Competencia pragmática en textos 126 Apéndice 1: Actos de habla

Competencia pragmática en textos 126
Apéndice 1: Actos de habla de rutinas conversacionales
Thanking strategies
Type meaning
(A) thanking somebody explicitly
(B) expressing gratitude
(C) acknowledging a debt of
(D) expressing appreciation of the
(E) expressing appreciation of the
(F) stressing one’s gratitude
(G) expressing emotion
(H) commenting on one’s own role
by suppressing one’s own
importance (self-denigration)
Token (s)
e.g. thank you, thanks
e.g. I am grateful
e.g. I owe a debt of
gratitude to...
e.g. that’s lovely, it’s
e.g. that’s kind of you, it’s
nice (of you)
e.g. I must thank you
e.g. oh (meaning: thank
e.g. I am an ingrate, I’m so
Explicit strategies
Implicit strategies
Adaptado de Aijmer, 1996, citado en Nakano 2000.
Apologizing strategies
Type meaning
(A) explicitly apologizing
B) offering (giving, presenting) one’s
(C) acknowledging a debt of apology
(D) expressing regret
(E) demanding forgiveness
(F)explicitly requesting the hearer’s
(G) giving an explanation of account
(H) promising forbearance from a
similar offending act
(I) self-denigration or self-reproach
(J) minimizing responsibility
(K) expressing emotion
(L)acknowledging responsibility for
the offending act
(M) offering redress
Token (s)
e.g. I apologize (for)
e.g. I present my apologies
e.g. I owe you an apology
e.g. I’m sorry, I’m afraid
e.g. pardon me, excuse me
e.g. I beg your pardon
e.g. (I’m sorry) it’s so unusual
e.g. I promise you that that will never
happen again
e.g. how stupid of me, how awful, I ought
to know this
e.g. I didn’t mean to …, I thought this was
…, I was thinking it was…
e.g. oh (I’m so sorry)
e.g. that was my fault
e.g. please let me pay for the damage I
Adaptado de Aijmer, 1996, citado en Nakano, 2000.
Implicit strategies
Competencia pragmática en textos 127
Requesting & Offering Strategies
Type meaning
(A) Ability: Asking about the hearer’s ability
to do something
Asking about the
possibility of the desired act happening
(C) Willingness: Asking whether the hearer
is willing to do something or has any
objection to doing something
(D) Want: Expressing a wish that the agent
should do something
(E) Need: Expressing a need or desire
from (non-verbal) goods
(F) Obligation: Stating that the hearer is
under the obligation to do the desired action
(G) Apropriacy: Stating that it is appropriate
that the hearer performs the desired action
(H) WH- Question: Asking an idiomatic whquestion
(I) Hypothesis: Referring to a hypothetical
(J) Appreciation: Expressing that one
would appreciate, be pleased, feel gratitude
(K) Permission Question: Asking for
permission to do something
(L) Possibility: Asserting that it is
possible for the hearer to do something
(M) Preference: Referring to the
speaker’s opinion that something is
(N) Performative: Referring explicitly to
the act of requesting
(O) State: Referring to a state in the
world which needs to be changed
(P) Naming: Naming the object
(Q) Existence: Checking the availability
of the desired object, etc
(R) Others: Giving a justification for a
Adaptado de Aijmer, 1996, citado en Nakano, 2000.
Token (s)
e.g. Can you…
e.g. (e.g.) Is it possible…, you haven’t got…,
would you mind…, have you…
e.g. (e.g.) will you…, would you (like)…
e.g. I would like you to…
e.g. I want…, I need…
e.g. You must…, You have to…
e.g. You should…
e.g. What about…, Why not…, How about…,
why don’t you…
e.g. You would…, perhaps you would…
e.g. I would be grateful if you would…, I
would be glad if…
e.g. may I…, let me…
e.g. You may…, you can…
e.g. You had better…, the best thing to
e.g. I was going to suggest…
e.g. There are (some scented rushes)…
e.g. (the next slide) please
e.g. is (Mrs. Davis) there…
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