Subido por Nancy Sandoval Gama

GRAMMAR TENSES SHEETbw

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PAST
Past Perfect Simple
Past Continuous*
(+) S + had + Participle
(-) S + hadn’t + Participle
(?) Had + S + Participle?
(+)
(-)
(?)
Uses:
 A completed action before
another activity in the past.
When I arrived (2) the plane had left (1)
Uses:
 Past actions in progress.
When I went out, it was raining
 To form the 3rd Conditional
If you had studied, you would have
passed the exam
Common words:
already, just, , before, as soon as,
until, by the time that, yet, never,
after.
Past Perfect Continuous*
(+)
(-)
(?)
S + was/were + V-ing
S + wasn’t/weren’t + V-ing
was/were + S + V-ing?
 Interrupted actions in progress
I was having a shower when the phone
rang
 Actions in progress at the same
time in the past.
While I was watching TV my brother was
reading a book.
Common words:
when, while
S + had + been + V-ing
S + hadn’t + been + V-ing
Had + S + been + V-ing?
PRESENT
Present Perfect Simple
Past Simple
(+)
(-)
(?)
S + Verb Past
S + didn’t + Infinitive
Did + S + Infinitive?
Uses:
 Finished actions in the past.
Last week, I didn’t go to the cinema with
my sister.
(+)
(-)
(?)
S + have / has + Participle
S + haven’t / hasn’t + Part.
Have / Has + S + Participle?
Uses:
 Experiences in life
I’ve never been to Germany.
 Actions in the past which have a
result in the present
Someone has stolen my bike.
 To talk about something that
happened regularly in the past
When I was a teenager I went to English
classes twice a week.
 Actions that began in the past
and continue in the present.
She has lived in this house since she
was born.
 A series of actions in the past.
He entered a room, lit a cigarette and
smiled at everyone.
 Actions that happened at an
unknown time.
I have already had breakfast
 To form the 2nd Conditional
If I were you, I wouldn’t buy that car
Common words:
for, since, still, already, just, yet, ever,
never, so far, lately, recently
Common words:
Yesterday, the other day, last…, ago,
in (year), when…
Present Perfect Cont*
Uses
 An action in progress before
another activity in the past.
At last the train came, I had been waiting
for two hours.
(+) S + have / has + been + V-ing
(-) S + haven’t / hasn’t + been + V-ing
(?) Have / Has + S + been + V-ing?
 We focus on the duration of the
activity not the result.
I had been running for an hour.
 Similar as the Present Perfect
Simple but it focuses on the
duration
She has been painting for 4 hours.
Uses:
Common words:
How long, since, for.
Present Simple
(+)
(-)
(?)
S + Infinitive *(-s)
S + don’t / doesn’t + Infinitive
Do / Does + S + Infinitive?
Present Continuous*
(+) S + am / is / are + V-ing
(-) S + am not / isn’t / aren’t + V-ing
(?) am / is / are + S + V-ing?
Uses:
 Habits and Routines
Jane always studies in the library
Uses:
 Actions happening at the moment.
John is eating now
 To talk about true facts
Water boils at 100¨C
 Temporary actions.
They are living in Madrid this year
 Permanent situations
They don’t live in London any more.
 Plans (SEE FUTURE)
 With State Verbs*
I don’t understand the text
Common words:
At the moment, now, at present, these
days, currently, today
 To form the 0 and 1st Conditionals
If she doesn’t come, we won’t go out.
 Timetables (SEE FUTURE)
Common words:
FREQUENCY ADVERBS: always,
usually, normally, often, sometimes,
occasionally, rarely, seldom, hardly
ever, never
TIME EXPRESSIONS: nowadays,
every day, once a week, from time to
time, in summer, on Mondays, etc
* STATE VERBS
They aren’t normally used in
continuous. So, we have to
use them in the simple form.
Belong, believe, think, want,
understand, remember, like,
love, know, feel…
Common words:
for, since, how long.
FUTURE
Present Simple
.
Present Continuous*
See (PRESENT)
See (PRESENT)
Uses
 Timetables and schedules.
The train leaves at 4 this afternoon
Uses
 Plans and arrangements.
What are you doing next week?
Common words:
This afternoon, tonight, tomorrow,
next weekend…
Future “WILL”
Future “BE GOING TO”
Future Continuous*
Future Perfect
(+) S + will + Infinitive
(-) S + won’t + Infinitive
(?) Will + S + Infinitive?
(+) S + be going to + Infinitive
(-) S + be (not) going to + Infinitive
(?) Be + S + going to + Infinitive?
(+) S + will be + V-ing
(-) S + won’t be + V-ing
(?) Will + S + be + V-ing?
(+) S + will have + Participle
(-) S + won’t have + Participle
(?) Will + S + have + Participle?
Uses
 Instant decisions
I will open the door.
 Offers and promises
I won’t tell anyone.
 Predictions which are not sure
I think I won’t pass the exam.
Uses
 Plans and intentions.
I’m going to buy a house next summer
 Evidences
Look at those clouds! It’s going to rain.
Uses
 An action that will be in progress
in the future
Tomorrow at 7.00, we’ll be flying to Paris
Uses
 An action that will be finished in
the past
By the end of this month I will have
finished the project
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