ENGLISH GRAMMAR Verb TO BE: PRESENT SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE I am / I’m NEGATIVE I am not / I’m not You are not / You aren’t You are He / she / it is He is not / He isn’t INTERROGATIVE ANSWERS Am I? Yes, I am / No, I am not Are you? Yes, you are / No, you aren’t Is he? Yes, he is / No, he isn’t We are / We’re We are not / We aren’t Are we? Yes, we are / No, we aren’t You are / You’re You are not / You aren’t Are you? Yes, you are / No, you aren’t They are not / They aren’t Are they? Yes, they are / No, they aren’t They are / They’re Examples: Are you students? Yes, we are. We’re not teachers. Is she Australian? No, she isn’t. She’s Canadian. Are we at home? No, we are in the classroom. Are you crazy? Of course I’m not, I am sane! Are they twenty years old? No, they are fifteen. Verb TO BE: PAST SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE ANSWERS I was I was not / I wasn’t Was I? Yes, I was / No, I was not (wasn’t) You were You were not / You weren’t Were you? Yes, you were / No, you weren’t He / she / it was He was not / He wasn’t Was he? Yes, he was / No, he wasn’t We were We were not / We weren’t Were we? Yes, we were / No, we weren’t You were You were not / You weren’t Were you? Yes, you were / No, you weren’t They were They were not / They weren’t Were they? Yes, they were / No, they weren’t Examples: I was ill, but now I’m OK. Were you at home yesterday? No, I was in the park with my friends. Was Humphrey Bogart a good actor? Yes, he was superb! We were very young when that happened. Was your sister in Turkey last year? No, she wasn’t, but my parents were in Cyprus. 1 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR Verb TO HAVE1: PRESENT SIMPLE AFFIRMATIVE I have / I’ve You have / You’ve NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE I do not / don’t have Do I have? ANSWERS Yes, I do / No, I don’t You do not / don’t have Do you have? Yes, you do / No, you don’t He / she / it has He does not / doesn’t have Does he have? Yes, he does / No, he doesn’t We have / We’ve We do not / don’t have Do we have? Yes, we do / No, we don’t You have / You’ve You do not / don’t have Do you have? Yes, you do / No, you don’t They have / They’ve They do not / don’t have Do they have? Yes, they do / No, they don’t Examples: Do you have a sister? No, I don’t. I am only son / daughter / child. Does she have a car? No, he doesn’t; he has a bike. Does your mother have a blue dress? Yes, she has one. Do we have lesson of English today? No, we don’t; today we have lesson of Maths. Do you have money? No, I don’t have money at all! EL PRESENTE En inglés hay dos presentes: el presente simple y el presente continuo. PRESENT SIMPLE: verb TO STUDY AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE ANSWERS I study I do not study / I don’t study Do I study? Yes, I do / No, I don’t You study You do not study / You don’t study Do you study? Yes, you do / No, you don’t He / she / it studies He does not study / He doesn’t study Does he study? Yes, he does / No, he doesn’t We study We do not study / We don’t study Do we study? Yes, we do / No, we don’t You study You do not study / You don’t study Do you study? Yes, you do / No, you don’t They study They do not study / They don’t study Do they study? Yes, they do / No, they don’t El PRESENT SIMPLE coincidiría con el presente de indicativo español. Se usa para hablar de actividades habituales y verdades generales o particulares. También como expresión de futuro (al igual que en español): 1 TENER en Inglés se puede decir, indistintamente, con TO HAVE GOT o simplemente con TO HAVE. La primera forma es británica, y la segunda americana, y es la que casi todo el mundo emplea (menos los británicos). 2 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR ¿Qué son actividades habituales? Son actividades que realizas periódicamente, es decir, todos los días, una vez por semana, a veces, frecuentemente, siempre, nunca, etc... I walk every day. Yo camino todos los días. You get up very early on Mondays. Tú te levantas muy pronto los lunes. I have lunch at two o’clock. Como a las dos en punto. He always comes to school on foot. Él siempre viene al colegio andando. Do you study German? No, we don’t. We study English. Does she go to the swimming pool every weekend? No, she doesn’t. She goes to the swimming pool on Monday. Do you have lunch in the school? No, I don’t. I have lunch at home. Do you watch TV at night? No, I don’t. I listen to music in my bedroom. Do they get up early on Sunday? No, they don’t. They get up at half past ten on Sunday. ¿Qué son verdades particulares? Son afirmaciones o, negaciones, ciertas para una persona o un para grupo de personas. She lives in London. Ella vive en Londres. They learn everything. Ellos/as aprenden todo. Does your brother live with you and your parents? No, he doesn’t. He lives with his wife. ¿Qué son verdades generales? Son afirmaciones o, negaciones, de carácter universal: Water boils at a hundred degrees Celsius. El agua hierve a cien grados Celsius. The sun always rises in the East. El sol siempre sale por el Este. Sound travels at a speed of 340m/s. El sonido viaja a la velocidad de 340m/sg. Como expresión de futuro. I go to Seville on Sunday. Me voy a Sevilla el domingo. Do you go to school tomorrow? No, I don’t! Tomorrow is Saturday! PRESENT CONTINUOUS: verb TO STUDY AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE I am studying I am not studying INTERROGATIVE Am I studying? Are you studying? ANSWERS Yes, I am / No, I am not You are studying You are not (aren’t) studying He / she / it is studying He is not (isn’t) studying We are studying We are not (aren’t) studying Are we studying? Yes, we are / No, we are not (aren’t) You are studying You are not (aren’t) studying Are you studying? Yes, you are / No, you are not (aren’t) They are studying They are not (aren’t) studying Are they studying? Yes, they are / No, they are not (aren’t) Is he studying? Yes, you are / No, you are not (aren’t) Yes, he is / No, he is not (isn’t) El PRESENT CONTINOUS indica acciones que se están realizando en el momento en que se habla o durante cierto tiempo en el presente; también, como el present simple, para expresar acciones futuras que suelen haber sido programadas con antelación. Hay algunos verbos que casi nunca van con present continuos: Por un tiempo en el presente. Suele ir acompañado de los adverbios de tiempo que dan una idea de actualidad o acción: 3 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR They are studying now. Ahora están estudiando. We are landing. Estamos aterrizando. I’m reading a detective novel by Agatha Christie. Acciones futuras que suelen haber sido programadas con antelación: They are coming next week. Vienen la próxima semana. I’m leaving tomorrow. Me voy mañana. This Christmas time I’m visiting my family in Canada. Estas Navidades me voy a visitar a mi familia en Canadá. PRESENT PERFECT: verb TO STUDY AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE ANSWERS I have studied / I’ve studied I have not studied / I haven’t studied Have I studied? Yes, I have studied / No, I haven’t studied You have studied / You’ve studied You have not studied / You haven’t studied Have you studied? Yes, you have studied / No, you haven’t studied He / she / it has studied He has not studied / He hasn’t studied Has he studied? Yes, he has studied / No, he hasn’t studied We have studied / We’ve studied We have not studied / We haven’t studied Have we studied? Yes, we have studied / No, we haven’t studied You have studied / You’ve studied You have not studied / You haven’t studied Have you studied? Yes, you have studied / No, you haven’t studied They have studied / They’ve studied They have not studied / They haven’t studied Have they studied? Yes, they have / No, they haven’t El PRESENT PERFECT se forma con el presente del auxiliar HAVE y el participio pasado del verbo que se conjugue. La interrogación se hace con la inversión del sujeto y el auxiliar, y la negación intercalando la partícula NOT entre el auxiliar y el participio. Los participios de los verbos ingleses se dividen, en términos generales, entre regulares e irregulares. Los regulares se forman añadiendo la partícula –ed a la forma de infinitivo (sin el to, lógicamente), y coincidiría con el past simple; y para los irregulares, simplemente hay que aprendérselos de memoria. Es este, el PRESENT PERFECT, un tiempo complicado para el estudiante, y ello es porque tiende a confundirlo con el español pretérito perfecto (que se forma con el verbo haber más el participio). Generalizando, se puede decir que empleamos el PRESENT PERFECT para conectar el pasado y el presente. Sus usos, más concretamente, son: 1. Acciones en las que no se especifica cuándo ocurrieron: I have been to Greece. He estado (o estuve) en Grecia. Have you ever eaten Thai food? ¿Has comido alguna vez comida tailandesa? Porque si se dice cuándo, entonces hay que emplear el simple past, que veremos más adelante: Have you bought the TV? Yes, I bought it yesterday. (NUNCA: I have bought it yesterday). 2. Para indicar acciones que empezaron en el pasado y que ellas, o sus efectos, continúan en el presente: I’ve been a teacher for ten years. Soy profesor desde hace diez años (sigo siéndolo). Si quisiese decir que lo fui, pero ya no, emplearía el past simple: I was a teacher for ten years. 4 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR I have lived in Glasgow since 1998. Vivo en Glasgow desde 1998 (sigo viviendo, igual que en el ejemplo anterior). My grand parents have been married for fifty years. Mis abuelos llevan cincuenta años casados. Madrid has changed a lot in the last thirty years. I have had the same TV for fifteen years. Hace 15 años que tengo la misma televisión. I’ve gone shopping this morning. He ido de compras esta mañana (y todavía es esta mañana). My neighbours have gone away for the weekend. (Todavía es fin de semana, y aun no han vuelto). Somebody has broken a window. Alguien ha roto una ventana (y sigue rota). Como se puede ver, solemos usar FOR y SINCE con el present perfect para hablar sobre cosas que han ocurrido durante un período de tiempo hasta el presente o, al menos, hasta el pasado reciente. 3. Además de FOR y SINCE, el PRESENT PERFECT se usa con otros adverbios de tiempo. Algunos de ellos serían: Have you ever been to Denmark? I have never been there. “Casablanca” is the best movie I’ve ever watched. I’ve just started the new school year. But in Australia they have just finished it. He hasn’t done his homework yet. But she has already finished it. My sister has always liked foreign movies. They haven’t visited me lately. El PRESENT PERFECT tiene una forma CONTINUA que se construye con el pretérito perfecto del verbo to be y la forma en –ing del verbo en cuestión: I’ve been working. He estado trabajando. She has been helping her father. Ella ha estado ayudando a su padre. It’s (it has) been snowing. (Ya no nieva, pero la nieve está aun en el suelo). Have you been running? (Ya no estás corriendo, pero pareces cansado). I’ve been working all day. The children have been watching TV since six o’clock. How long have you been having driving lessons? PAST SIMPLE Suele coincidir (aunque no siempre), con el pretérito indefinido en español. Para su formación, hay que ver si se trata de un verbo regular o irregular. 1. Si es regular, se añade el sufijo –ed al infinitivo: work worked, look looked… Sin embargo, hay que remarcar algunas particularidades: Si el verbo termina en –e, solamente se añade –d: hate hated, promise promised… Si el verbo termina en –y precedido de una consonante, la y se cambia por i, añadiendo –ed: marry married, reply replied, fly flied… a diferencia de play played … 2. Si el verbo es irregular, sólo cabe memorizarlo. Los principales se encuentran en listas que hay en cualquier diccionario, método de idiomas, Internet… Para preguntar y negar, se hace con el auxiliar DO (en su forma de pasado, DID). Es esta forma DID y no el verbo el que distingue la forma de pasado: Did you go to the museum? No, we didn’t (we did not); we went to the cinema. Did she study Italian? No, she didn’t; she studied Portuguese. Did they have dinner at home? No, they didn’t, they had dinner in a Chinese restaurant. Didn’t you wear a red jumper yesterday, did you? No, I didn’t. Yesterday I wore a brown jacket. 5 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR Did Manchester United win the Premiership last season? No, it didn’t. Liverpool did. Did the Parliament pass a new Education Law last month? No, it didn’t. It passed a tax Law. Usos del PAST SIMPLE: 1. Para hablar de acciones que empezaron y terminaron en el pasado cuando se sabe, se pregunta o se dice de forma concreta cuándo ocurrió la acción: I lived in Stockholm for two years. Viví dos años en Estocolmo (y ya no). They arrived at half past eight. I met her yesterday morning. His sister wrote a letter the day before yesterday. When I was a child, I lived in Peru. My mother studied in Canada when she was twelve. My father arrived in Portsmouth last month. 2. Para expresar acciones que ocurrieron consecutivamente en el pasado: She went to the living room and then the phone rang. Yesterday, while I was watching TV, I felt very thirsty; I got up and I went to drink some water. Con el pasado simple también usamos el adverbio AGO (“hace”), pero debe colocarse al final de la frase, tras una expresión de tiempo: My brother married his girlfriend two years ago. I went to France two years ago. Para expresar hábitos del pasado, empleando los adverbios NEVER y ALWAYS. En español, se podría equiparar al pretérito imperfecto: I always went to the swimming pool in summer. Siempre iba a la piscina en verano. She never read books. Ella nunca leía libros. 3. Para expresar una acción corta en el pasado que interrumpe a otra acción larga, también en el pasado: I was studying when the phone rang. My parents came in when I was talking with my girlfriend. England won the championship when I was in London. LOS VERBOS MODALES Los modales ingleses son: CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT, WILL, WOULD, SHALL, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, MUST, NEED, DARE. Son un conjunto de verbos fundamentales en inglés, ya que permiten expresar ideas y matices que no expresan los tradicionales tiempos del verbo. Sus características principales son: 1. La 3ª persona del singular carece de –s final: He must. She can. 2. Los modales no necesitan ningún otro auxiliar para preguntar o negar (es decir, DO). Las preguntas se forman con la inversión sujeto-verbo (como en español); y la negación, con el not detrás del modal: Can you open the tin? ¿Puedes abrir la lata? I cannot2. I must not. I may not. 3. No tienen nunca la particular TO delante del infinitivo: NUNCA se puede decir to can, to must o to may, por ejemplo. 4. Sí admiten la contracción los 5 modales can’t, needn’t, mustn’t, needn’t, daren’t. 2 En el caso del modal CAN, la negación not se une a can formando una sola palabra: CANNOT: He cannot read Italian, but he can speak it. 6 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR 5. Al ser modales, sólo tienen una o dos formas, careciendo de la mayoría de los tiempos infinitivo, futuro, condicional, formas en –ing. CAN3 CAN es un verbo modal. Se usa para expresar que algo es posible, o para decir que alguien sabe hacer algo. Hay que tener en cuenta que el verbo que va detrás de CAN nunca lleva TO. PRONOUN AFFIRMATIVE I NEGATIVE I cannot / I can’t INTERROGATIVE ANSWERS Can I? Yes I can / No, I cannot You You cannot / he can’t Can you? Yes you can / No, you cannot He / she / it He cannot / he can’t Can he? Yes he can / No, he cannot We cannot / we can’t Can we? Yes we can / No, we cannot You You cannot / you can’t Can you? Yes you can / No, you cannot They They cannot / they can’t Can they? Yes they can / No, they cannot We can Los usos de CAN son: 1. Poder como capacidad física o intelectual, como habilidad: I can’t lift a heavy box. No soy capaz de levantar una caja pesada. He can’t open this bottle. El no puede (sabe cómo) abrir esta botella. Can donkeys fly? ¿Pueden volar los burros? 2. Saber hacer algo. (Originalmente CAN equivalía a know): Can you swim? ¿Sabes nadar? I can speak German. Sé (puedo) hablar alemán. My cousins can play the guitar, but I cannot. Can I help you? ¿Puedo ayudarle? = ¿Qué desea? Can you drive? ¿Sabes conducir? Look! You can see the the sea from this terrace! “Yes, we can”, said Obama. 3. Se suele usar con demasiada frecuencia con sentido de permiso (la forma correcta sería MAY); y en forma negativa, como prohibición: Can you come to a party this evening? ¿Puedes venir a una fiesta esta noche? 3 Se usa BE ABLE TO con el mismo significado que CAN, pero lo empleamos en los tiempos verbales que CAN y could no cubren, es decir, tiempos que no sean presente o pasado simple: I’ll be able to drive next year. Seré capaz de conducir el año que viene Una diferencia entre CAN / COULD y BE ABLE TO, es que los primeros expresan habilidades en general, mientras que el último expresa que algo se ha logrado en una determinada ocasión: We were able to get a table soon. Pudimos conseguir una mesa pronto. Althought there were a lot of cars, we were able to get a parking space. El pasado de CAN es COULD. Además de ser su forma de pasado, tiene otros usos, como en estilo indirecto o con idea de más formalidad: Could you open the door, please? en lugar de Can you open the door? 7 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR Can I go to the toilet? ¿Puedo ir al servicio?4 You cannot talk in the classroom. No puedes hablar en clase. Can I have another coke? ¿Puedo tomarme otra coca-cola? WILL FUTURE WILL es un verbo modal, con varios significados y funciones. (Su forma de pasado es WOULD, como la de CAN es COULD). Una de esas funciones es la de expresar el futuro, que veremos aquí. Otra es la de QUERER5, y se emplea para hacer peticiones o requerimientos de forma más formal: Will you please open the window? ¿Quiere abrir la ventana, por favor? Will you have a cup of tea? ¿Quiere tomar una taza te té? En muchas lenguas el futuro gramatical se forma con el infinitivo del verbo añadiendo una desinencia a cada persona (en español, el presente de indicativo del verbo haber). La lengua inglesa no tiene tiempo verbal de futuro, y este se expresa de varias maneras, y una de ellas es con WILL. Otras son con el presente de to be + going to; con el present continuous; o como es más habitual en inglés y en todos los idiomas, simplemente con el presente de indicativo: esta noche ceno pasta; el próximo verano voy a Italia; cuando me jubile me compro un piso en la costa: estamos hablando del futuro, de esta noche, del próximo verano o de dentro de muchos años, y empleamos el presente, con ceno, voy y compro.6 WILL como expresión de futuro: Para formarlo, se emplea la forma WILL con todas las personas, siendo la forma contraída ‘LL. Para negar, se pone NOT detrás del WILL, o su contracción WON’T; y para preguntar, se invierten will y el sujeto. Las respuestas breves sólo se usa WILL o WON’T, no el verbo principal: You will / You’ll go to play football on Sunday. You will not / You won’t go to play football on Sunday. Will you go to play football on Sunday? Yes, I will / No, I won’t. También usamos WILL para hacer predicciones: In the future, people will travel to the outer space. What team do you think will win the football championship this season? Tomorrow it will rain. I’m afraid you’ll not pass the exams this year! IMPERATIVE El imperativo se forma con el infinitivo sin el to, y normalmente no tiene sujeto. Utilizamos el imperativo para diferentes funciones, como: 4 Sería más correcto: May I go to the toilet? Pero el uso con CAN es muy corriente. 5 The last will Últimas voluntades, testamento. God’s will La voluntad de Dios. Where there’s a will there’s a way (refrán) Querer es poder. 6 No es este el único caso en que jugamos con los tiempos verbales, hay otros, como por ejemplo: Si me tocara la lotería, me compraba un yate: tocara y compraba son dos tiempos verbales de pasado, pretérito imperfecto de subjuntivo e indicativo, respectivamente; pero cuando hablo de que me toque la lotería y me gaste el dinero, es en el futuro, aun no ha sido el sorteo. O también: Si digo que Ya le habrán comprado el regalo, el tiempo gramatical de habrán comprado es futuro perfecto de indicativo, pero estoy hablando de una acción pasada, el regalo ya se ha comprado. 8 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR Dar órdenes: Get up! ¡Levántate! Ofrecer algo: Have another cup of tea. Tómate otra taza de té. Pedir algo: Help me with my homework, please. Ayúdame con los deberes, por favor. Advertir de algo: Look out! Be careful! ¡Cuidado! ¡Ten cuidado! Para negar en el imperativo, lo hacemos con DO NOT o la forma contracta DON’T. Don’t talk! ¡No hables! Don’t open the windows! ¡No abras las ventanas! Do not feed the animals, please! ¡No den comida a los animales, por favor! Podemos emplear un nombre o un pronombre para dejar claro a quién hablamos: Alberto be quiet, please! Do your homework, Miriam! Sit down, everybody! - Usamos LET’S (= LET US) + infinitivo sin to, para imperativo de la primera persona del plural, nosotros, en un sentido de sugerencia: We are late, we can miss the train, let’s hurry! Tonight I’m tired, let’s stay at home! Su forma negativa sería con LET’S NOT o DON’T LET’S: Let’s not go / Don’t let’s go. No vayamos. QUESTION WORDS Las question words son: WHY – WHEN – WHERE – WHAT –WHO – WHICH7 - WHOSE - HOW Con ellas formamos preguntas como estas: What? Qué / Cual What time? Qué hora / A qué hora What colour? Qué color What nationality? Qué nacionalidad What …….. like? Cómo (para describir algo o alguien) What …….. for? Para qué Where? Dónde Where …….. from? De dónde When? Cuándo Which? Cual How? Cómo (generalmente para salud o estado de ánimo) How old? Qué edad (Cómo de viejo) How much? Cuánto/a How many? Cuántos/as How often? Con qué frecuencia How long? Qué longitud (Cómo de largo) How long? Cuánto tiempo How far? Qué distancia (Cómo de lejos) Who? Quién 7 Solemos usar WHICH ONE en lugar de WHAT o WHO cuando el número de opciones es limitado o pequeño: Which one do you prefer? 9 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR Who …….. for? Para quién Who …….. with? Con quién Whose? De quién Why? Por qué (se responde con because) Ejemplos: What are you reading now? When do you start school? Where do you go to school? What time do you get up at the weekend? Who likes your sister? ¿A quién le gusta tu hermana? Who does your sister like? ¿Quién le gusta a tu hermana? Who loves your sister? ¿Quién ama tu hermana? Who / Whom does your sister love? ¿A quién ama tu hermana? How old is your father? How often do you go to the cinema? Every weekend? Every two months? Once a year? How far is the school from your home? Whose is this book? Is it yours? Is it your brother’s? Who is this present for? ¿Para quién es este regalo? Why is learning foreign languages so important? What is your girlfriend like? Pretty, tall, thin… ? What colour do you prefer for your bedroom? Which finger do you use to dial a number? The forefinger? What is this for? ¿Para qué es esto? COUNTABLES AND UNCOUNTABLES THERE IS / THERE’S – THERE ARE Estas son las dos formas de decir HAY en inglés. Para preguntar, simplemente hacemos la inversión: Is there…? Are there…? Par negar, ponemos NOT detrás: There is not / There isn’t… There are not / There aren’t… La primera forma, THERE IS, se emplea con sustantivos contables en singular y con los sustantivos incontables. ¿Qué son sustantivos contables e incontables? ¿Azúcar es contable o incontable? Azúcar es incontable, no se puede contar el azúcar: se pueden contar los terrones, o los kilos… dos terrones, medio kilo… pero no podemos decir tres azúcares… Al igual que el azúcar tenemos, por ejemplo, el dinero (¿dos dineros?), el tiempo (¿cinco tiempos?), el coraje (¿siete corajes?), etc. Sí podemos contar los euros, o los céntimos, pero no los dineros; las horas o los años, pero no los tiempos… Por lo tanto: There is a book on the shelf. Hay un libro en el estante. CONTABLE SINGULAR. There is a boy watching TV. Hay un niño viendo la televisión. CONTABLE SINGULAR. Is there any milk in the fridge? ¿Hay algo de leche en la nevera? INCONTABLE. There is a train at half past seven. Hay un tren a las siete y media. CONTABLE SINGULAR. There is no water. No hay agua. INCONTABLE. There is some money in the account. Hay algo de dinero en la cuenta. INCONTABLE. 10 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR THERE ARE se emplea con sustantivos en plural (lógicamente, contables): There are many children in the park. Hay muchos niños en el parque. There are a lot of people everywhere. Hay mucha gente en todos los sitios. (People se puede contar: three people, many people…) There are some bottles of milk in the fridge. Hay algunas botellas de leche en la nevera. A, AN, SOME, ANY Se usa a o an 8 con nombres contables en singular: There is a man outside waiting for you. An Englishman is somebody who has been born in England. SOME y ANY son las formas de plural de A y AN. Es decir, se usan con los sustantivos contables con el significado de algunos/as, unos/as: I have some dollars in my pocket. Tengo unos dólares en el bolsillo. ANY se emplea para preguntar y negar: Have you got any brothers or sisters? No, I haven’t got any brothers or sisters, I haven’t got any one (=I have got no one). I am only son / daughter. (Soy hijo único / hija única). SOME y ANY también pueden ir con nombres incontables. En este caso se pueden traducir como un poco de, algo de: I have some Money in my pocket. Is there any cheese? Yes, there is some cheese in the fridge. ANY, en frases afirmativas, tiene el significado de cualquiera: Which dessert do you prefer, fruit or cake? I don’t care, any of them (any one). Any book is good for you to read. HOW MUCH / HOW MANY Los utilizamos para preguntar cuánto o cuántos. HOW MUCH con sustantivos incontables: How much money do you have? How much milk do you want with your coffee? HOW MANY con sustantivos contables: How many books do you read a year? ¿Cuántos libros lees al año? How many T-shirts have you got? (=How many T-shirts do you have?) LOS POSESIVOS SAXON GENITIVE – EL GENITIVO SAJÓN Hay dos formas en inglés para indicar la posesión: OF, de origen latino o genitivo normando; y ‘S, de origen sajón. A esta segunda es a la que llamamos “genitivo sajón”, y se emplea cuando el poseedor es una persona o un animal, no una cosa. La forma es: Poseedor + ‘s + cosa poseída (sin artículo)9 My sister’s dress is yellow. 8 AN se pone delante de palabras que empiezan por vocal o h muda: An apple, an hour, un heir, un umbrella; a hospital, a home, a boy. Sin embargo, se emplea a en lugar de an si la siguiente palabra empieza por u son sonido /iu/: A uniform, a university. 9 ¡No confundir nunca la marca del genitivo sajón, ‘s, con la contracción de la tercera persona del singular de to be: He’s very nice. El es muy simpático. She’s here. Ella está aquí. 11 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR My father’s car is black, but his cousin’s one is white. The dog’s ears are very big. Casos particulares: Cuando el poseedor va en plural y termina en –s, sólo ponemos el apóstrofo: The ESO students’ timetable is very good in this school. Wives’ work is very important for the families. Husbands’ work is as important as that of the wives. Si el nombre plural no acaba en –s, se aplica la regla general: The policemen’s duty is to serve the people. También se aplica la regla general cuando el poseedor es singular y acaba en –s: The boss’s office is next to the mine one. The princess’s groom is very handsome. Se suelen omitir palabras como: I attend every Sunday the mess in St. George’s (church). Yesterday we were at Tamara’s (house). Aunque no sean ni personas ni animales, se suele aplicar el genitivo sajón cuando hablamos de tiempo o distancia: My home is two minutes’ walk from here. My home is at a stone’s throw. Mi casa está a tiro de piedra (distancia). En los demás casos, el genitive es con OF: The twist of fate. Los giros del destino. Hay casos en que se usan los dos genitivos, y tienen dos significados distintos: A Goya’s portrait. Un retrato de Goya. (Goya es el autor del retrato). A portrait of Goya. Un retrato de Goya. (Goya es la persona retratada). POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS El posesivo en inglés concuerda con el poseedor sin tener en cuenta ni género (masculino o femenino) ni número (singular o plural) de lo poseído. Los adjetivos y los pronombres posesivos ingleses son: PERSON ADJECTIVE PRONOUN I my mine You your yours He / she / it his / her / its his / hers / its We our ours You your yours They their theirs I cannot find my book. The book is mine. I cannot find my books. The books are mine. Your mother is here. She is your mother. Is she your mother? That isn’t your laptop. That laptop isn’t yours. (Laptop = ordenador portatil). That’s very of his / of her. Es muy propio de él / de ella (frase hecha). His sister is blonde. The blonde girl is his sister. This is Peter’s car. This is his car. The car is his. Is his the car? (¿Es suyo el coche?). Her brother is dark haired. That dark haired boy is her brother. Emma’s friends are from Scotland. They are her friends. My dog’s eyes are brown. It’s eyes are brown. My cat’s basket is on the floor. It’s (It is) its basket. The basket is its. 12 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR Our dog is very cute. It’s our dog. The dog is ours. The Earth is our planet, but the planet is not ours, it doesn’t belong to us! The students you have a very bright classroom. This is your classroom. Is the classroom yours? The future belongs to the youth. The future is theirs. My cousins have a boat to sail across the lake. The boat is theirs. It’s their boat. Every student has a English dictionary. The dictionaries are theirs. They are theirs dictionaries. COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES Al igual que en español, los adjetivos tienen 3 grados de comparación: positivo, comparativo y superlativo. 1. Positivo. Simplemente se indica la cualidad tal como es: My teacher is clever, nice, tall and handsome. 2. Comparativo. Compara una persona o cosa con otra u otras. Reglas de formación del comparativo. Adjetivos de 1 sílaba: Añadimos –er o –r: tall taller / nice nicer Adjetivos de 1 sílaba que acaban en consonante precedida de vocal: Duplica la consonante y se añade –er: big bigger / fat fatter Adjetivos de 2 sílabas que terminan en -y Se elimina –y y se añade –ier: dirty dirtier / naughty naughtier Otros adjetivos de 2 ó más sílabas: Se añade more delante del adjetivo: beautiful more beautiful Irregulares: (Hay que aprendérselos de memoria:) good bad litttle much far better worse less more farther / further etc. El comparativo tiene puede ser de 3 tipos: igualdad, inferioridad, superioridad. a. Igualdad. Se forma con: Afirmativas as + adjetivo + as Negativas not so + adjetivo + as Paul Newman is an actor as good as Robert Redford. I’m not so rich as the Queen. b. Inferioridad. Se forma con: Afirmativas Se forma con la palabra LESS (=menos). Negativas not so … as, o not as … as: French is very important, but it is less important than English. He is less intelligent than her. History is not so interesting as Maths. History is not as interesting as Maths. c. Superioridad. Se forma: Alterna las formas more y –er: Australian girls are more beautiful than New Zealander ones. Russia is bigger than Switzerland. I am taller than my brother. 3. Superlativo. En español se traduce por el más … de … : Formación: 13 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR Añadimos –est o –st: short the shortest / nice the nicest Adjetivos de 1 sílaba: Adjetivos de 1 sílaba que acaban en consonante precedida de vocal: Duplica la consonante y se añade –est: big the biggest / fat the fattest Adjetivos de 2 sílabas que terminan en -y Se elimina –y y se añade –est: dirty the dirtiest / naughty the naughtiest Otros adjetivos de 2 ó más sílabas: Se añade more delante del adjetivo: beautiful the most beautiful Irregulares: (Hay que aprendérselos de memoria:) good bad little much far near the best the worst the least the most the farthest / the furthest the nearest / the next etc. Lisbon is the most important city of Portugal. Porto is the second most important city of Portugal. Who is the best pupil of the school? And the worst one? How far from here is the nearest / the next tube station? My mother is the nicest and most beautiful woman of the world. PREPOSITIONS of PLACE IN superficies y lugares tridimensionales: Some students waste their time in the park, Marlon is in his room, Lisbeth likes swimming in the sea; ciudades en sí mismas: Miguel lives in Milan; calles: Daniella lives in Kings Road; In a box, in a room, in a building, in a garden, in a pool, in a town, in the city centre, in a country, in the world, in the sky, in the see, in a river, in a book, in a photograph… AT lugares en un punto; en ciudades, como un punto: The train stops at Leeds; para direcciones: Jorge lives at 25 Kings Rd.; At the door, at the window, at the bus stop, at the roundabout, at the hotel reception, at the top, at the bottom, at the end… ON en una superficie: What is on the floor, on the wall? On the floor, on the ceiling, on a wall, on the table, on the left / right, on the first floor, on a map, on the menu, on a list, on your nose, on a page, on an island… PREPOSITIONS OF TIME: ON, AT, BY, IN. ON on a day / date: on Monday / on Mondays; on Monday morning; on 4 June 1965; on Christmas Day; on my birthday… EXCEPCIONES: at Christmas, at Easter (the period, not the day) (*see below) on the morning / afternoon / evening / night of a certain date: we arrived on the morning of the 6th. IN in: para períodos más largos (como months, years, seasons): in October; in 1988; in the 18th century; in the past; in (the) winter; in the 1960s; in the Middle Ages; in (the) future… in a few minutes / in a week / in six months… BY Usamos BY con la idea de “no más tarde de”. 14 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR by a time / date / period = at that time or before that / not later than that date. It often implies “ before that time / date”: the train starts at 6:10, so you had better be at he station by six. by + a time expression is often used with a perfect tense, particularly the future perfect: by the end of July I’ll have read all those books. AT at a time: at down; at quarter past five; at midnight; at lunchtime; at the weekend; at sunset, at noon… at an age: at sixteen / at the age of sixteen; she got married at seventeen… USAMOS AT EN LAS SIGUIENTES EXPRESIONES: At night I don’t like going out at night At the weekend / at weekends Will you be here at the weekend? At Christmas Do you give each other presents at Christmas? At the moment / at present The doctor is busy at he moment / at present At the same time Emily and I arrived at the same time DECIMOS: In the morning(s) In the afternoon(s) In the evening(s) I’ll see you in the morning Do you work in the evenings? On Friday morning(s) On Sunday afternoon(s) On Monday evening(s), etc I’ll see you in Friday morning Do you work on Saturday evenings? but ON TIME IN TIME on time = puntual, no tarde I’ll meet you at 6:30, but please be on time The opposite of on time is late Be on time. Don’t be late in time (for something / to do something) = con tiempo suficiente Will you be home in time for dinner? (=soon enough for dinner) I’m in a hurry. I want to be home in time to watch the game on TV (=soon enough to watch the game) Lo contrario de in time es too late I got home too late to watch the game on television AT THE END IN THE END at the end (of something) = momento en el que algo termina: at the end of the month; at the end of January; at the end of the match; at the end of the film; at the end of the course… I’m going away at the end of June. At the end of the concert, there was great applause. The player shook hands at the end of the game. Lo contrario de at the end (of…) es at the beginning (of…) I’m going away at the beginning of June. in the end = finally Usamos in the end cuando decimos cual era el resultado final de una situación: We had a lot of problems with our car, and we sold it in the end. He got more and more angry; in the end he just walked out of the room. Lo contrario de in the end suele ser at first At first we didn’t get on very well, but in the end we became good friends. 15 colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR IRREGULAR VERBS INFINITIVE Be 16 PAST TENSE Was / Were PAST PARTICIPLE SPANISH Been Ser / estar Begin Began Begun Empezar Bite Bit Bitten Morder Break Broke Broken Romper Bring Brought Brought Traer Buy Bought Bought Comprar Catch Caught Caught Coger, atrapar Choose Chose Chosen Elegir Come Came Come Venir Do Did Done Hacer Drink Drank Drunk Beber Drive Drove Driven Conducir Eat Ate Eaten Comer Fall Fell Fallen Caer(se) Feed Fed Fed Alimentar Feel Felt Felt Sentir(se) Find Found Found Encontrar Fight Fought Fought Luchar Flee Fled Fled huir Fly Flew Flown Volar Forget Forgot Forgotten Olvidar Forgive Forgave Forgiven Perdonar Get Got Got / Gotten Tener, obtener Give Gave Given Dar Go Went Gone Ir Grow Grew Grown Crecer Have Had Had Haber, tener Hide Hid Hidden Esconder(se) Keep Kept Kept Guarder Know Knew Known Saber Learn Learnt Learnt Aprender Leave Left Left Dejar Lie Lay Lain Yacer, tumbarse Lose Lost Lost Perder Make Made Made Hacer, fabricar Meet Met Met Pay Paid Paid Pagar Read Read Read Leer Ring Rang Rung Telefonear Rise Rose Risen Elevar Conocer, encontrar colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID ENGLISH GRAMMAR 17 Run Ran Run Corer Say Said Said Decir See Saw Seen Ver Sell Sold Sold Vender Send Sent Sent Enviar Speak Spoke Spoken Hablar Spend Spent Spent Gastar Steal Stole Stolen Robar Take Took Taken Coger Teach Taught Taught Enseñar (maestro) Wear Wore Worn Llevar (ropa) Write Wrote Written Escribir colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - MADRID PAST SIMPLE & PAST CONTINOUS ENGLISH GRAMMAR PAST SIMPLE We use past simple to describe a completed action in the past. This tense is often linked to a time expression like: this morning last night yesterday last week last year (three days) ago on my birthday last Christmas, in 1993… I went to Paris last year. PAST CONTINOUS We use the past continuous to describe past actions which continued for some time. What were you doing at six o’clock last evening? I was watching the news on TV. To describe background detail when telling a story: It was a war summer’s day. The sun was high in the sky and I was reading a book lying in the shade. We often use it in contrast with the past simple. We were talking when the bell rang ( The bell interrupted us) It was snowing when I went home ( It started snowing before I went home and it was still snowing afterwards) My aunt was paying for her petrol when suddenly a burglar knocked her over and took her wallet. Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE & PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS ENGLISH GRAMMAR THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE This tense relates past events to present time. It is used: To talk about experiences and events at an unspecified time in the past: I’ve seen two plays by Shakespeare. I’ve never been to Glasgow. To talk about something that is unfinished: I’ve lived in Madrid for fifteen years. To talk about events in a period of time that is not yet finished, e.g. this morning / week: I’ve been to two parties this week. To talk about a present result of a past event: She’s had an accident, and she’s broken a leg. NOTE that it is often used in connection with certain words: The time prepositions SINCE and FOR: She’s lived here for three years. He’s worked here since 2009. The adverbs JUST and ALREADY: He’s just finished it. I’ve already done it. These adverbs are not generally used in negative sentences with the present perfect. The adverb YET: Have you done it yet? I haven’t done it yet. This adverb is not used in positive sentences with the present perfect. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS This tense is used: To describe an action which began in the past and is either still going on, or has recently stopped: I’ve been writing letters all morning. (It means that this activity is important.) I’ve written three letters. (It means that these letters are now finished.) It is often used with FOR and SINCE: I’ve been living here for a few years / since 2009. (I’m still living here.) Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID FUTURE TENSES: GOING TO & WILL ENGLISH GRAMMAR GOING TO This tense is used: 1. To talk about planned decisions and intentions in the future: I’m going to ask for a rise next month. 2. To talk about future arrangements: He’s going to stay with us for a week. My parents are going to travel to Kenya next year. 3. To make predictions about the immediate future when there is some evidence to show what is going to happen: Look at those black clouds. It’s going to rain in a minute! WILL This tense is used: 1. To make predictions about the future: There will be a lot of skyscrapers in Madrid in a few years’ time. Humans won’t live in Mars. 2. To make statements of fact about the future: Steve will be thirty next birthday. 3. To make a decision at the moment of speaking: I’ll tell him tonight. There isn’t any milk left in the fridge, I’ll go buy some. 4. To make a promise or offer: I’ll send the e-mail for you. You look tired. I’ll cook the dinner. My little brother has promised he will study this year. 5. With clauses of condition and time: If / When I’m rich, I’ll buy a house n the country. Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID Wh- questions The term wh- questions covers all questions beginning with what, which, why, when, where, who and how. They are sometimes called ‘content questions’, because they require some substance or content in the reply. They do not query the truth of the statement, but they ask about details about a part of it. FORM The wh- questions are formed with the aid of one of the simple interrogative words above mentioned in bold letters. Unlike ‘yes/no’ questions, they generally have falling intonation. The two main rules for the formation of these items are: a) The wh-element (the clause element containing the wh-word) comes first in the sentence (apart from some conjuncts, such as on the other hand). b) The wh-word itself takes first position in the wh-element. The only exception to the second principle occurs when the wh-word is within a prepositional complement. Here English provides a choice between two constructions, one being formal. In formal style, the preposition precedes the complement, whereas otherwise the complement comes first and the preposition is deferred to the end of the sentence. Example: On what did you base your prediction? (Formal) What did you base your prediction on? (Informal) We may perhaps express this difference more neatly by saying that neutral style generally requires that the wh-word come first, but formal English requires that the wh-element as a whole comes first. WH-WORD AS A SUBJECT When a wh-word is the subject of a verb, or when it forms part of the subject, the word order of the clause is the same as that of the clause in the declarative mood, i.e. the subject is put first, followed by the verb: Who invited you? And then, what happened? WH-WORD AS OBJECT OR ADVERB When a wh-word is the object of a verb preposition, or when it forms part of the object, or when it is an adverb, the position of the subject is the usual one in the interrogative form: after the auxiliary or modal verb: What am I going to do with you? Which graph are you going to use? Why did Tolstoy write that work? When would you be coming down? When using the simple present, or the simple past tense of TO BE, the main verb goes in front of the subject without DO: Where is the station? How was the meeting? When was the last time you cleaned your car? 1 Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID Wh- questions QUESTIONS WITHOUT A VERB In conversation, a wh-question consists of a wh-word on its own: He saw a snake – Where? I have to go to Morocco – When? I knew grandpa came today – How? A wh-question can also consist of a noun group containing a wh-word: He knew my cousin – Which cousin’ Who was your friend? – What friend? ITEMS WHO Who is used to ask questions about a person’s identity. It can be the subject or the object of a verb: Who discovered this? Who did he marry? WHOM Whom in more formal English is used as the object of a verb or a preposition: Whom shall we call? For whom were they supposed to do it? WHOSE Whose is used a determiner or pronoun to ask which person something belongs to or is associated with: Whose is that? WHICH Which is used as pronoun or determiner to ask someone to identify a specific person or thing out of a number of people or things: Which is the best restaurant? WHAT What can be a pronoun or determiner, or combination with ‘if’ or ‘for’. What is used as a pronoun to find out various kinds of specific information, for example details of an event, the meaning of a word or expression, or the reason for something: What’s wrong with his girlfriend? What has happened to her? WHEN When is used to ask questions about the time something happened, happens, or will happen: When did you find it? WHERE Where is used to ask questions about place, position, or direction: Where do your parents live? 2 Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID Wh- questions WHY Why is used to ask a question about the reason for something: Why are they here? HOW How is usually used to ask about the method used for doing something, or about the way in which something can be achieved: How do we open it? How can be combined with other words at the beginning of questions: How many and how much are used to ask what number of things there are or what amount of something there is. How many is followed by a plural countable noun and how much by an uncountable one: How many people are there? How much money have we got in the bank? How can be combined with an adjective when you ask to what extent something has a particular quality or feature: How big is that box? How tall are you? WHATEVER, WHEREVER, WHOEVER They are emphatic forms. TABLE Who? ¿Quién? Where? ¿Dónde? When? ¿Cuándo? Which? ¿Cual? What? / What for? ¿Qué? / ¿Para qué? Why? Because… / For (+ sust)… ¿Por qué? Porque… / Para… How…? ¿Cuánto de…? EXAMPLES: What do you want? I want a beautiful girlfriend. Who is that girl? She is my girlfriend. Where do you live? I live in Madrid. When do you come to the school? I come to the school every day. Why do you come to the school? I come to the school because I want to learn English. Why are you here, in the classroom? I’m here for an English lesson. How old are you? I’m sixteen (years old). Where have they gone? They’ve gone to the pub for a drink. Where did he go? He went to the bakery to buy bread / for bread. How far is Madrid from Barcelona? They’re about six hundred kilometres far. 3 Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY ENGLISH GRAMMAR 100% ALWAYS EVER 0% USUALLY GENERALLY OFTEN SOMETIMES SELDOM RARELY NEVER POSICIÓN: La posición del adverbio de frecuencia depende del verbo al que acompaña, es decir, puede ocupar distintos lugares en la frase según el verbo: 1. Después del verbo TO BE cuando su función es la del verbo principal: I’m not usually awake at six o’clock. He’s often in the office on Sundays. We were sometimes late for work. Are you usually here? Is it ever hot in Spain? Was she always happy at school? 2. Antes de cualquier otro verbo principal: I never go on holiday at Christmas. He always went on Saturdays. They often worked late on weekdays. 3. Cuando se trata de una formal verbal compuesta, los adverbios de frecuencia van colocados después del primer verbo auxiliar o defectivo: I will always love you! Will you ever love me? My mother can never remember your name. I can’t ever remember his address. My cousins have never been to Canada. Have they ever been to Egypt? My family doesn’t usually go on holiday. I didn’t always look like that! May I always come and see you? Do you often come to this beach? Does your sister usually wear a skirt? Did they sometime go to church? 1 EVER Para indicar frecuencia se puede usar EVERY (cada…/todos los…) seguida de sustantivo. Las expresiones con EVERY suelen colocarse al final de la frase: a. Cuando hay un complemento, éste se coloca después del verbo: The pupils study English every morning. My father reads the paper every day. I like playing tennis every evening. Are you at home every afternoon? My sister and her friends go shopping every Saturday evening. Did they fly to Scotland every year? b. Las expresiones de lugar van antes de las expresiones de frecuencia. Esto se aplica a otras expresiones de tiempo, no sólo con EVER: I walk to school every morning. My friends go to Salamanca every weekend. They go every weekend to Salamanca. I came to the airport early. We’re going to Lisbon this weekend. Yesterday we left work at half past seven! 2 Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID Direct speech, indirect speech ENGLISH GRAMMAR There are two ways of relating what a person has said: direct and indirect. In direct speech, we repeat the original speaker’s exact words placed between inverted comas. In indirect speech we give the exact meaning of a remark or a speech, without necessarily using the speaker’s exact words. That can be usually omitted after say and tell + object. But is should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object, point out, protest… Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported verbally, though direct speech is sometimes employed here to give a more dramatic effect. When the introductory verb of the indirect speech is in a present, present perfect or future tense we can report the direct speech without any change of tense. But indirect speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense. Verbs in direct speech have then to be changed into a corresponding past tense, as follows: Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present simple past: he explained that he never ate meat Present continuous past continuous: he said he was waiting for Ann Present perfect past perfect: he said he had found a flat Present perfect continuous past perfect continuous: he said he had been waiting for ages past perfect: she said she had taken it home with Simple past her Future conditional: he said he would be in Paris on Monday Future continuous *but note: conditional conditional continuous: he said he’d be using the car himself on the 24th conditional: I said I would / should like to see it Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change as follows: Direct Indirect Today that day Yesterday the day before The day before yesterday two days before Tomorrow the next / following day The day after tomorrow in two day’s time Next week, year, etc the following week, year, etc Last week, year, etc the previous week, year, etc A year, etc ago a year before / the previous year Some other adjustments have to be made when necessary: here / there, this / that, etc. We also have to keep in mind the necessary change of pronouns and possessive adjectives. 1 Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID Direct speech, indirect speech ENGLISH GRAMMAR Other considerations: - Unreal past tenses after wish, would rather / sooner and it is time do not change. - You had better can be unchanged or be reported by advice + object + infinitive. The other grammatical persons do not change. - Conditional sentences types II and III remain unchanged. - Modal verbs. SAY and TELL: - Direct speech: Inversion of say and noun subject is possible when say follows the statement: “I’ve just heard the news”, said Tom. Tell requires the person addressed, except with to tell lies / stories / the truth, when the person addressed need not be mentioned: he told (me) lies. Inversion is not possible with tell. - Indirect speech: Indirect statements are normally introduced by say or tell + object. Say + to + object is also possible but much less usual than tell + object. Other useful verbs are: add, admit, answer, argue, complain, deny, explain, object, observe, point out, promise, protest, remark, reply, etc Questions in indirect speech: When we turn direct questions into indirect speech, tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives and adverbs, of time and place, change. If the introductory verb is say, it has to be changed to a verb of inquiry, e.g.: ask, inquire, wonder, want to know, etc. If the direct question begins with a question word (when, where, who, how, why, etc), the question word is repeated in the indirect question. Otherwise, if or whether has to be used. If is the more usual. Verbs of command, request, advice in indirect speech: advice, ask, beg, command, encourage, entreat, forbid, implore, order, recommend, remind, request, tell, urge, warn. Let’s usually expresses a suggestion and is reported by suggest in indirect speech. Let him / them -> ought / should. Must and needn’t usually remain unchanged. 2 Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID CONDITIONALS ENGLISH GRAMMAR Conditional clauses are commonly introduced by IF or UNLESS (=if not), and may either precede or follow the main clause. There are three basic types of conditional sentence: ZERO CONDITIONAL We use the zero conditional to state facts: If you heat water to 100ºC, it boils. If you don’t water plants, they die. FIRST CONDITIONAL We use the first conditional is used: To talk about the consequences of a possible future action or situation. To give advice. To warn or threaten future imperative must / may / can… + infinitive 2. will + infinitive, if + present simple 1. if + present simple1, If we go to Italy on holiday, we’ll need to learn some Italian expressions. If you have a noisy party, the neighbours will complain. If you don’t tidy your room, I won’t give you your pocket money. If I don’t buy my girlfriend a nice birthday present, she’ll be angry with me. If I’m hungry, I’ll make a sandwich. If it stars to rain, we’ll play inside. If you see your sister, ask her to phone me. If we’re not too busy, we’ll go shopping at the weekend. If I get rich one day, I’ll go to Antarctica. He won’t come to the meeting unless he has finished his report. If you don’t work hard, you won’t pass your exams. I’ll buy a T-shirt if I find one I like. We’ll go to the concert if we can get tickets. My parents will buy me a motorbike if I pass all my exams. You won’t feel tired in the morning if you go to bed early. Should you see my sister, ask her to phone me. Don’t move, or I’ll shoot. If you go to the market early, you’ll get some fresh fish. If we sell the car, we’ll be able to afford a holiday. You won’t catch the bus if you don’t hurry! 1 If + subject + present simple for the situation. Subject + will (not) + infinitive without to for the consequence. 1 Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID CONDITIONALS ENGLISH GRAMMAR SECOND CONDITIONAL would should could might if + past tense2, + infinitive We use the second conditional for: The hypothetical future, where the action or event isn’t expected to happen: If I won the lottery, I’d buy a house in France. If I didn’t go to school, I’d start my own business. If I had a stall in London, I’d have to pay an enormous rent. Imaginary or impossible situations which are contrary to present fact: If I had my way, schoolchildren wouldn’t have so much freedom. I’m a girl, but if I were a man, I’d probably more aggressive. If I were3 you, I’d change my job. (Advice) I should be grateful if you would4 send me an application form. To give advice: If I were you, I’d get a full-time job. THIRD (or past) CONDITIONAL This type of conditional is used to describe completely hypothetical situations which are contrary to past fact, often when referring to unfulfilled plans. In short, to imagine consequences of things that didn’t happen in the past. if + past perfect tense5, would should could might have + past participle If I’d known you were coming, I could have met you at the station. Had I known you were coming, I could have met you at the station. I would have gone to university if I hadn’t gone to France. If you hadn’t reminded me about Jack’s birthday, I’d have forgotten about it. I wouldn’t have been able to buy the bike if I hadn’t borrowed the money. 2 - Would never occurs in the if clause. The verb in the if clause is always in the past tense even though it refers to future or present time. Were is often used instead of was after if, especially in written English. Was often occurs in the informal spoken English. 3 Were is preferable to was in conditional clauses. (It’s a subjunctive). See previous note. 4 Here, would means “were willing to”. 5 Would have never occurs in the if clause. Might have or could have are used instead of would have if the consequence is les definite: If you’d asked me earlier, I might have been able to help. 2 Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID THE PASSIVE VOICE ENGLISH GRAMMAR We use the passive when the result of an action is more important to us then the person / thing that does the action. The subject it is the person / thing that the action happens to. To be the form of the verb to be indicates the tense of the action1. Past participle of the main verb the past participle indicates the nature of the action. My car was stolen last week The action happened to my car, the tense is the past simple and the main verb is the verb steal. The best paella in the world is made in Valencia. The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were destroyed on September 11 th 2201. The Mona Lisa was stolen in 1911. If we include the person / thing that does the action, we use the preposition by: Microsoft was started by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in 1975. Soap operas are watched by millions of people all over the world. The Harry Potter books were written by J.K. Rowling. They asked us to stay at home – We were asked to stay at home. Us: accusative; to stay: infinitive; we: nominative. The second construction is called Nominative with infinitive, or Personal passive construction: Accusative + infinitive: Somebody told me to stay here. Nominative + infinitive: I was told to stay here. Clases de verbos que pueden formar subjuntivo (3): - 1 - Verbos que representan recomendación u orden: He was ordered to go. 2 - To consider, to expect, to suppose, to know, to say... : John is said to be very rich. 3 - Verbs of perception, i.e. VER. ¡¡¡ATENCIÓN!!! To make, to let, y todos los verbos de percepción van sin TO (en bare infinitive) en la voz activa, pero con el TO en la pasiva. (¡¡¡ to let: el infinitivo que le precede, SIEMPRE sin to!!!). They saw me come in – I was seen to come in. They heard me sing that song – I was heard to sing that song. Retain prepositions. - A very pretty girl attended to me – I was attended to by a very pretty girl. (attended to: prepositional object) When a prepositional object becomes the subject of the verb in the passive, retains the preposition: Many people have listened to this music – This music has been listened to by many people. Everybody approved of his behaviour – His behaviour was approved of by everybody. 1 The past participle is invariable, so the verb BE tells us if the action is in the present, past or future, etc. Dpto. de Inglés – colegio NUESTRA SRA DEL PILAR - MADRID CONNECTORS or LINKING DEVICES 1. SEQUENCE In the first place… / First of all… Secondly… / In the second place… To begin with, I’d like to mention… Next… Finally… / Lastly… / Last but not least, I’ll mention… 2. CAUSE / REASON / RESULT Due to*… / Owing to… / Because (of)… For this reason… As a result… Therefore… Consequently… Thus… Hence… That… Owing to / As a result of a greater demand for accommodation, prices have risen. Greater demand for accommodation has resulted in / led to higher prices. Higher prices are the result of / due to / caused by greater demand for accommodation. [(*) Due to should be avoided at the beginning of a sentence]. 3. CONCLUSION All things considered… In brief… / In short… In conclusion… 4. BALANCE / CONTRAST On the one hand… on the other (hand)… While… / Whereas… (to link two sentences). Nevertheless… Unlike… In / by contrast… Conversely / On the contrary… Unlike Russia the States has easy access to the Atlantic Ocean. Left-wing governments spend a lot of money on the welfare of the ordinary people, while / whereas conservative governments consider this to be less important. 5. INTENSIFYING Clearly… / Obviously… / Undoubtedly… / Needless to say… / In particular… / Above all… 6. ADDITION In addition to that… / Apart from that… / Besides… / Moreover… / What is more… / Further… 7. DOWNTONING On the whole… As a general rule… (Up) to a certain extent… In a sense… At any rate… / At least… 8. EXEMPLIFICATIONS For example… / For instance… To take the case of… / Take … for instance… Such (as) … / Like… Drugs such as glue can be obtained easily by children. Such drugs as glue can be… Drugs like glue can be… 9. REPHRASING In other words… That is to say… 1 To put in another way… Javier P – colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - Madrid 10.COMPARISON Similarly… / In the same way… / Likewise… 11. CONCESSION Although… In spite of this… / Despite this… / Notwithstanding… Yet… / Even so… / Nevertheless… (+ noun). 12.REFERENCE TO OTHER THINGS / PEOPLE As regards… / With regard to… / As for… As far as… is concerned… According to… 13. REFERENCE TO ONESELF In my opinion… / Personally… As far as I am concerned… 14.TEMPORAL REFERENCE A. The point in time when something happened: At the beginning / at the end (of the day / a film / a party…) At that point / at the moment / Just then Meanwhile B. How long something took: In next to no time / Shortly afterwards / straight away / Soon At first / at last At first distinguishes between the way things were before and the way they were afterwards. E.g. At first the weather was nice and warm, but it soon clouded over. At last indicates relief, excitement or happiness. E.g. We walked for hours and at last we found a restaurant. At the staff meeting last week, several plans were discussed. With respect to (1) new leisure facilities the most popular idea was the building of a swimming pool. This would, above all (2), give employees the chance to relax and keep fit at the same time. By and large (3) employees are not fit and lost working days through problems such as (4) ill-health are very expensive. What is more (5), it could be used on non-working days by employees’ families. In short (6), the benefits to the company outweigh the cost. The managers have agreed that, on balance (7), this scheme seemed to have considerable advantages over the others and said that they would announce a decision sooner rather than later (8). 1. With regard to As regards 2. First and foremost 3. For the most part 4. For example 5. In addition 6. In brief To sum up In general 7. All things considered On the whole 8. In the near future In due course In the main As a (general) rule 2 ENGLISH DIFFICULTIES Grammar & vocabulary ROB and STEAL with violence To rob the object is the person a robbery whatever is stolen is without the owners realizing the fact: with no violence To steal to steal something from somebody a theft They stole a valuable ring from my wife last night – They robbed my wife of a valuable ring last night. Some thieves stole Mrs. Jones’ handbag in full day – Some thieves robbed Mrs. Jones of her handbag in full day. They stole all the ready cash from my house – They robbed my house of all the ready cash. The burglar stole £25 from the grocer’s – The burglar robbed the grocer’s of £25. £5,000 was stolen from the bank last night – The bank was robbed of £5,000 last night. From which house in the street did they steal those papers? – Which house in the street did they rob of those papers? Who had his wallet stolen at the racers? – Who was robbed of his wallet at the races? She had her last penny stolen – She was robbed of her last penny. AVOID & PREVENT Avoid Sobre uno mismo Prevent Sobre otros Construction + gerundial I avoid speaking about this subject + a noun I avoid darkness; I avoid accidents (los míos) (Su construcción es como la de can’t help: I can’t help eating a lot) Construction subject 1 + to prevent + subject 2 + (from) + gerund. I prevent the children from watching TV Subject + to prevent + a noun of action I prevent accidents (los míos) (Se construyen como to prevent, principalmente: to discourage (desanimar) y to deter (disuadir) Children should avoid walking in the mud. The mother prevents her children from walking inn the mud. It is difficult to avoid making mistakes. It is the teacher’s duty to prevent his students making mistakes. You ought to avoid drinking that water; it’s unsafe. Nobody shall me prevent drinking what I like. Avoid Mr. Robinson. He has a bad reputation. She couldn’t be prevented from seeing Mr. Robinson. Accidents cannot be avoided. The authorities are doing their best to prevent accidents. How did you manage to avoid getting wet in the rain? You can prevent yourself getting wet by carrying un umbrella / You can avoid getting wet by … Part of a doctor’s work is to prevent people falling sick. Page 1 of 7 Javier P – colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - Madrid ENGLISH DIFFICULTIES Grammar & vocabulary But you can avoid falling sick if you are careful. You can avoid the heat in the sun, by staying indoors. But you can’t prevent the sun shinning. She avoided his eyes, but she couldn’t prevent him looking at her. You can avoid walking under a ladder, but you can prevent people using them. But can generally avoid getting dirty ourselves, but is not easy to prevent children doing so. STILL & YET Still involves the idea of continuity (seguir). Yet: Perfective aspect (acción realizada / no realizada). Do you still have what I gave you? It’s still raining? I still don’t understand you. I don’t still known the answer to that question. Surely they don’t still use that out of date method. Do you still have the teapot she gave you? Be careful! The paint is still wet. Hasn’t Roger come home yet? Do you still insist that this restaurant is better than that other one? Elisabeth, haven’t you made the beds yet? It’s lunchtime and they are still unmade! Aren’t you ashamed of yourself? Are you still taken French lessons? Still’ Good Heavens! I haven’t started yet! I’m still far to busy with English. … and yet … = however (sin embargo, no obstante lo cual…) Tom is clever and yet he still makes elementary mistakes. He failed the examination hopelessly and yet I’m perfectly certain that he studied as hard as everybody else. ELSE It is an adverb. 3 uses: a After compound indefinite pronouns (somebody else, nothing else ...) I took somebody else’s umbrella by mistake. b After interrogative words, mainly who, what, where, how… Who else is coming? What else can you tell me? Where else can I look for him? How else can we do this? (Whom else… can NEVER be used. Instead of it, who else…) c Or else = otherwise (with the idea of threat) Give me the money or else I’ll kill you! Page 2 of 7 Javier P – colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - Madrid ENGLISH DIFFICULTIES Grammar & vocabulary WOULD RATHER / TO PREFER Would rather No permite complementos de nombre, sólo de verbo. a) Subject + WOULD RATHER + bare infinitive I would rather stay, I’d rather not to go. 2ª término de la comparación: + than + bare infinitive: I’d rather stay than go. b) Subject 1 + WOULD RATHER + (THAT) + subject 2 + simple past I’d rather (that) you didn’t talk. c) Subject 1 + WOULD RATHER +(THAT) subject 2 + HAD (not) + past participle I’d rather that you hadn’t come. To prefer I prefer meat to fish. I prefer walking to driving. (gerundio: se habla en general). I prefer to walk. (infinitivo: ahora me apetece más andar, como ocurre en to like, por ejemplo) I prefer walking rather than driving: Es un pleonasmo, poco ortodoxo gramaticalmente, pero se puede usar. USED TO a. + Infinitive: to denote contrast. Something was true, but it is not any longer. There used to be a fountain in front of my house = Antes había una fuente… (¡no traducir por: Solía haber…!) (Solía > WOULD. Solía ir > I would to go) b. + Gerund: To be / To get used to + … ing: Estar acostumbrado / Acostumbrarse. TO DARE a. Atreverse. Afirmativo: I dare to go. Negativo e interogativo: I dare not to go (no me atrevo a ir). Construction like a defective verb. b. Desafiar: + accusative + infinitive. I dare you to say this to him. Tiene, indistintamente, dos formas: Do you dare to do that? Dare you do that? TO WAIT, TO HOPE, TO EXPECT, TO REMIND To wait: 2 casos. a For + accusative + infinitive: I wait for him to come. b For + noun or pronoun: I wait for him. To hope + verbo en tiempo real. I hope you’ve had a good time. I hope (that) he is London now. I hope it will rain tomorrow. To expect + Accusative + infinitive. Cubans are expecting the King to land on the island. To remind: 2 casos: a. Traer a la mente: To remind somebody of somebody / something. He reminds me of his brother. This song reminds me of France. Page 3 of 7 Javier P – colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - Madrid ENGLISH DIFFICULTIES Grammar & vocabulary To inform somebody of a fact or tell somebody to do something he may have forgotten. Do I have to remind you yet again? Travellers are reminded that malaria tablets are advisable. I reminded her how much the fare was. Remind me to answer that letter. b. LLEVAR TIEMPO a. It + TO TAKE + person + expression of time + infinitive. It takes me five minutes to explain this lesson. b. Person + TO TAKE + expression + infinitive. I take five minutes to explain this lesson. c. It is + expression of time + BEFORE + person + infinitive. It was a long time before I could reach the shore. LLEGAR -in: large town. -in: country. To arrive + -at: village, small place (at the station, e.g.) -on: a island. -under: a bridge (i.e.) But it is better off, “more English”, using: To get to, to come to, to reach. To pull in: llegar a destino. / To put in: atracar (un barco…) SUBSTITUTE / REPLACE Substitute for / replace by. He substituted a new car for his old Ford. (¡Atención a la construcción!) He replaced his old ford by a new car. SHALL / WILL Shall: La acción no depende de la voluntad de la persona que la realiza. Will: Puede expresar que sí depende. WISH a. I wish for a new car = I long for a new car. (Deseo, anhelo) b. I wish to buy a new car: FULL INFINITIVE. (Quiero comprar...) c. Cuando el sujeto es otro: I wish you to buy a new car. d. ¡Ojalá!, deseo soñador: WISH + SIMPLE PAST TENSE (es subjuntivo): I wish he CAME. I wish you didn’t say that (…que no dijeras…). e. Me gustaría que…. – Deseo realizable: SUBJECT + WOULD + INFINITIVE: I wish you would come. f. (Lo que pudo ser y no fue) I WISH + PAST PERFECT: I wish I had met you before. I wish you hadn’t said that. g. I wish you a merry Christmas / a speedy recovery. h. I wish you wouldn’t say that. Implica un hábito particularmente desagradable. Page 4 of 7 Javier P – colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - Madrid ENGLISH DIFFICULTIES Grammar & vocabulary TO RISE, TO RAISE, TO ARISE, TO AROUSE To rise rose risen (1) (intransitivo) To raise raised raised (2) (transitivo) To arise arose arisen (3) (intransitivo) To arouse aroused aroused (4) (transitivo) (1)(2). Generalmente, el intransitivo es más antiguo e irregular que el transitivo (cuando aparece una pareja de verbos de este tipo, aunque no siempre). There is a rise in the price, the prices rise. Somebody raises the prices. He was sitting and rose (an early-raiser = madrugador). I raise my glass (to toast, to drink a toast). The sun rises. To raise the eyebrows: to show disdain or surprise. To raise money (to get money). To raise a laugh / smile: to amuse people enough to make them laugh / smile. To raise animals (to breed animals) (3). Surgir, presentarse, originar, aparecer, hacerse evidente. Subject: problem, question, difficulty… A new difficulty has arisen. Use this money when the need arises. A storm arose during the night. (4). Somebody (from something). Sacar a alguien de un pensamiento, de un ensimismamiento. The noise aroused me. TO LIE, TO LIE, TO LAY To lie lied lied(1) - (lying) mentir (a liar un embustero) To lie lay ain (2) intransitivo To lay laid laid (3) transitivo (2) (3). To lie es intransitivo e irregular. De su forma de pasado se forma otro verbo, to lay, transitivo y meos irregular. The town lies near the river. Here lies somebody. The maid laid the table yesterday. I lay it everyday. A bricklayer is the worker who lays bricks. A hen lays eggs. (Fresh-laid eggs, newly-laid eggs) TO FALL, TO FELL To fall fell fallen (1) intransitivo To fell felled felled (2) transitivo (1). Caer. De su forma de pasado se forma otro verbo, transitivo y regular: to fell. (2). Talar, echar abajo un árbol; derribar a alguien de un soplido: He felled his enemy with a single blow. Son los llamados Verbos Pretérito Presentes: Formados del pasado de otro verbo anterior. Por ejemplo, wrought (wrought iron, hierro forjado), es la forma antigua del verbo trabajar. Page 5 of 7 Javier P – colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - Madrid ENGLISH DIFFICULTIES Grammar & vocabulary MAY / MIGHT May: - permission: May I come in? Yes, you may. - likelihood: probability: It may rain all day. Might: likelihood in a lesser degree than may: It might stop raining the evening. MUST / TO HAVE TO a. Presente. -En primera persona: MUST: feeling of obligation: I must help the poor. HAVE TO: express external obligation one admits. -En segunda persona: YOU MUST GO = I want you to go. Soy yo el que quiere que te vayas. YOU HAVE TO GO: Te has de ir pero no porque yo lo quiera: you have to take off your shoes when you enter a mosque. -Negativo: MUSTN’T: express prohibition. Negative imperative: Don’t… YOU DON’T HAVE TO = YOU NEEDN’T b. Pasado. No se puede usar must. I had to: tuve que. I should have phone: no llamé aunque debía. I shouldn’t have come: no debería haber venido. c. Deducciones: -Presente: He must be here because his coat is on the chair. -Pasado: -It must habe been raining. –It must have rained. -Pasado negativo: It can’t have rained. should = ought to (¡¡¡no en condicional!!!) SHOULD / NEEDN’T Should: -Obligation: You should finish before ten. -Advice: You should sleep more if you don’t feel tired. Needn’t: -Lack of obligation or necessity. Needn’t = don’t have. You needn’t get up early. There is no need (for me) to get up early. It’s not necessary (for me) to get up early. En la forma de pasado: Didn’t need to: (No lo hice porque no tenía necesidad). I didn’t need to ask any question as a I understood everything. I didn’t need arrive at ten because Emma was not at home. Needn’t have… -ed: (Lo hice al no darme cuenta de que no lo necesitaba). I needn’t have asked any question because all the explanations were at the bottom of the page. I needn’t have arrived at ten because Emma was not at home. CAN / CAN’T DO SOMETHING / CAN’T HAVE Can’t / can’t do something: - ability. Can’t have. Algo imposible tras una deducción lógica. No conlleva la idea de ability. He can’t have broken it because he was at home all day. Must – can’t have: He must have done it – He can’t have done it. Page 6 of 7 Javier P – colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - Madrid ENGLISH DIFFICULTIES Grammar & vocabulary ACABARSE - Idea de “agotarse” algo: OUT. Animals that died out many years ago: desaparecieron. “Sold out”: agotado (entradas, por ejemplo). - We can use a construction in which we mention the thing that is out: (intransitive): SOMETHING + TO GIVE OUT. Petrol gave out – Se agotó la gasolina. My patience gave out. - Construcción personal (transitivo): subject + TO RUN OUT + thing. I ran out of petrol. - THERE + TO BE + NO + thing + LEFT. There was no petrol left. (There was little petrol left). - Subject + TO HAVE + NO + thing + LEFT. I had no petrol left. - Subject + TO BE + OUT OF + thing. I was out of petrol. MAKE & DO Many languages have only one verb for do and make. These two verbs are found in a number of more or less fixed expressions: To make a difference haste a mistake (to wage war) (not to make war) love peace enquiries way a discovery a journey a trip fun of certain a choice an escape one’s way room for one’s apologies friends a face a complaint use of excuses money a confession welcome an offer fast a speech a date something clear To do wonders a service business trade justice of right a good job a favour a sum one’s best one’s worst duty work homework a kindness damage harm wrong an injury To do / to make good Page 7 of 7 repairs the bed Javier P – colegio NUESTRA SEÑORA DEL PILAR - Madrid PHRASAL VERBS 12- 3- 45- 67891011121314151617181920212223- 2425- 262728293031321 Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA TO BACK. The child backed away from the angry dog. At first he refused to comply with the court order, but backed down 1 when realized he could penalized heavily. When he took a snake out of his pocket, everybody backed away and stood watching it from a safe distance. He agreed to help us but backed out 2 when he found how difficult it was. The headmaster never backed up 3 his staff. If a parent complained about a master, he assumed that the master was in the wrong. The shops back on to 4 a railway station. It’s too late to back out now; I’m afraid we shall have to go through with it. If I protest against the decision , will you back me up? He backed out of the agreement because he knew the others would not abide by 5 it. She backed away nervously at the sight of the snake. The police were unwilling to believe her story, because she had no evidence to back it up. Their house backs on to Hyde Park. I see she has backed down from the position he took last week. I want you to back me up when I face my critics. The frightened horses backed away from the tiger. He always backs up his friends when they are in trouble. He wants to back out of the agreement 6 . He backed the car into / out of the garage. They have backed out of the bargain at the last minute. He is trying to back out of his bargain. Will you back me up when I tell the story to the police? You can’t back out of a contract once you’ve signed it. If you promised to help Sylvia with the organization of the conference, you can’t back out now. Wilmott’s statement could easily damage our reputation. We’ll have to get him to back down. 7 We could back up the lecture with video materials. TO BE. He doesn’t really love her, he’s only after her money. He is away from the office and won’t be back till Thursday. The manager is out for lunch. He’ll be back in one hour or so. We are all behind with our payments. 8 She has been down on him ever since he complained about her to the boss. 9 We’d better be back / off before it gets dark. The government is out to 10 curb 11 inflation. Adaptarse a una postura más flexible, “rajarse”. No cumplir lo prometido. 3 Respaldar. 4 Dar. 5 Atenerse a. 6 To back out the agreement --- To stand by a promise. 7 Ceder, “bajarse del burro”. 8 Estar atrasado en el pago. 9 Enfadado. 2 333435363738394041424344454647484950- 5152535455565758596061- 6263- 10 Page 1 of 12 The present heat wave is expected to be over soon. 12 I won’t put up with his bad temper any longer. We are through. I’ll join you as soon as I’m through with these letters. When she was younger, she was up to 13 walking ten miles a day. It’s not up to me to decide on these matters. These boys are always up to 14 mischief. We are out of 15 bred. Will you go and buy some? Don’t expect her to answer the door bell at nine o’clock on Sunday morning. She won’t be up. I was just about to have my dinner when the telephone rang. I’m out of money at the moment at the money, will you lend me a few pounds? After his illness he continued in office though he was no longer up to the work. The film we want to see isn’t on tonight. The party is off because of the rain. You may not believe it, but it is down here in black and white 16 . They’ll be away until March. Don’t trust him; he is up to some trick. If you think that the work is going to be easy you are in for 17 a shock. I’m afraid none of you are up to 18 doing this exercise. TO BREAK. It’s not always easy to break away with bad companies. These machines will break down if they are left without proper maintenance. His car broke down on the way home. She broke in as he was speaking. Burglars broke into 19 the museum and stole eight paintings. The college breaks up 20 in July. The workers broke off for lunch at twelve. A new epidemic of cholera has broken out. She broke off 21 the relationship with him. I’m going to break down 22 the door if you won’t let me in. At first he refused to admit his guilt but when he was shown the evidence he broke down and confessed. The First World War broke out in 1914. He broke down completely on hearing of his daughter’s death. To be decided to do something. Controlar, frenar. Time is up. 13 Able to do something. 14 Metido, tramando. 15 Acabarse. 16 Down here = Black and white. 17 Ir a encontrarse con. 18 Capaz de. 19 To break into is used with words of movement when the end of that movement is in the place you mention after into: He came into the room; he came in. It is also used figuratively: To break into the conversation; to break in; To break off: los que hablan, lo dejan de hacer. (frase 65). To break in: no place is mentioned: To break into tears, into song… (idioms). 20 Up porque es intransitivo. 21 Off porque es transitivo. 22 To break down = derribar con rotura (similar a to break in). 11 12 PHRASAL VERBS 6465666768697071727374757677787980- 81828384858687888990919293949596- 23 Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA He ran the business alone for years before his health broke down. They broke off their conversation when I came in. The three men who broke out off gaol yesterday were later captured. Mary has broken off her engagement to Charles. We lift broke down and we had to use the stairs. The meeting broke up at four. When the police questioned him he broke down and confessed. The firemen had to break down / in the door to rescue the children. He broke into the conversation to remind us it was getting late. The police used tear-gas to break up the demonstration. The prisoner managed to break away from his guards. I thought they were happy together. Why did break up? Burglars broke in and ransacked the house. She broke down at the news. As they boarded the bus, the boys broke into song. A few hecklers broke in as the minister was speaking. Unable to settle their differences, they decided to break off their engagement. TO BRING 23 . When are the publishers bringing out his new book? No one brought up the questions everyone most wanted to hear asked. These unpopular measures could bring the government down. I wish you’d stop bringing up this subject every time I see you. To the great relief of the accused, a verdict of “not guilty” was brought in. The coastguard patrol brought off the crew of the sinking ship. Living in such squalid conditions brings on all kinds of diseases. The committee has decided to bring forward the date of the conference to next May. What will the future bring forth? It was the Watergate affair that brought about the downfall of Richard Nixon. This old song brought up happy memories to her. He was very ill but good doctors brought him through. Mary was very well brought up; she had charming manners. He really is an extraordinary man. He has brought off the deal in spite of everything. They worked for three hours to bring him round / to after the accident. The food I had last night was so disgusting that I brought it up. To bring out: a/ publicar; b/ poner algo en marcha. To bring up: sacar un tema. To bring off: a/ poner a salvo; b/ sacar algo adelante. To bring about: causar (salvo enfermedad) To bring on: causar enfermedad. En muchos casos, to bring es el transitivo de to come. 979899100101102103104105- 106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125- 24 Page 2 of 12 The government has brought out new measures to combat inflation. That’s a good idea. Why not bring it up at the next meeting? I’ll lend you my new car provided you bring it back tomorrow. She brought up their children to be truthful. I was brought round to his point of view when I realized the truth of his arguments. Was brought the quarrel about? Those children are very badly brought up. Bring your friend round / along to see me whenever you like. I think she has brought up her children beautifully. TO CALL 24 . On my way home from work, I called at the butcher’s and bought some meat. When you are out, will you call at the Post Office and see if there are any letters for me? It used to be custom for residents to call on any newcomer to the district. Your plan will call for a lot of money. When I go to town this afternoon I’ll call for my new dress. I’ll call for you in my car and we’ll go to the cinema. I called in for a new moments to congratulate her on winning the lottery. Jack wasn’t called up until the year was nearly over. I called up Mr. Pitt and asked if he had any news. Don’t go off. Jeff’s calling by this evening. We called in 25 a specialist when he grew worse. Can you be ready at six? He is calling for us then to take us out. She called in for a few minutes to return a book. The representative of the firm called at all the factories in the district. The garden party was called off because of the rain. The situation is difficult and calls for great tact. He was called up at the age of eighteen and spent a year in the army. Mrs. Jones called up when you were out. She wants you to ring her back. The meeting was called off because of the flu epidemic. There is something wrong with the television set; we’d better call in a technician. To pay a very short visit: to call 1To call on + person: to call on somebody. 2To call at + place: not for relatives, friends… but for a very particular purpose: to call at somewhere. 3To call in: same meaning that 2. Where there is no complement, no object both person and place are understood. 4To call for: idea of collecting people so as they go they all together: I call for you. 5To call by: Implica mayor trascencencia , para acontecimientos más importantes: El jefe que nos visita en casa, familiares que vienen de lejos... To call by es como to call in , pero con mayor importancia intrínsica. Es decir, tampoco lleva complementos. 25 Hacer venir. PHRASAL VERBS 126127128129130- 131132- 133134- 135136137- 138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155- 15615726 Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA The candidate called on everyone in his constituency and asked for votes. This position calls for a person of absolute integrity. If it rains the tennis match will have to be called off. Congratulations! This good news calls for a celebration. The chairman called on the guest speaker to address the gathering. TO CLEAR. I’ll clear out 26 this drawer and you can put your things in it. In a great many detective stories the police are baffled but an amateur detective comes along and clears up the mystery. Could you clear away these papers? “You clear off!”, said the farmer angrily. “You have no right to put your caravans in my field without even asking permission”. The clouds soon cleared away and it became quite warm. The sky looks a bit cloudy but now I think it will clear up. When you are cooking it is best to clear up as you go instead of leaving everything to the end and having a terrible pile of things to deal with. Clear up with this mess. I have some letters which I must clear up before I leave tonight. We don’t give money to beggars. Clear off! All these hospital expenses have cleared me out. 27 The police are after you. You’d better clear out / off. Clear out your desk before you leave the office. Who is going to clear up the mess? The sky is clearing up. When we had finished eating, the waitress cleared away the dirty plates. Before we go any further, I’d like to clear up this matter once and for all 28 . He had accumulated so many debts that he could not clear them off. 29 This mist will have cleared away by the time we got there. You’d better clear off before my father arrives. She cleared out one of the cupboards to let her room-mate use it. She spent all morning clearing up the children’s playroom. If you intend to clear off 30 this old stock you’ll have to sell it cheaply. It’s rather cloudy now, but it may clear up later in the day. He was cleared out of the pub for causing a disturbance. TO COME 31 . While looking thorough the books he came across an old and valuable map. We never discovered how the accident came about. 32 To empty. “Limpiar”. De una vez por todas. 29 To clear off a debt: saldar una deuda. 30 Liquidar, sacarse de encima. 31 To come es el intransitivo, en muchos casos, de to bring. 27 28 158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174- 175176177178179180- 18118218318432 Page 3 of 12 The handle of the tea-pot came off in my hand as I was washing it. The question of finance keeps coming up 33 at every meeting of the board. He came into 34 a large sum of money when his uncle died. Her husband went away and never came back. He came up 35 with some good suggestions to improve working conditions at the factory. Winter came on 36 rather late this year. The sun came out 37 in the early afternoon. The film didn’t come up to 38 our expectations. Panic came over 39 the passengers of the sinking ship. His attempt to persuade the manager to give him a pay did not come off 40 . The man came at 41 me with a big knife. She came up with a long story to explain why she did not turn up for work. Their secret is bound to come out sooner or later. What’s come over you that you behave so irrationally? His work doesn’t come up to the required standard. Her father at first refused to let her go, but he came round 42 in the end and said she could. This new dress of mine is ruined; the mark made by the coffee you spilt on it won’t come out 43 . I’m waiting till prices come down before buying my new carpet. He came round to my way of thinking after a good deal of argument. 44 If my scheme had come off 45 I should have made a profit of a thousand pounds. She saw me across the room, she came up to me and said that someone wanted to see me. 46 Those rust marks will come out if you rub them with lemon. It was some time before he came round / to after being knocked out. 47 TO CUT. If you cut down 48 all the trees you will ruin the land. They have cut off 49 the water temporally because they are repairing one of the main pipers. Young people often cut out photographs or their favourite film stars and pin them on the walls. She is cut out to be a lawyer 50 . To happen. Surgir, aparecer. 34 Hacerse con. 35 “Sacarse de la manga”. ( como la 169). 36 Empezar. 37 To set: ponerse. 38 Defraudar expectativas. 39 Hacer presa, apoderarse. 40 Salir. 41 Lanzarse. 42 Ceder, dejarse convencer. 43 Salir. 44 Dejarse convencer en el sentido de. 45 Intransitivo de to bring off. 46 To come up to somebody: Acercarse a alguien para hablarle, o para alguna otra cosa. 47 Volver en sí (intransitivo de to bring round / to). 48 To cut down a tree = to fell (cortar, talar) 49 Cortar el sumunistro. 50 To be cut out to be: haber nacido para (ver también la frase 190) 33 PHRASAL VERBS 185186187188189190- 191- 192193194195196197198199200201202203204205- 206207208209210211- Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA We were cut off by the tide and had to be rescued by boat 51 . Accidents are often caused by drivers cutting it 52 . We were cut off in the middle of our conversation 53 . The company has cut off our electricity supply because we haven’t paid our bill. She was cut up by the news 54 . His father got him a job in a bank but it became clear that he was not cut out for that kind of work 55 . You’ll be completely cut off if you go to live in that village because there’s a bus only once a week. We must cut down / on expenses or we’ll be getting into debt 56 . They cut down the tree and cut it up for firework. He cut down the old tree. He cut in during her speech 57 . The gardener cut away the old branches from the old trees 58 . If you intend to have your book published you’ll have to cut out all the rude words 59 . They have threatened to cut off the heads of the hostages if the ransom is not paid promptly. William and Elisabeth seem to be cut out for each other. He was very annoyed when he was cut off in the middle of his phone call. 60 Though his health was rapidly deteriorating he could not cut out drinking. The mother cut up the cake and gave the children a piece each 61 . You must cut down / on rich food if you want to lose weight. Will you please stop cutting in while I’m talking? If prices continue to go up at this rate, we’ll have to cut down / back our expenses. TO DO. Most countries in Europe have done away with capital punishment 62 . The salesman did her down 63 over the price of her coat. The country was done for 64 after the earthquake. He is always doing down 65 his colleagues in public. “Do as you would be done by”. It’s about time these old-fashioned customs were done away with. 212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239- 51 66 52 67 To be cut off = to be isolated. Cruzarse, meterse por medio. 53 (En pasiva): ser interrumpido. 54 Hacer polvo, trizas a alguien. 55 To be cut out for something (distinta construcción al 184). 56 Reducir. 57 Meterse. 58 To prune: podar; to graft: injertar. 59 Suprimir. 60 Cortar el sumunistro. 61 To choke: atragantarse. 62 Abolir. 63 To did down = to swindle (timar) 64 Estar acabado. 65 Poner verde (to run down es similar) 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Page 4 of 12 The landlord did up 66 all the rooms in the house before letting them out. Children can’t do without 67 the help of their parents. The shopkeeper did me out of 50 pence. The housewife felt done in 68 after the morning’s work. The criminals did away with the witness who gave evidence against them. He’s the kind of man who would do his own mother down. 69 She is not the first girl to be done in 70 by this murderer. Could you do my dress up 71 at the back, please? The presents were done up 72 in lovely green paper. He said he could do with 73 a new pair of shoes. I have nothing whatever to do with this man. Surely the country can do without 74 fanatics like you. The girl at the counter will do up the books for you. That cupboard has not been done out for months. Your shirt can do with a good wash. It looks absolutely filthy. How much do you think it is going to cost us to do up the bathroom? Until we find a better place to live in we shall have to do with 75 this small flat. Don’t throw that old shirt away. I’ll cut it up and it will do for 76 cleaning rags. Do up your shoes or you’ll fall over the laces. My grandparents have done for themselves for 77 years. If the bank forecloses on the property , we’ll be done for. I’m hot and tired. I could do with a nice, cool drink. After all the frost I’m afraid our potatoes are done for. I could do with a cup of tea! TO FALL. My plans to go to Greece fell through 78 for lack of money. When the flour was finished the colonists had to fall back on potatoes. The two brothers fell out over 79 their father’s will. I hope you will fall in with my 80 proposals. Remozar. “Defenderse”. Agotada. (Como la 209; nota 65). Asesinar. Subir la cremallera. To wrap. Venir fenomenal. ¡Qué bien estaría sin …! Conformarse con. Servir para. Valerse por sí mismos. Fracasar. To fall out over: regañar sobre ( similar a to fall apart). PHRASAL VERBS 240241242243244- 245246247248249250251252253254255256257258- 259260- 261- 262- 263264265- 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA He troops fell in 81 and were inspected by their officers. I’m afraid there is no butter left; we’ll have to fall back on margarine. I never thought you would fall for 82 that old trick. She fell out with her family. I’d like Jones to have the job, but if he doesn’t accept we’ll have to fall back on a less experienced man. “When thieves fall out honest men get their own”. Paul was ill in hospital for ten weeks and so he fell behind with his school work. Don’t make any special arrangements for me. I’ll fall in with 83 what other people want. He fell behind with 84 his instalments on the car. I fell for 85 that girl the first time we met. There was no fence around the pool and a number of children fell in. He fell in with my views and agreed to cooperate. The walls of the old house have fallen in. At the end of term attendance at these classes usually falls off. The bandits fell on / upon 86 the convoy at sunset. There only two of us on this desert land. We mustn’t fall out. As the enemy troops advanced we fell back 87 . Everything fell out 88 just as we had anticipated. It isn’t a successful group. They don’t get on with one another and fall out over the slightest thing. Mary made a good effort in the test but fell down on the last question. He fell to wondering what to do with himself 89 . TO GET. He leaves his car at a parking meter for over two hours and always gets away with 90 it. When I do that, I am fined. He promised to act as chairman, so I’m afraid he can’t get out of 91 it now. There is no one else to do it. They didn’t want the news of their engagement to get out / about 92 till it was officially announced. You must really get down to 93 some serious work. The office closes early on Friday and we get off / away at five o’clock instead of six. To agree to or to show support for sb / sth. To fall out. “Caer”. Aceptar. Retrasarse. (como la 242, nota 82) Atacar. Retroceder. Suceder. To fall to + … ing: ponerse a hacer algo reflexívamente. “Irse de rositas”, sin ser siquiera encausado. Zafarse, volverse atrás. Divulgarse. Ya es hora de ponerse a. Page 5 of 12 266- Some people live abroad to get out of 94 paying heavy taxes. 267- We usually get up 95 a play among ourselves at the end of the term. 268- I see no way of getting round 96 the problem. 269- He says that his lack of success is beginning to get him down 97 . 270- She talks so much that it is difficult to get away from her. 271- She put the book in a place where the child couldn’t get at it. 272- He began forging cheques and at first he got away with it but in the end he was caught and sent to prison. 273- I hooked an enormous a fish but it got away. 274- Has your mother got over her illness? 275- He is a semi-invalid now and can’t get about 98 as well as he used to. 276- I don’t think I shall get through 99 all this work this afternoon. 277- The prisoner got away from the prison by climbing a ten foot wall. 278- She is so upset at her husband’s death that I don’t think she’ll ever get over the shock. 279- Girls can usually get round 100 their fathers. 280- She is a friendly girl who gets on with 101 every one she meets. 281- It must be getting on for 102 ten o’clock. 282- The police knew that he had committed the crime but he got off 103 as there was not enough evidence against him. 283- Tom hasn’t been working; he won’t get through 104 his examinations. 284- It took her a long time to get over the death of her husband. 285- I tried to ring her up but I couldn’t get through 105 ; I think some of the lines are down after last night storm. TO GIVE 286- Don’t give these shoes away 106 ; there is a lot of wear in them still. 287- Polo is too expensive; I’ll have to give it up 107 . 288- He gave back all the books he had borrowed. 289- After four days of freedom the escaped prisoner gave himself up 108 to the police. 290- He didn’t want to go to the cinema but they begged so hard that he gave in 109 and went with them. 291- Your secret is safe with me. I won’t give you up 110 . 94 Librarse. Organizar, montar. 96 Soslayar. 97 Derrumbarse, deprimirse. 98 Moverse de un lado a otro. 99 Acabar con. 100 Camelar. 101 Llevarse bien. 102 Deben ser ya (muy idiomático). 103 “Irse de rositas”, pero tras ser encausado, no como en to get away with. 104 To pass, aprobar. 105 Conseguir hablar por teléfono. 106 Regalar, major que tirar, para que alguien lo aproveche. 107 To stop an activity. 108 Entregarse. 109 Ceder. 110 To betray. 95 PHRASAL VERBS Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA 292- The diver’s supply of oxygen gave out 111 and he had to be brought to the surface as quickly as possible. 293- After his fourth attempt he gave up trying to pass the examination. 294- The names of the winners were given out 112 on the wireless. 295- If you want to save money, give up eating in expensive restaurants. 296- There was a man giving out leaflets outside the church 113 . 297- Oil refineries give off a lot of fumes. 298- If cigarettes get any dearer, I shall have to give up smoking 114 . 299- I tried three times to start the car and then gave it up and went by bus. 300- If I gave up alcohol I’d be much healthier but life wouldn’t be so much fun. 301- The minister himself gave away 115 the prizes. 302- I must call at the library to give back this book. 303- My patience is beginning to give out. 304- The newscaster gave out the news of the air disaster in a grave voice. 305- He said that he was not an American but his accent gave him away. 306- He gave up 116 his seat on the train to an elderly man. 307- I’m tired of being chased by the police; I’m going to give myself up. 308- Steam engines give off a lot of smoke. 309- The President refused to give up the documents on grounds of national security. 310- At first he wouldn’t let her drive the car but she was so persuasive that he eventually gave in. TO GO 311- The cat went for the dog and chased him out of the hall. 312- We shall have to go into 117 this very carefully, said the detective. 313- I said that I’d go round 118 and see her during the weekend. 314- No one knows what I went through 119 while I was waiting for the verdict. 315- He went through with his plan although all his friends advised him to abandon it. 316- The price of strawberries went up towards the end of the season. 317- When the fire reached the ammunition store the whole ship went up 120 . 318- Someone dropped a cigarette end into a can of petrol and the whole garage went up 121 in flames. 319- I had to wait for permission from the Town Council before I could go on / ahead with plans. 320- The bull went for the dog and tossed him over the wall. 321- He had a sandwich and a cup of tea, then went on working till ten. 322- I went into / over the proposal very carefully with my solicitor and finally decided not to accept their offer. 323- The gun went off 122 by accident and wounded him in the leg. 324- Long skirts went out 123 years ago. 325- She went in for 124 a beauty contest but she only got a consolation prize. 326- The price of the fruit usually goes down in summer in England. 327- If there isn’t enough soup to go round 125 just put some hot water in it. 328- The early colonist went through many hardships. 329- You can’t go back on 126 your promise now; we are depending on you. 330- I have changed my mind about marrying him; I simply can’t go through with 127 it. 331- The aeroplane crashed and went up in flames. 332- I refuse to go back now. I’m going on. 333- They have gone over / through all the calculations again but they still can’t find the mistake. 334- Don’t go without 128 food. If you want to economize, why not smoke les? 335- The sea has gone down considerably since last night’s gale. TO HAND 336- This legend has been handed down from father to son. 337- The minister handed in his letter of resignation to the Cabinet. 338- Someone handed in this parcel this morning. 339- He was standing at the door of the theatre handing out leaflets. 340- The outgoing Minister handed over his department to his successor. 341- The hostess handed round coffee and cakes. 342- We cannot always observe the traditions handed down to us from the past. 343- Please hand on the magazine to the others. 344- Please remember to hand back the cassettes you’ve borrowed from me. I need them for tomorrow. 345- I would advise you to hand in your application as early as possible. 346- There was a young man in the street handing out leaflets to passers-by. 347- The Brazilian police refused to hand over the fugitive to the British authorities. 348- The retiring Premier will hand over charge of his office on January 18th. 349- These customs have been handed down from generation to generation. 350- When the customs officer asked to see my passport I handed it in to him. 351- Over a thousand copies of the sales brochure have been handed out. 352- As soon as I’ve finished marking your papers I’ll hand them back to you. 353- He handed his wife out of the carriage. 354- The child was handing round the nuts. 111 Acabarse. To be given out: ser difundido. 113 To distribute. Outside the church: a la puerta de la iglesia. 114 To give up es más definitivo que to lay off, que supone un abandono transitorio. 115 Entregar, por ejemplo, premios. 116 Ceder el asiento (es una frase hecha). 117 Estudiar algo muy atentamente. 118 Darse una vuelta. 119 Padecer, pasar calamidades. 120 Estallar. 121 Inflamarse, incendiarse. Page 6 of 12 112 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 Dispararse un arma. Pasarse de moda. Participar, tomar parte Para dar a todos. Echarse para atrás. Llegar hasta el final. Prescindir de, pasar sin. PHRASAL VERBS Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA 355- The industrial spy handed over the confidential papers. TO HOLD 356- The bus was held up 129 because a tree had fallen across the road. 357- The matter was held over 130 until the next meeting. 358- The rain held off 131 till after the tennis party. 359- They don’t hold with 132 playing football on Sundays. 360- His cold manner holds people off 133 . 361- How long can we hold out 134 against these determined attacks? 362- Yes, Mr. Pitt is in. If you hold on for a moment I‘ll get him for you. 363- The bandits held up 135 the train and robbed the passengers. 364- The doctor held out little hope of her recovery. 365- We held off 136 the enemy until reinforcements reached us. 366- She’s used to holding in 137 her feelings. 367- He held out his hands to me. 368- We’ve been held up 138 by fog. 369- The enemy besieged the town but we held out for six months. 370- The survivors on the rock signalled that they were short of water but could hold out for another day. 371- I think we ought to hold to 139 our original plan. 372- Masked men held up the cashier and robbed the bank. 373- The boy held on to 140 the bush until someone was lowered down the side of the cliff to rescue him. 374- The coach was held up by bandits. 375- She was so upset about it that she could not hold back her tears. 376- How long will our food supplies hold out? 377- You must learn to hold in 141 your bad temper. 378- The Catholic Church does not hold with 142 divorce. 379- The decision to close down the factory has been held over 143 until April. 380- He wanted to sell that plot of land, but I persuaded him to hold on to. TO KEEP 381- The teacher kept Elizabeth in 144 yesterday for being late. 382- I wanted to explain but he kept on 145 talking and didn’t give me a chance to say anything. 383- I can’t keep him from 146 making a fool of himself. 384- It’s difficult to keep up a conversation with someone who only says “Yes” and “No”. 385- As nobody admitted breaking the window, the whole class was kept in after school. 386- Keep your hands from picking and stealing. 387- He was kept back 147 in his research by lack of money. 388- There were so many panes of glass broken that the windows could not keep out the rain. 389- You must keep from scratching your nose. 390- He began walking at six miles an hour but he could not keep up that speed and soon began to walk more slowly. 391- He wanted to talk to me but I kept on working and refused to listen. 392- It’s impossible to keep up with the news unless you read the newspapers. 393- She’s a good secretary but she is kept back by her ignorance of languages. 394- The conquered peoples were kept down by cruel, restrictive laws. 395- He kept away from his friends for several months. 396- We were certain she was keeping something back 148 from us, but we didn’t know exactly what. 397- These old windows do not keep out the draught. 398- My legs are too short; I can’t keep up with you if you walk so fast. 399- The country was only kept down by repressive measures. 400- I told the children to keep out of the room that was being painted 149 . 401- The teacher kept in all the boys who had come to school late. 402- Don’t walk so fast; I can’t keep up with you. 403- You’d better keep away from that girl, or you’ll get yourself into trouble. 404- He’s not the kind of person who keeps to 150 his promises. 405- They are finding it difficult to keep up 151 such a large house. TO LAY 406- They laid down 152 the heavy box quietly. 407- If only you’d lay off 153 smoking for a while, I’m sure you’d feel much better. 408- We are lying on 154 a party for Jane’s birthday. 409- The soldiers laid down their arms. 410- The factory has laid off 155 some two hundred workers during the last three months. 411- The bank has laid down 156 certain conditions on which the loan may be granted. 412- This was a cause which they believed was just, and for which they were prepared to lay down their lives. 129 Detener, no dejar seguir. Aplazar (transitivo). 131 Aguantó sin llover. 132 Mirar con buenos ojos. 133 Mantener a distancia, casi repeler. 134 Aguantar. 135 Parar, as altar. A hold-up: un atraco. 136 Mantener a distancia. To hold out an attack. 137 No dejar traslucir. 138 Detener. 139 Aferrarse. 140 On implica continuidad; to, porque se aferra a él. 141 Mantener para uno, sin exteriorizar. 142 Mirar con buenos ojos. 143 Retrasar. 144 Dejar castigado (transitivo). 145 Seguir machaconamente, lo que le diferencia de to go on, que carece de ese matiz.. Page 7 of 12 130 146 To keep sb from doing sth: to prevent sb from … (Tiene la misma construcción que to stop o to deter. 147 No poder continuar. 148 Algo que no se cuenta. 149 Away from = muy lejos. 150 To keep to one’s word. 151 Mantener. 152 To put down. 153 To stop doing sth only for a certain time. Organizar. 155 (To make redundant, to dismiss); consecuencia. 156 To lay down conditions, rules…. (IMPORTANTE PHRASAL VERB) 154 PHRASAL VERBS Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA 413- We laid in 157 a large supply of sugar before it went up in price. 414- We had to lay out 158 every penny we had saved in that house. 415- He received a blow on his chin, which laid him out 159 . 416- He was laid up 160 for two months with a broken leg. 417- The government is lying out large sums of money on its development programmes. 418- She laid in a good stock of rice in case of a shortage. 419- They laid up large supplies of coal for the severe winter ahead. 420- We’ll move into our new cottage as soon as gas and electricity have been laid on. 421- There is still one more coat of paint to be laid on. 422- The gardener laid on 161 the flower-beds very neatly. 423- I wish you’d lay off drink for a little while. 424- You just can’t lay down hard and fast rules. 425- He laid down / aside his book and listened to what I had to tell him. 426- Because she expected a shortage of dried fruits she laid in a large supply. 427- When petrol rationing started many people laid up their cars. 428- She was laid up for weeks with a broken leg. 429- The horse laid back its ears. 430- She laid herself out to make her guests comfortable. TO LET 431- When she lets her hair down 162 it reaches her waist. 432- You can let a coat down 163 by using the hem. 433- I promised him that you’d work well. Why did you let me down 164 by doing so little? 434- He said he’d come to help me; but he let me down . He never turned up. 435- If you mention my name to the door-keeper he’ll let you in. 436- They let in 165 the ticket-holders. 437- I thought that the magistrate was going to fine me, but he let me off 166 . 438- That boy was getting fatter. You’ll have to let out his clothes. 439- He opened the door and let in / out the dog. 440- Don’t let the dogs in / out or they’ll make the carpet dirty. 441- Children love letting off fireworks. 442- Mary let out 167 a cry when John stepped on her toe. 443- If you behave like that you are letting yourself in 168 for a trouble. 444- The police blocked the road and let nobody through. 445- Please let me off. I promised not to do it again. 446- John is getting so fat that Mary has to let out all his trousers. 447- He promised to deliver the stuff today and he has let down again. 448- As it was his first offence the magistrate let him off with a fine. 449- Have you let the coat out / down? 450- Ann put on 169 two inches round her waist and had to let her dress out. 451- My shoes let in 170 water. 452- The rain seems to have let up 171 for a bit. 453- I trusted him to pay me back but he let me down. 454- Open the door and let me in / out. 455- The exile tried to return to his own country but the authorities wouldn’t let him back. 456- Please don’t let on I told you this. 457- Please let me in on the secret. 458- They agreed to let him into the secret. TO LOOK 459- Who looked after the children while you were away? 460- Don’t look back / around now, but the woman behind us is wearing the most extraordinary hat. 461- I am looking forward to seeing 172 her. 462- People like to look back on the good old days. 463- If you don’t know her number, look it up in the directory. 464- I have lost my watch. Will you help me to look for? 465- Everyone has his own way of looking at 173 things. 466- Look out for me at the station. I’ll be at the information desk. 467- These children look on 174 their teachers as their enemies. 468- Look over 175 what you have written before handing it to the examiner. 469- Two men were fighting. The rest were looking on. 470- Look out! There’s a banana skin on the pavement 176 . 471- Please look me up when you came to Oxford. 472- Look through 177 these photographs and try to pick out the man you saw. 473- If you don’t understand a word, look it up (in the dictionary). 474- Being the second child of three, he tends to look up to his elder brother and down on his younger sister. 475- He looked through the book and decided that he wouldn’t like it. 476- Have you seen my dictionary? I’ve looked everywhere for it. 477- Are you looking forward to your holidays? 478- That looks a nice house. Shall we look over it if it is for sale? 479- He’s hardly the right person to look to for advice. 480- She didn’t even look up from her book when I came to the room. 157 To lay in: comprar, adquirir, acumular. To lay up: ahorrar, reservar para más tarde. 158 To spend, gastar, dedicar. 159 Dejar K.O. 160 Estar de baja. 161 Ordenar útil y funcionalmente. 162 Soltarse el pelo. 163 Alargar (the hem: el dobladillo). 164 Dejar en la estacada. 165 Dejar entrar. 166 No castigar o hacerlo muy levemente. 167 Soltar un alarido. 168 To let oneself in for a trouble: complicarse la vida. Page 8 of 12 169 Engordar. “Calar”. 171 Escampar, it has ceased to rain, it has stopped raining, the rain has let up. 172 ¡Atención! To look forward to + ...ing. 173 Forma de ver las cosas. 174 Considerar. 175 Repasar. 176 Paviment (UK),; sidewalk (USA). 177 Mirar una tras otra. 170 PHRASAL VERBS Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA 481- She looks up to / down on people with plenty of money. 482- When you walk through that field you must look out for snakes. 483- We must look at the question from all sides. 484- A working party has been set up to look into 178 the problem. 485- His disappearance is being looked into by the police. TO MAKE 486- The escaped prisoner was making for 179 the coast. 487- The boys made off 180 when they saw the police. 488- We still need two men to make up 181 the team. 489- Men don’t like girls who make up 182 too much. 490- Please make out 183 the bill and I’ll pay it immediately. 491- You’ll have to work specially hard to make up for 184 the days you were sick. 492- It’s an interesting old document but there are lot of words I can’t make out 185 . 493- He broke into the house and made off with all the silver. 494- Make up your mind. We can’t wait here all day. 495- Look! There he’s making up 186 to her again. He’s wasting his time. 496- The enemy patrol made off without firing a shot. 497- He made his fortune over 187 to his son before he died. 498- I can’t make out the address, he has written it so badly. 499- Can you hear what the man with the loudspeaker is saying? I can’t make it out at all. 500- I cannot make out why he isn’t here yet. 501- He made out 188 that he was a shipwrecked sailor. We later learnt that this wasn’t true at all. 502- Actors have to make up before they appear on the stage. 503- The English climate isn’t so bad as so many Spaniards make out 189 . 504- Make out the cheque to ones and Company. 505- Isn’t it time you and Anne made up your quarrel. 190 506- I don’t believe your story at all. I think you are just making it up 191 . 507- The audience was made up of very young children. 508- You’ll have to work very hard today to make up for being late yesterday. 509- Most women make up their faces. 510- In the end he made up his mind to go by train. TO PULL i 511- She pulled her stockings on / off. 512- I’m going to the dentist to have a bad tooth pulled out. 513- An attack of influenza soon pulls you down. 514- You will have to pull in your expenses if you want to escape bankruptcy. 515- The boat pulled in to the shore. 516- The train pulled out of the station. 517- The driver of the car pulled out from behind the lorry. 518- The boat pulled out into midstream. 519- You’ll soon pull round here in the country. 520- Have this brandy, it will pull you round. 521- The driver pulled up when the traffic lights changed. 522- The favourite soon pulled up with the other horses. 523- He pulled up his car at the gate. 524- He was pulled up by the chairman. 525- Much to our surprise he pulled off the deal. 526- He’s very ill but he’ll pull through if we look after him very carefully. 527- We thought that he was going to die but penicillin pulled him through. 528- A lay-bay is a space at the side of a main road, where drivers can pull up if they want a rest. 529- Everywhere elegant old buildings are being pulled down and mediocre new erections are being put up. 530- The express from Rome pulled in on time. 531- The new play at the National Theatre is pulling in large audiences. 532- Troops are pulling out of these troubled areas. 533- The lorry driver pulled in to the side of the road. 534- Pull over and let me pass! 535- Old Mr. Brown’s condition looks very serious and it’s very doubtful if he will pull through. TO PUT 536- I’ll put Mr. Pitt up 192 when he comes to London for the conference. 537- The small boy picked up a knife. “Put that down”, said his mother 193 . 538- When summertime begins people in England put their clocks on / forward an hour. When summer time ends they put them back an hour. 539- Don’t spend all your salary. Try to put something by each month 194 . 540- Put your toys away, children, it’s bed time. 541- When you have finished with the book, put it back to the shelf. 542- He picked up the saucepan and put it down at once because the handle was almost red-hot. 543- His troops put down 195 the rebellion. 544- Put down his phone number before you forget it. 196 545- She hasn’t been well since she came to this country. I put it down to 197 the climate. 546- Ships going to Australia usually put in 198 here. 547- He put in a claim for compensation because he had lost his luggage in the train crash. 548- She put forward 199 her suggestion at the general meeting. 178 To look into sth: investigate or examine sth. Mirar a fondo, con minuciosidad. 179 Dirigirse a. (¡Atención! No confundir con to address to). 180 Salir corriendo. 181 Formar. 182 Maquillarse. 183 Extender, rellenar. 184 Compensar, recuperar. 185 Comprender. 186 Hacer la pelota o carantoñas a alguien.. 187 Donar. 188 To make out: elaborar toda una historia. 189 Creer. 190 To make up a quarrel: hacer las paces. 191 No es como la frase 501 (nota 188) porque el complemento es it. Page 9 of 12 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 Alojar. To lay sth down implica poner con más cuidado. To put aside es para muy poca cantidad. Sofocar. Put down = take down = get down = write down. Achacar a. Atracar. Presentar un tema a debate. PHRASAL VERBS Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA 549- Some people put off 200 making their wills till it’s too late. 550- I wanted to see the film but the queue put me off 201 . 551- He put on an air of indifference, which didn’t deceive anybody. 552- She put on her black coat and left the room. 553- She put up 202 a shed in the garden to keep tools in. 554- Remember to put out all the lights before you go out. 555- Put the electric fire on, please. I’m feeling a bit cold. 556- He was very much put out 203 by her rude remarks. 557- Take off that dirty shirt and put on a clean one. 558- The committee has put forward a series of proposals for settling the dispute. 559- Ask the driver to put you down at the Albert Hall. 560- A man like that one deserves to be put away for life. TO RUN 561- He ran away from home and got a job as a cabin boy. 562- The thief ran away and the policemen ran after him. 563- Do you like this dress? I ran it up 204 myself in the afternoon. 564- He has run through 205 all the money his father gave him. 565- He’s inclined to let his enthusiasm run away with 206 him. 566- He has already run through the money his father left him two years ago. 567- Now he’s running up 207 bills all over the town. 568- I can’t start the car; the battery has run down. 569- That blouse is easy to make, you can ran it up in two hours. 570- Reformers usually run up against 208 opposition from all kinds of people. 571- Don’t run away with 209 the idea that Scotsmen are mean. They just don’t like wasting money. 572- She’s always running down 210 her friends behind their back. She soon won’t any friends left. 573- I ran into 211 an old school friend in the tube yesterday. 574- My neighbour is always running out of bread and borrowing some from me. 575- You are looking rather run down 212 ; I think you need a holiday. 576- My car skidded 213 and ran into a wall. 577- A hen ran in front of my car and I’m afraid I ran over it. 578- She’s run down after working for three years without a break. 579- The village is so small that we are always running into our friends. 580- He runs down his own garden but he likes other people to praise it. 581- It’s the first time that he’s run up against any opposition. 582- He ran out of milk on Sunday and I had to get some from the milk machine. 583- He doesn’t think much of contemporary authors; he is always running down their work. 584- He insisted on riding a young excitable horse which ran away with 214 him ant threw him into a ditch. 585- He hated the boarding school and ran away from it turning up two days later at his own home. TO SET 586- They set out / off at nine and arrived at twelve. 587- I wish I had my own money to set up on my own. 588- When thaw set in 215 we were able to leave the hut. 589- The bus set her down at the station. 590- A man travelling to Cambridge was set upon by thieves. 591- She set about 216 finding a horse. 592- John Keats, the poet, set ou 217 t to be a doctor but gave it up to devote his life to poetry. 593- Several records were set up 218 at the last Olympics. 594- The car must have set him back 219 at least £2,000. 595- The party set out 220 t its policy in a twenty-four page manifesto. 596- The medicine set up an ache in his back. 597- We must get the roof mended before the wet weather sets in. 598- The goods were neatly set out 221 on the stalls. 599- You need capital before you can set up on your own any kind of business. 600- The verdict of the jury was set aside 222 and the death sentence commuted. 601- He set down 223 what they had said. 602- The article sets out 224 to prove that smoking is the main cause of lung cancer. 603- Winter has already set in. 604- They set out / off at rise and reached their destination before dark 225 . 605- He set his paper aside and listened to what she had to say. 606- The instructions were set down in black and white 226 . 214 Zarandear, llevarse por delante. Thaw: deshielo. (We were able to no es lo mismo que we could!). 216 To set about + …ing: ponerse a algo importante (to begin to, lo mismo, pero a algo no importante). 217 Empezó. 218 To set up a record: establecer… 219 Costarle, “le han sacado” (muy coloquial). 220 Dar a conocer, publicar. 221 Colocar con orden, ordenar. 222 Revocar, to revoke. 223 To write down, to take down, to put down. 224 Tener como intención. 225 Dawn (primer albor en la mañana), daybreak, sunrise (aparece el sol). Sunset (puesta de sol), twilight (crepúsculo), dusk (ya anochecido). The dead of night, la hora en que ya no hay nada por la noche. 215 200 To postpone. Disuadir. 202 Instalar. 203 Quedarse enfadado. 204 To run clothes up: hacerse la ropa. 205 Derrochar. 206 Llevarse por delante. 207 To run up bills: dar cheques, dejar impagados. 208 To run up against opposition: tener oposición y luchar contra ella. 209 Hacerse a la idea, ocurrirsele, pensar. 210 Poner verde, criticar. 211 To come across. 212 To look run down: parecer agotado. 213 Derrapó. 201 Page 10 of 12 PHRASAL VERBS Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA 633- Unless you stand over 241 him he will make a mess of the job. 634- His father blamed him, but his mother stood up for 242 him and said that he had acted sensibly. 635- The pupils stood up when the headmaster entered the classroom. TO TAKE 636- Did you take in 243 what the man said? I didn’t. 637- He takes after 244 his mother, he has blue eyes and a fair hair too. 638- He took to going for a walk every night before he went to bed. 639- You’d better take off your coat if you’re too hot. 640- I took to 245 that girl the moment I saw her. 641- When his father died, Tom took over the business. 642- A child wouldn’t be taken in 246 by such an obvious lie. 643- The policeman took down the number of the stolen car. 644- The Joneses earn a bit of extra money by taking in 247 lodgers. 645- We were all taken aback 248 by the news of his resignation. 646- I wish you’d sell that double bed; it takes up 249 too much space. 647- I took her for her sister; they are very much alike. 648- He always takes out his false teeth before he goes to bed. 649- He needs more exercise; he should take up tennis. 650- Robin Hood took to 250 the woods when he was made an outlaw. 651- I think you have enough to do as it is. Don’t take on 251 any more work. 652- That new factory is doing very well; the manager has just taken on 252 fifty new workers. 653- Men take off their hats when they came into a house. 654- I take back 253 what I said yesterday, and I hope you will accept my apologize. 655- The shirt which you sold me is too small. Will you take it back 254 ? 656- In the reading rooms, books are not to be taken away. 657- The comedian took off 255 several well-known politicians during his act. 607- He doesn’t have the slightest idea of how to set about the job. 608- I think the rain has set in for the day. 609- Her black hair was set off 227 by the red dress she was wearing. 610- You must look at his objectively and set aside your personal feelings. TO STAND 611- She’s so pretty that she stands out 228 in any company. 612- We can’t stand aside and let him do all by himself. 613- Although John has quite a strong personality, his wife often stands up to 229 him. 614- The soldiers were ordered to stand by 230 to attack the enemy. 615- I could not stand by 231 and watch my neighbour beat his dog. 616- Sheila made a date with the boy she met at the party but he stood her up 232 . 617- What does this abbreviation stand for? 618- The people of Scotland still stand out against the opening of pubs on Sunday. 619- The understudy had to stand in for 233 the leading actor, who had fallen in. 620- The machine soon went wrong: it was never indeed to stand up to 234 the rough treatment it was given. 621- I must make it clear that I refuse to stand for 235 such behaviour. 622- Many people dislike Communism and all it stands for. 623- He hoped that when the time came I would stand by 236 my promise. 624- When he realized that his nomination would mean competing with his closest friend, he decided to stand down 237 . 625- One man particularly stood out at the meeting. 626- I wish you would stop standing about 238 and do something useful instead. 627- The firemen ordered the spectators to stand back. 628- Several people stood by while the two men were fighting. 629- The candidate has offered to stand down in favour of a younger man. 630- Steel stands up to heat better than other metals. 631- He stood for 239 Parliament in 1970, but he was not elected. 632- The mosque stood out 240 clearly against the sky. 241 226 Blanco sobre negro. 227 Destacar. 228 Outstanding: sobresaliente. 229 Presentar cara, ponerse a la altura. 230 Listo para funcionar. 231 To stand by: relativo a algo que no concierne al sujeto. To stand aside: a algo propio que sí le concierne, y “escurre el bulto”. 232 To stand sb up: dar plantón a alguien. 233 Suplir a. (The understudy: el suplente,en teatro…) 234 Soportar. 235 To tolerate. 236 Mantener. To pledge one’s word: dar (su) palabra. To back out of / to stand by. 237 Retirarse de un concurso, oposición... 238 Merodear, estorbar. 239 Presentarse. 240 Destacar. Outline: contorno. Page 11 of 12 “Estar encima”. Salir en defensa. 243 To understand. 244 To resemble, “salir”. They’re much alike: son muy parecidos. He resembles his father. He bears a great resemblance to his father. 245 To like sb. 246 To deceive, to cheat.. 247 To admit paying guests. 248 To be deeply surprised. 249 To occupy. 250 “Echarse a”. To be made an outlaw: ser declarado proscrito. 251 Aceptar, admitir. 252 To engage. 253 Retirar. 254 Aceptar una devolución. 255 To imitate. 242 PHRASAL VERBS Author: JAVIER PLASENCIA 658- The aircraft crashed five minutes after it had taken off. 659- The shopkeeper took ten per cent off the bill, because I paid him in cash. 660- Her face took on an angry look when I said that her hat did not suit her. TO TURN 661- She dared not turn round to see who was following her in the dark 256 . 662- The refugee organization never turns away 257 anyone who needs help. 663- Turn off the wireless if you aren’t listening. 664- In this book the mysterious stranger turns out to be 258 the long-lost son of the duke. 665- The boat turned over 259 and throw us all into the water. 666- I turned down the job because it was badly paid. 667- She was plain as a child but she turned out 260 remarkably pretty. 668- He turned the whole place upside down 261 , looking for his boots. 669- I really hate to turn beggars away. 670- Don’t you think we should turn back now before the storm gets any worse? 671- I don’t want to turn on the light in case I waken her. 672- We arranged to meet at the theatre but she didn’t turn up. 673- The factory normally makes clocks and watches but during the war it turned out 262 precision instruments for aeroplanes. 674- The dog turned on 263 the postman and bit him in the thigh. 675- It’s time the children were turning in 264 . 676- We thought that he was an expert in Proust but it turned out that he had never even heard of him. 677- We turned up 265 some information that may interest you. 678- They turned the escaped prisoner over 266 the police. 679- This kind of music really turns me off 267 . 680- In spite of the cold weather, thousands of people turned out to see the Grand National. 681- He always turns to me when he’s in trouble. 682- The expression “To turn over a new leaf” means to make a fresh start with the intention of doing better. 683- They turned down her application because they preferred a man for the job. 684- I turned up at the meeting place but the others didn’t come. 685- Now that we have lost all the money, it’s not using turning on me and saying that it’s all my fault. i TO PULL To pull on / off: ponerse / quitarse la ropa a tirones. 256 In the dark: en lo oscuro. Darkness es lo contrario a la luz. Rechazar: personas, to turn away; cosas, to turn down. 258 Resultar ser: to turn out to be; to turn out that. 259 To capsize. 260 Convertirse en. 261 Patas arriba. 262 Fabricar. 263 Volverse hacia: to turn on, de forma hostil; to turn to, de forma amistosa. 264 Irse a casa; acostarse. 265 Recoger. 266 Entregar. 267 Me vuelve loco. 257 Page 12 of 12 To pull off = to bring off: son los transitivos del intransitivo to come off. To pull out: sacar un diente, to have a pull out. To pull out of: salir de la estación. – to pull in: entrar en la estación. To pull out of: retirarse (Ejército). To pull out: alejarse de un lugar. To pull down: Dejar hecho polvo. To pull down: derribar un edificio. To pull in: domonar, controlar. To pull in: aproximarse a un lugar con la intención de parar en él, contrario a to pull out. To pull in: atraer a la gente, por ejemplo a un espectáculo. To pull round: romperse del todo (transitivo e intr.). To pull round: dar fuerza. To pull up: parar. ¡Atención! Es PULL UP! y no STOP! para que alguien pare. To pull up: ponerse a la altura tras ir retrasado. To pull up: echar una bronca. To be pulled out by sb: que alguien te tira de las orejas. To pull through (trans e intrans): no morirse cuando se ha estado a punto de. To pull over: quitar(se) de en medio (frase hecha).