legales e índice 115 v 2.p65

Esta revista forma parte del acervo de la Biblioteca Jurídica Virtual del Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM
Approach to the Logical Frame 205
Revista de
Hugo Camacho, Luis Cámara, Rafael Cascante y Héctor Sainz,
The approach to the Logical Frame: 10 Practical Cases.
Notebook for the Identification and Design of the
Project to be Developed
Hugo Camacho, Luis Cámara, Rafael Cascante y Héctor Sainz,
El Enfoque del Marco Lógico: 10 Casos Prácticos. Cuaderno
para la Identificación y Diseño del Proyecto de Desarrollo, Fundación CIDEAL y Acciones de Desarrollo y Cooperación A.D.C.,
Madrid, 2002, pp. 235.
This manual is an easy-to-read document that allows us to approach
the Focus of the Logical Frame (FLF) (Enfoque del Marco Lógico
(EML)). It also allows us to see its main attributes, as well as the steps
to follow in order to go from theory to practice. It gives very concrete
examples analyzing diverse topics in each of its four phases, constructing and designing a matrix to plan the projects and apply the
theory to real life. The FLF is used principally in the development of
projects financed by the Agencies for Development. However, the authors show the practicality of the method in making any given project.
Manuel Gómez Galán, Director of the Centro de Investigación
de Cooperación para el Desarrollo (CIDEAL), is in charge of the presentation of the book. He gives a brief biographical sketch about the
work of the authors. He points out that the document is a FLF workbook. It is used with real cases and other cases that are elaborated
with didactic goals. Their objective is “to contribute to a better knowledge of the FLF methodology and its techniques and its practical application in the development of projects” (p. 8).
The manual contains an introduction made by the authors, which
documents their experiences in the application and teaching of the
FLF. It also points out its usefulness as a workbook based on the principle that one learns as one does the exercises. It presents several
cases both educational and practical that try to cover most of the groups
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206 Revista de Administración Pública XLIII 1
that support the organizations of international cooperation. Likewise, it
offers suggestions in its application, including a list to test the quality
of the project designed according to the FLF. For this reason, the document is structured with an introduction to the FLF. It also presents
seven educational cases. It gives ideas and suggestions in the practical application of the logical frame. Finally it presents three real cases
and an appendix.
In the introduction to the FLF, a schematic summary of the life
cycle of the development projects is presented. The project is defined
as “an innovative task that has a definite objective. It must be done in a
specific period of time, in a determined geographical zone and for a
group of beneficiaries. It thus gives solutions to specific problems or
improves a situation” (p.14).
Through an outline, it points out how the project can be run by
four articulated phases that interact among themselves. These phases
are defined as identification, design, implementation and follow-up and
lastly evaluation.
The authors mention that the FLF “is a method of group planning by objectives that is used in an essential way. However it is not
exclusive in the projects of cooperation for development. This method
offers sequenced discussions for the preparation of the participation
in a project and techniques to visualize the agreements achieved”
(p. 23).
The identification, as the authors point out, is one of the essential stages of the FLF. The success of the execution of the project
depends greatly on it. When the project is started, the idea is related to
the context. It takes form with what is wanted and what is necessary
to do. It is an analysis in which the identification of the beneficiaries
has a basic role, because they are the center of attention and are
those who face the problem in reality; i.e. a problem the project wants
to solve. The four steps for the identification are: analysis of the participation of the ones involved; analysis of the problems; analysis of
the objectives that need to be reached; and finally analysis of alternatives. A crucial recommendation is that during the analysis of participation, it is very important to know who needs to be helped before one
knows what has to be done. The beneficiaries must be persons not
The design consists of drafting and categorizing the desired results during the phase of identification. It is important to point out what
time periods need to be specified, what strategies are to be followed,
what human resources have to be established, what material and technical resources are required to carry out the project and over all the
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Approach to the Logical Frame 207
cost of the project (not only the material cost but also the one that can
affect the beneficiaries). The cost of the project must be established
at this point. In order to design a project, it is important to answer the
questions: What do we want to do? How do we want to do it? To whom
is the action directed? Why and what is one going to do? Who with,
where, when and with what resources is one going to work? This phase
must be the starting point from which we can define the actions that
will be carried out and from which we can establish communication
among the ones involved.
Once you have the answers to the questions mentioned above,
you are in possibility to build the framework called Planning Matrix of
the Project (Matriz de Planificación del Proyecto) (MPP). This matrix
is presented graphically in a logical way. It sequences the main elements of the intervention you want to have through the project. This
matrix, as the authors indicate, complements the document of the
project. It is constructed in four columns: the first one is the descriptive summary, in the second one the indicators are established, in the
third one the sources of verification are written down and in the last
one the conditions to assure the adequate development of the project
are determined.
For the exact determination of a problem, it is recommended
that you use a cause-effect diagram. In this diagram, one of the conditions is not to consider the “lack of” as a problem. Once you have
established the course to follow, the objectives should be elaborated.
From there, an analysis of alternative possibilities should be carried
out evaluating the possible solutions. In this stage it is important to
establish the viability of the project through questions, for instance: Is
there political support? Are there adequate technologies? Does the
project imply protecting the environment? Also, the sociocultural transformations should be analyzed, the institutional capacity to make negotiations and the economical and financial factors should be
In the phase of execution and follow-up, as its name indicates,
the design of the project should be carried out. It should have a high
degree of flexibility so that the information is not distorted. It seems to
me due to my experience that this observation has a fundamental significance? How many times have we known projects that take us to
the falsification of results? How many projects do not fulfill the proposed expectations because of lack of flexibility. lastly? How many of
them do not solve the users problems? The follow-up should be permanent, meaning during all the process of execution so we can make
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accurate decisions to reach our goals. To do this, all the elements of
the project, activities, costs, and used resources should be
During the evaluation, you should count on, as the authors point
out, on the elements that would let you verify the efficiency and the
effectiveness, the impact and on the viability, all of them intimately
linked to the follow-up.
The theoretical cases refer to the health field, handling and treatment of waste waters and finally, to the economical development and
production. It is important to mention that during the presentation of
several cases, the authors take us, step by step, through the different
phases. Using a very creative writing way the authors let the reader
understand the FLF operatively and graphically.
Reading the reflections and suggestions, the authors determine
as the main point, the active and representative participation of the
groups that take part in the FLF workshops. Therefore this, the discussions are enriched and the different points of view of the participants can be seen. Another recommendation of great importance, is
the invitation to the workshops, even if at work it seems trivial. This
invitation should have all the pertaining information, such as where the
participants work, the objective and the implications, the dynamics
and results that are expected. Said workshops should be held outside
the workplaces of the participants. It suggests how the opening should
be organized, and to know the characteristics and the functions of the
organizations they belong to. Brainstorming is suggested to determine
what they have. Using such a technique the participants should come
up with two to five problems that, according to them, are the most
important. The participants make diverse considerations about the
necessity to define the problems and their causes correctly. Also, some
recommendations for the construction of the Matrix of Projects Planning are pointed out.
The real cases refer to the improvement of the production. The
strengthening of the institutions for senior citizens and the strategic
planning of an NGO´s, which may not represent the complete information of the cases, but it respects the essence of the FLF.
The theoretical cases, the list of verification and the commented
bibliography can be found in the attached documents.
From the reading, some important conclusions can be drawn
for the duty of the public servers. The FLF is not a matter of fashion
and it is not a method to acquire resources. It is a tool that if it is taken
into practice, not in a non-flexible way but in a serious flexible one, a
clarification in the entrusted projects can be found.
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Approach to the Logical Frame 209
Using the FMF can be very beneficial to the enrichment of our
own duty so that we will beable to contribute with actions of impact
that really benefit the citizens of our country. The citizen is the reason
public institutions exist and that is why the public service exist.
Erika Plata Córdoba
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