Food and its adulterations; comprising the reports of the Analytical sanitary commission of "The Lancet" for the years 1851 to 1854 inclusive, revised and extended: being records of the results of some thousands of original microscopical and chemical analyses of the solids and fluids consumed by all classes of the public ... By Arthur Hill Hassall ... Illustrated by one hundred and fifty-nine engravings ... Hassall, Arthur Hill, 1817-1894. London, Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1855. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t5bc3w17s Public Domain http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd We have determined this work to be in the public domain, meaning that it is not subject to copyright. Users are free to copy, use, and redistribute the work in part or in whole. It is possible that current copyright holders, heirs or the estate of the authors of individual portions of the work, such as illustrations or photographs, assert copyrights over these portions. Depending on the nature of subsequent use that is made, additional rights may need to be obtained independently of anything we can address. ¥^ \1^ ■W- FOOD ADULTERATIONS. London : A. and G. A. Spottiswoode, New-Street-Square. POOD ADULTEEATIONS; COMPRISING THE REPORTS SANITARY ANALYTICAL OP THE COMMISSION OF "THE LANCET" FOR THE YEARS 1851 REVISED TO 1854 INCLUSIVE, AND EXTENDED: BEING RECORDS OF THE RESULTS OF SOME THOUSANDS OF ORIGINAL jnCROSCOPICAL AND CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE SOLIDS AND FLUIDS CONSUMED BY ALL CLASSES OF THE PUBLIC ; AlfD COHTAINTSG THE NAMES AKD ADDRESSES TRADESMEN BY OF THE VARIOUS OF WHOM ARTHUR CHIEF MERCHANTS, MANUFACTURERS, AND THE ANALYSED ARTICLES WERE PURCHASED. HILL HASSALL, M.D., ANALYST OF THE COMMISSION: DOCTOR OF MEDICINE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON ; LICENTIATE OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF LONDON ; FELLOW OF THE ROYAL MEDICAL AND CHIRURGICAL SOCIETY ; FELLOW OF THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON ; FELLOAV OF THE LINN^AN SOCIETY ; MEMBER OF THE COUNCIL OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; CORRESPONDING FELLOW OF THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF MUNICH AND OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETIES OF MONTREAL AND DUBLIN ; IJECTURER ON MEDICINE AT THE ROYAL FREE HOSPITAL MEDICAL COLLEGE; PHYSICIAN TO THE ROYAL FREE HOSPITAL. Zllustrated by One hundred and fifty- nine Eng^avlngrs, SHOWING THE MINUTE STRUCTURES OF THE GREATER NUMBER OP THE VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES EMPLOYED AS ARTICLES OF FOOD, ALSO THOSE OP THE MAJORITY OP THE SUBSTANCES USED FOR ADULTERATION. LONDON LONGMAN, BROWN, : GREEN, AND LONGMANS. 1855. IBelJuatiolu TO SIR BENJAMIN HALL, Baut., PRESIDENT or THE GENERAL M.P., BOARD OF HEALTH. Sir, The fact has at length become recognised that the sanitary condition of the people is the great social question of the day, for it is one which vitally affects the interests, every individual throughout the well-being, and even the safety of these realms, rich and poor, high and low, but especially the latter. One statistical fact only need be cited to show its vast importance, not merely in this country, but throughout the whole world persons have died, and still continue ; this is, that more to die, from the neglect of proper sanitary precautions, and from living in violation of the fundamental laws and rules of health, than have ever fallen in battle. The causes which tend to impair health and to shorten life are numerous, and surround us daily. to certain heads, drink. one, pages The majority of them may, however, be referred — as foul Amongst these as is abundantly air, impure causes, water, and adulterated food and the last is assuredly not an unimportant demonstrated by the various facts recorded in the of this work, now dedicated to you. of Health for this country, evidence is doubtless brought before you daily of the magnitude of the From your position as Chief Minister interests involved in the question of Sanitary Reform ; of this I am aware you are fully sensible, and not only so, but that you are animated with the A 3 DEDICATION. determination to exert to the utmost the powers entrusted to you, with a view to tlie improvement of the sanitary condition of the people, and, by improving this, to contribute to their well-being in a variety of ways. Called to take the lead in the sanitary movement, at critical period of its progress, you have already been the means ing much good has doubtless, when and ; maturing your views, a still larger sufficient and an important time of effect- elapsed for amount of benefit to the public will result. The importance of Sanitary Reform is fully recognised by the people, who are quite prepared to support any measures that may be requisite for carrying it into effect ; and when appealed to, as it I trust that Parliament will doubtless be, will be found equally so during the next It session. must have been apparent to all who had anything to do with carrying out sani- tary measures during the epidemic which has just that the powers of the General Board of Health, passed from amongst us, as at present constituted, are wholly inadequate to deal successfully with an emergency of this kind they are equally so even for ordinary exigencies connected ; with the Public Health. I have been led to dedicate this work to you because, treating as it does of an important branch of Public Hygeine, it appeared to me that you, as the Head of Sanitary Eeform in this country, were of all others the fittest person to whom it should be addressed ; moreover, you have already announced your intention of dealing with the question of Adulteration. I have the honour to remain, With great respect. Your Obedient Servant, ARTHUR HILL HASSALL. 8. Bennett- Street, St. James'-street, Dec. 1854. INTRODUCTION. Sufficient will recorded in the pages of this work to show that the subject of the Adulteration of Articles of Food and Drink is one of Considered in relation to the extreme and even of national importance. be found substances employed in Medicine, it assumes, if possible, a still higher and graver interest. The magnitude and importance of this question have been, to some extent at least, already acknowledged, as shown by the publication, first of Accum's Treatise, and subsequently by the works of Mitchell, Normandy, Chevalier, and MM. Jules Garnier and Harel, as well as by the several enactments various which have been passed from time to time and in different countries for the Hitherto, however, the subject has purpose of suppressing adulteration. never received that amount of attention which, for a variety of reasons, it so This has arisen partly from the fact that the extent of strongly demands. the evil has only recently been made fully known, and this chiefly through the investigations recorded in the present work. Now that the magnitude of the mischief has been demonstrated, and the methods by which the several adulterations practised may be discovered with ease and certainty pointed out, we may, it is to be hoped, expect that but a very short period will be permitted to elapse before the subject will be duly considered and discussed, with a view to some effective legislation. One The adulterations practised differ in kind as well as in degree. form of adulteration consists in the addition of substances usually of greatly inferior value, for the sake of bulk and weight, the choice being determined by the cheapness of the substitute, and its fitness for the peculiar adulteraThis is the principal and most frequent description of tion required. adulteration practised. Another form of adulteration consists in the addition of colouring matters of various kinds, with a view to heighten the colour, and, as it is considered, to improve the appearance of the articles, as well as to conceal This is a very prevalent adulteration, and other forms of adulteration. it is the most objectionable and reprehensible of all, because substances are frequently employed, for the purpose of imparting colour, possessing highly deleterious and even in some cases poisonous properties, as various Of the use of these preparations of lead, copper, mercury, and arsenic. instances are recorded in the substances many pages of this work. A third description of adulteration consists in the admixture of substances for the purpose of imparting smell, flavour, pungency, and other properties. A 4 IV INTRODUCTION. We will now enumerate the principal substances proved by actual observation and analysis to be employed for each of the three purposes above mentioned, viz., to add weight and bulk, to impart colour, and for the sake of smell, pungency, &c. The substances employed for the purpose of adding weight and bulk to the diiFerent articles, Reports upon which are given in this work, are as follow : — In the case of Arrow-koot - Anchovies _ Bread _ _ _ - Butter - Coffee - - _ Chicory - - - Cinnamon - - Cocoa and Chocolate Coloured Contec- TIONERT. Cayenne Egg and Custard Powders. Curry Powder Ginger Gin Isinglass - Lard Milk Mustard - Marmalade Oatmeal - Porter Pepper Potato, and Tapioca Starches, and various mixtures and combinations of these with the inferior Arrow-roots. Dutch, French, and SiciHan fish. Mashed Potatoes, Water. Water. Cassia, and most of the articles mentioned under Spices. Chicory, roasted Wheat, Rye and Potato Flours, Burnt Beans, Acorns, Mangel-wurzel, Roasted Wheat and Rye Flours, Bvimt Beans, Acorns, Mangelwurzel, Carrot, Sawdust, Mahogany Sawdust, Burnt Sugar. Maranta, East India, Tacca or Tahiti Arrow-roots ; Tons les Mois ; the Flours of Wheat, Indian Corn, Sago, Potato, and Tapioca, and various Mixtures of these ; Sugar ; Chicory. Wheat and Potato Flours, East India Arrow-root, Hydrated Sulphate of Lime. Ground Rice, Mustard Husks, Deal Sawdust, Salt. Wheat, Potato, and Rice Flour, and mixtures of these. Sago, and Stout Spices Sugar Tea Tobacco Vinegar - Potato-Flour, Ground Rice. Wheat, Sago, and Potato Flours; Ground Rice ; Mustard Husks. Water, Sugar. Gelatine. Potato Flour, Water. Water. Wheat Flour, Turmeric. Pulp of Apples or Turnip. Barley Flour, and the Integuments of Barley, called Rubble. Water. Wlieat and Pea Flours, Ground Rice, Ground Mustard Seeds, Linseed Meal, P. D. or Pepper Dust. Wheat, Sago, and Potato Flours ; East India Arrow-root; Ground Rice ; Mustard Husks ; two Vegetable Substances, one like Linseed Meal, Powdered Clove Stalks. Potato Flour, Tapioca Starch. Exhausted Tea Leaves ; Leaves other than those of Tea, foreign and native ; amongst the latter those of Sycamore, Horse Chesnut, and Plum ; Lie Tea ; Paddy Husk. Water, Sugar, Treacle, and Salts. Water. The principal articles used with the view of imparting colour concealing other adulterations are, in the case of Anchovies Bottled Fruits Vegetables. Coffee Chicory and - Cocoa Custard Powders Cayenne - Curry Powder • and for Bole Armenian, Venetian red. Certain Salts of Copper, usually the Acetate. Burnt Sugar or Black Jack. Ferniginous Earths, as Venetian Red and Reddle, and Burnt Sugar or Black Jack. Venetian Red, Red Ochre, and other ferruginous earths. Chromate of Lead or Chrome Yellow, Turmeric. Venetian Red, Oxide of Lead or Red Lead, Bisulphuret of Mercury or Vermilion, Turmeric. Red Lead, Venetian Red. INTRODUCTION. Coloured Confec- TiONEKY. Ginger - Mustard - Milk - - Porter and Stout Pickles Potted Meats and Fish. Preserves - Sauces Snuee Tea Tobacco Vinegar - - - Cochineal, Lake, Red Lead, Vermilion, Indian Red; Gamboge, Lemon, Orange and Deep Chrome Yellows ; Lidigo, Ferrocyanide of L*on or Prussian Blue, Antwerp Blue, Artificial Ultramarine ; Carbonate of Copper or Verditer, Emerald Green or Arscnite of Copper ; the three Brunswick Greens, which consist of a mixture of Chrome Yellow and Prussian Blue in different proportions ; Brown ferruginous Earths, as Umber, Sienna, and Vandyke Brown ; Carbonate of Lead or White Lead. Turmeric Powder. Annatto. Turmeric Powder. Sugar and Treacle. Salts of Copper, commonly the Acetate. Bole Armenian, Venetian Red. - Salts of Copper, including the Acetate. - Red Fei-ruginous Earths, as Bole Armenian, Venetian Red ; Treacle. - Chromate and Bichromate of Potash, Chrome Yellow, Red Lead, Umber, Red and Yellow Ochre. - Indigo, Prussian Blue, Turmeric, Chinese Yellow, Black Lead, China Clay or ELaolin, Soapstone or French Chalk. - Sugar, Treacle. - Burnt Sugar. The chief substances employed for the third purpose, viz., to impart smell, flavour, pungency, and other properties, are, in the case of - Alum, Hards, and Stuff. - Salt. - Alum. Bread Butter Flour - Cayenne Pepper. - Cayenne Pepper, Cassia or Cinnamon, Gin Flavourings Ginger Gin - ferent kinds. of dif- - Carbonate of Soda, Caustic Lime, Salt. - Salt. - The Chromates of Potash, Carbonate of Ammonia, Lime, Silica or Powdered Glass, Salt, Orris-root. - Catechu, Gum, Sulphate of Iron, Le Veno Bene, Chinese Botanical Powder. - Sugar, Treacle. - Sulphuric Acid. Lard Porter Snuef Tea Tobacco Vinegar The above lists include, without exception, those substances only which actual and original analyses, as recorded in this work, have shown on the clearest evidence to be really employed. This list would have been trebled, had all those articles been enumerated which, according to the authority of either have been or are employed for the purpose of was It adulteration. thought advisable, however, not to include these, because, in most cases, the authors of the works in question do not speak from their own observation or investigations, but have handed down and other observers, In adopted various statements made on the authority of previous writers. thus it has this way much error has crept into the subject, and happened that works treating of Adulteration abound in statements respecting the substances employed which are not verified on personal research. It should be remembered, also, that the above lists refer only to those articles of food and drink of which Reports are given in this work, and do not include any of the various preparations employed in Medicine : had these been added, the lists would The many imporof Drucrs and Pharmaceutical have been much extended. tant facts connected with the adulteration Vi INTRODUCTION. for another Further, there is no and investigation will show that many other substances, in addition to those contained in these lists, are sometimes employed. The whole of the adulterations, to whichever of the three classes they Preparations are reserved doubt but that more extended occasion. observation by ourselves in the course of our investigations, exhibited in the following table : — discovered belong, are ascertained by Ourselves employed FOR THE DIFFERENT PURPOSES OF ADULTERATION : VIZ. TO BE FOR Bulk and Weight, for Colour, and for Smell, Taste, and other Classified List of the various Substances Properties. For Taste, Smell, and other Properties. For Bulk and Weight. Arrow-Root Potato, and Tapioca Sago, Starches, and various mixtures and combinations of these with the inferior arrowroots. Dutch, French, and Sicilian Anchovies Fish. . . . Mashed Butter Bottled _ _ Water. Bread Fruits AND Vegetables. Cinnamon Coloured Confectionery. Coffee - Chicory Cocoa and Choco- late. Cayenne PEPrER Custard and Egg Powders Curry Powder Flour Ginger Gin - Red. Alum, Hards Stuff. Cassia, and most of the articles mentioned under Spices. East India Arrow-root, Wheat and Potato Flour, Hydrated Sulphate of Lime. Chicory, Roasted Wheat, Rye and Potato Flours, Roasted Beans,Mangel-wurzel, Acorns Roasted Wheat and Rye Flours, Burnt Beans and Acorns, Burnt Sugar, Sawdust, MaSawdust, Carrot, hogany Mangel-wurzel. Maranta, East India, and Tacca or Tahiti Arrow-roots ; Tous les Mois; the P'lours of Wheat, Indian Corn, Sago, Potato, and Tapioca, and various Mixtures of these; Sugar, Chicory. Rice, Mustard Husk, Ground Deal Sawdust, Salt. Wheat, Potato.'and Ground Salt. Bole Armenian, Venetian Potatoes Rice Flours Rice, Potato-farina, Wheat, Sago, and Potato Flours, Ground Rice, Mustard Husks. _ Water, Sugar Certain Salts of Copper, usually the Acetate. Salt. Lake, Indigo, Prussian Blue, Antwerp Blue, Artificial Ultramarine, Carbonate of Copper or Verditer, .Carbonate of Lead or White Lead, Red Lead, Vermilion ; Chrome Yellow or Chromates of Lead, Le- Cochineal, mon, Orange, and deep ; Gamboge ; the three Brunswick Greens, Emerald Green or Arsenite of Copper, Indian Red ; brown ferruginous earths, Umber, Sienna, chiefly and Vandyke Brown, and various combinations of the above pigments. Burnt Sugar, or Black Jack. Ferruginous earths, as Venetian Red and Umber, Burnt Sugar and Black Jack. Venetian Red, Red Ochre, and other ferruginous earths. Lead, Vermilion or Bisulphuret of Mercury, Venetian Red, Turmeric. Chrome Yellow or Chromate of Lead, Turmeric. _ . Red Lead Red Turmeric Powder. Alum. Cassia or Cayenne, Cinnamon, Sugar, and flavouring of different kinds. For Alum, fining. Salt of Tartar. INTRODUCTION. Isinglass Lard Mustard Milk Marmalade Oatmeal Porter Pickles Gelatine. . _ . Potato-flour, Water Wheat-flour, Turmeric . . Water Pulp of Apple or Turnip. Barley-flour, and the integuments of Barley called Kub- - ble. and Stout . - Potted Meats Fish. Preserves Pepper - Snuff - - - . . Flour, and - Water . - Wheat-flour probably boiled. Salts of Copper, including the Acetate. Wheat and Pea Flour, Ground Rice, Ground Mustard Seeds, Linseed Meal, P. D., or Pepper Dust. ■' Sugar . For Taste, Smell, and other Properties. For Coiour. For Bulk and Weight. - - Wheat-flour in two cases only, Potato-flour, and Tapioca- Salt, Carbonate of Soda, Caustic Lime. Turmeric. Annatto. Sugar, Treacle Salts of Copper, usually the Acetate of Copper. Bole Armenian, and sometimes Venetian Red. Sugar, Treacle, Salt. The Chromates of Potash, Chromate of Lead, ferruginous earths, chiefly Umbers, Red and Yellow Ochre, Red Lead, or Oxide of Lead. The Chromates of Potash, Carbonate of Ammonia, Lime, Powdered Glass or Silex, Powdered Orris-root. starch. Spices: Cloves Powdered Clove-stalks in one case. Cassia, Wheat-flour, Sago-meal, and mixtures of these ; East Cinnamon - Pimento Mixed Spice • Saucfs, as the Essences of AnchoLobsters, vies, ... and Shrimps, . ■" India Arrow-root, Potatoflour. Mustard Husk in one instance. Wheat, Sago, and Potato Flours, Ground Rice, Two Vegetable Substances, one of which resembled Linseed. Red ferruginous earths, as Bole Armenian and Venetian Red. and Tomato Sauce. Tea Tobacco Vinegar This Table, Exhausted Tea Leaves; Leaves, other than tliose of Tea, British and Foreign, ar, amongst the former, those of Sycamore, Horse-chesnut, and Plum ; Lie Tea, Paddy Husk, Sand, Starch. Water, Sugar, Treacle, and Salts Water - . - as already remarked, or Black Lead, Plumbago Gum, Indigo, Prussian Blue, Turmeric, Chinese Yellow, China Clay, Soapstone or French Chalk. Sulphate techu, Sugar, Treacle Sugar Oil. Sulphuric Acid. - Burnt does of Iron, CaGum, Le Veno Beno, Chinese Botanical Powder. not embrace nearly air the subthe solids and fluids consumed as employed in the adulteration of articles of food. It contains only those which have actually been disAs soon, covered by ourselves in the several articles subjected to analysis. therefore, as the remaining Reports have been published, as those on Rum, stances Brandy, Spirits of Wine, Wine British and Foreign, Cheese, Honey, and Liquorice, this list will doubtless have to be much extended. With the above Table three other lists may be given — the first, of articles ascertained to be used by others ; the second, of articles stated to be employed by different writers, but of the use of which no positive proof is given, although it is highly probable that most of them either have been or are occasionally employed ; and the third list, of articles the use of which appears to be but little probable, although stated to be sometimes had recourse to for the purpose of adulteration. INTRODUCTION. VIU by Others to or Adulteration. List or Articles ascertained be used For Taste, Smell, and other Properties. For Bulk and Weight. Bread Sugai Coloured Confectionery. Flour for the Purpose Sulphate of Copper. Sap-green., - Mineral White or of Lime. Hydrated Sulphate Gin Lard Milk and Cream Porter and Ale Mutton Suet Flour or Starch, Treacle. Sulof Paradise, phuric Acid, Various Gin Flavourings, containing .Seeds, AngeCoriander Grains lica Root, Calamus Root, Almond Cake, Orris Root, Cardamom Seeds, Orange Peel, Grey and White Salts. Alum, Potash. Cocculus Indicus, Grains of Paradise, Capsicum, Ginger, Quassia, Wormwood, Root, CaraCalamus way and Coriander Seeds, Ginger, Orange Powder, Liquorice, Honey, Sulphate of Iron, Sulphuric Acid, Cream of Tartar, Alum, Carbonate of PoShells, tash, Oyster Hartshorn Shavings, Fa. bia amara or Nux Vo. mica, Beans. Quassia, Gentian and Colombo Root, Peat, Moss, Earthy Leaves, Matter, Rhubarb Leaves of Trees, Fustic Wood. The Leaves Tea Bastard of Beech, Plane, Elm, Poplar, Fancy Oak, Haw- Plane, Willow, thorn, Sloe. Tobacco Rose Pink, Datch Pink, Red and Vegetable Yellow Dyes. Chrome Yellow, Venetian of Carbonate Red, Arsenite of Copper, Chromate Copper, of and Bichromate Carbonates Potash, of Lime and Magne- Nitrate of Soda. Potato, Coltsfoot, British and other Leaves, Sawdust, Malt Comings. Earthy Matter, Sand. Rhubarb, Dock, List of Articles stated by Others to be employed fob the different Purposes of Adulteration, but of the Use of which no Positive Evidence has been adduced, although it is extremely probable that MANY OF them HAVE BEEN, OR ARE OCCASIONALLY, Anchovies Bread - Coloured tionery. - Ground rice. - Confec_ Coffer - - . Chicoex - - - Cocoa and Choco- late. For Taste, Smell, and other Properties. For Colour. For Bulk and Weight. Arrow-root - HAD RECOURSE TO. Sprats. Barley, Oat, Rye, Indian Corn, Bean and Pea Flours, Potatostarch. Pipe Clay, Plaster of Paris, Bonedust. White Potter's Clay, Pipe Clay, Chalk, Clay, Cornish or Plaster of Paris, Sand. Roasted Peas, Coffee Grounds, Parsnip. Torrefied Ground Rice, Roasted Biscuit, Oak Bark Tan, Exhausted Tan, called Croats. Cocoa Shells, Old Sea Biscuits. Coarse branny Flour, Animal Fats, as Tallow, Lard, Treacle, Sulphate of Lime, Chalk. Cobalt, Smalt, marine. Madder Ultra- Root. Liver, Horse's Burnt Blood, Litmus, Naples Yellow. Red Lead, Vermilion, Fed Yellow and Baked Ochre. IX INTRODUCTION. For Bulk and Weight. Flour - Gin Litmus . Rye, Indian Corn, Rice, Bean Flours, Potatoand Pea starch, Chalk, Bone Earth, Plaster of Paris, Powdered - - Mustard Milk Raspberry Sugar Sauces Tobacco Flints. - - Jelly . - - Pea-flour, ... - Pepper For Taste, Smell, and other Properties. For Colour. Linseed-meal, dish Seeds. Sheep's Brains, Chalk. Ground Oil Cake, Clay. - Currant Jelly - - - Ra- - Sand, Plaster of Paris. Chalk, Plaster of Paris The leaves of Cabbage, Seaweed, Roasted Chicory-root, Bran, Oakum. - . - Acetate of Lead. Common Arsenic and oxide of Mercury. Per- Orris-root. Red Lead. Beet-root Liquorice, Dregs, Catechu, Fuller's Earth. Sal Ammoniac, Carbonate of Ammonia, Nitrate of Ammonia, Salt, Alkalies, as Potash and Soda, Catechu or Terra Japonica, Opium. Pyroligneous, Hydrochloric, Nitric, and Tartaric Acids; Cayenne, Long Pepper, Mustard Seeds, Salt. Vinegar Acetic, _ List or stated to be dsed, but not likely to be employed, Purpose of Adulteration. ARTiciiES FOR THE For Bulk and Weight. Anchovies Butter Coffee Chicory ' Cayenne Gin - Milk - . - Porter and Ale Vinegar . . , . - For Colour. Plaster of Paris. Lard. . . - Madder-root, Madder-root Brick-dust Brick-dust. Brick-dust Brick -dust. Oil of Turpentine, Oil of Almonds. Milk of Almonds, Gum, Gum Tragacanth. Opium. Oxalic Acid. The following enumeration of the conclusions arrived at in the cases of the different articles of consumption submitted to analysis are given in order to convey some idea of the character and extent of the work, and to enable the reader, with the least possible trouble and loss of time, to become acquainted with the principal facts and conclusions contained in the body of the work. Coffee, and its Adulterations* of The conclusions resulting from the Microscopical Examination of the first series samples of Ground Coffee subjected to analysis were as follows : — 1st. 2nd. 3rd. 4th. 5th. 6th. That the Thirty-four coffees, with three exceptions, were adulterated. That chicory was present in Thirty-one instances. Roasted corn in Twelve. Beans and potato-flour each in One case. That in Sixteen cases the adulteration consisted of chicory only. That in the remaining Fifteen samples the adulteration consisted of chicory, and either roasted corn, beans, or potato-flour. 7th. That in many instances the quantity of coffee present was very small^ and in others, not less than one fifth, fourth, third, half, and so on, of the whole article.