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Material Reporting what somebody said

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Reporting what somebody said
In this last learning activity of English Dot Works 7, you will learn how to report
other people’s words in different contexts by changing the tenses of speech. For
that purpose, we will do a review of the different tenses learned so far, in order
to contrast direct speech with reported speech. In addition, you will learn
some vocabulary related to crime and punishment.
Fuente: SENA
Introductory material
Dear learner,
This material will help you study the topics related to learning activity 4.
You will learn about:
1. Reported speech.
2. Crime and punishment vocabulary.
Let’s begin!
1. Reported speech
Read the following stories about a girl who dated two different men.
Fuente: SENA
Well, we were at a party and he asked if I wanted to dance. He looked kind of
nice, so I said yes. When we were walking off the dance floor he held me tight.
He asked me if I wanted to go out. The next Saturday, we went to a fancy
restaurant. We ate a delicious meal and had a marvelous time. He walked me
home and all the stars were shining bright. Before he left he kissed me. It was
fantastic!
Fuente: SENA
I met him on a blind date. He picked me up at my place. I couldn’t believe it
when I saw him. He was wearing jeans and a t-shirt and of course I was
wearing a killer black dress. He didn’t say anything at all about it. He said his
vehicle was outside. He had a motorbike! I couldn’t believe it. He told me that
we were going to the best restaurant in the city. When we arrived I was so
disappointed, but I said to myself that everything was going to be okay;
however, everything got worse. He took me to a fast food restaurant. At the end
of the date, he said he had left his wallet at home and he didn’t have money, so
he asked if I could pay for the dinner. He asked if I could take the bus because
he was almost out of gas. I was waiting for a taxi when he told he had a great
time and asked me if he could call me for another date. I didn’t say yes and
before I got into the taxi he tried to kiss me, and I just ran into the car. It was
awful!
Note: We use reported speech to tell what another person said. We must
make a distinction between direct speech and reported speech.
Have a look at the following tables:
Direct speech
Reported speech
“Do you want to dance?”
He asked if I wanted to dance.
“We are going to the best restaurant
in the city.”
“I left my wallet at home and I don’t
have money.”
He told me that we were going to the
best restaurant of the city.
He said he had left his wallet at home
and he didn’t have money.
So he asked if I could pay for the
dinner.
“Can you pay for the dinner?”
Other tenses change like this:
DIrect speech
Reported speech
Tense
Sentence
Tense
Present simple
“I work at night.”
Past simple
Present
continuous
“I am reading a
book.”
Past continuous
Past simple
“I lost my wallet.”
Past perfect
Past
continuous
“I was jogging.”
Past perfect
continuous
Sentence
He said he worked
at night.
He told he was
reading a book.
He said he had
lost his wallet.
He told me had
been jogging.
Present perfect
continuous
“I have seen the
film.”
“I have been
working out.”
Past perfect
“I had cut myself.”
Past perfect
Past perfect
continuous
“I had been
dancing.”
Past perfect
continuous
Will
“I will buy a car.”
Would
Present perfect
He said he had
seen the film.
He told me he had
been working out.
He said he had cut
himself.
He told me he had
been dancing.
He said he would
buy a car.
Past perfect
Past perfect
continuous
Modal verbs change like this:
Direct speech
Modal verb
Sentence
I can speak
English.
“I may arrive
late.”
Can
May
“I must apply for
a scholarship.”
Must
Reported speech
Modal verb
Sentence
He told us he could
speak English.
He said he might
arrive late.
He told her he must
/ had to apply for a
scholarship.
Could
Might
Must / Had to
Note: The word that is optional after say and tell.
Direct speech
Reported speech
Tense
Sentence
Tense
Sentence
Present simple
“I work at night.”
Past simple
Present
continuous
“I am reading a
book.”
Past continuous
He said (that) he
worked at night.
He told her (that)
he was reading a
book.
Note: You can use said and told in reported speech but they are used
differently. You can’t use said with an object pronoun; you must use told with
an object pronoun.
Correct
Incorrect
He told us he was coming.
He said us he was coming.
He told her he loved her.
He said her he loved her.
Note: pronouns also change in reported speech.
Direct speech
Reported speech
Tense
Sentence
Tense
Past simple
“I lost my wallet.”
Past perfect
Past perfect
“I had cut myself.”
Past perfect
Sentence
He said he had
lost his wallet.
He said he had
cut himself.
Note: time expressions also change in reported speech.
Direct speech
Time
Sentence
expression
“I had a date
Today
today.”
“I must leave
now.”
Now
Yesterday
…Days ago
Last day / week
/ month / year
Next day /
week / month /
year
Tomorrow
Tonight
“I didn’t work
yesterday.”
“I saw her
some days
ago.”
“I traveled to
London last
year.”
“I will take my
final exam next
week.”
“I’m moving
tomorrow.”
“I can help you
tonight.”
Reported speech
Time expression
Sentence
That day
He said he had had
a date that day.
Then
He said he must /
had to leave then.
The day before
… Days before
The day / week /
month / year
before
The day / week /
month / year
The next /
following day
That night / last
night
He said he hadn’t
worked the day
before.
He said he had seen
her some days
before.
He said he had
traveled to London
the year before.
He said he would
take his final exam
the following week.
He said he was
moving the next day.
He said he could
help her last night.
Note: places also change in reported speech.
Direct speech
Reported speech
Place
Sentence
Place
Sentence
Here
“I’ll wait here.”
There
He said he would
wait there.
Note: Questions also change in reported speech (where, when, what, etc.) or if
/ whether.
Types of questions
With question
word (where,
when, what...)
Without
question word
(yes or no
questions)
“What are you
doing?”
“Did you call
her?”
Direct speech
Reported
speech
That
He asked me
what I was doing.
Those
He asked me if /
whether I had
called her.
2. Crime and punishment vocabulary
In this part, we are going to study crime and punishment, and vocabulary
related to it.
Crime is an illegal activity such as murder or robbery.
Punishment is a penalty imposed on someone who is convicted of a crime. It
could be, for example, time in prison or a fine.
Note: There is an important difference between criminal law and civil law.
Criminal law deals with matters such as murder. Civil law deals with matters
such as contracts or divorce. The police are not normally involved in civil law.
A. Types of crime
The following are the most common types of crime:
Crime
Definition
Abduction /
kidnapping
Taking a person to a secret location using force.
Armed robbery
Using a weapon to steal.
Arson
Setting fire to a place on purpose.
Assault
Hurting another person physically.
Attempted murder
Trying to kill someone (but failing).
Burglary,
breaking and
entering
Going into another person's home or business with
force.
Child abuse
Injuring a child on purpose.
Domestic violence
Physical assault that occurs within the home.
Drug trafficking
Trading illegal drugs.
Drunk driving
Driving after having too much alcohol.
Fraud
Lying or cheating for business or monetary purposes.
Hijacking
Holding people hostage (usually on a plane).
Murder / homicide
Taking someone's life through violence.
Ransom
A sum of money demanded in exchange for
someone or something that has been taken.
Shoplifting
Stealing merchandise from a store.
Smuggling
Bringing products into a country secretly and illegally.
Speeding
Driving over the speed limit.
Terrorism
Acts of crime against a group (political / religious) or
another country.
Theft
Stealing.
Torture
Extremely cruel and unfair treatment (often towards
prisoners).
Vandalism
Damaging public or private property (for example
with spray paint).
White collar crime
Breaking the law in business.
B. Types of punishment
These are the most common types of punishment:
Punishment
(example offence).
Traffic ticket
(speeding, parking).
License suspension
(drunk driving).
Fine
(hunting out of season).
House arrest
(a young offender who is
waiting to go to court).
Community service
(a youth that steals a car for
the first time).
Jail time
(man who assaults his wife).
Life in prison
(a man or a woman who
commits homicide).
Definition
Leaves marks on driving record / involves
paying a fine.
Driving rights are removed for a certain period
of time.
Pay money as punishment for minor / petty
crime.
Remain in one's home for a certain period of
time.
Do volunteer work such as teaching children
about crime or cleaning up garbage.
Spend a certain amount of months or years
locked away from society.
Spend the rest of one's life in prison with no
chance of going back into society.
C. Questions related to crime
The following boxes will present common questions that are asked in
contexts related to crime.
1. Questions from law breakers or suspected criminals







Why did you pull me over?
Have I done something wrong?
Is this illegal?
What are my rights?
Can I call a lawyer?
Where are you taking me?
Can I make a phone call?
2. Questions police may ask a suspected criminal





Are you carrying any illegal drugs?
Do you have a weapon?
Does this belong to you?
Whose car is this?
Where were you at eight last night?
3. Informing someone of laws and police procedures










You are under arrest.
Put your hands on your head.
I am taking you to the police station.
Please get in the police car.
You will have to pay a fine for this.
I will give you a warning this time.
I'm going to write you a ticket.
We'll tow your car to the station.
Smoking in restaurants is illegal in this country.
It is against the law to do drugs in public.
Have a look the following images and their descriptions. See how the actual
speech is reported by someone else.
Direct speech: A thief
Direct
speech:
A Direct
speech:
broke into the shop last
homicide took place Someone
is
drunknight and stole some
yesterday in the village. driving on the highway.
money.
Reported speech: Maria
told me that a thief had
broken into the shop last
night and had stolen
some money.
Reported speech: The
people from the village
said that a homicide
had taken place there
yesterday.
Fuente de imágenes: SENA
Reported speech: A
friend told me that
someone was drunkdriving
along
the
highway.
Direct speech: A man
Direct speech: A man is
has
committed
Direct
speech:
A
assaulting another man.
vandalism.
mugger stole her purse.
Reported speech: The
Reported speech: My
police reported that a man
friend told me a mugger
was
assaulting
another
had stolen her purse.
man.
Reported
speech:
People
from
the
neighborhood told the
police that a man had
committed vandalism.
Fuente de imágenes: SENA
Direct speech: An unknown
perpetrator commited arson
at a mansion outside of
town.
Reported speech: The
authorities
reported
a
perpetrator committed arson
at a mansion outside of
town.
Direct speech: The
father of the girl who
was
kidnapped
is
paying a ransom to the
kidnapper.
Reported speech: The
news report said that
the father of the girl that
was kidnapped was
paying a ransom to the
kidnapper today.
Fuente de imágenes: SENA
Direct
speech:
A
teenager has shoplifted
for years at a major
supermarket.
Reported speech: The
supermaket employees
told the police a teenager
had shoplifted at their
supermaket for years.
Contextualization
Watch the following news report about a robbery. Have you ever witnessed a
robbery?
Fuente: SENA
Natasha Lieberman: Good afternoon everyone. Welcome to LPQ News
Network. I’m Natasha Lieberman reporting from our headquarters.
We have some breaking news coming from the downtown area. Apparently, a
group of armed men has broken in the Local Bank offices located at
Woodhouse Lane in an attempt to rob the bank. Bystanders report that the bank
employees have been subjected to force and threats by the criminals.
Let’s now move to the scene, where our reporter, John Payne has been
following the events.
Hello, John. What is happening right now at the bank?
Fuente: SENA
John Payne: Good afternoon, Natasha. Tragic news happening here since, as
you mentioned before, an armed bank robbery is happening right now at the
Woodhouse Lane offices of the Local Bank.
The robbers entered the bank a few minutes after midday and, apparently,
threatened those inside in order to obtain cash. As far as we know, the robbers
are armed. At this point, they have been inside the bank for almost two hours.
During the events, a policeman has been hurt when he tried to approach to the
robbers to negotiate.
We are going to speak to police officer and a few bystanders who have
witnessed the events.
Fuente: SENA
John Payne: Good afternoon, Officer Carter.
Police officer: Good afternoon, John.
John Payne: First thing I would like to ask you is about the people inside the
bank right now. What do you know about them? Are they alright?
Police officer: Well, it is difficult to know for sure because there were more
than 50 people inside the place when the robbers broke in. Four hostages who
were in bad health were released one hour after the assault started. What we
know about the other hostages is what they have told us.
John Payne: What did they say?
Police officer: Well, basically, one of them said the rest of the hostages were
OK. He said that the hostages were not being treated violently and that they
had been kept apart in a room where they had access to water and toilet
facilities.
John Payne: It’s good to know that they are fine. But, what are the robbers
asking for? What do they want for the hostages?
Police officer: Again, what we know is what the hostages that were released
told us. We have not established any point of contact with the bandits.
John Payne: Did they send a message with the released hostages?
Police officer: Yes. That’s right. What they have reported to us is that the
robbers have actually taken up a large amount of money with them. So, what
they want is to leave the place with the cash without getting hurt by the police.
Otherwise, they will remain inside.
John Payne: Are you willing to negotiate with them under these conditions?
Police officer: Absolutely not. What we have stated is that there will be no
negotiation until we make sure all the hostages are perfectly safe and that will
only occur when they become free.
John Payne: Sure. We all hope the bandits release them as soon as possible. I
heard that a police Officer had been hurt. Is that true?
Police officer: Yes. Unfortunately, as soon as the events started, one of our
men tried to approach to the bank entrance in order to speak to robbers. He
was not armed at all; however, these criminals attacked him. They shot at him.
He was hurt in one of his shoulders. Fortunately, the medical team assisted him
right away and he is fine now. He is at the hospital at the moment and his life is
out of danger.
John Payne: Definitely. Officer Carter, thank you very much for your time. We
really appreciate you for joining us. We hope the situation gets solved soon and
that all people are safe.
Police officer: Thanks to you.
Fuente: SENA
John Payne: Hello Sir. What’s your name?
Thomas Owens: Hi. I’m Thomas Owens.
John Payne: Mr. Owens, thank you for joining us today. So, you were inside
the bank for about an hour. What happened there?
Thomas Owens: Well, it all happened very fast, actually. I was inside doing
some business when suddenly I heard a man yelling at us.
John Payne: What did he say?
Thomas Owens: He said we were under his control and that we had to stay
quiet. He also made us get on the floor.
John Payne: Was he alone?
Thomas Owens: No, there were three other men with him.
John Payne: Were they armed?
Thomas Owens: Heavily armed. They were carrying several types of weapons,
which frankly, I did not recognize, but, all of them were carrying arms.
John Payne: That must have been very disturbing, indeed.
Thomas Owens: It truly was. I mean, it is still very disturbing because there are
still many hostages inside the bank.
John Payne: Yes, that’s true. Let me ask you a final question. You are now free
and out of danger. How did that happen?
Thomas Owens: Yes, that’s right. I have a heart condition. I started to feel
really bad inside. I was sweating profusely and I was feeling breathless. Many
of the other hostages noticed I wasn’t doing well so they were all around me
trying to help. The robbers realized the situation; thus, they came and spoke to
me.
John Payne: What did they tell you?
Thomas Owens: They told me they didn’t want me to get any worse. They
asked about my health. I told them the truth; that my heart was not strong
enough for that sort of situation.
John Payne: That must had been shocking for them.
Thomas Owens: I believe it wasn’t. They just told me I had to collect my things
and, then, gave me a message to share with the authorities.
John Payne: What was that message?
Thomas Owens: They said they were not leaving nor releasing the hostages
until they were sure they were not going to be captured.
John Payne: I see. If that is their last word the Police are in the middle of a
tough situation here. Well, I’m glad you are outside now. I hope you and
everyone else can overcome these terrible events.
Thomas Owens: Let’s hope everything gets sorted soon.
John Payne: Thank you for your time Mr. Owens. We really appreciate you
sharing your story with us.
Thomas Owens: My pleasure.
Fuente: SENA
John Payne: Hey, guys. What are your names?
Everyone: Hi! Hello.
Nicole: I’m Nicole.
John: My name is John.
Richard: And, I’m Richard.
John Payne: Why are you here lads?
John: Well, we were not looking forward to it, actually. The three of us were just
round the corner at Ben & LPQ having some ice cream when we heard a
gunshot. We were very worried so we left the place for a while.
Nicole: Yeah. That’s right. We left and then we heard it was an armed bank
robbery at Woodhouse Lane. My dad is a police Officer and he usually works
near here so I was very worried because I knew he was close and that he might
have attended to this emergency.
John Payne: Is your dad here right now?
Nicole: Yes, he is. But, he is safe, fortunately. He’s supervising the situation at
the moment.
John Payne: Has he spoken to you?
Nicole: Yes. I spoke to him a couple of minutes ago. He told me that everything
was going to be alright. He also told me they had been speaking to the robbers
and that their conversations were being held in good terms because they were
willing to release the hostages.
Richard: He also said that he was really positive and that he was hoping the
hostages were released in the next hour.
John Payne: That sounds like good news.
John: Sure! Let’s hope the robbers let them go soon and that nobody gets hurt.
John Payne: That’s what we all are waiting for. Thank you, guys for the time.
Everyone: Thanks, Thank you.
Comprehension
A. After reading the news report about the bank robbery, decide if the following
statements are true or false:
Statements
About forty hostages had been released by the criminals.
Nicole’s dad is a police officer.
The robbers were asking for a ransom.
Thomas Owens suffered a heart attack during the hold up.
According to Officer Carter, the police were not willing to
negotiate with the criminals.
Nicole, Richard and John were having hot dogs when they
heard the gunshot.
A police officer was shot dead while trying to approach to
the criminals.
The robbers sent a message to the police with the
hostages that were released.
The Local Bank is located Downtown.
The robbers have been inside for about ten hours.
True
False
B. Drag the boxes to reorganize the news reported into the correct
chronological order.
C. Now, match the expressions to their correct definitions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Assault _____.
Robber _____.
To break in _____.
Gunshot _____.
Ransom _____.
Weapon _____.
Hostage _____.
Witness (noun) _____.
A person who takes money or property
illegally.
The sound the shooting of a gun
makes.
a
Someone who is made a prisoner
usually to force other people to do
something.
c
b
Hurting another person physically.
The amount of money wanted in
exchange for someone or something
that has been taken.
A person who sees an event
happening; usually a crime or
accident.
e
f
An object used in fighting or war, such
as a gun or a bomb; usually used
against someone.
Entering a building by damaging a
door or window, frequently to steal.
g
h
d
D. Read the following sentences that were extracted from the news story.
Select the correct expressions from the list to complete the sentences.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
under his control
hostages were released
stay quiet.
were not leaving
competent
positive
was going to be alright
were not going to be captured
being treated violently
1. “He told me that everything ______________________”.
2. “They said they _______________nor releasing the hostages until they
were sure they ____________________________”.
3. “He said we were _______________ and that we had to ___________”.
4. “He also said that he was really _____________ and that he was hoping
the _________________ in the next hour”.
5. “He said that the hostages were not ___________________”.
Practice 1
A. Change the direct speech into reported speech sentences and questions.
a. “I haven’t done
anything new for
ages.”
b. “I don’t like eating
at home on
weekends.”
c. “How much did
you pay for your
dress?”
d. “We’ll buy our
clothes on the
Internet.”
e. “Do you have the
traffic ticket?”
f. “Where are the
elevators?”
g. “You have to
finish the report.”
Example:
She said (that) she hadn’t done anything new for ages.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
I told him ____________________________________________________.
She asked me ________________________________________________.
They said ____________________________________________________.
The policeman asked me _______________________________________.
The man asked her ____________________________________________.
His boss told him ______________________________________________.
B. Click on the correct answer.
1. Sarah said that she will / would come with us.
2. He said me / told me that he saw the suspect.
3.
4.
5.
6.
My mom asked me if I can cook / could cook the dinner.
They asked her where she works / does she work.
He asked the police man how much the fine was / was the fine.
She told us she haven’t bought / hadn’t bought anything.
C. There was a theft in a shop. Look at the following questions the police officer
asked the shop owner. Rewrite the questions using reported speech.
Fuente: SENA
Police officer’s questions
Reported questions
What’s your name?
The police asked him ______________.
Did you see the robbers?
The police asked him ______________.
What were they wearing?
The police asked him ______________.
How do you think they got
in?
The police asked him ______________.
What did they take?
The police asked him ______________.
Has this ever happened
before?
The police asked him ______________.
D. Look at the following famous quotes from a group of scientists who have
influenced the way we perceive the world today. Read their quotes and
report their words accordingly.
Scientist
Quote
Reported quote
Nicolaus Copernicus
“Moreover, since the sun
remains stationary, whatever
appears as a motion of the
sun is really due rather to the
motion of the earth.”
He said that since the sun
_______stationary, whatever
_______as a motion of the
sun _______ really due
rather to the motion of the
earth.
“I can calculate the motion of
heavenly bodies, but not the
madness of people.”
He said he _______the
motion of the heavenly
bodies, but not the madness
of people.
“At some future period, not
very distant as measured by
centuries, the civilized races
of man will almost certainly
exterminate, and replace the
savage races throughout the
world.”
He said that at some future
period, not very distant as
measured by centuries, the
civilized races of man
_______ almost certainly
_______, and _______ the
savage races throughout the
world.
19 February 1473 - 25
May 1453.
Sir Isaac Newton
25 December 1642 20 March 1726.
Charles Darwin
12 February 1809 - 19
April 1882.
Dimitri Mendeleev
8 February 1834 - 2
February 1907.
Sigmund Freud
6 May 1856 - 23
September 1939.
Michael Faraday
22 September 1971 25 August 1867.
Thomas Alva Edison
11 February 1874 - 18
“I suppose when my unknown
elements are found, more
people will pay us attention.”
He said he supposed when
his unknown
elements_______, more
people _______attention.
“Religion is an illusion and it
derives its strength from the
fact that it falls in with our
instinctual desires.”
He said that religion _______
an illusion and it _______ its
strength from the fact that it
_______ in with our
instinctual desires.
“Nothing is too wonderful to
be true, if it be consistent
with the laws of nature.”
He said that nothing
_______ too wonderful to be
true, if it _______consistent
with the laws of nature.
“I never did anything by
accident, nor did any of my
inventions come by accident;
they came by work.”
He said he_______ anything
by accident, nor _______any
of his inventions _______ by
accident; they _______by
work.
October 1931.
Albert Einstein
14 March 1874 - 18
April 1955.
Stephen Hawking
“Education is what remains
after one has forgotten what
one has learned in school.”
He said education _______
what _______ after one
_______ what one
_______in school.
“My advice to other disabled
people would be, concentrate
on things your disability
doesn't prevent you doing
well, and don't regret the
things it interferes with. Don't
be disabled in spirit as well
as physically.”
He said that his advice to
other disabled people
_______, concentrate on
things your disability doesn’t
prevent you doing well, and
don’t regret the things it
_______with. Don’t be
disabled in spirit as well as
physically.
8 January 1942.
Fuente de imágenes: Wikimedia commons
Practice 2
A. Look at the following cartoon and read it. Then, transform the sentences in
the bubbles into some form of reported speech.
Fuente: SENA
Bubble 1
She told Chuck
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.
She asked Chuck
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.
Bubble 2
Chuck told her
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.
Bubble 3
She told Chuck
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.
B. Match the sentences 1 - 6 with the people in the picture.
Fuente: SENA
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Can I sit in the first row? _____
I woke up late. _____
I want to read the first exercise. _____
Did you bring your books? _____
We had homework! _____
I left my book. _____
C. Who said what? Can you remember? Look at the image again and complete
the sentences in reported speech.
a. Laura said ________________________________________________.
b. Sarah said ________________________________________________.
c. The teacher asked __________________________________________.
d. David said_________________________________________________.
e. Samantha asked____________________________________________.
f. Monica said________________________________________________.
D. A woman left a voice message to her husband. Go to the multimedia, listen
to the four extracts from the message and report each sentence.
Fuente: SENA
Extract 1:
Wife: “Hi sweety. How are you? I called twice but you didn’t pick up the
phone. I think you’re still at the meeting”.
Extract 2:
Wife: “I was in a supermarket but I forgot to buy some things for dinner. I
just arrived home.”
Extract 3:
Wife: “Can you, please, bring a bottle of wine, a baguette and a bouquet of
white roses?”
Extract 4:
Wife: “Oh, I almost forgot about the napkins. They just ran out. Can you
bring some of those, too? Thanks darling. Love you”.
Extract 1:
a. She asked _______________________________________.
b. She said _________________________________________.
c. She said _________________________________________.
Extract 2:
d. She said ________________________________________.
e. She said ________________________________________.
Extract 3:
f. She asked ______________________________________.
Extract 4:
g. She said ________________________________________.
h. She said ________________________________________.
i. She asked_______________________________________.
j. She said thanks and she said ________________________.
Pronunciation practice
Note: This practice must be completed using the multimedia version of the
study material. There you will find the corresponding audio files.
A. Intonation: Tones in words
In English Dot Works 6 we learned about intonation and applied different tones
to simple yes and no answers. Now, it is time for you to practice tones with
more complex words. Before moving on, let’s take a look at the symbols and
how they are going to be used in this activity:

In monosyllabic words: The symbol that represents tone precedes the
word. For example:
\

right or / riɡht
In polysyllabic words: The stressed syllable also carries the tone. In this
case, the stressed syllable is underlined and the symbol that represents tone
precedes the syllable. For example:
/ morning
or \ morning
Now, let’s review the tones and see how they are used in mono and polysyllabic
words.

Fall
A falling tone usually conveys a feeling of finality. This means that it is all to
be said.
For example:
A. Are you sure nobody rang while I was out?
B. I’m \ sure.

Rise
A rising tone usually means interest. It usually sounds like a question.
For example:
A. Peter left the country today. I think he had legal issues here.
B. / Really?
Note: When English speakers are listing to items, they use a systematic
combination of falling and rising tones. Let’s go to the multimedia version, listen
to how this works:
A. Hey, Mike! Could you please tell me how many bags are there in the
garage?
B. Sure! I see / one, / two, / three and \ four bags.
A. Thanks a lot, pal.
As you can notice, the pattern for listing is using a rising tone for each item until
you get to the last one, which has a falling tone.

Fall-rise
A combination of a falling plus rising tone normally suggests there is no
certainty about the answer given.
For example:
A. Kelly, are you going to finish this practice tonight?
B. \./ Maybe.

Fall-rise
A combination of a rising plus falling tone normally transmits a big sense of
impression or surprise.
For example:
A. Welcome to my new apartment! What do you think of it?
B. It’s /\big! I love it.
Good job! Now, let’s do some practice.
1. Go to the multimedia, select one of the options from the box to match the
tone or tones used by speakers B in each dialog. Some options can be used
more than once. One example is done for you.
Indicates definiteness (2) / Shows interest (2) / Suggests uncertainty / Shows
surprise (3) / Presents items on a list
Example:
a.
A. Can I borrow ten bucks? I forgot my
wallet today.
B. \/Probably. Let me check how much
I’ve got.
Suggest uncertainty
b.
A. Mom, I failed my science test.
B. a/\ɡain.
c.
A. The baby was born ten minutes ago.
It is a beautiful and healthy baby girl!
B. /\Oh!
d.
A. An armed robbery took place last
night near here.
B. Last /night?
e.
A. Hi, Melissa. I heard you’re traveling
to the United States. What cities are
you visiting?
B. I’m going to / Washington, Chi/ cago
and \Boston.
A. /\Wowǃ. That sounds amazing. I hope
you have a wonderful time there.
f.
A. Hey, dad! Can I take your car?
B. /Now?
A. Yes. I have to be at university by
10.00 a.m.
B. Im\possible.
g.
A. Do you think Astrid was right?
B. No \way.
2. Go to the multimedia and listen to the following conversation. Choose the
appropriate tone for each of the underlined words or syllables.
Fall \ / Rise / / Rise-fall /\ / Fall-rise \/
A. Hey, Charles! Long-time no see.
B. Hello, Vincent. Yes, you are right. I’ve been a little bit busy at university.
A. Me too. Anyway, what are you up to right now?
B. Right now?
A. Yes!
B. I’m visiting some friends from university. You probably know a few of them.
A. Probably. Who are you seeing?
B. I’m seeing Johana, Richard, John and Nicole.
A. Right. I know Johana, Richard and John. I actually never met Nicole.
B. Do you want to come with me? I’m seeing them in just a few minutes. I can
introduce you to Nicole!
A. Sure.
B. Great! Let’s go.
B. Homophones are groups (usually pairs) of words that are pronounced the
same although they have different meanings and may have a different
spelling. Drag the words to match their homophones. One example is done
for you.
a. Warn.
b. Weekly.
Clime.
Whet.
Lain.
c. Pore.
Row.
d. Steak.
More.
e. Sweet.
Suite.
f. Moor.
Stake.
g. Roe.
Pour.
h. Lane.
Weakly.
i. Wet.
Worn.
j. Climb.
a.
C. Homographs are groups (usually pairs) of words that are spelled the same
but pronounced differently. Go to the multimedia, listen to the following
words and choose the correct word class for each item based on its stress
pattern. One example is done for you.
a.
Noun
adjective
or
Noun
adjective
or
Verb
b.
c.
Verb
Noun
adjective
or
Noun
adjective
or
Noun
adjective
or
Noun
adjective
or
Verb
d.
Verb
e.
Verb
f.
Verb
Now, listen to the pairs of homograph words again and check their
pronunciation and stress. Then, record yourself and practice recording them.
Uplift
a.
ˈʌplɪft
ʌpˈlɪft
(Noun)
(Verb)
Segment
b.
ˈseɡmənt
seɡˈmənt
(Noun)
c.
(Verb)
Object
ˈɑbdʒɪkt
əbˈdʒekt
(Noun)
(Verb)
Content
d.
ˈkɒntent
kənˈtent
(Noun)
(Verb)
Rebel
e.
ˈrebel
rɪˈbel
(Noun)
(Verb)
D. Read the following sentences. Type the correct spelling for the word that has
been transcribed.
Sentence
Word
The ˈkɪdnæpɪŋ lasted for two weeks.
They were convicted of ˈɑrsən.
The kidnappers demanded a ˈrænsəm of $10
million for the CEO.
He was caught ˈsmʌɡlɪŋ.
Mr. Mitchell was under haʊs əˈrest for 5 years.
My dad was fined for ˈspidɪŋ.
A 22-year old girl was əˈsɔltɪd last night.
What a ˈhevnlɪ girl!
Now, go to the multimedia, listen to the sentences and check the stress and
intonation patterns used. Then, record yourself and practice pronouncing them.
The kidnapping lasted for two
weeks.
They were convicted of arson.
The kidnappers demanded a
ransom of $10 million for the
CEO.
He was caught smuggling.
Mr. Mitchell was under house
arrest for 5 years.
My dad was fined for speeding.
A 22-year old girl was assaulted
last night.
What a heavenly girl!
References

Wikimedia commons. (2012). Albert Einstein during a lecture in Vienna in
1921 (age 42). Consultado el 18 de octubre de 2015, en
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AEinstein1921_by_F_Schmutzer_
2.jpg

Wikimedia commons. (2014). Fundador del psicoanálisis, fumando.
Consultado
el
18
de
octubre
de
2015,
en
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASigmund_Freud_LIFE.jpg

Wikimedia commons. (2010). Michael Faraday, oil, by Thomas Phillips.
Consultado
el
18
de
octubre
de
2015,
en
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AM_Faraday_Th_Phillips_oil_184
2.jpg

Wikimedia commons. (2014). Nicolaus Copernicus portrait from Town Hall in
Thorn.
Consultado
el
18
de
octubre
de
2015,
en
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ANikolaus_Kopernikus.jpg

Wikimedia commons. (2009). Photograph of Charles Darwin, published by
John G. Murdoch. Consultado el 18 de octubre de 2015, en
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADarwin__John_G_Murdoch_Portrait_restored.jpg

Wikimedia commons. (2010). Portrait of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev
wearing the Edinburgh University professor robe. Watercolour on paper.
Consultado
el
18
de
octubre
de
2015,
en
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMedeleeff_by_repin.jpg

Wikimedia commons. (2013). Portrait of Sir Isaac Newton, oil on canvas.
Consultado
el
18
de
octubre
de
2015,
en
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AIsaac_Newton%2C_English_Sch
ool%2C_1715-20.jpg

Wikimedia commons. (2006). Stephen Hawking during the press conference
at the National Library of France to inaugurate the Laboratory of Astronomy
and Particles in Paris and the French release of his work God created the
integers.
Consultado
el
18
de
octubre
de
2015,
en
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stephen_Hawking_050506.jpg

Wikimedia commons. (2012). Thomas Alva Edison photo and signature.
1915.
Consultado
el
18
de
octubre
de
2015,
en
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3A%D0%AD%D0%B4%D0%B8%D
1%81%D0%BE%D0%BD_%D0%A2%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%81
_%D0%90%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B2%D0%B0_%D1%84%D0%BE%D1
%82%D0%BE_%D0%96%D0%97%D0%9B.JPG
Document control
Author
Adaptation
Name
Position
Kelly Johanna
Vera Diettes &
Nicole Bruskewitz
Theme experts
Asesoras English
Dot Works Programa de
bilingüismo
Rachman
Copy editor – Línea
Bustillo Martínez
de producción
Dependence
Date
Dirección de
formación
November
profesional.
2014
Dirección General
Centro
Agroindustrial.
Regional Quindío
October
2015
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