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Know yourself. reader for 3rd ESO PPLL

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Personality, what´s that?
What is personality? Think about it. Try to define it. Ask your friends or your family to define personality.
Try looking in the dictionary. You probably have many different descriptions and definitions. Now you
understand that personality is a very difficult thing to define.
Are all humans the same? Of course not. We know that every person has similar characteristics, but we
also know that every person is different and individual. There are millions of people in the world today
and no one is exactly the same. There are physical differences and differences in personality. Everyone is
unique.
Scientists today understand why people are different physically. However, it is much more complicated
to understand why people are different in other ways. Even people in the same
family have different personalities. This makes humans very interesting, but also very complicated.
There are many theories and many studies about personalities. Today we understand more, but
psychologists continue trying to discover the reasons for our behaviour.
One of the methods we can use to define different personalities is to see how people behave differently
in a variety of situations. Read the following example:
Imagine that there are many people in a supermarket. They are all doing their shopping in the normal
way. Everybody is behaving more or less the same. Of course, some people are in a hurry and they are
doing their shopping quickly. Other people are not in a hurry and they are doing their shopping slowly
and carefully. Some people take time to study the prices and some people have more food in their
trolleys than other people. At the end they pay and go home.
But on this particular day, the lights suddenly go out. There are no windows and there is only a small
yellow emergency light. It is very dark and very difficult to see. Now the people in the supermarket start
to do very different things. An old lady tries to continue her shopping in the normal way, but she can't
see. One person starts to shout hysterically. Two boys start a conversation. Two teenagers take the
opportunity to eat a free bar of chocolate. One man takes a big leg of serrano ham and runs quickly out
of the shop. A very angry woman insists on seeing the manager. What happened? Why do all these
people behave so differently in the same situation?
People have many characteristics in common, but they also have different ways of behaving because of
personality differences. Think about your family or your group of friends. Are they different? Do they
behave differently in similar situations? For example, how do different people in your class react if they
don't pass an exam or do badly? How do you react? How do your parents react?
Most people's personalities are usually consistent. They usually behave in similar ways. For example,
someone who is shy at parties is usually shy everywhere. Think about the different teachers at your
school. If the science teacher has a good sense of humour, you expect him to have a good sense of
humour every day. We use many adjectives to describe personalities: happy, enthusiastic, nervous,
calm, timid, patient, etc. You can probably think of many more words to describe the people in your life.
This book contains tests from different aspects of psychology. You can do them alone or compare your
answers with your friends and classmates. This is a good opportunity to practise your English, to learn
some new vocabulary about people and to have fun! For the tests in this book to work, do not decide
what your answer is. Choose the answer based on your first impulse. Be spontaneous!
THE TESTS
Test 1. AM I A GOOD FRIEND?
We all want friends. We all want other people to think of us as a good friend. But what makes you a
good friend? You have to be kind and help people when they need you. Honesty and loyalty are the two
most important qualities in a good friend. Are you a good friend? Try this test. Circle the alternative you
choose.
1.
Have you got a lot of friends?
yes
2.
You discover that your friend did something bad to you. Do you stop being his/her friend
immediately?
yes
no
3.
Can you forgive him/her?
yes
no
4.
Do you always tell your close friend the truth?
yes
no
5.
Do you always know which gift to buy for your friend?
yes
no
6.
Do you always understand your friend's problems when he/she explains them to you?
yes
no
7.
Do you get angry when your friend is with someone else?
yes
no
8.
If you think that he/she is wrong, do you tell him/her?
yes
no
9.
Your friend constantly asks you for money, but you have very little. Do you always give it to
him/her?
yes
no
10.
Do you always tell your friend that he/she is right?
11.
Your parents give you very little money. Do you spend all your money for your friend's birthday?
yes
no
12.
Something is wrong with your friend. You are convinced that he/she has a very serious
problem that he/she does not admit to. Do you tell someone that can help him/her?
yes
no
13.
Do you visit your friend when he/she is ill?
14.
You are angry with your friend. Do you talk to him/her and explain the reasons for your
anger?
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
Results for Test 1.
30 or more: You are a very good friend and a very loyal
person. But be careful that people don't use you.
22 - 29: You are very loyal. People can count on you. Most
people probably like you.
15 - 21: There are things that you need to change. You
probably think that being a good friend is accepting
everything that your friend says. You need to be more
honest with yourself and with your friends.
14 or less: You think about yourself too much. You need to
reflect on your attitudes. Think about what it mean to be a
good friend.
Test 2. DO I WORRY TOO MUCH?
Some people worry too much. For example, they feel that their work isn't good enough. They are always
nervous and it is difficult for them to relax. They worry about every little thing. There are other people
who are exactly the opposite. They never worry about anything. They think that they know everything.
Both these attitudes are too extreme. It is natural to worry about some things sometimes.
Thinking about the way that you react to life situations is a good way to begin to know yourself. This test
will be a good start. Circle your choice.
1.
Do you have bad dreams?
often
sometimes
never
2.
Does your heart beat too fast?
often
sometimes
never
3.
Do you wake up more than once at night?
often
sometimes
never
4.
Do you think about horrible things that might happen to your family?
often
sometimes
never
Is it difficult for you to concentrate when you are trying to learn?
often
sometimes
never
6.
Do you get embarrassed easily?
often
sometimes
never
7.
Do you get tired easily?
often
sometimes
never
8.
Do you dream about things that worry you?
often
sometimes
never
9.
Do you cry for no reason?
often
sometimes
never
10.
Are you so worried that you can't fall asleep? often
sometimes
never
11.
Do your hands tremble when you have to do something important?
often
sometimes
Do you get frightened when you think that you will have to experience a difficult
situation?
often
sometimes
5.
12.
never
never
SCORE to Test 2
If you answered often 6 times or more, plus sometimes 3 times or more, you worry too much. Try
talking with someone whose opinions you respect (your parents, an older brother/sister, or a teacher
who you trust). They can help you to differentiate between things that are important and things that are
not.
If you answered often 5 times or less, and sometimes 4 times or more, try to change your attitudes. You
worry a little too much. You need to relax a little more.
If you answered often 4 times or less, and the rest of your answers are sometimes and never, be happy.
There are some things that worry you, but that is natural. Life is difficult sometimes.
Test 3. HOW AMBITIOUS AM I ?
Think of someone famous that you admire. How did this person arrive at the position that he/she has?
All famous people had a very strong desire to make their dreams become reality. They had ambition.
This is a very important quality to have as a person. But be careful. Too much ambition can have a
negative effect on your life and your relationships with other people. Do you have too little or too much
ambition? Take this test and discover yourself.
You can only choose one answer in each case.
1. When do you miss school?
a. when I have a headache
c. when I have a high temperature
b. when I have a bad cold
2. How many days of school did you miss last month?
a. none
b. 1 or 2 days
c. more than 2 days
3. How often do you get involved in activities outside school such as sports or social programmes?
a. 5 or more days a week
b. 2 or more days a week
c. never
4. You decide not to go to school:
a. to go to the cinema
b. to go to a funeral
c. because you feel tired
5. Your teacher asks you to stay after school and help decorate the classroom. What do you do?
a. accept immediately
b. say that it depends on what you are doing that evening
c. say no
6. Your attitude towards your schoolwork is:
a. you do the minimum amount of work that is necessary
b. you want to get good marks consistently
c. you must always get excellent marks
7. You notice a classmate is making an error when he/she is preparing for an exam. What do you do?
a. help him/her to correct the error
b. say nothing
c. tell him/her that their error is correct because you want to get a better mark than him/her
8. Your teacher is offering a prize to the best student at the end of the course. What do you do?
a. work really hard to get it
b. sacrifice your social and family life, if necessary
c. try to influence your teacher to give the prize to you
9. Which of the following is the most important to you?
a. family
b. work
c. fun
10. Which of the following is the most important to you?
a. money
b. happiness
c. a good job
Key to test 3
21 and above: Be careful! You are too ambitious. If
you ignore everybody and everything for your
ambition, you will eventually have no friends. You
need to relax a little more.
16 - 20: You have ambition. You know what you
want and how to get it. But be careful not to make
any enemies.
15 or less: You are not ambitious enough. Try to
motivate yourself more and work to convert your
dreams into reality.
Test 4. AM I TOO TRENDY ?
It is natural to want to look good. Most people dedicate some time to their appearance. But the model
that each person uses to decide what looks good varies. Don't let your individuality be dominated by
other people's opinions. There is nothing wrong with being trendy, but it must be your choice. It is also
important not to judge a person by their appearance. It is the person inside who is important.
1. What do you do if someone in your class is wearing the same jumper as you?
a. you hate your jumper and never wear it again
b. it doesn't matter
c. you think that your classmate has good taste
2. What has the most influence on your choice of clothes?
a. TV commercials
b. your favourite stars
c. your friends
3. One of your friends likes wearing crazy hats. What do you think?
a. he/she is ridiculous
b. I want one
c. I must find something that is crazier
4. How do you react to the latest fashions?
a. you don't want to spend money on "fads"
c. you don't care
b. you desperately want to get them
5. Your friend's mother dresses and talks like people your age. What do you think?
a. she looks and sounds ridiculous
b. you don't notice
c. you think it's marvellous that she wants to be fashionable
6. Who do you want to meet the most?
a. Lady Gaga
b. Arturo Pérez-Reverte
c. Pedro Sánchez
7. A friend of yours has a CD of the latest music from London. What do you do?
a. you are not interested
b. you borrow it immediately
c. you listen to it when you have time
8. Which is your favourite pop group?
a. the one all your friends like
c. one whose music you like the best
b. the one whose songs are on the radio a lot
9. What is your favourite colour for clothes?
a. the colour that you look best in
b. black, because it always looks good
c. the colour that is in fashion at the moment
10. You decide to go to the cinema. Which film do you decide to see?
a. the one with your favourite actors
b. the one that everyone is talking about
c. the one that your teacher recommends
Key to Test 4
24 or more: You always want to be fashionable. It's
important to you that you and all your friends are
trendy. But be careful. Appearance is not the most
important thing in life.
15 - 23: You like following fashion, but you know that
it isn't the most important thing in life.
14 or less: You don't care a lot about being
fashionable. But perhaps you are a little too serious.
Remember that it is always interesting to
experiment.
Test 5. How Dynamic Am I ?
There are times in our lives when we feel very dynamic. We are full of optimism and everything seems
possible. Our body feels light and full of energy. We feel very sociable and enjoy change and novelty.
There are other times when we feel exactly the opposite. We feel "blocked". We feel
pessimistic about everything. We feel tired all the time. We don't want to be with other people.
Which description do you feel is you? Do the 20 actions in the test and choose the description that is
closest to what you feel. Remember, answer instinctively. Don't think about your choice — be honest!
1. Look straight ahead. What is the first thing that you see?
a. I can't concentrate on anything
b. something pleasant
c. something interesting
d. something ugly and irritating
e. something ordinary
2. Touch your right ear with your right hand. What do you feel?
a. my hand feels a little uncomfortable
b. my ear feels uncomfortable
c. a pleasant feeling
d. my ear feels pleasant
e. nothing
3. Listen to the sounds around you in the school yard with your eyes closed. What do you sense?
a. I like what I hear
b. sounds getting loud and then getting quieter
c. curiosity
d. a mixture of different sounds
e. a horrible noise
4. Grab something and squeeze it. What do you feel?
a. it is interesting to touch
b. my hand feels uncomfortable
c. nothing
d. it's pleasant to touch
e. there is no sense in doing this
5. Stand up, sit down and stand up again immediately. What do you feel?
a. it's an unpleasant effort
b. I feel like going for a walk
c. it's a pleasant feeling
d. I want to sit down again
e. I don't know what to do now
6. Close your eyes and think. What do you sense?
a. many thoughts
b. a desire to open my eyes
c. a desire to sleep
d. a pleasant, relaxed feeling e. I feel uncomfortable and anxious
7. Breathe in deeply. What do you smell?
a. a bad smell
b. a good smell
c. nothing
d. I don't know
e. my nose itches
8. Close your mouth firmly. What do you think about?
a. fear
b. pain
c. eating
d. effort
e. my teeth
9. Take off one shoe and then put it on again. What did you feel?
a. a sense of doing something b. I didn't want to do it
c. I didn't want people to see me
d. nothing
e. natural and free
10. Cough! What did you think?
a. nothing
b. I'm actingt to attract people´s attention
c. people watching me will think that I'm crazy
d. I'm going to say something
e. I have a cold
11. Look at your watch. What did you think?
a. my watch is attractive
b. there is something that I must do
c. I forgot to do something important
d. I'm late
e. nothing
12. Put your hands together tightly. What do you feel?
a. I feel like I'm praying
b. I want to look at my hands
c. nothing
d. a pleasant feeling
e. I want to stop
13. Scratch your head. What do you think about?
a. getting an idea
b. touching my hair
c. I feel itchy
d. trying to stay awake
e. preoccupations
14. Turn around and see what is behind you. What do you feel?
a. I want to go in that direction
b. something pleasant
c. nothing
d. danger
e. I didn't see anything
15. How do you feel about reading a book?
a. I'm not interested in reading
b. I like reading
c. it's a way of passing time
d. I don't know
e. it's a way of finding solutions to problems
16. Take some money in your hand. What do you think?
a. I' m going to buy something
b. I'm going to put it somewhere
c. it's not a lot of money
d. I like looking at it
e. it's dirty
17. Look at the first person that you see. What do you think of him/her?
a. I want to meet him/her
b. he/she looks attractive
c. I don't know
d. he/she looks unfriendly
e. I don't want to meet him/her
18. Think about the sun. What do you think of?
a. holidays
b. nothing
c. sunburn
d. energy
e. light
19. Look at something that you are interested in. Where are you looking?
a. directly ín front of me
b. to the left or to the right
c. down
d. I don't know where to start e. in front of me
20. Put your finger in your nose. How do you feel?
a. people can see me
b. I may hurt myself
c. this is fun
d. my nose is itchy
e. it is not a proper thing to do
Key to Test 5
80 - 100: You are an active person.
You like change and novelty, but you
have a tendency to be excessively
active. Maybe you are afraid of
inactivity. Calm down and learn to
relax.
61 - 79: You are light and impulsive.
You are very interested in novelty.
You are very sociable and think that
most people have something
interesting about them. You love
travelling, being active and starting
new projects. But remember to take
some time to think before starting
new projects and adventures.
51 - 60: You are normally trapped
between action and inaction. You
can't decide between working and
resting. Sometimes you feel
energetic. Other times you don't
have the energy for doing anything.
Don't worry about the difficult times
and enjoy the good times.
40 - 50: It's difficult for you to take the initiative. You don't trust anything that changes the established
rules and you resist novelty. Follow your emotions more and stop trusting rules and traditions. They
don't always help you.
20 - 39: You are "blocked". You are not interested in action, novelty and change. You are not very
interested in other people. It is difficult for you to start new activities or to accept change. Try not to get
frightened about new and different circumstances. Make an effort to try new activities. You will
probably be surprísed to discover that a change can be fun and exciting.
Test 6. Do I BELIEVE IN MYSELF ?
It is very important to be happy with yourself and to feel free. If you believe in yourself, you know
what you want. You respect yourself and the people that you live with: parents, friends, classmates,
teachers, etc. When you talk, people pay attention to what you say. You are very comfortable when you
make decisions. This is a very important quality to have. Trusting your instincts helps you to make your
own decisions. You are prepared to assume responsability when you make mistakes.
Do you believe in yourself? Take this test. If you don't believe in yourself very much, the results can help
you to find ways to trust yourself more.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
I get very angry if I don't do things perfectly:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
It is difficult for me to accept criticism even when I think that it is correct:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
I hate showing others what I feel:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
I prefer doing things myself and not asking for favours:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
I feel stupid if I don't understand something that someone is explaining to me:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
I get very angry with myself when I forget to do something:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
When someone gives an opinion different to mine, I prefer to stay silent:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
I feel uncomfortable when someone says that I'm marvellous:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
I get very upset when I must change my opinion:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
I feel guilty when I think I don't know something that is important:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
I hate being criticised:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
I try to find excuses to justify my actions when I know that I did something bad:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
It's difficult for me to accept making an error:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
I always try to justify my ignorance when I don't know the answer to a question:
hardly ever
sometimes
quite often
most times
SCORE to Test 6
If the majority of your answers are almost never or sometimes, you believe in yourself. You know how
to make a decision and follow it. You are developing a strong personality.
If the majority of your answers are quite often or most times, you need to believe in yourself more. You
have a desire to be honest with your opinions and attitudes, but cannot find the strength to do it when
you find resistance from others. Try to maintain your decisions even when people criticise you for them.
Little by little, you will find the strength to do what you choose.
Test 7. DO I LIE TOO MUCH ?
"Never tell a lie." Do you agree with this phrase? Do you always try to tell the truth, even if it causes
problems? Is lying to your parents more acceptable than lying to a close friend? Is cheating in an exam a
lie? This test will help you to discover what your attitudes are to lying. Choose the answers that you
identify with. And remember, be honest!
1. How often do you lie to your friends?
a. never
b. sometimes
c. whenever I need to
2. How often do you lie to your parents?
a. never because they don't deserve it
b.sometimes
c. often because they don't understand my problems
3. There is a big pop concert on a school night. What do you do?
a. tell your parents you're studying with a friend that night and will be home late
b. tell your parents the truth but ask for permission to go
c. go without your parents knowing and tell them the truth when you get home
4. How often do you lie to your teachers?
a. never
b. I lie to them to get better marks or to escape punishment
c. often
5. After telling a lie, how do you feel?
a. bad
b. I hope that I won't be discovered
c. I feel proud of myself
6. The headmaster of your school calls you into his/her office. Some students stole something from a
shop. You know who they are. What do you do?
a. tell the headmaster their names
b. tell the headmaster you know who they are, but as they are your friends, you cannot tell
him/her their names
c. tell the headmaster you don't know who they are
7. You are shopping for clothes with a friend. He/She tries on something that makes him/her look fat.
He/She asks for your opinion. What do you do?
a. tell your friend that he/she looks enormous
b. suggest in a diplomatic way something different might be better
c. say it's nice because you don't want to offend him/her
8. Do you cheat in exams?
a. never
b. sometimes
c. every opportunity I get
9. Do you use your family to make your lies more believable?
a. never
b. sometimes
c. always
10. How do you feel when you remember a big he that you told?
a. I feel bad
b. I don't feel any remorse for having lied
c. I think that lying helps you to succeed in life
11. Do you lie to avoid having problems?
a. never
b. sometimes
c. yes
Results for Test 7.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
 33 or more: You are an honest person. You can be proud
of
yourself.
If you have a reputation for being honest, people can
c-1
trust you and confide in you.
c-2
c-1
 32 - 41: Try to be a little more sincere. People will never
c-1
know if you are lying or not. One of the most important things in
c-1
life is to be a person who has a reputation for being sincere.
c-1
 22 - 32: You lie a little bit too much. You know that this is
c-0
not a good thing to do. Make a bigger effort to tell the truth. You
c-0
will probably feel better knowing that people are seeing the real
c-0
you.
c-1
 22 or less: Stop cheating and lying. It is a very dangerous
c-0
habit. Eventually, people will discover you in a lie. It will be
difficult to have friends because it will be hard for people to trust you. Remember the proverb:
"It's easier to catch a liar than a cripple."
SCORES
a-3
b-2
a-4
b-3
a-3
b-2
a-4
b-2
a-4
b-2
a-4
b-3
a-5
b-2
a-3
b-2
a-3
b-2
a-4
b-2
a-4
b-2
Test 8. AM I A GOOD STUDENT ?
Are you a good student? Many of the habits that make a good student are directly related to the
attitudes that define ambition. (Do you remember the test on page 15?) It is easier to be successful in
the future if you have the necessary qualities for being a good student now.
1.
Do you have specific hours for working?
yes
no
2.
Do you have anything on your work table that can distract you?
yes
no
3.
Do you always have everything that you need when you begin to study?
yes
no
4.
Is it difficult to begin to study?
yes
no
5.
Can you read without pronouncing the words?
yes
no
6.
Do you look for words that you don't understand in the dictionary?
yes
no
7.
Do you write a summary of a chapter when you finish it?
yes
no
8.
Do you read other books around the subject you are studying?
yes
no
9.
Do you write down every word that the teacher says in class?
yes
no
10.
Do you have a different notebook for every subject?
yes
no
11.
Do you have specific times for relaxation?
yes
no
12.
Do you study with the television on?
yes
no
13.
Do you watch television only when there is nothing better to do?
yes
no
15.
Do you watch anything that is on the television?
yes
no
S C O R E for T E S T 8
1. yes
4. no
7. yes
10. yes
13. yes
2. no
5. yes
8. yes
11. yes
14. yes
3. yes
6. yes
9. no
12. no
15. no
Compare the answers aboye with your answers. If they are different from yours, think again about the
way you study. Make a conscious effort to follow the suggestions given in this test and you, too, can be
a good student.
C O N C L U S I O N
Did you enjoy these tests? Did you learn something about yourself? Did you answer them without
thinking? Answering these tests instinctively ensures that the results of each test are an accurate
reflection of you.
Why must we answer psychological tests without thinking? The theories of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939),
the famous psychologist, give us the answer: he said that our minds are divided into two different parts:
the conscious mind and the subconscious mind. Our conscious mind is the dominant half when we are
awake. The subconscious mind is in control when we are asleep. Our dreams are a reflection of the
subconscious mind and how it works. Often, dreams can give the answers to problems that we have in
our conscious life. Our involuntary actions — the things we do without thinking — also reflect our
subconscious mind.
Think about the things that you do without thinking. Some of them are wrong. Some of them are right.
In both cases, you acted without thinking. Think about the things that are wrong. What do they say
about you? Are there things that you need to re-evaluate about yourself? Take some time to reflect on
your beliefs and actions and think of ways you could change for the better.
It is very important to remember the things that were right without thinking. Remember that feeling.
That is the feeling of being sincere and honest, of being yourself. The key to a happy life is learning to
remember that feeling. Learn to identify it and to trust it.
Q U E S T I O N S
O N
T H E
B O O K.
1. What kind of differences are there in human beings?
2. What are the two most important qualities in a good friend?
3. If you worry too much, what things do you do?
4. How do you define ambition?
5. Why is it important not to judge people by their appearance?
6. How does a dynamic person feel?
7. When you are "blocked", what can you do to improve your life?
8. How can you describe a person who believes in him/herself?
9. There is a proverb in the "Do I Lie Too Much?" test scores. Do you have a similar proverb in your
language? What does it mean?
10. What do you think makes a good student? Are you a good student?
11. Who was Sigmund Freud?
12. Which part of the mind is dominant when we are asleep?
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