Personality, what´s that? What is personality? Think about it. Try to define it. Ask your friends or your family to define personality. Try looking in the dictionary. You probably have many different descriptions and definitions. Now you understand that personality is a very difficult thing to define. Are all humans the same? Of course not. We know that every person has similar characteristics, but we also know that every person is different and individual. There are millions of people in the world today and no one is exactly the same. There are physical differences and differences in personality. Everyone is unique. Scientists today understand why people are different physically. However, it is much more complicated to understand why people are different in other ways. Even people in the same family have different personalities. This makes humans very interesting, but also very complicated. There are many theories and many studies about personalities. Today we understand more, but psychologists continue trying to discover the reasons for our behaviour. One of the methods we can use to define different personalities is to see how people behave differently in a variety of situations. Read the following example: Imagine that there are many people in a supermarket. They are all doing their shopping in the normal way. Everybody is behaving more or less the same. Of course, some people are in a hurry and they are doing their shopping quickly. Other people are not in a hurry and they are doing their shopping slowly and carefully. Some people take time to study the prices and some people have more food in their trolleys than other people. At the end they pay and go home. But on this particular day, the lights suddenly go out. There are no windows and there is only a small yellow emergency light. It is very dark and very difficult to see. Now the people in the supermarket start to do very different things. An old lady tries to continue her shopping in the normal way, but she can't see. One person starts to shout hysterically. Two boys start a conversation. Two teenagers take the opportunity to eat a free bar of chocolate. One man takes a big leg of serrano ham and runs quickly out of the shop. A very angry woman insists on seeing the manager. What happened? Why do all these people behave so differently in the same situation? People have many characteristics in common, but they also have different ways of behaving because of personality differences. Think about your family or your group of friends. Are they different? Do they behave differently in similar situations? For example, how do different people in your class react if they don't pass an exam or do badly? How do you react? How do your parents react? Most people's personalities are usually consistent. They usually behave in similar ways. For example, someone who is shy at parties is usually shy everywhere. Think about the different teachers at your school. If the science teacher has a good sense of humour, you expect him to have a good sense of humour every day. We use many adjectives to describe personalities: happy, enthusiastic, nervous, calm, timid, patient, etc. You can probably think of many more words to describe the people in your life. This book contains tests from different aspects of psychology. You can do them alone or compare your answers with your friends and classmates. This is a good opportunity to practise your English, to learn some new vocabulary about people and to have fun! For the tests in this book to work, do not decide what your answer is. Choose the answer based on your first impulse. Be spontaneous! THE TESTS Test 1. AM I A GOOD FRIEND? We all want friends. We all want other people to think of us as a good friend. But what makes you a good friend? You have to be kind and help people when they need you. Honesty and loyalty are the two most important qualities in a good friend. Are you a good friend? Try this test. Circle the alternative you choose. 1. Have you got a lot of friends? yes 2. You discover that your friend did something bad to you. Do you stop being his/her friend immediately? yes no 3. Can you forgive him/her? yes no 4. Do you always tell your close friend the truth? yes no 5. Do you always know which gift to buy for your friend? yes no 6. Do you always understand your friend's problems when he/she explains them to you? yes no 7. Do you get angry when your friend is with someone else? yes no 8. If you think that he/she is wrong, do you tell him/her? yes no 9. Your friend constantly asks you for money, but you have very little. Do you always give it to him/her? yes no 10. Do you always tell your friend that he/she is right? 11. Your parents give you very little money. Do you spend all your money for your friend's birthday? yes no 12. Something is wrong with your friend. You are convinced that he/she has a very serious problem that he/she does not admit to. Do you tell someone that can help him/her? yes no 13. Do you visit your friend when he/she is ill? 14. You are angry with your friend. Do you talk to him/her and explain the reasons for your anger? yes no yes yes no no no Results for Test 1. 30 or more: You are a very good friend and a very loyal person. But be careful that people don't use you. 22 - 29: You are very loyal. People can count on you. Most people probably like you. 15 - 21: There are things that you need to change. You probably think that being a good friend is accepting everything that your friend says. You need to be more honest with yourself and with your friends. 14 or less: You think about yourself too much. You need to reflect on your attitudes. Think about what it mean to be a good friend. Test 2. DO I WORRY TOO MUCH? Some people worry too much. For example, they feel that their work isn't good enough. They are always nervous and it is difficult for them to relax. They worry about every little thing. There are other people who are exactly the opposite. They never worry about anything. They think that they know everything. Both these attitudes are too extreme. It is natural to worry about some things sometimes. Thinking about the way that you react to life situations is a good way to begin to know yourself. This test will be a good start. Circle your choice. 1. Do you have bad dreams? often sometimes never 2. Does your heart beat too fast? often sometimes never 3. Do you wake up more than once at night? often sometimes never 4. Do you think about horrible things that might happen to your family? often sometimes never Is it difficult for you to concentrate when you are trying to learn? often sometimes never 6. Do you get embarrassed easily? often sometimes never 7. Do you get tired easily? often sometimes never 8. Do you dream about things that worry you? often sometimes never 9. Do you cry for no reason? often sometimes never 10. Are you so worried that you can't fall asleep? often sometimes never 11. Do your hands tremble when you have to do something important? often sometimes Do you get frightened when you think that you will have to experience a difficult situation? often sometimes 5. 12. never never SCORE to Test 2 If you answered often 6 times or more, plus sometimes 3 times or more, you worry too much. Try talking with someone whose opinions you respect (your parents, an older brother/sister, or a teacher who you trust). They can help you to differentiate between things that are important and things that are not. If you answered often 5 times or less, and sometimes 4 times or more, try to change your attitudes. You worry a little too much. You need to relax a little more. If you answered often 4 times or less, and the rest of your answers are sometimes and never, be happy. There are some things that worry you, but that is natural. Life is difficult sometimes. Test 3. HOW AMBITIOUS AM I ? Think of someone famous that you admire. How did this person arrive at the position that he/she has? All famous people had a very strong desire to make their dreams become reality. They had ambition. This is a very important quality to have as a person. But be careful. Too much ambition can have a negative effect on your life and your relationships with other people. Do you have too little or too much ambition? Take this test and discover yourself. You can only choose one answer in each case. 1. When do you miss school? a. when I have a headache c. when I have a high temperature b. when I have a bad cold 2. How many days of school did you miss last month? a. none b. 1 or 2 days c. more than 2 days 3. How often do you get involved in activities outside school such as sports or social programmes? a. 5 or more days a week b. 2 or more days a week c. never 4. You decide not to go to school: a. to go to the cinema b. to go to a funeral c. because you feel tired 5. Your teacher asks you to stay after school and help decorate the classroom. What do you do? a. accept immediately b. say that it depends on what you are doing that evening c. say no 6. Your attitude towards your schoolwork is: a. you do the minimum amount of work that is necessary b. you want to get good marks consistently c. you must always get excellent marks 7. You notice a classmate is making an error when he/she is preparing for an exam. What do you do? a. help him/her to correct the error b. say nothing c. tell him/her that their error is correct because you want to get a better mark than him/her 8. Your teacher is offering a prize to the best student at the end of the course. What do you do? a. work really hard to get it b. sacrifice your social and family life, if necessary c. try to influence your teacher to give the prize to you 9. Which of the following is the most important to you? a. family b. work c. fun 10. Which of the following is the most important to you? a. money b. happiness c. a good job Key to test 3 21 and above: Be careful! You are too ambitious. If you ignore everybody and everything for your ambition, you will eventually have no friends. You need to relax a little more. 16 - 20: You have ambition. You know what you want and how to get it. But be careful not to make any enemies. 15 or less: You are not ambitious enough. Try to motivate yourself more and work to convert your dreams into reality. Test 4. AM I TOO TRENDY ? It is natural to want to look good. Most people dedicate some time to their appearance. But the model that each person uses to decide what looks good varies. Don't let your individuality be dominated by other people's opinions. There is nothing wrong with being trendy, but it must be your choice. It is also important not to judge a person by their appearance. It is the person inside who is important. 1. What do you do if someone in your class is wearing the same jumper as you? a. you hate your jumper and never wear it again b. it doesn't matter c. you think that your classmate has good taste 2. What has the most influence on your choice of clothes? a. TV commercials b. your favourite stars c. your friends 3. One of your friends likes wearing crazy hats. What do you think? a. he/she is ridiculous b. I want one c. I must find something that is crazier 4. How do you react to the latest fashions? a. you don't want to spend money on "fads" c. you don't care b. you desperately want to get them 5. Your friend's mother dresses and talks like people your age. What do you think? a. she looks and sounds ridiculous b. you don't notice c. you think it's marvellous that she wants to be fashionable 6. Who do you want to meet the most? a. Lady Gaga b. Arturo Pérez-Reverte c. Pedro Sánchez 7. A friend of yours has a CD of the latest music from London. What do you do? a. you are not interested b. you borrow it immediately c. you listen to it when you have time 8. Which is your favourite pop group? a. the one all your friends like c. one whose music you like the best b. the one whose songs are on the radio a lot 9. What is your favourite colour for clothes? a. the colour that you look best in b. black, because it always looks good c. the colour that is in fashion at the moment 10. You decide to go to the cinema. Which film do you decide to see? a. the one with your favourite actors b. the one that everyone is talking about c. the one that your teacher recommends Key to Test 4 24 or more: You always want to be fashionable. It's important to you that you and all your friends are trendy. But be careful. Appearance is not the most important thing in life. 15 - 23: You like following fashion, but you know that it isn't the most important thing in life. 14 or less: You don't care a lot about being fashionable. But perhaps you are a little too serious. Remember that it is always interesting to experiment. Test 5. How Dynamic Am I ? There are times in our lives when we feel very dynamic. We are full of optimism and everything seems possible. Our body feels light and full of energy. We feel very sociable and enjoy change and novelty. There are other times when we feel exactly the opposite. We feel "blocked". We feel pessimistic about everything. We feel tired all the time. We don't want to be with other people. Which description do you feel is you? Do the 20 actions in the test and choose the description that is closest to what you feel. Remember, answer instinctively. Don't think about your choice — be honest! 1. Look straight ahead. What is the first thing that you see? a. I can't concentrate on anything b. something pleasant c. something interesting d. something ugly and irritating e. something ordinary 2. Touch your right ear with your right hand. What do you feel? a. my hand feels a little uncomfortable b. my ear feels uncomfortable c. a pleasant feeling d. my ear feels pleasant e. nothing 3. Listen to the sounds around you in the school yard with your eyes closed. What do you sense? a. I like what I hear b. sounds getting loud and then getting quieter c. curiosity d. a mixture of different sounds e. a horrible noise 4. Grab something and squeeze it. What do you feel? a. it is interesting to touch b. my hand feels uncomfortable c. nothing d. it's pleasant to touch e. there is no sense in doing this 5. Stand up, sit down and stand up again immediately. What do you feel? a. it's an unpleasant effort b. I feel like going for a walk c. it's a pleasant feeling d. I want to sit down again e. I don't know what to do now 6. Close your eyes and think. What do you sense? a. many thoughts b. a desire to open my eyes c. a desire to sleep d. a pleasant, relaxed feeling e. I feel uncomfortable and anxious 7. Breathe in deeply. What do you smell? a. a bad smell b. a good smell c. nothing d. I don't know e. my nose itches 8. Close your mouth firmly. What do you think about? a. fear b. pain c. eating d. effort e. my teeth 9. Take off one shoe and then put it on again. What did you feel? a. a sense of doing something b. I didn't want to do it c. I didn't want people to see me d. nothing e. natural and free 10. Cough! What did you think? a. nothing b. I'm actingt to attract people´s attention c. people watching me will think that I'm crazy d. I'm going to say something e. I have a cold 11. Look at your watch. What did you think? a. my watch is attractive b. there is something that I must do c. I forgot to do something important d. I'm late e. nothing 12. Put your hands together tightly. What do you feel? a. I feel like I'm praying b. I want to look at my hands c. nothing d. a pleasant feeling e. I want to stop 13. Scratch your head. What do you think about? a. getting an idea b. touching my hair c. I feel itchy d. trying to stay awake e. preoccupations 14. Turn around and see what is behind you. What do you feel? a. I want to go in that direction b. something pleasant c. nothing d. danger e. I didn't see anything 15. How do you feel about reading a book? a. I'm not interested in reading b. I like reading c. it's a way of passing time d. I don't know e. it's a way of finding solutions to problems 16. Take some money in your hand. What do you think? a. I' m going to buy something b. I'm going to put it somewhere c. it's not a lot of money d. I like looking at it e. it's dirty 17. Look at the first person that you see. What do you think of him/her? a. I want to meet him/her b. he/she looks attractive c. I don't know d. he/she looks unfriendly e. I don't want to meet him/her 18. Think about the sun. What do you think of? a. holidays b. nothing c. sunburn d. energy e. light 19. Look at something that you are interested in. Where are you looking? a. directly ín front of me b. to the left or to the right c. down d. I don't know where to start e. in front of me 20. Put your finger in your nose. How do you feel? a. people can see me b. I may hurt myself c. this is fun d. my nose is itchy e. it is not a proper thing to do Key to Test 5 80 - 100: You are an active person. You like change and novelty, but you have a tendency to be excessively active. Maybe you are afraid of inactivity. Calm down and learn to relax. 61 - 79: You are light and impulsive. You are very interested in novelty. You are very sociable and think that most people have something interesting about them. You love travelling, being active and starting new projects. But remember to take some time to think before starting new projects and adventures. 51 - 60: You are normally trapped between action and inaction. You can't decide between working and resting. Sometimes you feel energetic. Other times you don't have the energy for doing anything. Don't worry about the difficult times and enjoy the good times. 40 - 50: It's difficult for you to take the initiative. You don't trust anything that changes the established rules and you resist novelty. Follow your emotions more and stop trusting rules and traditions. They don't always help you. 20 - 39: You are "blocked". You are not interested in action, novelty and change. You are not very interested in other people. It is difficult for you to start new activities or to accept change. Try not to get frightened about new and different circumstances. Make an effort to try new activities. You will probably be surprísed to discover that a change can be fun and exciting. Test 6. Do I BELIEVE IN MYSELF ? It is very important to be happy with yourself and to feel free. If you believe in yourself, you know what you want. You respect yourself and the people that you live with: parents, friends, classmates, teachers, etc. When you talk, people pay attention to what you say. You are very comfortable when you make decisions. This is a very important quality to have. Trusting your instincts helps you to make your own decisions. You are prepared to assume responsability when you make mistakes. Do you believe in yourself? Take this test. If you don't believe in yourself very much, the results can help you to find ways to trust yourself more. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. I get very angry if I don't do things perfectly: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times It is difficult for me to accept criticism even when I think that it is correct: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times I hate showing others what I feel: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times I prefer doing things myself and not asking for favours: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times I feel stupid if I don't understand something that someone is explaining to me: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times I get very angry with myself when I forget to do something: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times When someone gives an opinion different to mine, I prefer to stay silent: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times I feel uncomfortable when someone says that I'm marvellous: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times I get very upset when I must change my opinion: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times I feel guilty when I think I don't know something that is important: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times I hate being criticised: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times I try to find excuses to justify my actions when I know that I did something bad: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times It's difficult for me to accept making an error: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times I always try to justify my ignorance when I don't know the answer to a question: hardly ever sometimes quite often most times SCORE to Test 6 If the majority of your answers are almost never or sometimes, you believe in yourself. You know how to make a decision and follow it. You are developing a strong personality. If the majority of your answers are quite often or most times, you need to believe in yourself more. You have a desire to be honest with your opinions and attitudes, but cannot find the strength to do it when you find resistance from others. Try to maintain your decisions even when people criticise you for them. Little by little, you will find the strength to do what you choose. Test 7. DO I LIE TOO MUCH ? "Never tell a lie." Do you agree with this phrase? Do you always try to tell the truth, even if it causes problems? Is lying to your parents more acceptable than lying to a close friend? Is cheating in an exam a lie? This test will help you to discover what your attitudes are to lying. Choose the answers that you identify with. And remember, be honest! 1. How often do you lie to your friends? a. never b. sometimes c. whenever I need to 2. How often do you lie to your parents? a. never because they don't deserve it b.sometimes c. often because they don't understand my problems 3. There is a big pop concert on a school night. What do you do? a. tell your parents you're studying with a friend that night and will be home late b. tell your parents the truth but ask for permission to go c. go without your parents knowing and tell them the truth when you get home 4. How often do you lie to your teachers? a. never b. I lie to them to get better marks or to escape punishment c. often 5. After telling a lie, how do you feel? a. bad b. I hope that I won't be discovered c. I feel proud of myself 6. The headmaster of your school calls you into his/her office. Some students stole something from a shop. You know who they are. What do you do? a. tell the headmaster their names b. tell the headmaster you know who they are, but as they are your friends, you cannot tell him/her their names c. tell the headmaster you don't know who they are 7. You are shopping for clothes with a friend. He/She tries on something that makes him/her look fat. He/She asks for your opinion. What do you do? a. tell your friend that he/she looks enormous b. suggest in a diplomatic way something different might be better c. say it's nice because you don't want to offend him/her 8. Do you cheat in exams? a. never b. sometimes c. every opportunity I get 9. Do you use your family to make your lies more believable? a. never b. sometimes c. always 10. How do you feel when you remember a big he that you told? a. I feel bad b. I don't feel any remorse for having lied c. I think that lying helps you to succeed in life 11. Do you lie to avoid having problems? a. never b. sometimes c. yes Results for Test 7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 33 or more: You are an honest person. You can be proud of yourself. If you have a reputation for being honest, people can c-1 trust you and confide in you. c-2 c-1 32 - 41: Try to be a little more sincere. People will never c-1 know if you are lying or not. One of the most important things in c-1 life is to be a person who has a reputation for being sincere. c-1 22 - 32: You lie a little bit too much. You know that this is c-0 not a good thing to do. Make a bigger effort to tell the truth. You c-0 will probably feel better knowing that people are seeing the real c-0 you. c-1 22 or less: Stop cheating and lying. It is a very dangerous c-0 habit. Eventually, people will discover you in a lie. It will be difficult to have friends because it will be hard for people to trust you. Remember the proverb: "It's easier to catch a liar than a cripple." SCORES a-3 b-2 a-4 b-3 a-3 b-2 a-4 b-2 a-4 b-2 a-4 b-3 a-5 b-2 a-3 b-2 a-3 b-2 a-4 b-2 a-4 b-2 Test 8. AM I A GOOD STUDENT ? Are you a good student? Many of the habits that make a good student are directly related to the attitudes that define ambition. (Do you remember the test on page 15?) It is easier to be successful in the future if you have the necessary qualities for being a good student now. 1. Do you have specific hours for working? yes no 2. Do you have anything on your work table that can distract you? yes no 3. Do you always have everything that you need when you begin to study? yes no 4. Is it difficult to begin to study? yes no 5. Can you read without pronouncing the words? yes no 6. Do you look for words that you don't understand in the dictionary? yes no 7. Do you write a summary of a chapter when you finish it? yes no 8. Do you read other books around the subject you are studying? yes no 9. Do you write down every word that the teacher says in class? yes no 10. Do you have a different notebook for every subject? yes no 11. Do you have specific times for relaxation? yes no 12. Do you study with the television on? yes no 13. Do you watch television only when there is nothing better to do? yes no 15. Do you watch anything that is on the television? yes no S C O R E for T E S T 8 1. yes 4. no 7. yes 10. yes 13. yes 2. no 5. yes 8. yes 11. yes 14. yes 3. yes 6. yes 9. no 12. no 15. no Compare the answers aboye with your answers. If they are different from yours, think again about the way you study. Make a conscious effort to follow the suggestions given in this test and you, too, can be a good student. C O N C L U S I O N Did you enjoy these tests? Did you learn something about yourself? Did you answer them without thinking? Answering these tests instinctively ensures that the results of each test are an accurate reflection of you. Why must we answer psychological tests without thinking? The theories of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the famous psychologist, give us the answer: he said that our minds are divided into two different parts: the conscious mind and the subconscious mind. Our conscious mind is the dominant half when we are awake. The subconscious mind is in control when we are asleep. Our dreams are a reflection of the subconscious mind and how it works. Often, dreams can give the answers to problems that we have in our conscious life. Our involuntary actions — the things we do without thinking — also reflect our subconscious mind. Think about the things that you do without thinking. Some of them are wrong. Some of them are right. In both cases, you acted without thinking. Think about the things that are wrong. What do they say about you? Are there things that you need to re-evaluate about yourself? Take some time to reflect on your beliefs and actions and think of ways you could change for the better. It is very important to remember the things that were right without thinking. Remember that feeling. That is the feeling of being sincere and honest, of being yourself. The key to a happy life is learning to remember that feeling. Learn to identify it and to trust it. Q U E S T I O N S O N T H E B O O K. 1. What kind of differences are there in human beings? 2. What are the two most important qualities in a good friend? 3. If you worry too much, what things do you do? 4. How do you define ambition? 5. Why is it important not to judge people by their appearance? 6. How does a dynamic person feel? 7. When you are "blocked", what can you do to improve your life? 8. How can you describe a person who believes in him/herself? 9. There is a proverb in the "Do I Lie Too Much?" test scores. Do you have a similar proverb in your language? What does it mean? 10. What do you think makes a good student? Are you a good student? 11. Who was Sigmund Freud? 12. Which part of the mind is dominant when we are asleep?