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Curso2012-2013 Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía. Física Básica Experimental I Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Conceptual 1. A body of mass m slides a distance d along a horizontal surface. How much work is done by gravity? A) mgd B) zero C) –mgd D) One cannot tell from the given information. E) None of these is correct. Ans: Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Conceptual 2. A body moves with decreasing speed. Which of the following statements is true? A) The net work done on the body is positive, and the kinetic energy is increasing. B) The net work done on the body is positive, and the kinetic energy is decreasing. C) The net work done on the body is zero, and the kinetic energy is decreasing. D) The net work done on the body is negative, and the kinetic energy is increasing. E) The net work done on the body is negative, and the kinetic energy is decreasing. Ans: Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Conceptual 4. Initially a body moves in one direction and has kinetic energy K. Then it moves in the opposite direction with three times its initial speed. What is the kinetic energy now? A) K B) 3K C) –3K D) 9K E) –9K Ans: Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Factual 5. The SI unit of energy can be expressed as A) kg · m/s D) kg · m · s2 B) kg · m/s2 E) None of these is correct. C) m/(kg · s) Ans: Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Numerical 7. A 6.0-kg block slides from point A down a frictionless curve to point B. After the block passes point B, a friction force opposes the motion of the block so that it comes to a stop 2.5 m from B. Calculate the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the surface after position B. A) 2.5 B) 0.40 C) >0.40 D) 0.40 N E) 2.5 N Ans: Curso2012-2013 Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía. 9. A) B) C) D) E) Ans: 10. A) B) C) D) E) Ans: Física Básica Experimental I Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Numerical The kinetic energy of a car is 1.00 105 J. If the car's speed is increased by 20 percent, the kinetic energy of the car becomes 4.00 103 J 1.20 105 J 1.44 105 J 1.04 105 J unknown; the answer depends on the mass of the car, which is not given. Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Numerical A bullet with a mass of 12 g moving horizontally strikes a fixed block of wood and penetrates a distance of 5.2 cm. The speed of the bullet just before the collision is 640 m/s. The average force that the wood exerted on the bullet was 4.7 104 N 74 N 4.7 106 N unknown; the mass of the wood is required. None of these is correct. Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Conceptual 14. The weight of an object on the moon is one-sixth its weight on the earth. A body moving with a given speed on the moon has kinetic energy equal to ______________ it would have if it were moving at the same speed on the earth. A) the kinetic energy D) 6 times the kinetic energy B) 1/36 the kinetic energy E) 36 times the kinetic energy C) 1/6 the kinetic energy Ans: Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Conceptual 15. A force F pushes a block along a horizontal surface against a force of friction F f. If the block undergoes a displacement s at constant velocity, the work done by the resultant force on the block A) B) C) D) E) Ans: 17. is equal to the work done by the force of friction F f. is given by W = F · s . increases the kinetic energy of the block. increases the potential energy of the block. is zero. Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Conceptual A particle moves halfway around a circle of radius R. It is acted on by a radial force of magnitude F. The work done by the radial force is A) zero B) FR C) F R D) 2FR E) 2 R Ans: 19. A) B) C) Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Conceptual A variable force is represented on an F-versus-x graph. Which of the following is the work done by this force? the slope of the curve the area bounded by the curve and the x axis the area bounded by the curve and the F axis Curso2012-2013 Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía. Física Básica Experimental I D) the F value multiplied by the x value E) the F value divided by the x value Ans: Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Numerical 21. A particle that is subjected to a variable force travels a distance of 20 m in a straight line in the same direction as the force. The force varies as follows: First, 5.0 m and F = 0. Next, 5.0 m and F = 3.0 N. Next, 5.0 m and F = 6.0 N. Last, 5.0 m and F decreases uniformly from 6.0 N to zero. What was the total work done by this force during the full 20-m trip? A) 15 J B) 30 J C) 45 J D) 60 J E) 75 J Ans: Section: 6-1 Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Numerical 25. In pushing a load, a woman exerts a force as given by the graph. What was the the total work done by the woman? A) 400 J B) 200 J C) 2000 J D) 1000 J E) 500 J Ans: Section: 6-1 Status: New to 5th edition Type: Numerical Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy 29. Two parents when moving into a new house attempt to pull a large crate down the large hallway, as shown in the figure above. One parent applies a force of magnitude 150 N directed 45 degrees to the direction of motion, while the other parent applies a force of 120 N on the other side of the direction of motion. If they move the crate 15 m and perform work 2.6 kJ, at what angle to the direction of motion did the second parent pull on the crate? A) 54 degrees D) 34 degrees B) 30 degrees E) 56 degrees C) 60 degrees Ans: Section: 6-1 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: Work and Kinetic Energy Type: Conceptual 33. A vertical light spring stretches a distance h meters when a mass m is hung from it. The spring/mass system is now placed on a horizontal frictionless table and set into oscillation with amplitude h and maximum velocity v. What is the total energy involved in the spring/mass oscillating system. A) ½ kh2 + ½ mv2 D) mgh + ½ kh2 + ½ mv2 Curso2012-2013 Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía. Física Básica Experimental I B) ½ kh2 + mgh E) ½ mv2 2 2 C) ½ mv + ½ mgh Ans: Section: 6-2 Topic: Work and Energy in Three Dimensions Type: Numerical 38. If vector A = –2 iˆ + 3 ĵ and a vector B = 4 iˆ – 5 ĵ , the inner product A · B is A) –23 B) 7 C) –7 D) 23 E) 17 Ans: Section: 6-2 Topic: Work and Energy in Three Dimensions Type: Numerical 44. The angle between the vector A = iˆ + 2 ĵ + 3 k̂ and the z axis is approximately A) 17º B) 37º C) 75º D) 58º E) 26º Ans: 47. Section: 6-2 Topic: Work and Energy in Three Dimensions Type: Numerical A 10-kg object undergoes a displacement s = 6 iˆ – 4 ĵ + 2 k̂ . During the displacement, a constant force F = –3 iˆ + 6 ĵ – 9 k̂ acts on the object. All values are given in SI units. The work done by the force F on this object is A) –42 J B) –36 J C) –30 J D) –53 J E) –60 J Ans: Section: 6-3 Topic: Power Type: Conceptual 50. Consider two engines. The larger is rated at 2 W and the smaller at 1 W. The smaller one can do a certain quantity of work in 2 h. The larger can do twice as much work in a time of A) 30 min B) 1 h C) 2 h D) 4 h E) 1.4 h Ans: Section: 6-3 Topic: Power Type: Numerical 51. A motor is lifting a mass of 35.0 kg at a constant speed of 6.00 m/s. If friction is neglected, the power developed by the motor to do this lifting is A) 740 W B) 1.5 103 W C) 2.1 103 W D) 59 W E) 43 W Ans: Section: 6-3 Topic: Power Type: Numerical 56. A body is acted upon by a force of 10 N and undergoes a displacement in the direction of the force in accordance with the relation s = 3t2 + 2t, where s is the displacement in meters and t is in seconds. The rate at which the force is doing work at the instant t = 2 s is A) 14 W B) 12 W C) 120 W D) 140 W E) 160 W Ans: Curso2012-2013 Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía. Section: 6-3 Topic: Power Física Básica Experimental I Type: Numerical 58. A motor develops power as shown in the graph. The energy expended by the motor in the time interval between t = 10 s and t = 30 s is A) 1.0 J B) 1.3 J C) 0.20 kJ D) 0.60 kJ E) 0.70 kJ Ans: Section: 6-3 63. Topic: Power Type: Conceptual A force F acts on a body and produces an acceleration a . The body undergoes a displacement s and attains a velocity v in time t. The instantaneous power being developed at time t is given by A) F · v B) F · ½ at2 C) F · a D) ( F · 2 s ) /t2 E) F · s Ans: 67. Section: 6-3 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: Power Type: Numerical If the average power output of a car engine is the same as a 100-W light bulb, how long would it take a 1200-kg car to go from zero to 96 km/h (60 mph)? A) 8.5 103 s B) 5.5 104 s C) 65 s D) 160 s E) 4.3 103 s Ans: 73. Section: 6-4 Topic: Potential Energy Type: Conceptual A woman runs up a flight of stairs. The gain in her gravitational potential energy is U. If she runs up the same stairs with twice the speed, what is her gain in potential energy? A) U B) 2U C) ½U D) 4U E) ¼U Ans: Section: 6-4 Topic: Potential Energy Type: Numerical 78. A 5200-kg cable car in Hong Kong is pulled a distance of 360 m up a hill inclined at 12º from the horizontal. The change in the potential energy of the car is A) 1.8 107 J D) 6.0 107 J B) 1.2 107 J E) 1.8 106 J C) 3.8 106 J Ans: Section: 6-3 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: Power Type: Numerical 72. The human heart is essentially a pump for moving blood around the body. If its average power output (over many beats) is about 2.0 W and it pumps blood at an overall average speed of 0.3 m/s into the output aorta channel, calculate the average force with which the heart moves the blood into the aorta. A) 0.60 N B) 6.7 N C) 22 N D) 66 N E) 0.18 N Ans: Section: 6-4 Topic: Potential Energy Type: Conceptual 82. When the potential energy U(r) is given as in Figure A, then the force is given in Figure B by curve Curso2012-2013 Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía. A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 Física Básica Experimental I E) 5 Ans: 89. Section: 6-4 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: Potential Energy Type: Numerical The potential energy function for a conservative force acting in the x direction is shown in the figure on the right. Where would the particle experience a force directed to the right? A) between A & B, and E & F D) at points B and D B) between B & C and C & D E) at points C and E C) between B & C and D & E Ans: Section: 7-1 Topic: The Conservation of Mechanical Energy Type: Conceptual 2. A body falls through the atmosphere (consider air resistance) gaining 20 J of kinetic energy. How much gravitational potential energy did it lose? A) 20 J B) more than 20 J C) less than 20 J D) It is impossible to tell without knowing the mass of the body. E) It is impossible to tell without knowing how far the body falls. Ans: Section: 7-1 Topic: The Conservation of Mechanical Energy Type: Conceptual 3. A projectile of mass m is propelled from ground level with kinetic energy of 450 J. At the exact top of its trajectory, its kinetic energy is 250 J. To what height above the starting point does the projectile rise? A) B) C) D) E) Ans: Section: 7-1 Topic: The Conservation of Mechanical Energy Type: Numerical 5. You ride a roller coaster car of mass 1500 kg down a frictionless track a distance H = 23 m above the bottom of a loop as shown. If the loop is 15 m in diameter, the downward force of the rails on your car when it is upside down at the top of the loop is A) 4.6 104 N D) 0.98 kN 4 B) 3.1 10 N E) 1.6 103 N C) 1.7 104 N Ans: Curso2012-2013 Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía. Física Básica Experimental I Section: 7-1 Topic: The Conservation of Mechanical Energy Type: Numerical 10. A simple pendulum has a bob of mass M. The bob is on a light string of length The string is fixed at C. At position A, the string is horizontal and the bob is at rest. The bob is released from A and swings to B, where the string is vertical. The tension in the string when the bob first reaches B is A) B) 2Mg C) Mg D) Mg . E) None of these is correct. Ans: Section: 7-1 Topic: The Conservation of Mechanical Energy Type: Conceptual 12. A) B) C) D) E) Ans: A roller coaster starts from rest at point A. If you ignore friction and take the zero of potential energy to be at C, the kinetic energy of the coaster at D will be equal to its potential energy at A. the kinetic energy of the coaster at E will be equal to its potential energy at C. the kinetic energy of the coaster at C will be equal to its potential energy at A. the kinetic energy of the coaster at B will be equal to its potential energy at C. None of these is correct. Section: 7-1 Topic: The Conservation of Mechanical Energy Type: Conceptual 15. A) B) C) D) E) Ans: Assuming the incline to be frictionless and the zero of gravitational potential energy to be at the elevation of the horizontal line, the kinetic energy of the block just before it collides with the spring will be equal to mgh. the kinetic energy of the block when it has fully compressed the spring will be equal to mgh. the kinetic energy of the block when it has fully compressed the spring will be zero. the kinetic energy of the block just before it collides with the spring will be ½kx2. none of the above statements will be true. Section: 7-2 Topic: The Conservation of Energy Type: Conceptual Curso2012-2013 Cuestiones Tema IV. Trabajo y energía. Física Básica Experimental I 20. Consider a motion in which a particle goes from A back to A along path 2, as shown. W(AB, 1) = work in going from A W(BA, 2) = work in going from B B along path 1. A along path 2. If only conservative forces are acting, then A) W(AB, 1) > W(BA, 2) D) W(AB, 1) + W(BA, 2) < 0 B) W(AB, 1) < W(BA, 2) E) W(AB, 1) + W(BA, 2) = 0 C) W(AB, 1) + W(BA, 2) > 0 Ans: Section: 7-2 Topic: The Conservation of Energy Type: Numerical 25. A system comprising two blocks is shown, one of which is on an inclined plane. The pulley is of negligible mass and is frictionless. The system starts from rest at position 1 and accelerates. Measurements taken when the blocks reach position 2 indicate that (1) (2) (3) (4) the kinetic energy of block A has changed by 330 J, the potential energy of block A has changed by 588 J, the kinetic energy of block B has changed by 110 J, and the potential energy of block B has changed by 98 J. The amount of mechanical energy that has been converted to heat because of friction is A) 12 J B) 50 J C) 258 J D) 478 J E) 710 J Ans: 29. Section: 7-2 Status: New to 5th edition Topic: The Conservation of Energy Type: Numerical A 5-kg blob of putty is dropped from a height of 10.0 m above the ground onto a light vertical spring the top of which is 5 m above the ground. If the spring constant k = 200 N/m and the blob compresses the spring by 1.50 m, then find the amount of energy lost in sound and thermal energy. Una bola de masilla de 5-kg de masa se deja caer desde una altura de 10,0 m (respecto al suelo) sobre un ligero muelle vertical cuya parte superior está 5 m por encima del suelo. Si la constante del muelle es k = 200 N / m, y la bola comprime el resorte 1,50 m, encontrar la cantidad de energía perdida en forma de energía acústica y térmica. A) 20.0 J B) 169 J C) 266 J D) 438 J E) 94.0 J Ans: Respuestas (por orden): B D A E B DAEACB BABDC CAAEA BDDE EABECCD