Acoustic analysis of syllable-final /k/ in Northern Peninsular Spanish Nagore Barbero, Carolina González Florida State University [email protected], [email protected] It is well known that voiceless stops in coda are frequently deleted or pronounced as voiced stops, fricatives or approximants in Peninsular Spanish. For example, actor ‘actor’ may be pronounced as [ak.tor], but also as [a.tor], [aɡ.tor] and [aT.tor] among others (Martínez-Martín 1983; Quilis 1993). These pronunciations are often stigmatized or considered vulgarisms, hypercorrections, or features of colloquial or regional speech (see Antón 1998, Martínez-Gil 1991, Hualde 1989, 2005, Lapesa 1981). Perhaps for this reason, acoustic data concerning this variation is scarce. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the acoustic realization of syllable-final /k/ in Northern Peninsular Spanish, a variant where /k/ is frequently pronounced as the interdental fricative [T] in coda (see Martínez Martín 1983 and Antón 1998). Additionally, the study tests the hypothesis that syllable-final /k/ tends to be pronounced before a stop (clusters ‘ct’, ‘cn’) but tends to be deleted before a fricative (clusters ‘cs’, ‘cc’) (Martínez Martín 1983; González 2008). A related hypothesis is that the manner of articulation of the following consonant has an effect on the manner of /k/; a fricative realization [T] is predicted to be more likely before stops, while a stop pronunciation [k, ɡ] is predicted to be more common before fricatives (González 2008). The corpus included 38 tokens with clusters ‘ct’, ‘cn’, ‘cs’, ‘cc’ (Table 1). These tokens were embedded in a list of 56 sentences, 28 of which were target sentences and 28 distracters (1). Four female participants from the province of Bizkaia in Northern Spain were recorded; each read a list with a differently randomized order of the corpus sentences. The independent variables of this experiment include (i) place of articulation of the consonant following /k/ (dental, alveolar); (ii) manner of articulation of this consonant (stop, fricative); (iii) vowel preceding /k/ (/i e a o u/); (iv) stress of the syllable containing /k/ (stressed, unstressed), and (v) number of syllables of the word (2, 3, 4 or 5). The dependent variables are (i) presence or absence of /k/, (ii) duration (in ms.), (iii) voicing (voiced/voiceless), (iv) manner of articulation (plosive, fricative, approximant, deletion), and (v) place of articulation (dental, alveolar, velar). The acoustic data from the four speakers will be submitted to statistical analysis in SPSS, individually and pooling speakers together. The preliminary results for two participants reveal that syllable-final /k/ is pronounced in 88% of the tokens. Regarding manner and place of articulation for coda /k/, speaker 1 tended to pronounce fricative realizations (67% of the tokens) that were (inter)dental (63% of the time). Speaker 2 showed a preference for stop realizations (53% of the tokens) that were velar (73% of the time). These results are consistent with those reported for Burgos Spanish by Martínez Martín (1983). Complete acoustic results will be discussed in connection to the hypotheses outlined. In addition, the theoretical implications of these results for Spanish phonology will be considered; in particular, it will be discussed whether assimilation in place and dissimilation in manner can target obstruents like coda /k/ in Spanish. Table 1. Tokens included in the experiment divided by consonant cluster and number of syllables. 2-syllable words 3-syllable words cóctel actas doctor /kt/ tractor rector sector proyecto conducta contacto dictado actores producto (2) directo director aspecto factura octubre efecto correcto carácter adicto producto táctil sectores trayecto victoria nocturna respecto detectar /kn/ acné /kθ/ ficción acción técnica reacción 4-syllable words 5-syllable words /ks/ fucsia facsímiles tecnología (1) Sample target sentences included in the experiment (target tokens are underlined) a. Ese alumno ha sido expulsado por mala conducta en sus clases. That student has been expelled for bad behavior in his classes. b. No tienes buen aspecto y creo que deberías ir al doctor por la mañana. You don’t look so good and I think you should go to the doctor in the morning. References Antón, M. 1998. Del uso sociolingüístico de las oclusivas posnucleares en el español peninsular norteño. Hispania, 84 (4), 949-958. González, C. 2008. Assimilation and dissimilation of syllable-final /k/ in North-Central Spanish. In J. Bruhn de Garavito and E. Valenzuela (eds.), Selected proceedings of the 10th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. 170–183. www.lingref.com, #1794. Hualde, J. I. 1989. Procesos Consonánticos y Estructuras Geométricas en Español. Lingüística, 1, 744 Hualde, J.I. 2005. The Sounds of Spanish. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Lapesa, R. 1981. Historia de la lengua española. Madrid: Gredos. 9ª edición (1ª ed. 1942). Martínez-Gil, F. 1991. The Insert/delete Parameter, Redundancy Rules, and Neutralization Processes in Spanish. In H. Campos and F. Martínez-Gil (eds.), Current Studes in Spanish Linguistics. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press. 495-571. Martínez Martín, F. M. 1983. Fonética y sociolingüística en la ciudad de Burgos. Madrid: CSIC. Quilis, A. 1993. Tratado de fonología y fonética españolas. Madrid: Gredos.