho
SecTerra Loc
I3
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
48911>
Gate Fecho Sec Terra
Remot
48909>
Cmd Fecho Sec Terra
Remoto
AND
OR
I2
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
48915>
Bloq Cmd Fecho Secc
Terra
OR
41806>Gate 2 Disjuntor
48914>
Bloq Cmd Fecho S
Terra Rem
48917>
Perm Fecho SecTerra
Remota
I1
O1
I2
O2
I1
O1
I1
O1
I3
O3
I2
O2
I2
O2
OR
OR
I3
I3
48919>
Byp Blq Fecho
SecTerra Rem
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
Figure 6.95. Logical diagram of the Earth Disconnector module (Commands).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
48920>
Secc Terra Aberto
48936>
Gate 3 Seccionador
Terra
48934>
Gate 1 Seccionador
Terra
OR
48922>
Estado Seccionador
Terra
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I3
O4
AND
I1
I3
48935>
Gate 2 Seccionador
Terra
O5
AND
48921>
Secc Terra Fechado
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O1
O2
O3
O4
O5
48923>
Estado Indef Sec
Terra
48937>
Estado 11 Secc Terra
AND
OR
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
I3
O1
I3
48938>
Estado 00 Secc Terra
AND
I1
O1
I2
O2
6
I3
48931>
Dados Seccionador
Terra
OR
O1
48925>
Avaria Manob Abert S
Terra
OR
48932>
Lógica Seccionador
Terra
O1
O2
OR
48927>
Avaria Manobra Secc
Terra
OR
O1
48933>
Estado Autom Secc
Terra
I1
48926>
Avaria Manob Fecho S
Terra
OR
O1
I2
I3
OR
O1
O1
O2
48930>
Alarme Max Manob
Sec Terra
OR
O1
Figure 6.96. Logical diagram of the Earth Disconnector module (State).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
49152>
Cmd Abert Sec Isol
Local
49154>
Gate Abert Sec Isol
Local
OR
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
49159>
Bloq Cmd Abert Secc
Isol
49157>
Bloq Cmd Abert
SecIsol Loc
OR
41806>Gate 2 Disjuntor
49160>
Perm Abert Sec Isol
Local
OR
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
49156>
Cmd Abertura Secc
Isol
OR
I3
I1
49162>
Byp Blq Abert Sec Isol
Loc
OR
I3
I1
O1
I2
O2
49153>
Cmd Abert Sec Isol
Remoto
49155>
Gate Abert Sec Isol
Remot
OR
I2
O1
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
49184>
Regime L/R Secc
Isolamento
OR
10288>Modo Operação Gate 1
49158>
Bloq Cmd Abert
SecIsol Rem
OR
I1
O1
O2
I1
O1
I2
I2
O2
I3
49161>
Perm Abert Sec Isol
Remota
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
O3
49163>
Byp Blq Abert Sec Isol
Rem
I3
OR
49180>
Comando Secc Isol
Inibido
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
O1
I2
O2
49185>
Regime N/E Secc
Isolamento
O3
49164>
Cmd Fecho Sec Isol
Local
OR
OR
10290>Modo Operação Gate 3
I1
O1
I2
O2
49166>
Gate Fecho Sec Isol
Local
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
6
I3
O3
O4
O5
49169>
Bloq Cmd Fecho S Isol
Loc
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
49172>
Perm Fecho Sec Isol
Local
49168>
Cmd Fecho Secc
Isolamento
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
I1
O1
I3
I2
49174>
Byp Blq Fecho Sec
Isol Loc
I3
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
49167>
Gate Fecho Sec Isol
Remot
49165>
Cmd Fecho Sec Isol
Remoto
AND
OR
I2
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
49171>
Bloq Cmd Fecho Secc
Isol
OR
41806>Gate 2 Disjuntor
49170>
Bloq Cmd Fecho S Isol
Rem
49173>
Perm Fecho Sec Isol
Remota
I1
O1
I2
O2
I1
O1
I1
O1
I3
O3
I2
O2
I2
O2
OR
OR
I3
I3
49175>
Byp Blq Fecho Sec
Isol Rem
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
Figure 6.97. Logical diagram of the Insulation Disconnector module (Commands).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
49176>
Secc Isolamento
Aberto
49192>
Gate 3 Seccionador
Isol
49190>
Gate 1 Seccionador
Isol
OR
49178>
Estado Secc
Isolamento
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I3
O4
AND
I1
I3
49191>
Gate 2 Seccionador
Isol
O5
AND
49177>
Secc Isolamento
Fechado
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O1
O2
O3
O4
O5
49193>
Estado 11
Seccionador Isol
49179>
Estado Indef Sec
Isolament
AND
OR
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
I3
O1
I3
49194>
Estado 00
Seccionador Isol
AND
49187>
Dados Seccionador
Isol
OR
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
6
I3
49188>
Lógica Seccionador
Isol
OR
O1
49181>
Avaria Manob Abert S
Isol
OR
O1
49189>
Estado Autom Sec Isol
O2
49183>
Avaria Manobra Secc
Isol
OR
OR
O1
I1
49182>
Avaria Manob Fecho S
Isol
49186>
Alarme Max Manob
Secc Isol
OR
OR
O1
I2
I3
O1
O2
O1
Figure 6.98. Logical diagram of the Insulation Disconnector module (State).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
49920>
Cmd Abert Sec
Bypass Local
49922>
Gate Abert Sec Bypas
Local
OR
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
49927>
Blq Cmd Abert Secc
Bypass
49925>
Blq Cmd Abert
SecBypas Loc
OR
41806>Gate 2 Disjuntor
49928>
Perm Abert SecBypas
Local
OR
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
49924>
Cmd Abertura Secc
Bypass
OR
I3
I1
49930>
Byp Blq Abert
SecBypas Loc
OR
I3
I1
O1
I2
O2
49921>
Cmd Abert Sec Bypas
Remoto
49923>
Gate Abert Sec Bypas
Remot
OR
I2
O1
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
49952>
Regime L/R Secc
Bypass
OR
10288>Modo Operação Gate 1
49926>
Blq Cmd Abert
SecBypas Rem
OR
I1
O1
O2
I1
O1
I2
I2
O2
I3
49929>
Perm Abert SecBypas
Remota
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
O3
49931>
Byp Blq Abert
SecBypas Rem
I3
OR
49948>
Comando Secc Bypas
Inibido
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
O1
I2
O2
49953>
Regime N/E Secc
Bypass
O3
49932>
Cmd Fecho Sec
Bypass Local
OR
OR
10290>Modo Operação Gate 3
I1
O1
I2
O2
49934>
Gate Fecho Sec
Bypas Local
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
6
I3
O3
O4
O5
49937>
Blq Cmd Fecho
SecBypas Loc
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
49940>
Perm Fecho SecBypas
Local
49936>
Cmd Fecho Secc
Bypass
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
I1
O1
I3
I2
49942>
Byp Blq Fecho
SecBypas Loc
I3
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
49935>
Gate Fecho Sec
Bypas Remot
49933>
Cmd Fecho Sec Bypas
Remoto
AND
OR
I2
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
49939>
Blq Cmd Fecho Secc
Bypass
OR
41806>Gate 2 Disjuntor
49938>
Blq Cmd Fecho
SecBypas Rem
49941>
Perm Fecho SecBypas
Remota
I1
O1
I2
O2
I1
O1
I1
O1
I3
O3
I2
O2
I2
O2
OR
OR
I3
I3
49943>
Byp Blq Fecho
SecBypas Rem
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
Figure 6.99. Logical diagram of the Bypass Disconnector module (Commands).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
49960>
Gate 3 Seccionador
Bypass
49958>
Gate 1 Seccionador
Bypass
49944>
Secc Bypass Aberto
OR
49946>
Estado Secc Bypass
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I3
O4
AND
I1
40975>Gate 1 Transferência Prot
49959>
Gate 2 Seccionador
Bypass
O5
AND
49945>
Secc Bypass Fechado
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O1
O2
O3
49961>
Estado 11 Secc
Bypass
O4
O5
49947>
Estado Indef Sec
Bypass
AND
OR
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
I3
O1
I3
49962>
Estado 00 Secc
Bypass
AND
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
49955>
Dados Seccionador
Bypass
6
OR
O1
49956>
Lógica Seccionador
Bypass
49949>
Avaria Manob Abert S
Bypas
OR
OR
O1
O1
O2
49951>
Avaria Manobra Secc
Bypass
OR
49957>
Estado Autom Sec
Bypass
OR
O1
I1
49950>
Avaria Manob Fecho S
Bypas
OR
O1
I2
I3
O1
O2
49954>
Alarme Max Manob
Sec Bypas
OR
O1
Figure 6.100. Logical diagram of the Bypass Disconnector module (State).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
50688>
Cmd Abert Sec Barra
Local
50690>
Gate Abert Sec Barra
Local
OR
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
50695>
Blq Cmd Abert Secc
Barra
50693>
Blq Cmd Abert
SecBarra Loc
OR
50696>
Perm Abert SecBarra
Local
OR
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
O2
50692>
Cmd Abertura Secc
Barra
OR
O3
I3
I1
50698>
Byp Blq Abert
SecBarra Loc
OR
I3
I1
O1
I2
O2
50689>
Cmd Abert Sec Barra
Remoto
50691>
Gate Abert Sec Barra
Remot
OR
I2
O1
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
50720>
Regime L/R Seccionad
Barra
OR
10288>Modo Operação Gate 1
50694>
Blq Cmd Abert
SecBarra Rem
OR
I1
O1
O2
I1
O1
I2
I2
O2
I3
50697>
Perm Abert SecBarra
Remota
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
O3
50699>
Byp Blq Abert
SecBarra Rem
I3
OR
50716>
Comando Secc Barra
Inibido
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
O1
I2
O2
50721>
Regime N/E Seccionad
Barra
O3
50700>
Cmd Fecho Sec Barra
Local
OR
OR
10290>Modo Operação Gate 3
I1
O1
I2
O2
50702>
Gate Fecho Sec Barra
Local
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
6
I3
O3
O4
O5
50705>
Blq Cmd Fecho
SecBarra Loc
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
50708>
Perm Fecho SecBarra
Local
50704>
Cmd Fecho Secc
Barra
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
I1
O1
I3
I2
50710>
Byp Blq Fecho
SecBarra Loc
I3
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
50703>
Gate Fecho Sec Barra
Remot
50701>
Cmd Fecho Sec Barra
Remoto
AND
OR
I2
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
50707>
Blq Cmd Fecho Secc
Barra
OR
50706>
Blq Cmd Fecho
SecBarra Rem
50709>
Perm Fecho SecBarra
Remota
I1
O1
I2
O2
I1
O1
I1
O1
O3
I2
O2
I2
O2
OR
OR
I3
I3
50711>
Byp Blq Fecho
SecBarra Rem
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
Figure 6.101. Logical diagram of the Busbar Disconnector module (Commands).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
50712>
Seccionador Barra
Aberto
50728>
Gate 3 Seccionador
Barra
50726>
Gate 1 Seccionador
Barra
OR
50714>
Estado Seccionador
Barra
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I3
O4
AND
I1
I3
50727>
Gate 2 Seccionador
Barra
O5
AND
50713>
Seccionador Barra
Fechado
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O1
O2
O3
O4
O5
50715>
Estado Indef Secc
Barra
50729>
Estado 11 Secc Barra
AND
OR
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
I3
O1
I3
50730>
Estado 00 Secc Barra
AND
I1
O1
I2
O2
6
I3
50723>
Dados Seccionador
Barra
OR
O1
50724>
Lógica Seccionador
Barra
50717>
Avaria Manob Abert S
Barra
OR
O1
OR
O2
O1
50719>
Avaria Manobra Secc
Barra
OR
I1
50725>
Estado Autom Sec
Barra
OR
50718>
Avaria Manob Fecho S
Barra
OR
O1
I2
I3
O1
O1
O2
50722>
Alarme Max Manobras
SecBar
OR
O1
Figure 6.102. Logical diagram of the Busbar Disconnector module (State).
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
50944>
Cmd Abert SecBar 1
Local
50946>
Gate Abert SecBar 1
Local
OR
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
50951>
Bloq Cmd Abert Sec
Barra 1
50949>
Bloq Cmd Abert
SecBar1 Loc
OR
50952>
Perm Abert SecBarr1
Local
OR
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
O2
50948>
Cmd Abertura Secc
Barra 1
OR
O3
I3
I1
50954>
Byp Blq Abert
SecBarr1 Loc
OR
I3
I1
O1
I2
O2
50945>
Cmd Abert SecBar 1
Remoto
50947>
Gate Abert SecBar 1
Remot
OR
I2
O1
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
50976>
Regime L/R Secc
Barra 1
OR
10288>Modo Operação Gate 1
50950>
Bloq Cmd Abert
SecBar1 Rem
OR
I1
O1
O2
I1
O1
I2
I2
O2
I3
50953>
Perm Abert SecBarr1
Remota
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
O3
50955>
Byp Blq Abert
SecBarr1 Rem
I3
OR
50972>
Comando SecBar 1
Inibido
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
O1
I2
O2
50977>
Regime N/E Secc
Barra 1
O3
50956>
Cmd Fecho SecBar 1
Local
OR
OR
10290>Modo Operação Gate 3
I1
O1
I2
O2
50958>
Gate Fecho SecBar 1
Local
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
6
I3
O3
O4
O5
50961>
Bloq Cmd Fecho
SecBar1 Loc
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
50964>
Perm Fecho SecBarr1
Local
50960>
Cmd Fecho Secc
Barra 1
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
I1
O1
I3
I2
50966>
Byp Blq Fecho
SecBarr1 Loc
I3
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
50959>
Gate Fecho SecBar 1
Remoto
50957>
Cmd Fecho SecBar 1
Remoto
AND
OR
I2
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
50963>
Bloq Cmd Fecho Sec
Barra 1
OR
50962>
Bloq Cmd Fecho
SecBar1 Rem
50965>
Perm Fecho SecBarr1
Remota
I1
O1
I2
O2
I1
O1
I1
O1
O3
I2
O2
I2
O2
OR
OR
I3
I3
50967>
Byp Blq Fecho
SecBarr1 Rem
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
Figure 6.103. Logical diagram of the Busbar Disconnector 1 module (Commands).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
50968>
Seccionador Barra1
Aberto
50984>
Gate 3 Seccionador
Barra 1
50982>
Gate 1 Seccionador
Barra 1
50970>
Estado Seccionador
Barra1
OR
AND
I1
O1
I1
O1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I3
OR
AND
O4
I3
50983>
Gate 2 Seccionador
Barra 1
O5
AND
50969>
Seccionador Barra1
Fechado
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O1
O2
O3
O4
O5
50985>
Estado 11 Secc Barra
1
50971>
Estado Indef Secc
Barra 1
AND
OR
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
I3
O1
I3
50986>
Estado 00 Secc Barra
1
AND
50979>
Dados Seccionador
Barra 1
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
6
I3
O1
50980>
Lógica Seccionador
Barra 1
OR
50973>
Avaria Manob Abert
SecBar1
OR
O1
O1
O2
50975>
Avaria Manobra Sec
Barra 1
50981>
Estado Autom Secc
Barra 1
OR
O1
OR
I1
50974>
Avaria Manob Fecho
SecBar1
OR
O1
I2
I3
O1
50978>
Alarme Max Manob
Sec Bar 1
O2
OR
O1
Figure 6.104. Logical diagram of the Busbar Disconnector 1 module (State).
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
51200>
Cmd Abert SecBar 2
Local
51202>
Gate Abert SecBar 2
Local
OR
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
51207>
Blq Cmd Abert Secc
Barra 2
51205>
Blq Cmd Abert SecBar
2 Loc
OR
51208>
Perm Abert SecBarr2
Local
OR
OR
I1
O1
I1
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I2
O2
51204>
Cmd Abertura Secc
Barra 2
OR
O3
I3
I1
51210>
Byp Blq Abert
SecBarr2 Loc
OR
I3
I1
O1
I2
O2
51201>
Cmd Abert SecBar 2
Remoto
51203>
Gate Abert SecBar 2
Remoto
OR
I2
O1
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
51232>
Regime L/R Secc
Barra 2
OR
10288>Modo Operação Gate 1
51206>
Blq Cmd Abert SecBar
2 Rem
OR
I1
O1
O2
I1
O1
I2
I2
O2
I3
51209>
Perm Abert SecBarr2
Remota
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
O3
51211>
Byp Blq Abert
SecBarr2 Rem
I3
OR
51228>
Comando SecBarra 2
Inibido
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
O1
I2
O2
51233>
Regime N/E Secc
Barra 2
O3
51212>
Cmd Fecho SecBar 2
Local
OR
OR
10290>Modo Operação Gate 3
I1
O1
I2
O2
51214>
Gate Fecho SecBar 2
Local
I2
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
6
I3
O3
O4
O5
51217>
Blq Cmd Fecho
SecBar 2 Loc
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
51220>
Perm Fecho SecBarr2
Local
51216>
Cmd Fecho Secc
Barra 2
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
OR
I1
O1
I3
I2
51222>
Byp Blq Fecho
SecBarr2 Loc
I3
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
51215>
Gate Fecho SecBar 2
Remoto
51213>
Cmd Fecho SecBar 2
Remoto
AND
OR
I2
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
I3
51219>
Blq Cmd Fecho Secc
Barra 2
OR
51218>
Blq Cmd Fecho
SecBar 2 Rem
51221>
Perm Fecho SecBarr2
Remota
I1
O1
I2
O2
I1
O1
I1
O1
O3
I2
O2
I2
O2
OR
OR
I3
I3
51223>
Byp Blq Fecho
SecBarr2 Rem
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
Figure 6.105. Logical diagram of the Busbar Disconnector 2 module (Commands).
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Chapter 6 - Protection and Control Functions
51224>
Seccionador Barra2
Aberto
51240>
Gate 3 Seccionador
Barra 2
51238>
Gate 1 Seccionador
Barra 2
OR
51226>
Estado Seccionador
Barra 2
OR
AND
O1
I1
O1
O2
I2
O2
O1
I1
O1
I2
O2
I2
O2
I3
O3
I3
O4
AND
I1
I3
51239>
Gate 2 Seccionador
Barra 2
O5
AND
51225>
Seccionador Barra2
Fechado
OR
I1
O1
I2
O2
I3
O1
O2
O3
O4
O5
51241>
Estado 11 Secc Barra
2
51227>
Estado Indef Secc
Barra 2
AND
OR
I1
O1
I1
I2
O2
I2
I3
O1
I3
51242>
Estado 00 Secc Barra
2
AND
I1
O1
I2
O2
6
I3
51235>
Dados Seccionador
Barra 2
OR
O1
51236>
Lógica Seccionador
Barra 2
51229>
Avaria Manob Abert
SecBar2
OR
O1
OR
O2
O1
51231>
Avaria Manobra Sec
Barra 2
OR
51237>
Estado Autom Secc
Barra 2
OR
O1
I1
51230>
Avaria Manob Fecho
SecBar2
OR
O1
I2
I3
O1
O2
51234>
Alarme Max Manob
Sec Bar 2
OR
O1
Figure 6.106. Logical diagram of the Busbar Disconnector 2 module (State).
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6-164
7
Chapter
7.
OPERATION
This chapter describes in detail the operation of all the functions performed by the TPU S420.
Chapter 7 - Operation
TABLE OF CONTENTS
7.1. MEASURES .............................................................................................................7-3
7.1.1. Read Measures ............................................................................................................7-3
7.1.2. Clear Measures ............................................................................................................7-6
7.1.3. Remote Access ............................................................................................................7-8
7.1.4. Export ..........................................................................................................................7-9
7.2. EVENT LOGGING....................................................................................................7-10
7.2.1. Read Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-10
7.2.2. Clear Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-11
7.2.3. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-11
7.2.4. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-13
7.3. FAULT LOCATOR ...................................................................................................7-14
7.3.1. Read Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-14
7.3.2. Clear Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-15
7.3.3. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-15
7.3.4. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-16
7.4. LOAD DIAGRAM ....................................................................................................7-17
7.4.1. Read Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-17
7.4.2. Clear Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-18
7.4.3. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-18
7.4.4. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-20
7.5. OSCILLOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................7-21
7.5.1. Remote Access ......................................................................................................... 7-21
7.5.2. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-24
7.6. HARDWARE INFORMATION .......................................................................................7-25
7.6.1. Read Logs ................................................................................................................. 7-26
7.6.2. Export ....................................................................................................................... 7-27
7.7. OPERATION MODES................................................................................................7-28
7.8. MIMIC ................................................................................................................7-29
7.8.1. Apparatus ................................................................................................................. 7-29
7.8.2. Commands ............................................................................................................... 7-30
7.8.3. Measures................................................................................................................... 7-30
7.8.4. Parameters ................................................................................................................ 7-31
7.9. SCREENSAVER .......................................................................................................7-32
Total of pages of the chapter: 32
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0., December 2011
7-2
7
Chapter 7 - Operation
7.1. MEASURES
The TPU S420 records the values of several analogue measurements, whether directly from its
voltage and current inputs whether calculating values derived from those measurements. The
values of discrete measurements, such as the counters of apparatus manoeuvres are also
logged.
The values of the analogue measures presented in the display are updated in real time whenever
there is a change of the values higher than the precision thresholds of the TPU S420. In the case
of discrete measures the update is made whenever there is a change of its value. The update is
made in the same way for all measures presented in the Menus Interface and for all measures
configured in the mimic presented in the Supervision and Control Interface.
7.1.1. READ MEASURES
The measures obtained from the analogue inputs and their derived are presented in the Display
Measures menu.
7
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0., December 2011
7-3
Chapter 7 - Operation
Medida
Aceder Medidas
Aceder Medidas
Corrente IA
Corrente IB
Corrente IC
Corrente Inversa
Corrente IN Soma
Corrente IN
Tensão UA
Tensão UB
Tensão UC
Tensão Inversa
Tensão UN
Tensão UAB
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
A
A
A
A
A
A
kV
kV
kV
kV
kV
kV
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Aceder Medidas
Tensão UBC
Tensão UCA
Frequência
Pot Activa
Pot Reactiva
Factor Potência
E Activa Emitida
E Reac Emitida
E Activa Recebida
E Reac REcebida
Tensão UN
Tensão U4
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.000 kV
0.000 kV
0.000 Hz
0.000 kW
0.000 kVAr
1.000 ind
0.0000000 MWh
0.0000000 MVArh
0.0000000 MWh
0.0000000 MVArh
0.000 kV
0.000 kV
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Aceder Medidas
Frequência U4
Dif Tensão
Dif Frequência
Dif Fase
Temperatura Fase A
Temperatura Fase B
Temperatura Fase C
Temperatura Média
Temperatura Máxima
Medida Genérica 1
Medida Genérica 2
Medida Genérica 3
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.000 Hz
0.000 kV
0.000 Hz
0.000º
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.000 %
0.000
0.000
0.000
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Aceder Medidas
Medida Genérica
Medida Genérica
Medida Genérica
Medida Genérica
Medida Genérica
Pot Máxima
Corrente Máxima
7
4
= 0.000
5
= 0.000
6
= 0.000
7
= 0.000
8
= 0.000
= 0.00000 MW 15-07 05:19
= 0.00000 kA 15-07 04:33
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Figure 7.1. Display Measures Menu.
The TPU S420 calculates and presents the RMS value of the fundamental harmonic of the
following measures, obtained from the analogue inputs:
Phase Currents: Current IA, Current IB, Current IC.
Neutral Current: Current IN
Single Voltages: Voltage UA, Voltage UB, Voltage UC.
Fourth Voltage: Voltage U4 or Voltage UN
Internally is also calculated the RMS value of the following measures:
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0., December 2011
7-4
Chapter 7 - Operation
Negative Current of the phase currents Fundamental Component: Inverse Current.
Fundamental harmonic of the sum of the phase currents: Current IN Sum.
Negative Voltage of the Voltage Fundamental Component: Inverse Voltage.
Fundamental harmonic of the sum of the voltages: Voltage UN Sum.
Composed Voltages: Voltage UAB, Voltage UBC, Voltage UCA.
Frequency of the Voltage: Frequency.
Frequency of the fourth voltage: Frequency U4.
Active Power: Real Power.
Reactive Power: Reactive Power.
The TPU S420 keeps a record of the following analogue measures:
Counter of Supplied Active Energy: Fw Energy.
Counter of Supplied Reactive Energy: Fw React Energy.
Counter of Received Active Energy: Rv Energy.
Counter of Received Reactive Energy: Rv React Energy.
The TPU S420 also keeps a record of the maximum value of the following measures, including
the moment of occurrence:
Maximum Active Power: Maximum Power.
Maximum Phase Current: Maximum Current.
The measures regarding the circuit breaker are presented in the Information menu related to
the supervised circuit breaker.
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Disjuntor
Informações
Informações
Manobras Disjuntor = 0
Disparos Disjuntor = 0
I Cort A Disjuntor = 0.000
I Cort B Disjuntor = 0.000
I Cort C Disjuntor = 0.000
Soma I² A Disjuntor = 0.000
Soma I² B Disjuntor = 0.000
Soma I² C Disjuntor = 0.000
Estado Alarme Manobras: OFF
Estado Alarme I²: OFF
Limpar Informações
kA
kA
kA
kA²
kA²
kA²
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 7.2. Information Menu – Circuit Breaker.
The measures presented are:
Number of opening manoeuvres executed by the apparatus.
Number of trips executed by the apparatus originated from protection functions.
RMS value of the current cut per phase relative to the last opening manoeuvre: A, B, C.
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0., December 2011
7-5
7
Chapter 7 - Operation
Sum of the square RMS currents cut per phase: A, B, C.
The measures regarding the disconnector are presented in the Information menu related to the
supervised disconnector.
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Seccionador Isolamento
Informações
Informações
Manobras Secc Isol = 0
Estado Alarme Manobras: OFF
Limpar Informações
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 7.3. Information Menu – Disconnector.
The measures presented are:
Number of opening manoeuvres executed by the apparatus.
7.1.2. CLEAR MEASURES
In the Menus Interface of the TPU S420 is also possible to clear the value of all measures of
cumulative type. This effectively corresponds to changing these measures to zero and from that
moment on they will continue increasing as usual.
The next figure shows how to clear the cumulative type measures of the TPU S420.
7
Energy Measures and Maximum Values
Medida
Medida
Aceder Medidas
Limpar Contador de Energia
Limpar Contador de Energia
Limpar Contador de Energia
Limpar Contador de Energia
Limpar Registo de Potência
Limpar Registo de Corrente
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
Emitida
Reac Emitida
Recebida
Reac Recebida
Máxima
Máxima
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 7.4. Measures Menu.
In this menu, when selecting the desired item and executing the corresponding order it is
possible to clear the following measures:
Counter of Supplied Active Energy.
Counter of Supplied Reactive Energy.
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0., December 2011
7-6
Chapter 7 - Operation
Counter of Received Active Energy.
Counter of Received Reactive Energy.
Maximum Active Power.
Maximum Phase Current.
The time-tag associated with measures of maximum will start logging the moment when the
clearing was made until a new update of its value is made.
Circuit Breaker Measurements
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Disjuntor
Informações
Limpar Informações
Limpar Informações
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Número de Manobras
Número de Disparos
I Cortada Fase A
I Cortada Fase B
I Cortada Fase C
Soma I² Fase A
Soma I² Fase B
Soma I² Fase C
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 7.5. Clear Information Menu – Circuit Breaker.
In this menu, when selecting the desired item and executing the corresponding order it is
possible to clear the following measures:
Number of opening manoeuvres executed by the apparatus;
7
Value of the last current cut by phase;
Sum of the square RMS currents cut per phase: A, B, C.
Disconnectors Measures
Supervisão de Aparelhos
Seccionador Isolamento
Informações
Limpar Informações
Limpar Informações
Limpar Número de Manobras
¤/¥ mudar página; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 7.6. Clear Information Menu – Disconnector.
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0., December 2011
7-7
Chapter 7 - Operation
In this menu, when selecting the desired item and executing the corresponding order it is
possible to clear the following measures:
Number of opening manoeuvres executed by the apparatus.
The process is similar for clearing measures associated with other disconnectors supervised by
the TPU S420.
7.1.3. REMOTE ACCESS
All analogue and discrete magnitudes existing in the TPU S420 can be remotely consulted.
Using WinReports, choose item Measures related to the unit that you wish to consult and click
Receive to see a window with all the measures existing in the TPU S420.
7
Figure 7.7. WinReports – Measures Window.
Unlike the local interface, this window is not updated in real time, only presents the values of the
measures in the moment when the request was made to the unit.
All measures, whose value can be changed in the TPU, can also be changed using WinReports.
These measures are identified in the Change column with Yes indication. Double-click on the
corresponding lines to see a window where you can enter the desired value for the measure.
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0., December 2011
7-8
Chapter 7 - Operation
Figure 7.8. WinReports – Measures Change Window
Value 0 can be entered, reproducing the action executed in the Menus Interface, or any other
value. This process is more flexible.
This record can be monitored in real time. There is an Update button to update the values of
each measure.
7.1.4. EXPORT
The user can also Print the list of values as well as Export the information to an .xls file of user’s
choice.
7
Figure 7.9. File exported from Measures Record
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0., December 2011
7-9
Chapter 7 - Operation
7.2. EVENT LOGGING
7.2.1. READ LOGS
The TPU S420 logs all logical transitions of the gates that constitute the automation logic, as
long as they are configured accordingly.
In the Menus Interface is possible to read the most recent 256 events by accessing the Event
Logging menu.
Registo de Eventos
Registo de Eventos
Ver Registo de Eventos
Limpar Registo de Eventos
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Registo de Eventos
Ver Registo de Eventos
Ver Registo de Eventos
-2003-03-12 10:38:00,289
Desligação Protecção
-2003-03-12 10:38:13,000
Ligação Protecção
-2003-03-12 10:38:13,009
Lógica Transform Medida
-2003-03-12 10:38:13,012
Lógica Hora Local
-2003-03-12 10:38:13,021
Entrada Genérica 16
-2003-03-12 10:38:13,046
Saída Genérica 13
- 0->1
- 0->1
- Alteração
7
- Alteração
- 0->1
- 0->1
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Figure 7.10. Visualization of Event Logging.
The events are ordered by ascending chronological order. To navigate through the pages use
and
keys.
The TPU S420 stores the events in RAM memory until there is a group of 256 events. When that
happens, or when more than 5 minutes pass without the occurrence of a new event, a log
containing the events existing in RAM memory that have not been saved yet, is saved in nonvolatile memory.
When the content of the event logging in RAM reaches 256, the new events occurring will
replace the oldest and are also saved in RAM memory. This log is called Most Recent Logging
and it is its content that is presented in the Menus Interface.
The description of the event and the transition occurred is configurable through WinProt. The
configuration method is described in the WinProt User’s Manual.
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7.2.2. CLEAR LOGS
To facilitate the consultation of the event logging, for example during commissioning, is
possible to clear the content of the event logging presented in the Menus Interface. It is only
necessary to select the item Clear Event Logging and give the corresponding order.
This way of clearing the event logging does not effectively delete that log; it only prevents it from
being displayed in the Menus Interface. When the user orders the clearing, all events that are not
yet stored in non-volatile memory will be grouped and stored in a log of smaller size. From this
moment on, it is only possible to read those events using WinReports.
7.2.3. REMOTE ACCESS
All Event Records stored in the TPU S420, whether the Most Recent Logging or the logs saved in
non-volatile memory can be remotely consulted.
Using WinReports, choose item Event Logging related to the unit that you wish to read and click
Receive to see a window with all the event logs existing in the TPU S420.
7
Figure 7.11. WinReports – List of Events Logs.
By choosing one of the logs of the list and clicking again in Receive it will be presented the log
content.
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Chapter 7 - Operation
Figure 7.12. WinReports – Visualisation of the Events Logs.
In the remote interface is also possible to clear the most recent log or any of the logs saved in
memory.
To clear any of the logs, select it and click Clear. A clearing options window will appear.
7
Figure 7.13. WinReports – Clear Load Logs.
The user can choose among clearing the diagram only in the unit, only in the WinProt database,
or both.
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.2.4. EXPORT
As in the Measures log, each Events Log can be displayed, printed or exported to a file at user
choice to be later analysed.
7
Figure 7.14. File exported from the Event Log
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.3. FAULT LOCATOR
7.3.1. READ LOGS
The TPU S420 has a fault locator automation. The results of fault location are saved in logs that
can be consulted both through the menus and remotely through WinProt. The last 10 faults are
logged.
Localizador Defeitos
Informações
Informações
Defeito
Defeito
Defeito
Defeito
Defeito
Defeito
Defeito
Defeito
Defeito
Defeito
Defeito
Mais Recente
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Localizador Defeitos
Informações
Defeito 1
Defeito 1
Data Defeito: 2001-01-01 00:00:00,000
Validade: INVÁLIDO
Loop Defeito: INDISPONIVEL
Distância Defeito = 0.000%
Distância Defeito = 0.000 km
Distância Defeito = 0.000 milha
Resist secundário = 0.000 ohm
Resist primário
= 0.000 ohm
React secundário = 0.000 ohm
React primário
= 0.000 ohm
Resist Defeito
= 0.000 ohm
Desvio padrão
= 0.000 ohm
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¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 7.15. Visualization of Fault Locator.
For each fault detected, is logged:
Fault Date: Date of fault occurrence.
Validity: Indicates whether the log remaining data is valid or not.
Fault Loop: Indicates which is the type of fault has occurred.
Fault Distance: The distance to the fault is indicated in % of the line length, in km or in miles.
Secondary Resist: Resistance value in secondary values.
Primary Resist: Resistance value in primary values.
Secondary React: Reactance value in secondary values.
Primary React: Reactance value in primary values.
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Fault Resist: Value of the fault resistance.
7.3.2. CLEAR LOGS
It is possible to clear the information logged by the Fault Locator. An item in the Fault Locator
menu called Clear Information resets default data in the Fault Locator, marking all faults as
invalid.
7.3.3. REMOTE ACCESS
The information saved by the Fault Locator can be remotely consulted. Using WinReports,
choose item Fault Locator related to the unit that you wish to read and click Receive to see a
window with the last logged faults.
7
Figure 7.16. WinReports Fault Locator Window.
In the remote interface is also possible to clear the logged faults. To do so select the item Fault
Locator and click Clear. A clearing options window will appear.
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Chapter 7 - Operation
Figure 7.17. WinReports – Clear Fault Locator
The user can choose among clearing the log only in the unit, only in the WinProt database or
both.
7.3.4. EXPORT
As in the Measurements log, the Fault Locator log can be displayed, printed or exported to a file
at user’s choice to be later analysed.
7
Figure 7.18. File exported from the Fault Locator log.
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.4. LOAD DIAGRAM
7.4.1. READ LOGS
The TPU S420 logs the evolution of the Active Power and the Reactive Power.
For each measurement are logged the average values of each15 minutes.
In the Menus Interface is possible to read these logs, in numerical format, by accessing the Load
Diagram menu and choosing the desired measurement.
Diagrama de Carga
Diagrama de Carga
Diagrama P
Diagrama Q
Limpar Diagramas de Carga
Parâmetros
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mudar página; E aceitar; C cancelar
Diagrama de Carga
Diagrama P
Diagrama P
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
2003-03-12
10:30
10:45
11:00
11:15
11:30
11:45
12:00
12:15
12:30
12:45
13:00
13:15
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.000
P=-0.001
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
7
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Figure 7.19. Visualization of the Load Diagram in the Local Interface.
The logged values are ordered by ascending chronological order. To navigate through the pages
use the
and
keys.
The load diagrams are stored by the TPU S420 in RAM memory until the 24:00 of each day are
reached. When that happens, a log with the values of the last 24 hours, or those accumulated
since the unit’s power on if it has not been operating for 24 hours, is saved in non-volatile
memory.
The new values saved replace those occurred 24 hours earlier and are also stored in RAM
memory. This log is called Most Recent Load Diagram and it is its content that is presented in
the Menus Interface.
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7.4.2. CLEAR LOGS
To facilitate the consultation of the load diagram, for example during commissioning, is possible
to clear the content of the load diagrams presented in the Menus Interface. It is only necessary to
select in the Load Diagram menu the item Clear Load Diagram and give the corresponding
order.
This way of clearing the load diagram does not effectively delete that log; it only prevents it from
being displayed in the Menus Interface. When the user orders the clearing, all logs that are not
yet stored in non-volatile memory will be grouped and stored in a log of smaller size. From this
moment on, it is only possible to read those events using WinReports.
7.4.3. REMOTE ACCESS
All Load Diagrams stored in the TPU S420, whether the Most Recent Diagram or the diagrams
saved in non-volatile memory can be remotely consulted.
Using WinReports, choose item Load Diagrams related to the unit that you wish to read and
click Receive to see a window with all the load diagrams existing in the TPU S420.
7
Figure 7.20. WinReports – Load Diagrams List.
Choose one of the diagrams from the list and click Receive again to see the content of the log.
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Figure 7.21. WinReports – Visualization of the Load Diagrams.
Besides the diagram itself, additional information is presented about the evolution of the
measurements. This information is the minimum, average and maximum value for each of the
logged measurements.
In the remote interface is also possible to clear the most recent diagram or any of the diagrams
saved in memory.
To clear any of the diagrams, select it and click Clear. A clearing options window will appear.
Figure 7.22. WinReports – Clear Load Diagrams.
The user can choose among clearing the diagram only in the unit, only in the WinProt database,
or both.
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.4.4. EXPORT
As in other logs, each load diagram can be displayed, printed or exported to a file at user choice
to be later analysed.
Figure 7.23. File exported from the Load Diagram log
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.5. OSCILLOGRAPHY
The oscillographies are logged by the TPU S420 whenever occurs any of the events configured
to cause the recording of an oscillography. This configuration is made through the automation
logic, as described in Chapter 4.5 - Programmable Logic.
From the moment when any of the configured events occurs, the TPU S420 collects and treats
the sampled values for all analogue measures and for the configured digital channels and also
creates the oscillography logs to save in non-volatile memory. Samples are collected
corresponding to the event occurrence and also the necessary samples to ensure that the log
includes a pre-occurrence and a post-occurrence time.
The full group of samples constituting an oscillography log is temporarily saved in RAM
memory. As soon as it is possible to make the recording in non-volatile memory the
oscillographies accumulated in RAM memory will be definitely saved.
There is always a RAM copy of the last oscillography generated since the TPU S420 was powered
on.
By default, oscillographies are generated by the following events:
Start of the Protection Functions
Circuit Breaker Close Orders
It is not possible to visualize the oscillographies in the Local Interface due to the graphical
display limitations.
7.5.1. REMOTE ACCESS
7
All Oscillographies stored in the TPU S420, whether the Most Recent Oscillography or the
oscillographies saved in non-volatile memory can be remotely consulted.
Using WinReports, choose item Oscillographies related to the unit that you wish to read and
click Receive to see a window with all the oscillographies existing in the TPU S420.
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Figure 7.24. WinReports – Oscillographies List.
Choose one of the oscillographies from the list and click Receive again to see the oscillography
content.
7
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Chapter 7 - Operation
Figure 7.25. WinReports – Visualization of Oscillographies.
Besides the oscillography itself, the sample values and moment of occurrence are presented for
each of the measures logged.
In the remote interface is also possible to clear the Most Recent Oscillography or any of the
oscillographies saved in memory.
To clear any of the oscillographies, select it and click Clear. A clearing options window will
appear.
Figure 7.26. WinReports – Clear Oscillographies.
The user can choose among clearing the log only in the unit, only in the WinProt database, or
both.
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.5.2. EXPORT
The user also has available normal operations for the logs such as printing and exporting.
However, this export is different from the export of the other logs. Its format follows the
standard COMTRADE - IEEE Standard Common Format for Transient Data Exchange in
order to allow its visualization in other applications based on this format (for example test sets).
For that purpose are created two files associated with the COMTRADE format, namely the
configuration file - name.cfg, which contains the general configuration of all the represented
channels (scale factors, transformation ratio, frequency, etc) and the data file - name.dat, which
contains the value of the samples of each of the channels defined in the previous file.
7
Figure 7.27. Files exported in COMTRADE format from the Oscillography log
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.6. HARDWARE INFORMATION
Lastly the relay can provide the log with the Hardware Information. Similarly to the Measure log,
both in terms of storing and in terms of visualization, this logging contains a wide and specific
group of intrinsic information of the protection internal state, namely:
Number of Resets and date of the last reset;
Communications status among the several microcontrollers;
Number of communications errors;
Communication status;
State of inputs and outputs;
Status of resources;
Current exception frame;
Exception frames, with detailed information for each frame.
7
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.6.1. READ LOGS
This information is represented in a graphical interface for easier interpretation. However, it is
indispensable the knowledge of the internal operation of the protection to analyse all the
information. Thus, this log is a system logging destined to specialized technicians who desire to
know the internal state of the various protection components.
7
Figure 7.28. Hardware Information log interface
This log, as the remaining ones, can be visualized, printed or exported to a text file at the user
choice.
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.6.2. EXPORT
7
Figure 7.29. File exported from the Hardware Information log
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.7. OPERATION MODES
The TPU S420 has several Operation Modes that constrain the operation of its protection and
automation functions.
The several operation modes available in the TPU S420 can be changed through the menus in
the local interface or through the WinSettings module of the WinProt. Some of the modes can
also be changed through the digital inputs.
In the local interface there are two mode keys with associated LEDs that can be configured with
any of the existing modes. By pressing the key the mode associated with it changes between its
two possible states.
If the F1 key is associated with the local remote mode the LEDs have the following appearance:
F1 Key: associated with the change of the operation mode from Local Mode to Remote Mode.
LOCAL
LOCAL
REMOTE
REMOTE
Figure 7.30. Possible aspect of the Local Mode/Remote Mode LEDs.
Another example is presented with the F2 key and the Manual/Automatic mode
F2 Key: associated with the change of the operation mode from Manual Mode to Automatic
Mode.
MANUAL
MANUAL
AUTO
AUTO
7
Figure 7.31. Possible aspect of the Manual Mode/Automatic Mode LEDs.
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.8. MIMIC
The TPU S420 allows visualizing the state of the apparatus associated with it as well as the state
of internal logical variables or the current value of parameters of the unit’s function.
Regarding the apparatus it is also possible to send manoeuvre orders directly from the mimic.
To perform these functions it is necessary that a mimic is configured in the unit with all the
necessary information. It is also necessary that the digital inputs and outputs associated with the
apparatus to monitor and/or command are configured.
The configuration of all the necessary parameters is described in the Configuration chapter.
After sending all necessary configurations to the TPU S420 the mimic represented in the
Supervision and Control Interface may look like this.
7
Figure 7.32. Example Mimic.
7.8.1. APPARATUS
The apparatus are represented by bitmaps showing their states. There is a maximum of 6
bitmaps defined per apparatus that are presented according to the logical state of the
automation logic gates associated with the bitmaps.
The monitoring of apparatus is made through digital inputs which logical state constrains the
logical value of the gates associated with the state of the apparatus. The mimic update is made
in real time whenever occurs a transition of its state.
In the case of circuit breakers the information usually presented is state and position.
Figure 7.33. Circuit-breaker state aspects: Open/Closed/Undefined.
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Figure 7.34. Circuit breaker position aspects: Extracted/Inserted/Undefined Position.
Regarding the disconnectors, normally is only visualized the state, so only three bitmaps are
necessary to represent all possible states.
Figure 7.35. Disconnector state aspects: Open/Closed/Undefined.
To send manoeuvre orders to different apparatus the procedure is as follows:
Using
key, select the apparatus one desires to command. To facilitate the apparatus
identification, in the bottom line will be presented a descriptive of the selected apparatus.
To send a Close Order press
To send an Open Order press
key;
key.
7.8.2. COMMANDS
The objects of command type are represented through two bitmaps, each one associated with
the states of a logical gate. Besides, it is possible to constrain the appearance of the object in the
display by the logical state of any other automation logic gate.
According to the logical state of the state gate and the activation gate, it is possible to have three
possible states: invisible command, command associated with logical state 1 and command
associated with logical state 0.
Figure 7.36. Command state aspects: State 0 / State 1.
To each command is associated the send of a logical indication to an automation logic gate. To
execute the order associated with the command the procedure is as follows:
Using
key select the command over which you desire to give an order. To facilitate the
command identification, in the bottom line will be presented a description of the selected
command;
To send indication press
key or
key.
7.8.3. MEASURES
The analogue measures and discrete measures presented in the mimic are updated in real time
with the values of the configured measures.
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Chapter 7 - Operation
Figure 7.37. Measure Aspect.
A change of the presented value will occur whenever the change of the measure value exceeds
the precision threshold of the relay for that measure.
7.8.4. PARAMETERS
The use of Parameter type objects has two different aspects: the visualization of parameters and
the change of parameters.
When the object is configured to visualization, its behaviour is similar to the measure type
objects. The existing value of the configured parameter is presented and its update is made
whenever occurs a change of parameters of the corresponding function.
Figure 7.38. Parameter state aspects in Visualize mode.
In case of use for sending parameters the operation is identical to that of apparatus and
commands.
Figure 7.39. Parameter state aspect in Change mode.
To execute the parameter sending order it is necessary to take the following steps:
Using
key select the parameter one desires to send. To facilitate the parameter
identification, in the bottom line will be presented a descriptive of each of the selected
objects;
To send the parameter press
key or
key.
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Chapter 7 - Operation
7.9. SCREENSAVER
With the purpose to reduce the wearing out of the lamp that lights the LCD and reduce the
equipment total consumption, the TPU S420 is equipped with a screensaver function. The
function of this screensaver is to automatically turn off the lamp that lights the display if for
approximately 5 minutes no key has been pressed.
By pressing any key the screensaver mode will be abandoned and the lamp is back on.
When the TPU S420 moves to the screensaver mode, it changes automatically to the Supervision
and Control Interface and overrides all permissions associated with the passwords entered in the
meantime.
7
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Chapter
8.
COMMISSIONING
This chapter describes the necessary procedures to carry out the TPU S420 commissioning.
The correct procedure to start the TPU S420 is also described.
Chapter 8 - Commissioning
TABLE OF CONTENTS
8.1. INITIAL CHECKS.......................................................................................................8-3
8.2. ANALOGUE INPUTS...................................................................................................8-7
8.2.1. Connections.................................................................................................................8-7
8.2.2. Measures Value ...........................................................................................................8-7
8.3. DIGITAL INPUTS.......................................................................................................8-9
8.4. DIGITAL OUTPUTS .................................................................................................8-11
8.5. ALARMS PAGE ......................................................................................................8-12
8.6. INTERFACE WITH THE LOCAL AREA NETWORK.................................................................8-13
8.7. PROTECTION AND CONTROL FUNCTIONS ......................................................................8-15
8.8. PUT INTO SERVICE..................................................................................................8-16
Total of pages of the chapter: 17
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Chapter 8 - Commissioning
8.1. INITIAL CHECKS
To perform the TPU S420 commissioning it is necessary to have a deep knowledge about the
unit’s operation and configuration through the careful reading of this manual as well as of the
other documentation concerning this equipment.
It is important to call the attention for more important aspects concerning the equipment and
people security.
Before accessing the interior of the TPU S420 is necessary to remove its back lid and as such all
connectors must be disconnected to avoid the risk of electrical shock. This warning is also
applicable for the removal of the front panel (user interface).
Even when the unit is disconnected, it is possible to have dangerous voltage levels in the power
supply circuits. After the supply is disconnected, it is advisable to wait at least 60 seconds for the
energy storage capacitors to be discharged!
The human body easily acquires electrostatic charges that may easily damage the electronic
boards! Precaution should be taken when handling the boards. Avoid touching directly in the
components or connectors!
It is advisable the use of an anti-static bracelet. Otherwise, first touch a surface connected to
earth to clear eventual static charges.
Inputs/outputs expansion boards must be correctly configured to work properly. The
configuration process is described in Chapter 4 – Configuration. Wrong configuration, besides
causing malfunction in the TPU S420, may cause permanent damage in the expansion boards
and/or processing board.
It is necessary to assure the correct polarity of digital inputs, otherwise they will not work. Also
check that the option of operating voltage and operation set is according to the control voltage
used.
The voltages in the connections of the TPU S420 are high enough to present a high risk of
electrical shock. As such, precaution should be taken to avoid situations that may endanger the
physical health of the technical personnel.
Technical personnel should be adequately trained and know the correct handling procedures of
this type of equipment. The following should be considered:
A solid earth protection connection should be the first to be made, before any other
connections are made;
Any connection may carry dangerous voltages;
Even when the unit’s supply is off, it is possible to have dangerous voltages present.
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Chapter 8 - Commissioning
According to security regulations a suitable device should be installed to turn on and off the
power supply of the TPU S420 that should cut both poles simultaneously.
Protection device against over-currents in both poles of supply should also be installed.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
Earth protection should be directly connected to the earth system using the shortest possible
path. Earth protection symbol is:
Conductor with a minimum section of 4 mm2. Preferably of copper braided wire should be used.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420, and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
The secondary circuits of current transformers must be short-circuited before connecting or
disconnecting the respective terminals in the TPU S420!
If there are test terminals that automatically short-circuit the secondary circuits of the current
transformers, they may be put to test position as long as their correct operation has been
previously verified.
All the tests performed with the equipment to protect in service imply that there are voltage and
current values extremely dangerous for the personnel, not only in TPU S420 terminals, but also
in the installation itself. In this situation all tests should be carefully performed.
It is mandatory to check the nominal values of current inputs before they are put to operation.
The nominal values can be checked in the tag in the back of the TPU S420, they can be 0,04 A,
0,2 A, 1 A or 5 A. Incorrect nominal values may cause the unit to malfunction and/or damage.
The same is applicable to the nominal values of voltage inputs. The values can be 100 V, 110 V,
115 V, or 120 V.
The values of acceptable thermal capacity should also be verified for each of the input nominal
values, both for permanent and short-time values.
Subjecting analogue inputs to values higher than those specified will cause permanent damage
to the inputs. During the commissioning tests, never apply in the inputs values higher than the
indicated ones, not even in a transitory situation.
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Chapter 8 - Commissioning
The phase change of the currents or voltages causes incorrect measurement of the respective
negative sequence. Phase change can be detected by the existence of a non null measurement
of the negative sequence of current (or voltage), similar to the phase currents (or phase voltages)
in a normal situation of three-phase and symmetrical load.
The polarity change of the currents or voltages causes incorrect measurement of the respective
residual sequence (sum of the three currents or sum of the three voltages). Polarity change can
be detected by the existence of a non null measurement of the sum of the three currents (or
voltages), similar to the phase currents (or phase voltages) in a normal situation of three-phase
and symmetrical load.
Frequency measurement is obtained from the value of voltages direct sequence. Phases or
polarities voltage changes cause incorrect measurement of frequency and can be detected by
the existence of a null frequency measurement.
Phases or polarities change, or the non correspondence of current and voltage phases causes
incorrect measurement of active and reactive powers and power factor, as well as of the energy
counters.
Power supply terminals and conductors of the LonWorks network board carry dangerous
voltages. Precaution should be taken to avoid situations that may endanger the physical health
of the technical personnel.
Technical personnel should be adequately trained and know the correct handling procedures of
this type of equipment.
Any intervention in the interior of the TPU S420 should be carried out by authorised technical
personnel.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
Before starting the commissioning of a TPU S420, the following information about the unit
should be registered:
Protection model in test, according to the format of the ordering form annexed to the
datasheets. Example TPU S420-Ed1-S-5A-5A-120V-120V-60Hz-D-2-2-ETH2-0-0-PT.
BOOT code version in the [Version].[Release] format.
NORMAL code version in the [Version].[Release] format.
Software serial number, as shown in the Information menu.
Hardware serial number indicated on the unit box.
If there is any problem during the commissioning tests, this information should be reported to
EFACEC, so that this problem can be identified and corrected.
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Chapter 8 - Commissioning
All commissioning tests should be performed according to the equipment’s safety instructions
described in this manual. They should also respect all the instructions regarding the installations
where the TPU S420 is used.
The people responsible for the commissioning tests should have a deep knowledge of these
safety instructions, of the operation of the equipment involved in the commissioning process
and of the use of test equipment. They also should have solid knowledge about the operation
principles of all protection and control functions to be tested.
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Chapter 8 - Commissioning
8.2. ANALOGUE INPUTS
8.2.1. CONNECTIONS
The purpose of this test is to verify whether the internal and external connections and the
nominal values of the measurement transformers are correct and according to the TPU firmware.
The following steps must be executed, where all the voltage and current values to be injected
correspond to values in the secondary:
In the Measurement Transformers protection menu check if the CTs and VTs transformation
ratios are all configured for a 100.0 value. Enter the SCADA password if necessary and do not
forget to confirm the changes at the end. As an alternative it is possible to use WinSettings to
make these configurations.
Inject nominal value current in each phase separately and, through the Display Measures
menu, check the protection’s correct allocation of each measurement.
Inject a three-phase current system in the three phases simultaneously. Check that the values
of the residual current obtained by internal sum and of the negative current are
approximately null. If that is not the case, there may be a change in the phase sequence of
the currents.
Apply nominal value voltage in each phase separately and, through the Display Measures
menu, check the protection’s correct allocation of each measure.
Apply a three-phase voltage system in the three phases simultaneously. Check that the
values of the residual voltage obtained by internal sum and of the negative voltage are
approximately null. If that is not the case, there may be a change in the phase sequence of
the voltages.
Inject current which nominal value on the neutral current input and check its correct
allocation by the unit through the Display Measures menu.
If any error is detected during these tests, it can be necessary to check the connections of the
TPU S420 connectors comparing them with the connections scheme corresponding to the unit.
If it is detected that the problem is internal to the TPU S420, intervention by EFACEC’s authorized
personnel will be necessary.
8.2.2. MEASURES VALUE
The purpose of checking the values of the measures is to verify the measures’ precision. The
following steps should be followed:
According to three-phase and symmetrical systems, inject current in all phases
simultaneously for several magnitude values and check if the currents values presented on
the Display Measures menu are within the precision specified for the unit.
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According o three-phase and symmetrical systems, apply voltages in all phases
simultaneously for several magnitude values and check if the voltage and frequency values
presented on the Display Measures menu are within the precision specified for the unit.
According to three-phase and symmetrical systems, apply currents and voltages in all phases
simultaneously for several magnitude values and check if the power values presented on the
Display Measures menu are within the precision specified for the unit.
Inject current on the neutral current input, for several magnitude values, and check if the
current values presented on Display Measures menu are inside the specified precision for
the unit.
Apply the voltage on the fourth voltage input, for several magnitude values, and check if the
value presented on the Display Measures menu is inside the specified precision for the unit.
If any measurement precision error is detected during these tests, you may need to repeat the
TPU S420’s calibration process.
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8.3. DIGITAL INPUTS
To check the correct operation of the digital inputs use the logical commands tool of the
WinLogic module.
This test allows checking whether the TPU S420 correctly reflects the state changes of the inputs
in the associated logical variables.
If there are logical conditions that cause direct operation of the outputs from logical states in
inputs (external trips, for example), this test can originate the effective operation of the TPU
outputs. If you do not desire that operation to cause for example, the sending of apparatus
manoeuvre orders, the connectors of the corresponding digital outputs in the TPU back panel
should be disconnected.
First start the WinLogic program and select the TPU S420 to be commissioned and then start the
application Logical Commands in the Tools menu.
8
Figure 8.1. WinLogic – Logical Commands.
Each one of the digital inputs configured in the TPU S420 should be tested in the following way:
In the Logical Commands window, configure the Module and Variable corresponding to the
logical configuration of the input you wish to test.
Impose the logical state 1 in the digital input you wish to test, whether directly in the
corresponding connection terminals in the TPU or in the bay’s terminal blocks.
Press the button Acquire State and check that the Current Logical State is 1. In case the state
changes are being sent to the Event Recorder, the correct operation of the input may also be
checked in this way.
Impose the logical state 0 in the digital input you wish to test, whether directly to the
corresponding connection terminals of the TPU or in the bay’s terminal blocks.
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Press the button Acquire State and check that the Current Logical State is 0. As it was
described above the operation of the digital input may also be checked by using the Event
Recorder.
It is possible to perform a more basic test at the digital inputs level by using the hardware test
available in the System Menu. For more information see Chapter 9.1.3 - System Menu.
As this process effectively imposes the logical state of gates existing in the automation logic, it is
essential to reset the TPU S420 after the conclusion of this test to avoid inconsistent logical
states in the automation logic. These inconsistencies may cause operation errors of the unit.
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8.4. DIGITAL OUTPUTS
To check the correct operation of the digital outputs use the logical commands tool of the
WinLogic module.
This test allows checking whether the digital outputs are effectively activated when a change of
state occurs in the associated logical variable.
This test originates the effective operation of the TPU outputs. If you do not desire that operation
to cause for example, the sending of apparatus manoeuvre orders, the connectors of the
corresponding digital outputs in the TPU back panel should be disconnected.
First start the WinLogic program and select the TPU S420 to be commissioned and then start the
application Logical Commands in the Tools menu.
During this test the Command Type should be always configured as Pulse and with Logical
State 1.
Each one of the digital outputs configured in the TPU S420 should be tested in the following
way:
In the Logical Commands window, configure the Module and Variable corresponding to the
logical configuration of the output you wish to test.
Press Send button.
Check if there is output activation.
Checking the output activation can be done through direct inspection or by analysing the Event
Recorder. If the output is configured as Indication, check if a command took place immediately
followed by a reset. If it is configured as Pulse, check, through the Event Logging, if the
configured Command Time was completed.
It is possible to perform a more basic test on the digital outputs. For more information see
Chapter 9.1.3 - System Menu.
As this process effectively imposes the logical state of gates existing in the automation logic, it is
essential to reset the TPU S420 after the conclusion of this test to avoid inconsistent logical
states in the automation logic. These inconsistencies may cause operation errors of the unit.
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8.5. ALARMS PAGE
To check the correct operation of the alarms page use the logical commands tool of the
WinLogic module.
This test allows checking whether the alarms configured in the Alarms Page were correctly
activated when a change of state occurs in the associated logical variable.
If there are alarms whose logical configuration corresponds to logical variables that will cause
outputs activation (the most common situation), this test can originate the effective operation of
the TPU outputs. If you do not desire that operation to cause for example, the sending of
apparatus manoeuvre orders, the connectors of the corresponding digital outputs in the TPU
back panel should be disconnected.
First start the WinLogic program and select the TPU S420 to be commissioned and then start the
application Logical Commands in the Tools menu.
During this test the Command Type should be always configured as Pulse and with Logical
State 1.
Each one of the alarms in the TPU S420 Alarms Page should be tested in the following way:
In the Logical Commands window, configure the Module and Variable corresponding to the
logical configuration of the alarm you wish to test.
Press Send button.
Check if there was activation of the LED associated with the alarm.
If the alarm is configured as Indication, check if the corresponding LED turned on and turned
off immediately after. If it is configured as Alarm, check if the LED remains turned on after the
8
logical command is given. In the last case also check if the LED turns off by pressing the
key.
It is possible to perform a more basic test on the alarms. For more information see Chapter
9.1.3 - System Menu.
As this process effectively imposes the logical state of gates existing in the automation logic, it is
essential to reset the TPU S420 after the conclusion of this test to avoid inconsistent logical
states in the automation logic. These inconsistencies may cause operation errors of the unit.
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8.6. INTERFACE WITH THE LOCAL AREA
NETWORK
If the TPU S420 is not integrated in a Local Network or if that feature is not used, it is not
necessary to perform the procedures described in this section to commission the equipment.
Before the TPU S420 is powered on, the several available functions related to its interaction with
SCADA should be tested.
The procedures described here are exemplified for a Lonworks network and therefore these
tests are closely related to the protocol used (LonTalk). For an Ethernet network, the procedures
are the same but according to the protocol used in that case. To perform these tests it is
necessary to have at least two protections connected in network between them and to a Central
Unit. The network configuration may be in open or close ring.
To do these tests is necessary to know how to use and configure the CLP 500RTU. It is necessary
to read its installation, configuration and user manuals. These manuals can be obtained from
EFACEC.
The checking of the communication status with the unit is done by the RTU, using the Diagnosis
function of the LONWORKS Scanner.
The following tests should be carried out:
Check if the Location String configured in the protection is the same as that of the CLP
500RTU database and if the protection is operating correctly with NORMAL mode code.
Start the CLP 500RTU. Wait until the reset of the protection’s Neuron Chip is made and check
if the communication with the CLP 500RTU is correctly established, if after that the protection
sends all indications and measurements configured in the database and then has General
Control OK.
Check the correct communication connection between WinProt and the unit through the LAN.
Check if the unit’s time is correctly updated from the CLP 500RTU.
Simulate all types of errors that can be sent by the relay to the CLP 500RTU and check that all
of them appear correctly identified. These errors are: problems in the analogue inputs board,
problems in the digital inputs/outputs boards, invalid protection configuration and protection
internal problems.
Check if the digital indications are correctly sent from the TPU S420 to the CLP 500RTU.
Check if the analogue measures are correctly sent from the TPU S420 to the CLP 500RTU.
Check if the discrete measures (counters) are correctly sent from the TPU S420 to the CLP
500RTU.
Check if the CLP 500RTU digital controls are correctly sent to the TPU S420.
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Check if the remote configuration controls are correctly sent from the CLP 500RTU to the
TPU S420.
Check if the Distributed Database operation is correct, in what concerns digital indications,
analogue measures and counters.
There are control functions that use the Distributed Database as its own operation element. To
test these functions it might be necessary a careful reading of the documentation about other
units of the 420 range. These documents can be obtained from EFACEC.
Testing the functions that use the Distributed Database should always be preceded by careful
reading of the operating principles and configuration necessary to use it in all X420 range units.
The most frequent problems that occur in this type of functions simply have to do with
configuration errors.
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8.7. PROTECTION AND CONTROL FUNCTIONS
The test to the protection and control functions of the TPU S420 during the commissioning
depends on the version of the unit to be tested and on the use and configuration of the unit
itself for the desired application.
Because of the infinite possible combinations for test execution, only a guide of procedures to
perform them is presented.
To be able to test any protection and control function, all other relay functions that may operate,
due to the test execution on the function in test, must be disabled. Although this is not
mandatory nor affects in any way the operation of the several functions, it will make easier to
interpret and check the tests results, namely at the Event Log level.
During the tests, to allow a quick view of the function’s operation, the alarms and digital outputs
associated with the function can be configured.
After these initial procedures the process must be carried out in the following way:
Check if it is possible to configure all the parameters associated with the function and if their
regulation ranges comply with the protection specifications. Particularly check if the
configuration that will be used in service is correctly sent to the unit and if the resulting
operation meets the expected.
Check, for the protection functions, if the start and reset values correspond to the configured
ones, according to the precision defined for the function.
Check, for the control functions, if the operating conditions, operation and inhibition
correspond to those defined in this manual.
Check, for all functions, if the operation times correspond to the configured ones, according
to the precision defined for the function.
Check, for all functions, if the indications registered in the Event Recorder are correct and if
they correctly represent the operating sequence. If further information is necessary, the relay
automation logic should be configured to send the missing indications. The description of
this configuration is presented in Chapter 4.5 - Programmable Logic.
Check the correct operation of the alarms associated with the function.
If the function’s operation causes the recording of oscillographies, check their correct
generation and content.
Check the correct operation of the digital outputs associated with the function.
Each performed test should be documented in order to register the conditions of the test and its
results. When a problem is detected, this information will be very useful to correct it.
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8.8. PUT INTO SERVICE
After performing all commissioning tests and before the TPU S420 being put into service some
final checks must be made.
First, it should be checked if all TPU S420 connections are correct: power supply, digital inputs
and outputs, analogue inputs, earth connections and communication connections with the local
network.
Then, it should be checked if all the configurations of the TPU S420 are according to what is
required for its normal operation. Special attention must be given to the functions which may
have been changed during the commissioning process.
Apart from the configurations of the automation and protection functions, the remaining
TPU S420 configurations must be carefully checked, especially those related to the Digital Inputs
and Outputs. It also should be checked if the logical configuration is correct.
If the TPU S420 is not connected to a local communications network that provides the time
synchronization, the unit’s time and date must be set, by accessing the Set Date and Time
menu.
If there are any active alarms in the Alarms Page, the
key should be pressed. If after
pressing the key there are alarms still active, it should be checked if this situation is normal (in
case of blockings, for example).
To avoid confusion in the future upload of registers, all registers produced during the tests
should be deleted before the TPU S420 is put in service. To carry out this operation the following
procedures should be followed:
In the Event Logs menu select the Clear Logs item and execute the associated order.
In the Load Diagram menu select the Clear Load Diagrams item and execute the clear
order for each load diagram stored by the TPU S420.
8
Enter the System Password: 097531;
Access the System Menu and then the Calibration menu. Check if the indication Measures
Converters Calibrated is ON. If not, it will be necessary to calibrate the relay according to
the procedures.
Access the System Menu and then the Clear Memory Registers menu.
Access successively the items of this menu and give the clear order for all stored logs;
Then all default passwords should be entered:
Protections password: 000000.
SCADA password: 000001.
System password: 097531.
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When all passwords have been entered, access the Change Password menu and change all
passwords to values different from the default ones. The new passwords should be registered
and kept in a safe place.
Passwords are changed to ensure the security of the data existing in the TPU S420, as the
default passwords are written in the documents supplied with the units, including this manual,
anyone may have access to them.
EFACEC is not responsible for operation failure of the equipment due to configuration errors.
If the new passwords are forgotten, it is possible to recover the default values, by requiring an
intervention of EFACEC’s authorized personnel.
If there is no guarantee that the WinProt database is updated with the most recent data
configured in the TPU S420, the TPU data should be updated to the several WinProt modules.
From this moment on, the TPU S420 is ready to be put in service, you just need to access the
System Menu and execute the Protection Reset order.
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Chapter
9.
MAINTENANCE
This chapter describes the procedures that should be performed to ensure an efficient operation
of the TPU S420 during its entire lifetime.
Chapter 9 - Maintenance
TABLE OF CONTENTS
9.1. ROUTINE CHECKS ....................................................................................................9-3
9.1.1. Torque .........................................................................................................................9-3
9.1.2. Logs .............................................................................................................................9-3
9.1.3. System Menu ...............................................................................................................9-4
9.2. FIRMWARE UPDATE ................................................................................................9-13
9.3. TROUBLESHOOTING................................................................................................9-15
9.3.1. Hardware .................................................................................................................. 9-15
9.3.2. Software.................................................................................................................... 9-27
9.3.3. Calibration ................................................................................................................ 9-27
9.4. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ) .......................................................................9-32
Total of pages of the chapter: 35
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
9.1. ROUTINE CHECKS
9.1.1. TORQUE
Checking torques in accordance with chapter 2.4.1 from this manual.
9.1.2. LOGS
During its normal operation, the TPU S420 stores several types of records in non-volatile
memory.
According to the type of information there are two different processes to store those logs:
accumulated logs and updated logs.
Accumulated Logs
Logs of the accumulated type are:
Oscillographies;
Event Logging;
Load Diagrams.
These logs are associated with the unit’s operation history so new logs will be stored as they are
generated.
The space reserved in memory for the recording of this type of logs is shared among all of them.
When a situation arises where there is no available space to store a new record produced in the
meantime, the TPU S420 automatically executes a memory cleaning process, deleting a group of
the older existing registers. Therefore, time coherence is guaranteed for the records stored in
non-volatile memory.
Whenever there is an automatic memory cleaning is inevitable the loss of information. However,
a minimum size of available space is foreseen for each type of record, ensuring that in any case
will be deleted all the information in memory for each type.
To avoid the loss of historical information of the logs produced during the operation of the
TPU S420, it is essential that all records are collected to the WinProt database using the
WinReports module. This upload should be periodical and can be made both through the
existing serial ports and through the LAN when the unit is integrated in a local area network.
After this process, the logs are guaranteed to be available for later consultation.
After this process is completed, using WinReports, all records in the memory of the TPU S420
can be deleted. This is advisable for two reasons. Firstly, because it reduces the risk of
exhausting the available space in the memory until a new upload is made and secondly because
it facilitates posterior database update as the size of the list of records to upload will be smaller.
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
Updated Logs
Records of the updated type are:
Counter of Circuit Breaker Manoeuvres;
Sum of Currents Cut by Circuit Breaker Phase;
Counter of Disconnector Manoeuvres.
The information contained in these logs does not need to be accumulated over time, as it is only
important to know their current values.
That is why the storage of these logs is performed in another memory zone, independent of that
used for the accumulated logs.
Each new update of values of these registers will be saved in non-volatile memory, replacing the
previous values.
9.1.3. SYSTEM MENU
The System Menu is a menu that is not normally accessible. Its display and access require
entering the System Password, 097531, and then another item will appear in the Main Menu:
System Menu. Select this new item and press
and the menu will be displayed.
Menu Sistema
Menu Sistema
Informações de Sistema
Limpar Registos em Memória
Recuperar Parâmetros de Fábrica
Limpar Erro de Dados
Testes de Hardware
Calibração
Reiniciar a Protecção
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.1. System Menu.
This menu provides several information that allows to verify the operation status of the
TPU S420 software.
Besides the information, there are menus that contain special commands executed by the
TPU S420, related with the management of records and parameters in memory, hardware tests
and calibration.
System Information
The system information presents the operational status of internal elements of the TPU S420,
such as the status of the memory and of the communications operation.
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
Menu Sistema
Informações de Sistema
Informações de Sistema
Informações
Informações
Informações
Informações
MASTER
SLAVE #1
SLAVE #2
SLAVE #3
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.2. System Information Menu.
When accessing each item of this menu, the information corresponding to each of the
microcontrollers of the TPU S420 is presented.
Menu Sistema
Informações de Sistema
Informações MASTER
Informações MASTER
Informação de Excepção
Estado Comunicações Internas
Estado FLASH CODIGO : 1
Erros Gravar CODIGO : 0
Erros Apagar CODIGO : 0
Estado FLASH MEMORIA : 1
Erros Gravar MEMORIA : 0
Erros Apagar MEMORIA : 0
Estado RAM Interna
: 1
Erro de Parâmetros
: 0
Entradas Avariadas: 0000000000000000
Saídas Avariadas : 000000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Informações MASTER
Recursos Esgotados : 0
Índice Ocupação : 7651
Tempo Amostragem: 410
Recursos Disponíveis: 500
Recursos Mínimos
: 440
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.3. Master Information Menu.
The information available in this menu is the following:
CODE FLASH Status: indicates whether the flash memory containing the code is operating
correctly.
CODE SAVE Errors: accumulated number of data recording errors in the code flash.
CODE Clear Errors: accumulated number of clear operations errors in the code flash.
MEMORY FLASH Status: indicates whether the flash memory containing the data and
registers is operating correctly.
MEMORY Save Errors: accumulated number of data recording errors in the Memory flash.
MEMORY Clear Errors: accumulated number of clear operation errors in the Memory flash.
INTERNAL RAM Status: indicates whether the RAM memory, internal to the
microcontroller, is operating correctly.
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Parameters Error: indicates whether there were situations of wrong group of parameters
detected at unit start-up.
Inputs Failure: indicates which inputs of the digital inputs and outputs boards associated
with this microcontroller are invalid.
Outputs Failure: indicates which outputs of the digital inputs and outputs boards associated
with this microcontroller have operation failure.
Exhausted Resources: indicates whether there have been situations of CPU’s excess
occupation since the TPU is on.
Occupation Index: indicates which is the CPU’s present occupation index.
Sampling Time: indicates which sampling time was used to determine the CPU’s occupation
index.
Available Resources: indicates the number of free resources for communication among
tasks.
Minimum Resources: indicates the minimum value of free resources for communication
among tasks since the TPU is on.
There are two more items in the menu that allow accessing more specific information about the
TPU S420 operation.
Exception Information
The Exception Information menu contains information about serious errors occurred during
the TPU S420’s operation, which caused the microcontroller reset.
Menu Sistema
Informações de Sistema
Informações MASTER
Informação de Excepção
Informação de Excepção
Contador de Resets: 238
Data do Último Reset: 2001-01-01
Hora do Último Reset: 00:00:12
FRAME 1
FRAME 2
FRAME 3
FRAME 4
Limpar Informação de Excepção
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
9
Figure 9.4. Exception Information Menu – Master.
The information available in this menu is the following:
Resets Counter: accumulated number of microcontroller’s resets due to errors.
Date of Last Reset: date when the last reset occurred.
Time of Last Reset: time when last reset occurred.
The FRAME 1 to FRAME 4 items contain debug information, collected after the detection, by
the TPU S420 firmware, of the operation error. Four groups of information are stored
corresponding to the four most recent errors.
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This information will allow EFACEC’s technical assistance to identify the cause of the error and to
correct it.
Menu Sistema
Informações de Sistema
Informações MASTER
Informação de Excepção
FRAME 1
FRAME 1
0x00:
0x08:
0x10:
0x18:
0x20:
0x28:
0x30:
0x38:
0x40:
0x48:
0x50:
0x58:
07D3
01E7
0000
10CC
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
030A
4010
0010
0000
0000
0000
FFFF
0000
0000
0000
39C2
0000
0B26
0000
0E84
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0013
0000
0E5D
0078
0010
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
B494
0000
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FRAME 1
0x60:
0x68:
0x70:
0x78:
0x80:
0x88:
0x90:
0x98:
0000
0000
0201
0010
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0101
0E30
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
12B6
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
12B6
1204
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
¤/¥ mudar página; C cancelar
Figure 9.5. FRAME 1 Menu.
By executing the order associated with the item Clear Exception Information all the system
information regarding the microcontroller is deleted and the error counters go back to 0.
For all microcontrollers there is a similar group of menus and information.
Internal Communications Status
This menu presents the information about the status of the communications among the several
microcontrollers of the unit.
Menu Sistema
Informações de Sistema
Informações MASTER
Estado Comunicações Internas
Estado Comunicações Internas
9
SLAVE #1: ON
Erros: 63
SLAVE #2: ON
Erros: 47
ADC
: ON
Erros: 236
RTC
: ON
Erros: 0
Limpar Erros Comunicações
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.6. Internal Communications Status.
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It is presented the current status and the accumulated number of errors occurred in the
communications between the microcontroller corresponding to the current menu, and all the
others with which it can communicate.
By executing the order associated with the item Clear Communications Errors the counters of
communications errors will go back to 0.
Clear Memory Logs
To facilitate the clearing of the logs stored in the TPU S420, for example after conclusion of the
commissioning tests, the Clear Memory Registers menu is available.
Menu Sistema
Limpar Registos em Memória
Limpar Registos em Memória
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Limpar
Diagramas de Carga
Oscilografias
Medidas
Registo de Eventos
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.7. Clear Memory Logs Menu.
When accessing each of the items of the menu and executing the corresponding order the
registers of the corresponding type will be deleted:
Load Diagrams: all logs stored in non-volatile memory will be deleted; however all the
accumulated values in the most recent load diagrams in RAM memory are kept and
accessible in the Menus Interface.
Oscillographies: all registers stored in non-volatile memory will be deleted, however the
most recent oscillography saved in RAM memory is kept.
Measures: all measures and counters stored in non-volatile memory will be deleted:
maximum values of analogue measures, registers of the currents cut by circuit breakers (per
phase), number of manoeuvres of circuit breakers and number of manoeuvres of
disconnectors.
Event Logs: all logs stored in non-volatile memory will be deleted, however all events
corresponding to the most recent event logging are kept in RAM memory and accessible in
the Menus Interface.
After the completion of the cleaning process, there will no longer be logs of the chosen type
stored in non-volatile memory. If has already been requested a list of registers with WinReports
it is no longer possible to receive them, except for the most recent records. New requests of the
list of records in memory should be made.
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Restore Default Parameters
To facilitate the restore of the TPU S420 default settings, for exemple after completion of the
commissioning tests, the Restore Default Parameteres menu is available.
Menu Sistema
Recuperar Parâmetros de Fábrica
Recuperar Parâmetros de Fábrica
Dados de fábrica
Lógica de fábrica
Strings de fábrica
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.8. Restore Default Parameters Menu.
The restore of default parameters by this process obligatorily implicates the simultaneous
restore of the parameters of all functions of the TPU S420. To restore parameters of a specific
functions see Restore of default parameters in Section 9.1 - Routine Checks.
When accessing each item of the menu and executing the corresponding order, the logs of the
corresponding type will be restored:
Default Data: the default data of all Protection Functions, Automation Functions and
Configurations of the TPU S420 will be restored. All these functions will be updated with the
new data as soon as they are ready for it.
Default Logic: the configurations of the default automation logic of all Protection Functions,
Automation Functions and Configurations of the TPU S420 will be restored. It is necessary to
reset the protection so that the unit starts using this new logic configuration.
Default Strings: The default descriptions associated with the gates of the automation logic
for all Protection Functions, Automation Functions and Configurations of the TPU S420 will
be restored. The descriptions update will be immediately made in the Menus Interface,
therefore, when accessing the Access Event Logs menu one can visualize the most recent
Event Logging with the updated descriptions.
The restore of default parameters of the automation logic is not immediately reflected in the
TPU S420 operation. It is necessary to reset the unit so that the change is effective.
Clear Data Error
This menu allows clearing the indication of parameters error, previously activated during a unit’s
reset.
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Hardware Tests
Test functions are available for the TPU S420 hardware to check the correct operation of the
digital inputs and outputs boards.
Menu Sistema
Testes de Hardware
Testes de Hardware
Teste
Teste
Teste
Teste
das Entradas
das Saídas
dos LEDs
do LCD
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.9. Hardware Test Menu.
Inputs Test
When accessing the Inputs Test menu is possible to visualize the state of all digital inputs of the
TPU S420.
Menu Sistema
Testes de Hardware
Teste das Entradas
Teste das Entradas
Carta Base: 000000000
Carta Exp1: 0000000000000000
Carta Exp2: 0000000000000000
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.10. Hardware Test Menu.
For each board is presented the current state of each input, refreshed every second.
Outputs Test
When selecting the item Outputs Test and executing the associated command, the test of the
digital outputs will be initiated.
This test will operate all digital outputs of the boards existing in the TPU S420, and configure
them as present. The outputs of all boards will be successively operated, with 1 second interval
between outputs of the same board.
The verification of the correct output operation can be made by consulting the Event Log.
The outputs test causes the effective operation of the contacts of the output relays. Before doing
the test, it is advisable to check that the cabling of the digital outputs to the command coils of
the apparatus are disconnected, otherwise undesirable manoeuvres may be performed on them.
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LEDs Test
Selecting this item and executing the associated command will start the test of the front plane
LEDs. All LEDs in the front plane will be permanently on for 2 seconds and then go back to their
normal state.
This test easily allows verifying whether any of the front plane LEDs is damaged.
LCD Test
Selecting this item and executing the associated command with start the test of the LCD. All LCD
pixels will be permanently in ON state for 2 seconds and then the Menus Interface is again
displayed.
This test easily allows verifying whether any of the LCD pixels is fuse damaged.
Calibration
The Calibration menu allows consulting the calibration status of the TPU S420, start a new
calibration process or restore default calibrations.
Menu Sistema
Calibração
Calibração
Transf. de Medida Calibrados: ON
Nova Calibração (Fases)
Nova Calibração (Neutros)
Recuperar Calibração de Fábrica
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.11. Calibration Menu.
The line Measures Converters Calibrated presents the present status of calibration: OFF or
ON. Every TPU S420 is calibrated after manufacture during the process of final tests, so the
normal status of this information is ON.
It is possible to restore the default calibration of the TPU S420 by executing the associated order
in the item Restore Default Calibration. This is the only way to restore the default calibration
data.
When accessing the items New Calibration (Phases) and New Calibration (DCn) the user can
start a new calibration process of the TPU S420.
Calibration directly affects the operation of the unit. If the calibration process is incorrect, it can
lead to serious failures.
The correct procedure to use in the TPU S420 calibration is described in section 9.1. This
procedure should only be performed by trained personnel.
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Protection Reset
By executing the command associated with the item Protection Reset, the TPU S420 will
immediately reset.
When resetting the TPU S420 by this process, the store of registers in non-volatile memory that
are still in the RAM depends on the type of logs:
The events, which have not yet been stored in non-volatile memory, will be saved before the
protection resets.
The values of the load diagrams, which have not yet been stored in non-volatile memory, will
be lost. To avoid that it is necessary to execute the command Clear Load Diagrams in the
Load Diagram menu.
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9.2. FIRMWARE UPDATE
The TPU S420 allows, together with the PC interface program WinProt, updating its firmware by
using the serial port communication.
Whenever is necessary to update firmware of a TPU, a request to EFACEC should be made
referring the following data:
Complete ordering form of the unit.
Present firmware version of the unit.
The code to save in the protections will be supplied in ZIP format files containing the files with
the firmware itself and a file named firmware.id, containing additional information about that
code.
When necessary, EFACEC will also supply additional information eventually necessary to correctly
execute the firmware update.
Each one of those ZIP format files will have a name equal to the relay ordering form.
The firmware to save is contained in three files in Motorola S-Record format, each destined to
one of the microcontrollers existing in the CPU board and called MASTER, SLAVE 1 and SLAVE 2.
In case the unit foresees Ethernet communications, there is an additional file to save called
SLAVE3.
The firmware.id file has brief information about the firmware with the following information:
Type – Completely specifies the type of unit it is destined for, in the same format as the
identification made in the ordering form.
For example: TPU S420-Ed1-S-5A-5A-120V-120V-50Hz-D-2-2-ETH2-0-0-PT
The fields with X indicate that the firmware is suitable for any of the options existing in the
ordering form, for that field.
Version – In format [Version].[Release], indicates the firmware version and release;
Release Date – Date when the firmware version was made;
Release Notes – Additional information regarding the firmware.
The three firmware files should be saved following the procedures described in the WinProt
User’s Manual. After the process is completed, the TPU S420 should be reset.
Firmware download should only be performed by EFACEC’s authorized personnel.
During the firmware update process, the TPU S420 operates in a special mode where it does not
perform any if its protection and automation functions. This non-operation as protection unit is
signalized by the Watchdog output that stays in state 0 during the whole process.
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During the download process, it is essential to ensure that the power supply of the TPU S420 is
not interrupted.
If that happens there is the risk of the unit’s firmware becoming corrupted and therefore moving
to a status that invalidates the unit’s normal operation.
In the most common situation, the TPU S420 will restart its operation using the firmware version
it had before the saving process, and it is enough to execute that process again to make the
update.
In more serious cases, there is the possibility of the TPU S420 not being able to restart its normal
operation, situation signalized by the Watchdog output which will never change to state 1. In this
case, it is necessary to contact EFACEC for a corrective intervention.
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9.3. TROUBLESHOOTING
9.3.1. HARDWARE
Interventions at the hardware level should be limited to the absolutely necessary. These can
comprise the exchange of boards, change of fuse of the power supply or boards’
reconfiguration (jumpers and/or switches).
Any repair or change concerning hardware should only be performed by specialized personnel.
Precaution should be taken when removing or inserting electronic boards, namely at the level of
protection against electrostatic discharges. The boards should only be removed or inserted
when the TPU S420 is completely disconnected from the installation.
No modifications to the hardware of the TPU S420 that cause changes in the boards themselves
should be made, including welding works.
The human body easily acquires electrostatic charges that may easily damage the electronic
boards! Precautions should be taken when handling the boards. Avoid touching directly in the
components or connectors!
It is advisable the use of an anti-static bracelet. Otherwise, first touch a surface connected to
earth to clear eventual static charges.
TPU S420 Disassembly
Whenever necessary to disassemble the TPU S420 in order to remove, insert or exchange
electronic boards, the following steps must be followed:
A work area should be prepared where the boards to remove/insert will be placed. The
surface should have anti-static characteristics or an anti-static mat should be used.
The TPU S420 supply must be disconnected (both poles!) as well as the supply of the
communications board, if there is one. The earth protection should be the last connection to be
removed!
All communication cables should be disconnected, including TP1 and TP2 connectors and
optical fibre cables, if they exist. As for the last ones, precaution should be taken not to
damage the optical fibres.
The IO1 to IO6, P1 and IRIG-B connectors (if they exist) should be disconnected. To do so
unscrew the screws in the ends of the connectors with the help of a screwdriver dimension
0,6 x 3,5 mm and remove the connectors by pulling them out.
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Before disconnecting the T1 and T2 connectors, the current circuits should be short-circuited by
the means available (normally, test boxes). If the current circuits are open when in charge, before
being short-circuited, that may result in their destruction as well as in personnel damage. To
disconnect the T1 and T2 connectors, pull out the red pin and then the body of the connector..
Remove the last connection present that should be the earth protection. Then it is
possible to remove the back lid of the TPU S420, by unscrewing the ten screws that fix it
to the body of the unit with the help of a small Philips type screwdriver.
The boards are removed by pulling them out, being careful not to force any component
present in the boards. The processing board (CPU) will require more effort due to the
connectors used.
The removed boards should be placed on the anti-static surface mentioned before. The
boards should be handled with care to avoid any type of damage.
TPU S420 Assembly
To reassemble the TPU S420, the following steps should be taken:
Make sure that all the boards are rightly fitted and in the correct position (see section 2.2 Hardware for details).
Put the back lid of the TPU S420, by screwing the ten screws that fix to the body of the unit with
the help of a small Philips type screwdriver.
Make the connection of the earth protection that should be the first to be made for safety
reasons.
Then the IO1 to IO6, IRIG-B and P1 connectors (if they exist) should be connected. Fix them
in the respective positions and screw the ends of the connectors with the help of screwdriver
dimension 0,6 x 3,5 mm.
All communication cables should be connected, including TP1 and TP2 connectors and
optical fibre cables, if they exist. As for the last ones, precautions should be taken not to
damage the optical fibres.
Connect the T1 and T2 connectors, with the current circuits still short-circuited by the available
means (normally, test boxes), ensuring its correct placement and fit. If the current circuits are
open before the correct connection of the T1 connector, that may result in the destruction of the
current circuits as well as in personnel damage. Only after the connector is properly connected
should the current circuits be re-established.
The supply of the TPU S420 and the communications board, if it exists, should be connected.
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The exchange of A/D Analogue Inputs boards and/or Processing (CPU) boards may cause
alterations in the unit’s operation, besides requiring a new calibration process!
Replacement of the power supply fuses (base board)
There are two protection fuses in the supply input of the TPU S420. This fuse is in the I/O+
Power Supply base board (connectors IO1 and IO2). To replace it take the following steps:
Disassemble the TPU S420 as previously described.
Remove the I/O+ Power Supply base board and place it on the anti-static surface previously
mentioned.
The location of the fuses is indicated in Figure 9.12. Remove the protecting plastic cover.
Remove the faulty fuse and replace it by a T3,15AH 250 V (for Option 19-72 V d.c.) or
T1,25AH 250 V (for Option 80-265 V a.c. / 88-300 V d.c.), with dimensions 5 x 20 mm.
Carefully confirm its characteristic (T), as well as the values of voltage and current. Put the
protecting plastic cover again.
Insert the I/O+ Power Supply base board in the TPU S420, ensuring that it is correctly fitted.
Assemble the TPU S420 as previously described.
9
Figure 9.12. Location of fuses (FU4 and FU5) in the I/O+ Power Supply base board.
Replacement of the fuse of the communications board with auxiliary
power supply
There is also a protection fuse in the supply input of the LonWorks network board with auxiliary
supply, if this board exists. To replace it, take the following steps:
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Disassemble the TPU S420 as previously described.
Remove the LonWorks communications board and place it on the anti-static surface
previously mentioned.
The location of the fuse is indicated in Figure 9.13. Remove the protecting plastic cover.
Remove the faulty fuse and replace it by a fuse type T1A 250V, with dimensions 5 x 20 mm.
Carefully confirm its characteristic (T), as well as the values of voltage and current. Put the
protecting plastic cover again.
Insert the LonWorks communications board in the TPU S420, ensuring that it is correctly
fitted.
Assemble the TPU S420 as previously described.
During fuse replacement and even with the unit disconnected, it is possible to have dangerous
voltage levels in the power supply circuits. It is advisable to wait at least 60 seconds for the
energy storage capacitors to be discharged!
Figure 9.13. Location of fuse (FU1) in the communications board.
9
HW Configuration of the LonWorks communications board
The LonWorks communications board has a dip-switch for configuration of the type of
transceiver used, as well as of the source of the reset signal for the communications processor
(Neuron chip). To access this board, consider the procedure described in section .
Figure 9.14 shows the location of the configuration dip-switch. The position of each switch is
shown in black and is the default configuration. This configuration should not be changed,
otherwise the board may not operate correctly. Any change in the configuration must only be
performed by technical personnel from EFACEC. Table 9.1 has the description of the eight
switches and again the default configuration for an optical fibre transceiver.
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Figure 9.14. Location of the dip-switch (INT1) in the communications board.
Table 9.1. Possible configurations for the communications board.
Switch
Number
Signal
Description
Default state
FO-10
TP/XF-1250
Optical Fibre
1.25Mbps
Twisted Pair
1.25Mbps
1
XID0
Identifier # 0 of the transceiver type.
OFF
ON
2
XID1
Identifier # 1 of the transceiver type.
OFF
ON
3
XID2
Identifier # 2 of the transceiver type.
OFF
OFF
4
XID3
Identifier # 3 of the transceiver type.
ON
OFF
5
XID4
Identifier # 4 of the transceiver type.
ON
OFF
6
--
Not used.
OFF
OFF
7
N_RST
Reset signal of the specific Neuron
chip.
ON
ON
8
TPU_R
ST
Neuron chip reset signal common to
that of the TPU S420.
OFF
OFF
Disassembly of the piggy-back board of the CPU board
There are three types of piggy-back boards for serial communication or by DNP 3.0 Serial
Protocol. To replace it, take the following steps:
Disassemble the TPU S420 as described in TPU S420 Disassembly. Remove the CPU board
and place it on the anti-static surface previously mentioned.
Unscrew both screws that fix the piggy-back board to the CPU board. Remove the distance
pieces, rings and bolts. Unfix the male header of the piggy-back board from the female
connector of the CPU board.
Remove the original piggy-back board and replace it by the new one, with the shunts
correctly placed in the jumpers and with the necessary communication characteristics.
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Fix the board using the mentioned screws and rings. Put the distance pieces in the screws
and fit the piggy-back in the female connector of the CPU board.
Insert the CPU board in the TPU S420, ensuring the board is correctly fitted.
Assemble the TPU S420 as described in TPU S420.
In case the piggy-backs are incorrectly mounted, damage may occur in the CPU board
and/or in the piggy-back board.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
Any assembly or disassembly of piggy-back boards of the processing board (CPU) should be
carried out by authorised technical personnel.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
HW Configuration of the Ethernet communications board
The Ethernet communications board of the TPU S420 has several configuration jumpers. To
access this board, consider the procedure described in section TPU S420 Disassembly.
Table 9.2 has the description of the functions of the several jumpers and Figure 9.15 shows
their location.
The communication mode of the Ethernet board can be defined by software through the CPU’s
own instructions or by hardware during the power on of the TPU S420.
Therefore, the configuration of the jumpers PP4, PP5, PP6, PP8 and PP9 define the
communication mode of the board. Table 9.3, Table 9.4 and Table 9.5 describe possible pin
configurations for the different operation modes loaded by hardware during the start of the
Ethernet board.
By default, the board will be supplied with the 100BASE-X Full Duplex operation mode for all
copper and fibre transceivers and without the optical fibre exclusive mode.
Any change in jumpers configuration should only be carried out by EFACEC technical personnel.
9
Table 9.2. Description of the different jumpers of the Ethernet communications board.
Jumper
Associated
Signal
Description
Default
State
PP1
+5V
Supply for external converter. Provided in the pin 9 of plug
D9 +5V through the fuse FU1 for supply of an external
converter. Maximum current of 100 mA.
Open
PP2
/OE2
Reserved.
Open
PP3
/OE1
Reserved.
Open
PP4
AN1
Auto Negotiation Mode of the PHY1.
Open
PP5
AN0
Auto Negotiation Mode of the PHY1.
Pins 2-3
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Jumper
Associated
Signal
Description
Default
State
PP6
AN0
Auto Negotiation Mode of the PHY2.
Pins 2-3
PP7
RESET
Activation of Reset by hardware.
Open
PP8
FXEN
Fibre Enable for PHY1 and PHY2.
Open
PP9
AN1
Auto Negotiation Mode of the PHY2.
Open
PP10
WDI
Activation of Watchdog by hardware. Activates the
Watchdog of the processing module.
Closed
PP11
/WE1
Reserved.
Open
PP13
INTR0
Reserved.
Pins 1-2
PP14
/OE3
Reserved.
Open
PP15
AUISEL
Reserved.
Pins 2-3
Table 9.3. Possible hardware default operation modes for transceivers TP1and FO1.
PHY
1
Transceiver
Jumper
Operation Mode Description
Via Auto
Negotiation
No
PP4
PP5
TP1
1-2
Open
10BASE-T Half Duplex
FO1
2-3
Open
10BASE-T Full Duplex
Open
1-2
100BASE-X Half Duplex
Open
2-3
100BASE-X Full Duplex
Open
Open
All Capable
1-2
1-2
10BASE-T Half / Full Duplex
1-2
2-3
100BASE-TX Half / Full Duplex
2-3
1-2
10BASE-T /100BASE-TX Half Duplex
2-3
2-3
10BASE-T Half Duplex
Yes
Table 9.4. Possible hardware default operation modes for transceivers TP2 and FO2.
PHY
2
Transceiver
Jumper
Operation Mode Description
Via Auto
Negotiation
No
PP9
PP6
TP2
1-2
Open
10BASE-T Half Duplex
FO2
2-3
Open
10BASE-T Full Duplex
Open
1-2
100BASE-X Half Duplex
Open
2-3
100BASE-X Full Duplex
Open
Open
All Capable
1-2
1-2
10BASE-T Half / Full Duplex
1-2
2-3
100BASE-TX Half / Full Duplex
2-3
1-2
10BASE-T /100BASE-TX Half Duplex
2-3
2-3
10BASE-T Half Duplex
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Table 9.5. Possible hardware default operation modes for transceivers TP1, TP2, FO1 and FO2.
PHY
Transceiver
Jumper
Shunt
Pins
Operation Mode Description
1
TP1
PP8
Closed
100 BASE-FX Operation (only optical fibre)
2
TP2
Open
Normal Mode
1-2
Reserved
2-3
Normal Mode
FO1
FO2
PP15
9
Figure 9.15. Location of the jumpers in the Ethernet communications board.
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The technical personnel should be adequately trained in the application field and know the
correct handling procedures of this type of equipment.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
The human body easily acquires electrostatic charges that may easily damage the electronic
boards! Precaution should be taken when handling the boards. Avoid touching directly in the
components or connectors!
It is advisable the use of an anti-static bracelet. Otherwise, first touch a surface connected to
earth to clear eventual static charges.
Do not place the welding side of this board on a metal or conducting surface in order to avoid
short-circuits among components and/or involuntary discharge of the battery (BT1).
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
HW Configuration of the processing board (CPU)
The processing board (CPU) of the TPU S420 has several configuration jumpers. To access this
board, consider the procedure described in section TPU S420 Disassembly.
Table 9.6 has the description of the functions of the several jumpers and Figure 9.16 shows
their location.
Any change in jumpers’ configuration should only be carried out by EFACEC technical personnel.
Table 9.6. Description of the different jumpers of the processing board.
Jumper
Description
Default State
PP1, PP2,
PP3, PP4,
PP5, PP6
Reserved
Open
PP13, PP14,
PP15
Reserved
Open
PP16
Reserved
Open
PP7, PP8,
PP10
Activation of Watchdog by hardware. Activates the
Watchdog of the processing module.
Closed
PP9, PP11,
PP12
Activation of Reset by hardware.
Open
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Figure 9.16. Location of the jumpers in the processing board.
There are three types of piggy-back boards that can be installed in the COM1 and COM2
positions: interface RS232, interface RS485 and optical fibre, whether glass or plastic.
These boards have several configuration jumpers. To access these boards, consider the
procedure described in section Disassembly of the piggy-back board of the CPU board.
Any change in piggy-back boards’ assembly should only be carried out by EFACEC technical
personnel.
The technical personnel should be adequately trained in the application field and know the
correct handling procedures of this type of equipment.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
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The human body easily acquires electrostatic charges that may easily damage the electronic
boards! Precaution should be taken when handling the boards. Avoid touching directly in the
components or connectors!
It is advisable the use of an anti-static bracelet. Otherwise, first touch a surface connected to
earth to clear eventual static charges.
Do not place the welding side of this board on a metal or conducting surface in order to avoid
short-circuits among components and/or involuntary discharge of the batteries (BT1 to BT4).
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
HW Configuration of the piggy-back board for optical fibre interface
The piggy-back boards for plastic or glass optical fibre interface belonging to the processing
board (CPU) of the TPU S420 have one configuration jumper. To access this piggy-back board,
consider the procedure described in section Disassembly of the piggy-back board of the CPU
board.
Table 9.7 has the description of the jumper’s functions and Figure 9.17 shows their location.
Any change in jumper’s configuration should only be carried out by EFACEC technical personnel.
Table 9.7. Description of the different jumpers of the piggy-back board for optical fibre
interface.
Jumper
Shunt Pins
Operation Mode Description
PP1
1-2
Ring connection (RING)
2-3
Point to point connection (NORM)
9
Figure 9.17. Location of the jumper in the piggy-back board for optical fibre interface.
The technical personnel should be adequately trained in the application field and know the
correct handling procedures of this type of equipment.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
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HW Configuration of the piggy-back board for RS485 interface
The piggy-back board for RS485 interface has one configuration jumper. To access this board,
consider the procedure described in section Disassembly of the piggy-back board of the CPU
board.
Table 9.8 has the description of the jumper’s functions and Figure 9.18 shows their location.
The operation mode with parallel ending of 120 Ω of the bus 485 becomes necessary for high
transmission rates or in situations with long transmission cables. As a general rule for good
implementation of the bus 485, the transmission rate (in bps) multiplied by the cable length (in
meters) should not exceed the value 108.
Any change in jumper’s configuration should only be carried out by EFACEC technical personnel.
Table 9.8. Description of the jumpers of the piggy-back board for RS485 interface.
Jumper
Shunt
Pins
Operation Mode Description
PP1
Open
Ending of bus 485 without line adjustment.
Closed
Ending of bus 485 with line adjustment of 120Ω.
Open
Ending of bus 485 without Open-Line Fail Safe Ending.
Closed
Fail safe ending in bus 485.
Open
Ending of bus 485 without Open-Line Fail Safe Ending.
Closed
Fail safe ending in bus 485.
PP2
PP3
9
Figure 9.18. Location of the jumpers in the piggy-back board for RS485 interface (revision A).
The technical personnel should be adequately trained in the application field and know the
correct handling procedures of this type of equipment.
The failure to comply with these recommendations may endanger the correct operation of the
TPU S420 and cause personnel and/or equipment damage.
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
9.3.2. SOFTWARE
Restore of default parameters
The TPU S420 allows restoring at any time the default parameters of the protection functions,
automation functions and configuration.
This function is useful when one desires to make an extensive change of the relay settings and
ensures that the group of parameters will have again known values.
It is important to mention that in the case of the functions data, the restore of default values
implicates that the function changes automatically to the Out of Service state. Besides that, the
active scenario will become Setting Group 1.
There are two possibilities to restore the default parameters: full restore and restore per
function.
Full restore is executed through the system menu as described in Restore Default Parameters
This process can be independently executed for the default data, logic and strings.
The restore per function is only possible for data. There is not the same possibility for default
logic and strings as it is obligatory to ensure the coherence of the unit’s automation logic as well
as the strings of the different modules.
To restore a specific group of data is necessary to enter the System Password: 097531.
After entering the password a new item will be presented in each of the configuration menus of
the TPU S420 functions: Default Values.
Funções de Protecção
Protecção Máximo Corrente de Fases
Protecção Máximo Corrente de Fases
Cenário 1
Cenário 2
Cenário 3
Cenário 4
Configuração Cenário
Valores por Defeito
¤/¥ mudar página; E aceitar; C cancelar
9
Figure 9.19. Phase Overcurrent Menu – Default Values.
By selecting this item and executing the associated order the default values will be restored.
9.3.3. CALIBRATION
The calibration allows the TPU S420 to collect information about the hardware responsible for
the analogue-digital conversion of the measurements. This information is used to compensate
the non-linearity and deviations from the nominal value introduced by these elements in the
several measurements.
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
New calibration is required whenever the CT&VT Board, the A/D Board or the CPU Board is
replaced, both for reasons of malfunction or for the need to change the available options.
To execute the calibration of the TPU S420, specific configurations of the Inputs and Outputs
Base Board are necessary.
Entradas e Saídas
Carta I/O Base
Parâmetros
Saídas
Configuração Lógica
Configuração Lógica
S1>
S2>
S3>
S4>
S5>
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Config:
Comando Fecho Calibração
Nada Atribuído
Nada Atribuído
Nada Atribuído
Nada Atribuído
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Operação
Operação
S1>
S2>
S3>
S4>
S5>
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
Operação:
IMPULSO
SINALIZACAO
SINALIZACAO
SINALIZACAO
SINALIZACAO
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Tempo de Impulso
Tempo de Impulso
S1>
S2>
S3>
S4>
S5>
T
T
T
T
T
Impulso:
Impulso:
Impulso:
Impulso:
Impulso:
0.120
0.120
0.120
0.120
0.120
9
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.20. Configuration of the Inputs/Outputs Base Board for calibration.
The configurations are shown in Figure 9.20 and can be consulted in the Menus Interface of the
TPU S420.
The configuration can be directly made in the TPU S420. It is necessary to enter the SCADA
password and confirm the changes in the end. Alternatively, one can use the WinSettings
module of the WinProt to make these configurations.
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
The calibration process consists in injecting known values of the analogue measurements in the
corresponding inputs, with a pre-defined sequence.
The control of that sequence is automatically made by the unit itself. As soon as it concludes the
calculation of the compensation factors, it operates on a digital output indicating that the next
group of values of analogue measurements should be applied.
The process can become automatic by using a test bag with sequence definition capacity.
Phases Calibration
Three-phase systems of voltages and currents with the fundamental frequency should be
injected in the analogue inputs of the TPU S420 corresponding to the phases. The initial state
corresponds to applying voltages and currents with an effective value of 0,00 p.u.
Then the phase calibration process should be initiated by executing the corresponding
command in the Calibration menu.
Menu Sistema
Calibração
Calibração
Transf. de Medida Calibrados: ON
Nova
Nova Calibração
Calibração (Fases)
(Fases)
Nova Calibração (Neutros)
Recuperar Calibração de Fábrica
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.21. Phases Calibration.
From this moment on, the values indicated in Table 9.9 must be injected on every new operation
of the output 1 of the Base Board.
Table 9.9. Phases Calibration Values.
State
Single Voltages RMS
Value [V]
Currents RMS Value
[p.u.]
Initial State
0,00
0,00
State #1
3,00
0,05
State #2
38,00
0,20
State #3
38,00
0,70
State #4
38,00
1,20
State #5
64,00
0,20
State #6
64,00
0,70
State #7
64,00
1,20
State #8
110,00
0,20
State #9
110,00
0,70
State #10
110,00
1,20
State #11
125,00
2,00
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
The values are presented in p.u., regarding the nominal values of the CTs and VTs. The absolute
values to apply to CTs and VTs are obtained by multiplying the previous values by the respective
nominal values.
Neutral Calibration
Voltages and currents should be injected with the fundamental frequency in the analogue inputs
of the TPU S420 corresponding to the neutral current and fourth voltage input. The initial state
corresponds to applying the currents with an effective value of 0,00 p.u.
Then the neutral calibration process should be initiated by executing the corresponding
command in the Calibration menu.
Menu Sistema
Calibração
Calibração
Transf. de Medida Calibrados: ON
Nova Calibração (Fases)
Nova Calibração (Neutros)
Recuperar Calibração de Fábrica
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.22. Neutral Calibration.
From this moment on, the values indicated in Table 9.10 must be injected on every new
operation of the output 1 of the Base Board.
Table 9.10. Neutral Calibration Values.
State
Voltage RMS Value [V]
Current RMS Value
[p.u.]
Initial State
0,00
0,00
State #1
3,00
0,05
State #2
38,00
0,20
State #3
64,00
0,70
State #4
110,00
1,20
State #5
125,00
2,00
9
The values are presented in p.u., regarding the nominal current of the CTs. The absolute values
to apply to CTs are obtained by multiplying the previous values by the respective nominal
current.
Default Calibration Restore
In the event of a problem occurring in the calibration it is possible to use again the default
defined calibration values.
For that purpose execute the command existing in the Calibration menu.
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
Menu Sistema
Calibração
Calibração
Transf. de Medida Calibrados: ON
Nova Calibração (Fases)
Nova Calibração (Neutros)
Recuperar Calibração de Fábrica
¤/¥ mover cursor; E aceitar; C cancelar
Figure 9.23. Calibration Menu – Default Calibration Restore.
The indication Calibrated Measurement Transf.: OFF should be presented after the
completion of the restoring process.
When restoring the default calibration, the precision of the measurement indicated in the
datasheet in no longer guaranteed. Therefore, after default data restore, a new calibration
process should always be performed.
9
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
9.4. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
I have changed the automation logic using WinLogic, I have downloaded it correctly to
the protection, but the changes do not seem to have been updated. What is the problem?
For the automation logic changes to be effective, the relay must be reset after sending the new
data. There are two options to do so:
Option 1 - in the TPU:
Enter System Password: 097531.
Give the order Protection Reset with the "E" key and confirm that order again with the "E"
key.
Option 2 - in WinLogic:
In Communications menu click TPU Reset.
I need to change the Location String of a TPU. How should I do it? Is it necessary to reset
the protection?
To change the Location String of any protection of the X420 range is only necessary to do the
following:
Change the Location String in the SCADA Configuration > Hardware Configuration >
Parameters menu.
In the SCADA Configuration > Hardware Configuration > Information menu give the
order Neuron Chip Reset.
Note: this process only works if the Neuron Chip is synchronized with the TPU, which can be
checked through the information Neuron Status: 0x1* in the Information menu. It is not
necessary to disconnect neither the LAN nor the RTU.
Is the distributed database implemented in the TPU x420 compatible with what was
implemented in the previous generations of TPUs?
The architecture currently implemented allows the broadcast of digital signals, represented to
the bit, analogue measurements and counters. It is compatible with the units of the previous
generation, TPU x410, but not with generations prior to that.
Can I configure the system to communicate with two different units, for example a TD420
and a S420?
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
Yes. Among all units of the x420 family the distributed database structure is exactly the same:
64 digital entities, 3 measurements and 3 counters.
It is possible to configure any of the units to send or receive information through the DDB for
any of the others.
In the configuration of the earth fault overcurrent protections, which is the nominal
current referred as "p.u." in the WinProt?
The "p.u." is always referred to the nominal current of the source chosen for the residual current.
For the external transformer, that current input is the input of the auxiliary CT. For the sum it is
the input of the phase CTs because it is from them that the sum of the currents is made.
For example, for a TPU with phase CT = 5A and neutral CT = 1A, the nominal value will be
equal to: 1A for the external source, and 5A in the case of the internal sum of the phase
currents.
How can I easily clear all registers stored during the tests to one protection?
The quickest way to clear is the following:
In the TPU:
Enter the System Password: 097531.
Go to the System Menu > Clear Registers in Memory
Select each one of the types of registers, give the clear order with the
"E" key and confirm that order again with the "E" key.
The TPU S420 does not work. What can I do?
To solve this problem check the following:
Check if the supply connections are well executed by checking the connection scheme.
Check if the supply is on and with the correct supply voltage.
9
Check if the fuse of the unit’s internal power supply is not broken.
I cannot make the TPU S420 to have the flag GC OK from CLP 500URT in ON state. What
is the problem?
For the TPU S420 to have GC OK in ON state it is necessary that it is configured to send all
entities that are configured in the database of the CLP 500URT to be received from that unit.
Confirm in the database of the CLP 500URT which are the entities to send and then confirm if
the unit is actually sending them.
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Chapter 9 - Maintenance
In case some of the expected digital entities are not being sent, it can happen that it has not
been reset yet after the sending of the automation logic data.
Do not forget that the changes in the logic data are only effective after the TPU reset.
I cannot communicate with the TPU S420 through LAN. What is going on?
To communicate through LAN it is necessary that all elements of the network are correctly
configured. Check the following:
Check if the database of the CLP 500URT has the correct configuration to communicate with
the unit.
Check if the Location String allocated to the unit is coherent in the database of the CLP
500URT and in the TPU itself.
Check if the Neuron Chip is correctly configured. Otherwise, it is necessary to execute the
LoadNodes program to configure it.
Check if the serial number in the WinProt database is in accordance with that of the TPU.
The current measurements presented by the TPU S420 are wrong. How can I correct
them?
The current measurements executed by the TPU S420 depend on several factors, including the
error inherent to the calculation of the measurements values.
In case these errors are clearly above the precision specified for the unit, it can be due to one of
the following causes:
The TPU is not correctly calibrated, so it is not able to make the necessary corrections to the
measurements values. To correct that, it is necessary to calibrate the TPU again.
The saved firmware is not in accordance with the transformers board existing in the unit.
Confirm if the information presented in the Information menu corresponds exactly to the
existing transformers board and if the frequency for which the firmware is prepared
corresponds to operational frequency.
The transformation ratio of the measurement transformers configured in the TPU is not
correct.
For the measurements of the differential currents, check if the configuration of the
transformer nominal values (nominal voltages and connections group) is correct.
I cannot communicate with the TPU S420 through the serial port. What is going on?
To communicate through the serial port it is necessary to:
Check if the serial port configuration is in accordance with the defined for the serial port
used. To determine the correct configuration see the WinProt User’s Manual.
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9
Chapter 9 - Maintenance
Check if the cable used is the appropriate. A transparent serial cable with D9 plugs should be
used.
Check if the serial number in the WinProt database is in accordance with that of the TPU.
The TPU S420 does not register the transitions of the digital inputs and cannot operate on
the digital outputs of an expansion board. What is the problem?
To identify and correct this problem it is necessary to:
Check if the voltage range applied in the digital inputs corresponds to the operation voltage
of the board’s inputs.
Check the polarity of the inputs connections.
Check that the expansion board is correctly mounted in the TPU.
Check that the configuration of the board type is in accordance with the board mounted.
Check if the board is configured as PRESENT.
9
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10
Chapter
10.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
This chapter presents in detail all technical and functional characteristics of the TPU S420, the
protection and control of Medium Voltage line unit.
Chapter 10 - Technical Specifications
Analogue current inputs
Analogue voltage inputs
Power Supply
Binary Inputs
Binary Outputs
Communication Interfaces
Frequency
50 Hz / 60 Hz
Rated Current
1A/5 A
Thermal Withstand
5 A / 15 A continuous
50 A / 200 A for 1 s
4th Input Rated Current
5 A / 1 A / 0,2 A / 0,04 A
Thermal Withstand
15 A / 5 A / 1,5 A / 0,5 A continuous
200 A / 50 A / 10 A / 4 A for 1 s
Burden
< 0,25 VA @ In
Frequency
50 Hz / 60 Hz
Rated voltage (phase-to-phase)
100 / 110 / 115 / 120 V
Overvoltage
1,5 Un continuous; 2,5 Un for 10 s
Burden
< 0,25 VA @ Un
Voltage range
24 V d.c.
(19 - 72 V d.c.)
48 V d.c.
(19 - 72 V d.c.)
110 / 125 V a.c./ d.c.
(88 - 300 V d.c./ 80 - 265 V a.c.)
220 / 240 V a.c./ d.c.
(88 - 300 V d.c./80 - 265 V a.c.)
Burden
12 to 30 W / 20 to 60 VA
Ripple at DC Auxiliary Power
Supply
< 12%
Rated Voltage / Working Range
24 V
48 V
110/125 V
220/250 V
(19 ... 138) V d.c.
(30 ... 120) V d.c.
(80 ... 220) V d.c.
(150…300) V d.c.
Power Consumption
< 0,05 W (1,5 mA @ 24 V d.c.)
< 0,1 W (1,5 mA @ 48 V d.c.)
< 0,2 W (1,5 mA @ 125 V d.c.)
< 0,4 W (1,5 mA @ 250 V d.c.)
Debounce Time
24 V
48 V
110/125 V
220/250 V
1 .. 128 ms
Chatter Filter
1 .. 255
Validation Time of double inputs
1 .. 60 s
Rated Voltage
250 V a.c./ d.c.
Rated Current
5A
Making Capacity
1 s @ 10 A; 0,2 s @ 30 A
Breaking Capacity
d.c. : 1/0,4/0,2 A @ 48/110/220 V; L/R < 40 ms
a.c. : 1250 VA (250 V / 5 A); cos > 0,4
Voltage between open contacts
1 kV rms 1 min
Operating Mode
Pulsed / Latched
Pulse Duration
0,02 .. 5 s
Lonworks
Fibre Type
Wavelength
Connector
Max. Distance
Ethernet
Fibre Type
Wavelength
Connector
Max. Distance
Glass optical fibre Piggy-back
Fibre Type
Wavelength
Connector
Max. Distance
Plastic optical fibre Piggy-back
Fibre Type
Wavelength
Max. Distance
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
Multimode glass optical fibre
50/125 µm or 62,5/125 µm
880 nm or 1320 nm
ST
30 km
Multimode glass optical fibre
50/125 µm or 62,5/125 µm
1300 nm
ST (SC optional)
2 km
10
Multimode glass optical fibre
50/125 µm or 62,5/125 µm
820 nm
ST
1,7 km
Plastic optical fibre (POF)
1 mm
650 nm
45 m
10-2
Chapter 10 - Technical Specifications
Insulation Tests
EMC – Immunity Tests
EMC – Emission Tests
CE Marking
High Voltage Test
EN 60255-5
2,5 kV a.c. 1 min 50 Hz
3 kV d.c. 1 min (power supply)
Impulse Voltage Test
EN 60255-5
5 kV 1,2/50 s, 0,5 J
Insulation Resistance
EN 60255-5
> 100 M
1 MHz Burst Disturbance Test
IEC 60255-22-1 Class III
EN 61000-4-12
2,5 kV common mode
1 kV differential mode
Electrostatic Discharge
EN 61000-4-2
EN 60255-22-2 Class IV
8 kV contact; 15 kV air
Electromagnetic field
EN 61000-4-3
80 MHz–1000 MHz; 10 V/m; 80% AM
900 5 MHz; 10 V/m; 50%; 200Hz
Fast Transient Disturbance
EN 61000-4-4
IEC 60255-22-4 Class IV
4 kV 5/50 ns
Surge Immunity Test
EN 61000-4-5
4/2 kV (power supply)
2/1 kV (I/O)
Conducted RF Disturbance Test
EN 61000-4-6
10 V rms, 150 kHz–80 MHz
@ 1 kHz 80% am
Power Frequency Magnetic Field
Immunity Test
EN 61000-4-8
30 A/m cont; 300 A/m 3 s
Voltage Variations Immunity
Tests
EN 61000-4-11
IEC 60255-11
10 ms @ 70%; 100 ms @ 40%
1 s @ 40%; 5 s @ 0%
Interruptions in Auxiliary Supply
EN 61000-4-11
IEC 60255-11
5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 ms
Voltage range
EN 61000-3-3
Class A
Current harmonics
EN 61000-3-2
Class A
Radiated Emission
EN 55011; EN 55022
30 – 1000 MHz class A
Conducted Emission
EN 55011; EN55022
0,15 – 30 MHz class A
Electromagnetic
Compatibility Directive
Immunity
EN 61000-6-2 : 2005
EN 50263 : 1999
Emission
EN 61000-6-4 : 2007
EN 50263 : 1999
Low Voltage Directive
Mechanical Tests
Environmental Tests
Weight
@ 500 V d.c.
EN 60950-1 : 2006 + A11:2009
EN 60255-5 : 2001
Vibration Tests (sinusoidal)
IEC 60255-21-1, IEC 60870-2-2, Class Cm, 2g,
6Hz to 200Hz
Shock and Bump Tests
IEC 60255-21-2, IEC 60870-2-2, Class Cm, 30g,
11ms
Protection rate against mechanical actions (IK)
EN 50102, IK07
Operating Temperature Range
- 10 ºC to + 55 ºC
Storage Temperature Range
- 25 ºC to + 70 ºC
Cold Test, IEC 60068-2-1
- 10 ºC, 72h
Dry Heat Test, IEC 60068-2-2
+ 55 ºC, 72h
Salt Mist Test, IEC 60068-2-11
96h
Damp Heat Test, IEC 60068-2-78
+ 40 ºC, 93% RH, 96h
Storage Temperature Test,
IEC 60068-2-48
- 25 ºC
+ 70 ºC
Degree of Protection according to EN 60529,
frontal side, flush mounted
IP54
Degree of Protection according to EN 60259, rear
side
IP20
10
8 kg
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
10-3
Chapter 10 - Technical Specifications
Definite/Inverse Time Low Set
Overcurrent Protection for Phase to
Phase Faults
High Set Overcurrent Protection for
Phase to Phase Faults
Curves
NI, VI, EI, LI of IEC standard
NI, VI, EI, LI of IEEE standard
Operational Current
0,2 .. 20 pu
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
TM regulation
0,05 .. 1,5
Timer Accuracy
10 ms (definite time)
3% or 10 ms (inverse time)
Current Accuracy
3% (minimum 3% I n)
Start Value of Inverse Time Protection
1,2 Iop
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Static Reset Time
30 ms
Operational Current
0,2 .. 40 pu
Time Delay
0 .. 60 s
Min. Operating Time
30 ms (with I
Timer Accuracy
Definite Time Universal Overcurrent
Protection for Phase to Phase Faults
Current Accuracy
5% (minimum 3% I n)
Reset Ratio
0,95
Max. Reset time
30 ms
Operational Current
0,2 .. 40 pu
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
Timer Accuracy
High Set Overcurrent Protection for
Phase to Earth Faults
Definite Time Universal Overcurrent
Protection for Phase to Earth Faults
3% (minimum 3% I n)
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
Operational Current
0,1 .. 40 pu
Time Delay
0 .. 60 s
Min. Operating Time
30 ms (with I
Directional Earth Fault Protection
2 Iop)
10 ms
Current Accuracy
5% (minimum 3% I n)
Reset Ratio
0,95
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
Curves
NI, VI, EI, LI of IEC standard
NI, VI, EI, LI of IEEE standard
Operational Current
0,1 .. 20 pu
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
TM regulation
0,5 .. 15
Timer Accuracy
10 ms (definite time)
3% or 10 ms (inverse time)
Current Accuracy
3% (minimum 3% I n)
Start Value of Inverse Time Protection
1,2 Iop
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Static Reset Time
30 ms
Operational Current
0,1 .. 40 pu
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
Timer Accuracy
Directional Phase Fault Protection
10 ms
Current Accuracy
Timer Accuracy
Definite/Inverse Time Low Set
Overcurrent Protection for Phase to
Earth Faults
2 Iop)
10 ms
10 ms
Current Accuracy
3% (minimum 3% I n)
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
Available Phase Relations
30º .. 60º (forward/reverse)
Memory duration after voltage drop
2,5 s
Available Phase Relations
-90º .. 90º (forward/reverse)
Min. Zero sequence Voltage
0,005.. 0,8 pu
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10-4
Chapter 10 - Technical Specifications
Resistive Earth Fault Protection
High Set Phase Balance Protection
Operational Current
0,125 .. 5 pu
TM Regulation
0,05 .. 1,5
Start set for recloser
0,125 .. 5 pu
Timer Accuracy
3% or
Current Accuracy
3% (minimum 3% I n)
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
Operational Current
0,1 .. 10 pu
Time Delay
0 .. 60 s
Min. Operating Time
30 ms (with I
Timer Accuracy
Definite/Inverse Time Low Set Phase
Balance Protection
Negative Vs. Direct Sequence
Overcurrent Protection Ratio
5% (minimum 3% I n)
Reset Ratio
0,95
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
Curves
NI, VI, EI, LI of IEC standard
NI, VI, EI, LI of IEEE standard
Operational Current
0,1 .. 5 pu
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
TM Regulation
0,5 .. 15
Timer Accuracy
10 ms (definite time)
3% or 10 ms (inverse time)
Current Accuracy
3% (minimum 3% I n)
Start Value of Inverse Time Protection
1,2 Iop
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Static Reset Time
30 ms
Negative sequence / direct sequence ratio
20 .. 100 %
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
Minimum value of the negative sequence
10 % I n
5% (minimum 3% I n)
Reset Ratio
0,92
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
Operational Voltage
0,05 .. 1 pu (VREF = VPHASE-TO-PHASE)
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
10 ms
Voltage Accuracy
2%
Voltage Absence Validation Current
< 3% I n
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
Operational Voltage
0,5 .. 1,5 pu (VREF = VPHASE-TO-PHASE)
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
Timer Accuracy
Zero Sequence Overvoltage
Protection
10 ms
Current Accuracy
Timer Accuracy
Overvoltage Protection
2 Iop)
10 ms
Current Accuracy
Timer Accuracy
Undervoltage Protection
10 ms
10 ms
Voltage Accuracy
2%
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
Operational Voltage
0,005 .. 0,8 pu (VREF = V ZERO SEQUENCE)
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
Timer Accuracy
10 ms
Voltage Accuracy
2%
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
10
10-5
Chapter 10 - Technical Specifications
Underfrequency Protection
Operational Frequency
0,8 .. 1 pu
Changing Rate
- 0,1 .. -10 Hz/s
Time Delay
0,07 .. 120 s
Minimum Voltage of Operation
0,05 .. 1 pu (VREF = VPHASE-TO-PHASE)
Timer Accuracy
Overfrequency Protection
10 ms
Frequency Accuracy
0,1 % (0,05 Hz)
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
Operational Frequency
1 .. 1,2 pu
Changing Rate
+ 0,1 .. 10 Hz/s
Time Delay
0,07 .. 120 s
Minimum Voltage of Operation
0,05 .. 1 pu (VREF = VPHASE-TO-PHASE)
Timer Accuracy
Overload Protection
2nd Definite/Inverse Time Low Set
Overcurrent Protection for Phase to
Phase Faults
2nd Definite/Inverse Time Low Set
Overcurrent Protection for Phase to
Earth Faults
Automatic Reclosing
10 ms
Frequency Accuracy
0,1 % (0,05 Hz)
Max. Reset Time
30 ms
Curves
IEC 60255-8
Base Current
0,2 .. 4 pu
Trip Threshold
50 .. 250 % (I base)
Alarm Level
50 .. 100 % (Trip Temperature)
Reset Level
10 .. 100 % (Trip Temperature)
Time Constant
1 .. 500 min
Timer Accuracy
5%
Curves
NI, VI, EI, LI of IEC standard
NI, VI, EI, LI of IEEE standard
Operational Current
0,2 .. 20 pu
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
TM Regulation
0,05 .. 1,5
Timer Accuracy
10 ms (definite time)
3% or 10 ms (inverse time)
Current Accuracy
3% (minimum 3% I n)
Start value of inverse time protection
1,2 Iop
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Static Reset Time
30 ms
Curves
NI, VI, EI, LI of IEC standard
NI, VI, EI, LI of IEEE standard
Operational Current
0,1 .. 20 pu
Time Delay
0,04 .. 300 s
TM regulation
0,05 .. 1,5
Timer Accuracy
10 ms (definite time)
3% or 10 ms (inverse time)
Current Accuracy
3% (minimum 3% I n)
Start value of inverse time protection
1,2 Iop
Reset Ratio
0,96
Max. Static Reset Time
30 ms
Type of Cycle
Fast/ Delayed
Reclose Time of the Fast Cycles
0 .. 1 s
Isolation Time
0,1 .. 60 s
Blocking Time
1 .. 60 s
Circuit Breaker Manoeuvre Time
0,05 .. 60 s
Maximum Number of Cycles
5
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
10
10-6
Chapter 10 - Technical Specifications
Synchronism and Voltage Check
Operation Mode
Manual / Automatic (independent)
Verification Type
OFF / LLLB / DLLB / LLDB / DLDB / Release
(independent for each operation mode)
Bar voltage source
A / B / C / AB / BC / CA
Bar/Line Voltage Ratio
0,10 .. 10,0 pu
Bar voltage angle
-180,0 .. 180,0 º
Threshold for voltage absence
0,05 .. 0,80 pu
Threshold for voltage presence
0,20 .. 1,20 pu
Maximum voltage
0,50 .. 1,50 pu
Minimum Frequency
47,0 .. 50,0 Hz (nominal freq = 50Hz)
57,0 .. 60,0 Hz (nominal freq = 60Hz)
Maximum Frequency
50,0 .. 53,0 Hz (nominal freq = 50Hz)
60,0 .. 63,0 Hz (nominal freq = 60Hz)
Voltage difference
0,01 .. 0,50 pu (independent for each mode)
Frequency difference
0,02 .. 4,00 Hz (independent for each mode)
Phase difference
2,00 .. 60,0 º (independent for each mode)
Command time
0,0 .. 600,0 s (independent for each mode)
Confirmation time
0,0 .. 60,0 s (independent for each mode)
Time accuracy
10 ms
Voltage accuracy
0,5%
Frequency accuracy
20 mHz
Angle accuracy
2º
Program
Shedding/ Shedding+Restoration
Confirmation Time of Stable Voltage
1 .. 300 s
Time Delay
1 .. 300 s
Program
Shedding/ Shedding+Restoration
Confirmation Time of Stable Frequency
1 .. 3600 s
Time Delay
1 .. 300 s
Time Delay
0,05 .. 10 s
Confirmation Time of Trip Circuit Failure
0,05 .. 10 s
Circuit Breaker and Disconnector
Supervision
Open Confirmation Time
0,05 .. 60 s
Close Confirmation Time
0,05 .. 60 s
Measurement Accuracy
Currents
0,5 % I n
Voltages
0,5 % Vn
Power
1 % Sn
Frequency
0,05 % f n
Accuracy
2 % (Line length)
Maximum number of logged faults
10
Resolution
1 ms
Maximum Number of Events per Register
256
Number of Logged Events
> 28000
Sampling Frequency
1000 [email protected] 50 Hz
Total Time Logged
60 sec.
Configurable Settings
High Level Value
Low Level Value
Timer Accuracy
1s
Measurements
P, Q
Total Time Logged
1 month
Voltage Restoration
Frequency Restoration
Circuit Breaker Failure Protection
Fault Locator
Event Chronological Logging
Oscillography
Analogue Comparators
Load Diagram
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
10
10-7
Chapter 10 - Technical Specifications
SNTP Synchronization
SNTP servers number
2
Server requested time
1 .. 1440 min
Maximum variation
1 .. 1000 ms
Packages minimum number
1 .. 25
Server timeout
1 .. 3600 s
Functioning mode
Multicast/Unicast
10
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
10-8
11
Chapter
11.
ANNEXES
The annexes presented next provide complementary information to the previous chapters such
as the versions and the ordering form of the TPU S420. It also provides all the information
necessary to the configuration of the protection, including the databases of measures and the
option list of inputs, outputs and alarms.
Chapter 11 - Annexes
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ANNEX A.
ORDERING FORM.........................................................................................11-3
ANNEX B.
MEASUREMENTS TABLE ..................................................................................11-5
ANNEX C. INPUTS OPTIONS TABLE .................................................................................11-9
ANNEX D. OUTPUT OPTIONS TABLE .............................................................................11-13
ANNEX E.
ALARM OPTIONS TABLE................................................................................11-18
Total of pages of the chapter: 19
11
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
11-2
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Annex A. ORDERING FORM
The available functions list of each one of the three TPU S420 versions is presented on the
following table.
VERSION
AVAILABLE FUNCTIONS
S420 – I
S420 – C
S420 – S
Phase Overcurrent Protection (50/51)
Earth Fault Overcurrent Protection (50/51N)
Directional Phase Fault Overcurrent (67)
Directional Earth Fault Overcurrent (67N)
Resistive Earth Fault (51N)
Phase Overvoltage Protection (59)
Zero Sequence Overvoltage Protection (59N)
Undervoltage Protection (27)
Underfrequency and Overfrequency Protection (81)
Phase Balance Protection (46)
Overload Protection (49)
2nd Time Low Set Phase Faults Overcurrent Protection (51/51N)
Automatic Reclosing (79)
Synchronism Check and Voltage Presence (25)
Load Shedding and Restoration after Voltage Trip
Load Shedding and Restoration after Frequency Trip
Load Shedding and Restoration after Voltage Trip (centralised
version)
Load Shedding and Restoration after Frequency Trip (centralised
version)
Circuit Breaker Failure (62BF)
Trip Circuit Supervision (62)
Logical Trip Lock (68)
Protection Trip Transfer (43)
Circuit Breaker and Disconnector Supervision
Programmable Logic
Distributed Automation
Oscillography
Analogue Comparators
Event Chronological Logging
Load Diagram
Fault Locator
The next page shows the ordering form of the TPU S420, including the different selectable
options. For example:
TPU S420-Ed1-S-5A-1A-100V-100V-50Hz-D-1-2-ETH2-0-1-PT
Indicates it is a TPU S420 protection, edition 1, version S, with phases CT of 5A nominal value,
fourth current input of 1A nominal value, phase VT of 100V nominal value (phase-to-phase
voltage), fourth voltage input of 100V, all inputs with 50Hz nominal frequency prepared to
operate with a supply voltage of 220/250V (option D), with the first inputs/outputs expansion
board of type 1 (9 inputs and 6 outputs) and the second expansion board of type 1 (9 inputs
and 6 outputs), with communications board redundant Ethernet Isolated Copper + Optical Fibre
Interface (2x100BaseTX + 2x100BaseFX) (ETH2), RS232 interface on serial port 1 and RS485 on
serial port 2 and man-machine interface in Portuguese.
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
11-3
11
Chapter 11 - Annexes
-
TPU S420 – Ed1 Version
TPU S420 – I
TPU S420 – C
TPU S420 – S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
C
S
Rated current on phase current transformers
1A
5A
1A
5A
th
Rated current on 4 input current
0,04 A
0,2 A
1A
5A
Rated voltage on input voltage (V PHASE-TO-PHASE)
100 V
110 V
115 V
120 V
0,04A
0,2A
1A
5A
100V
110V
115V
120V
th
Rated voltage on 4 input voltage (VPHASE-TO-PHASE)
100 V
110 V
115 V
120 V
Frequency
50 Hz
60 Hz
100V
110V
115V
120V
50Hz
60Hz
Power Supply Nominal Value
24 V d.c.
48 V d.c.
110/125 V d.c./V a.c.
220/240 V d.c./V a.c.
Expansion Board I/O 1
Absent
Type 1 - 9 Inputs + 6 Outputs
Type 2 - 16 Inputs
Type 3 - 15 Outputs
Expansion Board I/O 2
Absent
Type 1 - 9 Inputs + 6 Outputs
Type 2 - 16 Inputs
Type 3 - 15 Outputs
Communication Protocols
Absent
Serial DNP 3.0
Lonworks with optical interface, without Auto Power Supply
Lonworks with optical interface, with Auto Power Supply
Lonworks with twisted-pair interface, without Auto Power Supply
Lonworks with twisted-pair interface, with Auto Power Supply
IEC 60870-5-104 over Ethernet 100BaseTx redundant
IEC 60870-5-104 over Ethernet 100BaseFx redund ant
IEC 61850 over Ethernet 100BaseTx redundant
IEC 61850 over Ethernet 100BaseFx redundant
Serial Interface Port 1
RS 232 (by default)
RS 485
Plastic Optical Fibre
Glass Optical Fibre
Serial Interface Port 2
RS 232 (by default)
RS 485
Plastic Optical Fibre
Glass Optical Fibre
Language
Portuguese
English
French
Spanish
TPU S420 Edition 1 - User Manual, N. ASID09000127, Rev. 2.2.0, December 2011
A
B
C
D
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0
DNP
LON1
LON2
LON3
LON4
ETH1
ETH2
850T
850F
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
PT
UK
FR
ES
11-4
11
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Annex B. MEASUREMENTS TABLE
The measurements table presents the information related to all measurements internally
available on the TPU S420. This information should be used to perform the configuration of the
database of the CLP 500RTU whenever you desire to receive measurements from the TPU
through LAN.
The content of the table fields is described below.
Field
Description
Identifier
Measurement internal identifier.
Internal Descriptive
Measurement internal descriptive.
Interface Descriptive
Descriptive associated with the measurement presented to the
user.
Measurement Description
Description of the measurement content.
11
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11-5
Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Internal Descriptive
Interface Descriptive
Measurement Description
Measurements (floats)
1
idIA
IA Current
Phase A Current
2
idIB
IB Current
Phase B Current
3
idIC
IC Current
Phase C Current
4
idII
Negative Current
Negative Current
5
idI03
IN Current Sum
Corrente Residual por soma
6
idIMAX
Maximum Current
Current Peak
37
idI0
IN Current
Corrente de neutro / cuba
43
idUA
UA Voltage
Phase A Voltage
44
idUB
UB Voltage
Phase B Voltage
45
idUC
UC Voltage
Phase C Voltage
46
idUI
Negative Voltage
Negative Voltage
47
idU03
UN Voltage Sum
Zero Sequence Voltage (by sum)
48
idUAB
UAB Voltage
Phases AB Composed Voltage
49
idUBC
UBC Voltage
Phases BC Composed Voltage
50
idUCA
UCA Voltage
Phases CA Composed Voltage
51
idFREQ
Frequency
Frequency
52
idPA
Phase A Active Power
Active Power Phase A
53
idQA
Phase A Reactive Power
Phase A Reactive Power
54
idPB
Phase B Active Power
Active Power Phase B
55
idQB
Phase B Reactive Power
Phase B Reactive Power
56
idPC
Phase C Active Power
Active Power Phase C
57
idQC
Phase C Reactive Power
Phase C Reactive Power
58
idPACT
Active Power
Three-phase Active Power
59
idPREACT
Reactive Power
Three-phase Reactive Power
60
idFPOT
Power Factor
Power Factor
61
idPMAX
Active Power Peak
Active Power Peak
62
idENERG
Active Energy Supplied
Counter of Active Energy Supplied
63
idENREACT
Reactive Energy Supplied
Counter of Reactive Energy Supplied
64
idENERG_REVERSE
Active Energy Received
Counter of Active Energy Received
65
idENREACT_REVERSE
Reactive Energy Received
Counter of Reactive Energy Received
112
idU0
UN Voltage
Zero Sequence Voltage
113
idU4
Voltage U4
4th Voltage (ex Busbar)
114
idFREQ4
U4 Frequency
4th Voltage Frequency
115
idUDIF
Voltage Dif
Voltage Difference
116
idFDIF
Frequency Dif
Frequency Difference
117
idPHDIF
Phase Dif
Frequency Difference
146
idSUMIA_D
Sum I² A Circuit Breaker
Sum of I² cut in Phase A (Circuit Breaker)
147
idSUMIB_D
Sum I² B Circuit Breaker
Sum of I² cut in Phase B (Circuit Breaker)
148
idSUMIC_D
Sum I² C Circuit Breaker
Sum of I² cut in Phase C (Circuit Breaker)
179
idTEMPA
Temperature Phase A
Phase A Temperature
180
idTEMPB
Temperature Phase B
Phase B Temperature
181
idTEMPC
Temperature Phase C
Phase C Temperature
182
idTEMPMED
Average Temperature
Average Temperature
183
idTEMPMAX
Maximum Temperature
Maximum Temperature
187
idICORTA_D
I Cut A Circuit Breaker
Current cut in Phase A (Circuit Breaker)
188
idICORTB_D
I Cut B Circuit Breaker
Current cut in Phase B (Circuit Breaker)
189
idICORTC_D
I Cut C Circuit Breaker
Current cut in Phase C (Circuit Breaker)
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11
11-6
Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Internal Descriptive
Interface Descriptive
Measurement Description
223
idLD_DISTANPERCET
Fault Distance (%)
Distance to the Fault (%)
224
idLD_DISTANKM
Fault Distance (km)
Distance to the Fault (km)
225
idLD_DISTANMILE
Fault Distance (mile)
Distance to the Fault (mile)
226
idLD_RESITPRIM
Resistance Primary
Resistance (values of the Primary)
227
idLD_RESISTSECUN
Resistance Secondary
Resistance (values of the Secondary)
228
idLD_REACTPRIM
Reactance Primary
Reactance (values of the Primary )
229
idLD_REACTSECUN
Reactance Secondary
Reactance (values of the Secondary)
230
idLD_RESISTDEF
Fault Resistance
Resistance of the fault
232
idGENERIC1
Generic Measurement 1
Measurement derived from other measurements
233
idGENERIC2
Generic Measurement 2
Measurement derived from other measurements
234
idGENERIC3
Generic Measurement 3
Measurement derived from other measurements
235
idGENERIC4
Generic Measurement 4
Measurement derived from other measurements
236
idGENERIC5
Generic Measurement 5
Measurement derived from other measurements
237
idGENERIC6
Generic Measurement 6
Measurement derived from other measurements
238
idGENERIC7
Generic Measurement 7
Measurement derived from other measurements
239
idGENERIC8
Generic Measurement 8
Measurement derived from other measurements
Measurements (shorts)
4099
4107
4108
4111
idNUMMANOB_D
idNUMMANOB_SECTERR
idNUMMANOB_SECISOL
idNUMMANOB_SECBYP
CB Switch Count
Gnd Disc Swit Count
Isol Disc Swit Count
Byp Disc Swit Count
Number of Manoeuvres of the Circuit Breaker
Number of Earth Disconnector Manoeuvres
Number of Ins Disconnector Manoeuvres
Number of Bypass Disconnector Manoeuvres
4114
idNUMMANOB_SECBAR
Bus Disc Swit Count
Number of Manoeuvres of Bar Disconnector
4115
idNUMMANOB_SECBAR1
Bus Disc1 Swit Count
Number of Manoeuvres of Bar Disconnector 1
4116
idNUMMANOB_SECBAR2
Bus Disc2 Swit Count
Number of Manoeuvres of Bar Disconnector 2
4122
idNUMDISP_D
CB Trip Count
Number of the Circuit-breaker trips
Measurements BDD (floats)
256
idPACT_BDD_2
DDB Measurement 1
Generic Measurement 1 of the DDB
257
idPREACT_BDD_2
DDB Measurement 2
Generic Measurement 2 of the DDB
idPACT_BDD_3
DDB Measurement 3
Generic Measurement 3 of the DDB
259
idPREACT_BDD_3
DDB Measurement 4
Generic Measurement 4 of the DDB
260
idPACT_BDD_4
DDB Measurement 5
Generic Measurement 5 of the DDB
261
idPREACT_BDD_4
DDB Measurement 6
Generic Measurement 6 of the DDB
262
idPACT_BDD_5
DDB Measurement 7
Generic Measurement 7 of the DDB
263
idPREACT_BDD_5
DDB Measurement 8
Generic Measurement 8 of the DDB
264
idPACT_BDD_6
DDB Measurement 9
Generic Measurement 9 of the DDB
265
idPREACT_BDD_6
DDB Measurement 10
Generic Measurement 10 of the DDB
266
idUAB_BDD_2
DDB Measurement 11
Generic Measurement 11 of the DDB
267
idUAB_BDD_3
DDB Measurement 12
Generic Measurement 12 of the DDB
268
idUAB_BDD_4
DDB Measurement 13
Generic Measurement 13 of the DDB
269
idUAB_BDD_5
DDB Measurement 14
Generic Measurement 14 of the DDB
270
idUAB_BDD_6
DDB Measurement 15
Generic Measurement 15 of the DDB
271
idMEDIDA_BDD_1
DDB Measurement 16
Generic Measurement 16 of the DDB
272
idMEDIDA_BDD_2
DDB Measurement 17
Generic Measurement 17 of the DDB
273
idMEDIDA_BDD_3
DDB Measurement 18
Generic Measurement 18 of the DDB
274
idMEDIDA_BDD_4
DDB Measurement 19
Generic Measurement 19 of the DDB
275
idMEDIDA_BDD_5
DDB Measurement 20
Generic Measurement 20 of the DDB
258
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11
11-7
Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Internal Descriptive
Interface Descriptive
Measurement Description
Measurements BDD (shorts)
4352
idTOMADA_BDD_2
DDB Counter 1
Generic Counter 1 of the DDB
4353
idTOMADA_BDD_3
DDB Counter 2
Generic Counter 2 of the DDB
4354
idTOMADA_BDD_4
DDB Counter 3
Generic Counter 3 of the DDB
4355
idTOMADA_BDD_5
DDB Counter 4
Generic Counter 4 of the DDB
4356
idTOMADA_BDD_6
DDB Counter 5
Generic Counter 5 of the DDB
4357
idCONTADOR_BDD_1
DDB Counter 6
Generic Counter 6 of the DDB
4358
idCONTADOR_BDD_2
DDB Counter 7
Generic Counter 7 of the DDB
4359
idCONTADOR_BDD_3
DDB Counter 8
Generic Counter 8 of the DDB
4360
idCONTADOR_BDD_4
DDB Counter 9
Generic Counter 9 of the DDB
4361
idCONTADOR_BDD_5
DDB Counter 10
Generic Counter 10 of the DDB
11
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11-8
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Annex C. INPUTS OPTIONS TABLE
The inputs options table presents the information related to all available options for the logical
configuration of digital inputs of the TPU S420.
The content of the table fields is described below.
Field
Description
Identifier
Internal identifier of the logical gate associated with the input.
Corresponds to what is presented in the default logic schemes.
Descriptive
Default descriptive that identifies the gate, presented in the
Event Logging whenever there is a change of state of the
input.
This descriptive is also presented in the configuration menu of
the inputs logic.
Note: the values presented on the following tables correspond to the TPU S420 default
configuration, but some of them are possible to be changed by using WinProt tools.
11
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11-9
Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Descriptive
Measurement Transformers
4352
VT 1 Disconnected
4353
VT 1 Connected
4354
VT 1 Extracted
4355
VT 1 Inserted
4356
VT 2 Disconnected
4357
VT 2 Connected
4358
VT 2 Extracted
4359
VT 2 Inserted
IO Base Board
4864
Generic Input 1
4865
Generic Input 2
4866
Generic Input 3
4867
Generic Input 4
4868
Generic Input 5
4869
Generic Input 6
4870
Generic Input 7
4871
Generic Input 8
4872
Generic Input 9
4873
Generic Input 10
4874
Generic Input 11
4875
Generic Input 12
4876
Generic Input 13
4877
Generic Input 14
4878
Generic Input 15
4879
Generic Input 16
4880
Generic Input 17
4881
Generic Input 18
4882
Generic Input 19
4883
Generic Input 20
4884
Generic Input 21
4885
Generic Input 22
4886
Generic Input 23
4887
Generic Input 24
4888
Generic Input 25
4889
Generic Input 26
4890
Generic Input 27
4891
Generic Input 28
4892
Generic Input 29
4893
Generic Input 30
4894
Generic Input 31
4895
Generic Input 32
Oscillography
8704
11
Oscillography Logging
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11-10
Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Descriptive
Operation Modes
10240
Local Operation Mode
10241
Remote Operatio Mode
10242
Manual Operation Mode
10243
Automatioc Operation Mode
10244
Normal Operation Mode
10245
Emergency Operation Mode
10249
Gener Oper Mode 1 Inactive
10250
Gener Oper Mode 1 Active
10251
Gener Oper Mode 2 Inactive
10252
Gener Oper Mode 2 Active
10271
Normal Exploitation Mode I/O
10272
Special Exploitation Mode A I/O
10273
Special Exploitation Mode B I/O
10276
Test Operation Mode I/O
10283
Inst Trip Oper Mode
10284
Time Delay Trip Oper Mode
Phase Fault Overcurrent
15651
Phase OC Logic Select Block
Earth Fault Overcurrent
16403
Earth OC Logic Select Block
Phase Balance
23315
Neg Seq OC High Set Lock
Overload
25609
Therm Overload Stage Chang
Circuit-breaker
41773
Circuit Breaker Open
41774
Circuit Breaker Close
41777
Circuit Breaker Extracted
41778
Circuit Breaker Inserted
41781
Circuit Breaker External Trip
41782
TPL Close Circuit Breaker
41783
TPL Open Circuit Breaker
41784
Circuit Breaker Command Inhibit
41785
Circuit Breaker Level 1 SF6 Loss
41786
Circuit Breaker Level 2 SF6 Loss
41787
Circuit Breaker Loose Spring
41788
Circuit Breaker DC Failure
41789
Motor DC Failure
41790
CB Internal Arc
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11
11-11
Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Descriptive
41791
CPM Internal Arc
41792
CCFC Internal Arc
Circuit-breaker Failure
41989
Circuit Breaker Coil Supervision
Earth Disconnector
48920
Earth Disconnector Open
48921
Earth Disconnector Close
48924
Earth Disconnector Command Inhibited
Isolation Disconnector
49176
Isolation Disconnector Open
49177
Isolation Disconnector Close
49180
Isolation Disconnector Command Inhibited
Bypass Disconnector
49944
Bypass Disconnector Open
49945
Bypass Disconnector Close
49948
Bypass Disconnector Command Inhibited
Busbar Disconnector
50712
Busbar Disconnector Open
50713
Busbar Disconnector Closed
50716
Busbar Disconnector Command Inhibited
Busbar 1 Disconnector
50968
Busbar 1 Disconnector Open
50969
Busbar 1 Disconnector Close
50972
Busbar 1 Disconnector Command Inhibited
Busbar 2 Disconnector
51224
Busbar 2 Disconnector Open
51225
Busbar 2 Disconnector Close
51228
Busbar 2 Disconnector Command Inhibited
Synchronism Check
55584
Manual Sync Close Permiss
55585
Autom Sync Close Permiss
55586
Manual Sync Vrf Close Cmd
55587
Autom Sync Vrf Close Cmd
11
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Chapter 11 - Annexes
Annex D. OUTPUT OPTIONS TABLE
The outputs options table presents the information related to all available options for the logical
configuration of digital outputs of the TPU S420.
The content of the table fields is described below.
Field
Description
Identifier
Internal identifier of the logical gate associated with the output.
Corresponds to what is presented in the default logic schemes.
Descriptive
Default descriptive that identifies the gate, presented in the
Event Logging whenever there is a change of state of the
output.
This descriptive is also presented in the configuration menu of
the outputs logic.
Note: the values presented in the next tables correspond to the default configuration of the
TPU S420, but some of them are possible to be changed by using WinProt tools.
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Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Descriptive
IO Base Board
4914
Generic Output 1
4915
Generic Output 2
4916
Generic Output 3
4917
Generic Output 4
4918
Generic Output 5
4919
Generic Output 6
4920
Generic Output 7
4921
Generic Output 8
4922
Generic Output 9
4923
Generic Output 11
4924
Generic Output 12
4925
Generic Output 13
4926
Generic Output 14
4927
Generic Output 15
4928
Generic Output 16
4929
Generic Output 17
Calibration
9728
Calibration Close Command
Phase Fault Overcurrent
15640
15641
15642
15643
15644
15645
15646
15647
Phase OC Protection
Time-lag Phase OC Protec
High Phase OC Protec
Universal Phase OC Protec
Phase OC Prot Trip
Time-lag Phase OC Trip
High Phase OC Trip
Universal Phase OC Trip
Earth Fault Overcurrent
16392
16393
16394
Earth OC Protection
Time-lag Earth OC Protec
Universal Earth OC Protec
16395
16396
16397
16398
16399
High Earth OC Protec
Earth OC Protec Trip
Time-lag Earth OC Trip
Universal Earth OC Trip
High Earth OC Trip
Resistive Earth Fault
17155
Resist Earth Start-up Ind
17156
Resist Earth Trip Ind
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Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Descriptive
Phase Fault Overcurrent (2nd)
17420
Time-lag Phase 2nd OC Protec
17421
Time-lag Phase 2nd OC Trip
Earth Fault Overcurrent (2nd)
17668
Time-lag Phase 2nd OC Protec
17669
Time-lag Phase 2nd OC Trip
Phase Overvoltage
19468
Phase Overvoltage Protec
19469
Phase Overvoltage Stage 1
19470
Phase Overvoltage Stage 2
19471
Phase Overvoltage Trip
19472
Ph Overvoltage Stg 1 Trip
19473
Ph Overvoltage Stg 2 Trip
Earth Overvoltage
20228
Ground Overvoltage Protec
20229
Gnd Overvolt St1 Start Sig
20230
Gnd Overvolt St2 Start Sig
20231
Ground Overvoltage Trip
20232
Gnd Overvolt St1 Trip Sig
20233
Gnd Overvolt St2 Trip Sig
Phase Undervoltage
21006
Phase Undervoltage Protec
21007
Phase Undervoltage Stage 1
21008
Phase Undervoltage Stage 2
21009
Phase Undervoltage Trip
21010
Ph Undervoltage Stg 1 Trip
21011
Ph Undervoltage Stg 2 Trip
Frequency
21764
Underfrequency Protection
21765
Underfreq Prot Stage1 Sign
21766
Underfreq Prot Stage2 Sign
21767
Underfrequency Protec Trip
21768
Underfreq Stage1 Trip Sign
21769
Underfreq Stage2 Trip Sign
21774
Overfrequency Protection
21775
Overfreq Prot Stage 1 Sign
21776
Overfreq Prot Stage 2 Sign
21777
Overfrequency Protec Trip
21778
Overfreq Stage 1 Trip Sign
21779
Overfreq Stage 2 Trip Sign
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Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Descriptive
21780
Frequency Protection
21781
Frequency Protection Trip
Phase Balance
23304
Neg Seq Overcurrent Protec
23305
Low Set Neg Seq OC Protec
23306
High Set Neg Seq OC Protec
23307
Neg Seq/ Pos Seq OC Protec
23308
Neg Seq Overcurrent Trip
23309
Low Set Neg Seq OC Trip
23310
High Set Neg Seq OC Trip
23311
Neg Seq/ Pos Seq OC Trip
Overload
25603
Therm Overload Signal
25604
Therm Overload Alarm Sign
25605
Therm Overload Trip Sign
Reclosing
38662
Automatic Reclosing
38671
Auto Recloser Open CB Cmd
38672
Auto Recloser Close CB Cmd
38673
Auto Recloser Final Trip
Voltage Load Shedding
39427
Voltage Load Shedding State
39428
Voltage Reclosing State
39429
Voltage Reclosing Command
Centralised Voltage Load Shedding (SLAVE)
39940
Voltage Load Shedding State
39941
Voltage Reclosing State
Frequency Load Shedding
40195
Frequency Shedding Status
40196
Frequency Restoration Stat
40197
Freq Restoration Command
Centralised Frequency Load Shedding (SLAVE)
40708
Frequency Shedding Status
40709
Frequency Restoration Stat
Protections Transfer
40961
11
Protection Transfer Cmd
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Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Descriptive
Circuit-breaker
41738
CB Open Command Protection
41739
CB Open Command Control
41740
Circ Breaker Open Command
41761
CB Close Command
Circuit-breaker Failure
41985
CB Failure Protection
41987
CB Failure Trip Ind
41993
Supervision Coil Failure
Earth Disconnector
48900
Earth Disc Open Cmd
48912
Earth Disc Close Cmd
Insulation Disconnector
49156
Ins Disc Open Cmd
49168
Ins Disc Close Cmd
Bypass Disconnector
49924
Bypass Disc Open Cmd
49936
Bypass Disc Close Cmd
Busbar Disconnector
50692
Busbar Disc Open Cmd
50704
Busbar Disc Close Cmd
Busbar Disconnector 1
50948
Busbar Disc Open Cmd 1
50960
Busbar Disc Close Cmd 1
Busbar Disconnector 2
51204
Busbar Disc Open Cmd 2
51216
Busbar Disc Close Cmd 2
Synchronism Check
55584
Manual Sync Close Permiss
55585
Autom Sync Close Permiss
55586
Manual Sync Vrf Close Cmd
55587
Autom Sync Vrf Close Cmd
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Chapter 11 - Annexes
Annex E. ALARM OPTIONS TABLE
The alarms options table presents the information related to all available options for the logical
configuration of the alarms existing in the alarms page of the TPU S420.
The content of the table fields is described below.
Field
Description
Identifier
Internal identifier of the logical gate associated with the alarm.
Corresponds to what is presented in the default logic schemes.
Descriptive
Default descriptive that identifies the gate, presented in the
Event Logging whenever there is a change of state of the
alarm.
This descriptive is also presented in the configuration menu of
the outputs logic.
Note: the values presented in the next tables correspond to the default configuration of the
TPU S420, but some of them are possible to be changed by using WinProt tools
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Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Events Logging Descriptive
Unit Test
3072
Unit Operation Test
Alarms
6912
Generic Alarm 1
6913
Generic Alarm 2
6914
Generic Alarm 3
6915
Generic Alarm 4
6916
Generic Alarm 5
6917
Generic Alarm 6
6918
Generic Alarm 7
6919
Generic Alarm 8
Measurement
9472
9473
9474
9475
9476
9477
9478
9479
9480
9481
9482
9483
9484
9485
9486
9487
High Alarm Measurement 1
High Alarm Measurement 2
High Alarm Measurement 3
High Alarm Measurement 4
High Alarm Measurement 5
High Alarm Measurement 6
High Alarm Measurement 7
High Alarm Measurement 8
Low Alarm Measurement 1
Low Alarm Measurement 2
Low Alarm Measurement 3
Low Alarm Measurement 4
Low Alarm Measurement 5
Low Alarm Measurement 6
Low Alarm Measurement 7
Low Alarm Measurement 8
Operation Modes
10246
10247
10248
10253
10254
10255
10256
10257
10258
Normal Exploitation Mode
Special A Exploitation Mode
Special B Exploitation Mode
Test Operation Mode
L/R Operation Mode
M/A Operation Mode
N/E Operation Mode
Generic 1 Operation Mode
Generic 2 Operation Mode
Phase Fault Overcurrent
15644
Phase OC Prot Trip
15645
Time-lag Phase OC Trip
15646
High Phase OC Trip
15647
Universal Phase OC Trip
15650
Phase OC Protec Block
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Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Events Logging Descriptive
Earth Fault Overcurrent
16396
Earth OC Protec Trip
16397
Time-lag Earth OC Trip
16398
Universal Earth OC Trip
16399
High Earth OC Trip
16402
Earth OC Prot Block
Resistive Earth
17156
Resistive Earth Trip Ind
17161
Resistive Earth Protec Block
Phase Fault Overcurrent (2nd)
17421
Time-lag Phase 2nd OC Trip
17424
Phase 2nd OC Block
Earth Fault Overcurrent (2nd)
17669
Time-lag Earth 2nd OC Trip
17672
Earth 2nd OC Block
Phase Overvoltage
19471
Phase Overvoltage Trip
19472
Ph Overvoltage Stg 1 Trip
19473
Ph Overvoltage Stg 2 Trip
19476
Ph Overvoltage Block
Bloqueio Prot Max U Fases
Earth Overvoltage
20231
Ground Overvoltage Trip
20232
Gnd Overvolt St1 Trip Sig
20233
Gnd Overvolt St2 Trip Sig
20236
Ground Overvoltage Lock
Phase Undervoltage
21009
Phase Undervoltage Protec
21010
Phase Undervoltage Stage 1
21011
Phase Undervoltage Stage 2
21014
Phase Undervoltage Lock
Frequency
21767
Underfrequency Trip
21768
Underfrequency Trip Ind Stage 1
21769
Underfrequency Trip Ind Stage 2
21777
Overfrequency Trip
21778
Overfrequency Trip Ind Stage 1
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Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Events Logging Descriptive
21779
Overfrequency Trip Ind Stage 2
21781
Frequency Protection Trip
21787
Underfrequency Protection Block
21788
Overfrequency Protection Block
Phase Balance
23308
Neg Seq Overcurrent Trip
23309
Low Set Neg Seq OC Trip
23310
High Set Neg Seq OC Trip
23311
Neg Seq/ Pos Seq OC Trip
23314
Neg Seq OC Protection Lock
Overload
25604
Overload Protection Alarm Ind
25605
Overload Protection Trip Ind
25608
Overload Protection Block
Reclosing
38662
Automatic Reclosing
38663
Fast Reclosing
38664
Slow Reclosing
38665
Reclosing Confirmation
38666
Reclosing Cycle 1
38667
Reclosing Cycle 2
38668
Reclosing Cycle 3
38669
Reclosing Cycle 4
38670
Reclosing Cycle 5
38673
Reclosing Definite Trip
38676
Reclosing Block
38677
Ready Reclosing
Load Shedding Voltage
39427
Voltage Load Shedding State
39428
Voltage Reclosing State
39432
Voltage Reclosing Block
39435
Voltage Load Shedding Block
Centralised Voltage Load Shedding (SLAVE)
39940
Voltage Load Shedding State
39941
Voltage Reclosing State
39944
Voltage Reclosing Block
39947
Voltage Load Shedding Block
Frequency Load Shedding
40195
Freq Load Shedding State
40196
Freq Reclosing State
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Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Events Logging Descriptive
40200
Freq Reclosing Block
40203
Freq Load Shedding Block
Centralised Frequency Load Shedding (SLAVE)
40708
Freq Load Shedding State
40709
Freq Reclosing State
40712
Freq Reclosing Block
40715
Bloqueio Deslastre Freq
Circuit-breaker
41785
41786
41793
Circuit-breaker Level 1 SF6 Loss
Circuit-breaker Level 2 SF6 Loss
Circuit-breaker Loose Spring Failure
41796
41797
41801
Circuit-breaker manoeuvres failure
Circuit Breaker Maximum I² Alarm
Circuit Breaker Max Manoeuvre Alarm
Circuit-breaker Failure
41987
CB Failure Trip Ind
41993
Supervision Coil Failure
Earth Disconnector
48927
48930
Earth Disc Manouevre Alarm
Earth Disc Max Manoeuvre Alarm
Insulation Disconnector
49183
49186
Ins Disc Manouevre Failure
Ins Disc Max Manouevre Alarm
Bypass Disconnector
49951
49954
Bypass Disc Manouevre Failure
Bypass Disc Max Manouevre Alarm
Busbar Disconnector
50719
50722
Busbar Disc Manouevre Failure
Busbar Disc Max Manouevres Alarm
Busbar Disconnector 1
50975
Busbar Disc Manouevre 1 Failure
50978
Busbar Disc Manouevre 1 Alarm
Busbar Disconnector 2
51231
51234
Busbar Disc Manouevre 2 Failure
Busbar Disc Manouevre 2 Alarm
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Identifier
Chapter 11 - Annexes
Events Logging Descriptive
Synchronism Check
55574
Manual Sync in Progress
55575
Autom Sync in Progress
55576
Synchronism Manual Cmd
55577
55580
55581
55584
55585
55610
Synchronism Automatic Cmd
Manual Close Override
Automatic Close Override
Manual Close Release Sinc
Autom Close Release Sinc
Synchrocheck Lock
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