ANALYSIS OF VIABILITY TO PROMOTE A HUB RO/RO TERMINAL IN
PALMA OF MALLORCA PORT
Dr. Ignacio Galiano, Dr. F. Xavier Martínez de Osés
Dpt. of Nautical Science and Engineering
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
fmartinez@cen.upc.edu
ABSTRACT
The presented paper is going to analyze the opportunity to develop a Ro/Ro hub in the
Port of Palma de Mallorca.
In order to get introduced in the study, the state of art related to geographical, economic
traffic and human; conditions, will be reviewed; together with an in deep analysis of the
port future capacities and main shipping lines crossing the western Mediterranean.
At a first glance is it easy to understand that the competition with other container hub
ports in Mediterranean does not afford Palma de Mallorca to be positioned in this
market. But the chance to become a hub in rolled traffic will be studied.
The final results of this paper are going to identify the main particulars to be enforced to
attract the main shipping companies that are providing transport services between the
North and South coasts of the Mediterranean and the traffic between Italy and Spain.
KEY WORDS
Short Sea Traffics, Ro/Ro, Balearic Islands, hub.
INTRODUCTION
Desde la Unión Europea se ha dado un impulso muy importante al transporte de corta
distancia entre los estados miembros y terceros países cercanos a la Unión. El constante
incremento del transporte de mercancía por carretera, hicieron adoptar medidas que
desviaran este incesante tráfico a otros medios, especialmente al marítimo, realizándose
estudios sobre posibilidades de incrementar estos servicios y creando una línea de
subvenciones para desarrollar los proyectos con viabilidad (programas PACT, Marco
Polo I y II o la financiación para las RTE-T. [1]).
En la tesis propuesta se analizará la viabilidad de desarrollar un puerto HUB en Palma
de Mallorca, ya que consideramos que podría a corto plazo incrementar la rentabilidad
de muchas líneas que se han proyectado y no se han llevado a cabo por falta de esta
misma.
Este estudio se centrará en la cuenca occidental del Mediterráneo, considerándose al
Puerto de Palma un enclave privilegiado para dar viabilidad al proyecto.
Para el desarrollo del proyecto se elaborará un método de análisis que tendrá en cuenta
la siguientes variables :
• La determinación de los flujos comerciales bilaterales entre los distintos países
•
•
•
•
•
que componen la cuenca.
Localización de las fuentes de producción o recepción que intervienen en el
intercambio bilateral, o de terceros países, que utilizan estos puertos para
desarrollar su actividad mercantil.
Análisis de las actuales líneas de corta distancia para buques de carga rodada,
valorando el tipo de buque y su ocupación media.
Análisis de optimización de las rutas ya existentes, con nuevas propuestas
presentadas en la presente tesis.
Describir y evaluar las infraestructuras actuales y proyectadas en el puerto de
Palma.
Determinar la viabilidad del proyecto, mediante una metodología de valoración
propuesta por el autor, adecuada al escenario de estudio y basándose en los
objetivos parciales indicados anteriormente.
GEOGRAPHICAL PARTICULARS OF BALEARIC ISLANDS
Balearic islands is an archipelago placed in the Western Mediterranean close to Iberian
peninsula and it is part of a number of islands and small islands like Gimnesias:
Mallorca, Menorca and Cabrera, and Pitiusas: Ibiza and Formentera. Mallorca
(Maiorica), big island, is the biggest one in the archipelago, situated in 39º 33,7´N 002º
38,4´E. From the demographic point of view, is the more populated reaching the
873.414 inhabitants in the last cense in 2.011.
Its situation as it is shown in Figure 1, is at mid distance between both sides of the
Western Mediterranean basin.
Marsella
304´
Génova
457´
Livorno
476´
Barcelona
135´
Tarragona
137´
Castellón
134´
Civitavecchia
467´
Salerno
617´
Valencia
145´
Malta
629´
Alicante
182´
Argel
171´
Bejaia
213 ´
Skkida
265´
Túnez
448´
Orán
281´
Tánger
479´
Figure 1. Distances among different western Mediterranean ports and Palma de
Mallorca
Nowadays, there are several routes in the North-South and west-East, and for this
purpose we think that we can propose Palma of Mallorca as a hub in between those
routes.
In the table 1, we are going to show the optimum distances between two ports,
specifying in back ink the ones with a call in Palma of Mallorca and in red ink, the
direct to destination ones.
DISTANCE BETWEEN PORTS WITH PALMA CALL
DISTANCE BETWEEN PORTS WITH DIRECT TRACK
593
492
585
525
Marseilles
Toulon
Tunisia
811
744
486
409
496
423
630
561
Marseilles
Malta
Salerno
Agadir
639
568
663
592
658
586
649
612
784
725
799
739
Naples
Casablanca
602
513
626
541
621
539
612
617
747
716
762
730
316
231
426
243
624
421
787
584
1039
836
774
743
449
347
459
365
593
561
Civitavecchia
Tangier
591
483
615
511
610
510
601
589
736
708
751
722
305
244
415
266
613
444
776
606
1028
858
763
735
438
315
448
334
582
553
Livorno
Oran
594
400
618
431
613
432
604
512
739
603
754
625
308
277
418
337
616
515
779
677
1031
929
766
702
La Spezia
Algiers
602
357
626
385
621
386
612
466
747
560
762
582
316
291
426
368
624
548
787
711
1039
962
774
668
Genoa
Salerno
Alicante
Naples
Valencia
Civitavecchia
Castellón
Livorno
Tarragona
La Spezia
Barcelona
Genoa
628
532
738
696
936
878
1099
1041
1351
1293
652
542
762
704
960
902
1123
1065
1375
1317
647
530
757
692
955
901
1118
1064
1370
1316
638
552
748
742
946
914
1109
1077
1361
1328
773
583
883
774
1081
1009
1244
1172
1496
1423
788
598
898
789
1096
1023
1259
1186
1511
1438
475
414
585
539
783
721
946
884
1198
1135
933
655
752
481
Table 1. Distance chart among Mediterranean ports with direct course or with a call in Palma.
Source Own.
In each case it has been studied the direct course between two ports and the same with a
call in the port of Palma. Once calculated the distances we have classified the
differences under a criterion, if it is below 100 miles in green and less than 50 miles in
blue. The other cases have been neglected as they are superior to 100 miles.
These differences between distances have been considered because a ship with a
nominal speed of 25 knots could need between 4 to 6 hours more in her trip on average
in case of being at port for less than 2 hours.
Nowadays the short sea shipping routes in the Western Mediterranean, like GenoaBarcelona-Tangier and Valencia-Salerno-Tunisia, have delays in port higher than two
hours, and this is one reason that justifies the proposal of the objective of this paper.
In a first assessment in table 1, we can see the routes with more opportunities of
success:
Barcelona: North of Africa and Morocco.
Tarragona: Civitavecchia, North of Africa and Malta.
Castellon: Italian ports, Algiers, Malta and Tunisia.
Valencia: European ports (except Marseilles), Algiers, Malta and Tunisia.
Alicante: All ports (less the ones in North of Africa and Morocco).
European ports: Ports in Algeria and Morocco.
As it can be seen in the table, we can confirm that most of the routes are within the two
parameters of 50 and 100 miles. There is 102 pair of ports and 14.7% of them are a very
good option and 53.9% are adequate. So 68.6% of the routes could be analysed in deep.
Infrastructures in the Port of Palma
The port in itself is divided in three main parts (Commercial basins, west berth and
Peraires), being the nowadays infrastructures, built in the fifties. Financial and political
problems, have delayed possible improvements or enlargements. There is a visible
congestion of berths from early morning up to midday, because of the ships covering
the main traffics with the peninsula.
This situation is worsened in summer because the arrival of cruise ships and sometimes
regular line ships must leave the berth and go to anchor to give the berth to a cruise that
is arriving.
Commercial berths
West berth
Peraires
Total
Berth lineal meters
Nº of berth
positions
Surface (m²)
1.174
1.688
2.185,8
5.047,8
5
8
6
19
119.000
88.900
13.800
221.700
Table 2. Palma port capacities. Source: Own based on Palma pilots information. 2.013.
But from midday in winter time, the port remains almost free, remaining West berth and
Peraires released for virtual ships that could be serving short sea traffics. The Port has a
lot of ramps to serve the Ro/Ro traffic but only three small cranes to discharge wood or
corn.
In table 2 it is showed the different capacities of the Palma berths and in table 3 is
shown also the main regular line ships with their time table. So it is possible to deduct
how much time is available in those berths.
REGULAR TRAFFIC SHIPS CALLING IN PALMA PORT
SHIP
ABEL MATUTES
VISEMAR ONE
F. GARCIA LORCA
ALBAYCIN/ZURBARAN
MIRANDA
TENACIA
BERTH
2nd. Line West berth
1st line West berth
Peraires mole Maritime station nº3
Peraires mole Maritime station nº2
Head of Commercial berth
Outer ramp of Commercial berth
FROM
06:00
06:15
22 :30
07 :00
07:00
06:30
TO
11:30
12:30
08 :00
11 :30
20:00
12:00
Table 3: Ro-Ro Palma Port berth time table occupation, by regular line ship in 2013.
Source: Own based on Palma pilots information. 2.013.
There are up to 16 ramps that would afford port operations in this type of ships in the
overall port, being 5 in the Commercial berths, 5 in Peraires berths and 6 in the West
berth.
OCUPPATION OF RO-RO BERTHS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
100
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
Head Comm. Berth
Outer Comm. Berth
Peraires Nº 2
Peraires Nº 3
West B. 1st line
West B. 2nd line
Table 4: Ro-Ro Palma port berths occupation level of the in 2013. Source: Own based
on Palma pilots information.
We can conclude that the occupation of berths 6/16 is only of 13.8% of time. The most
congested time lapse id between 5 to 13 hours in the Peraires and West, berths. This
traffics are covered mainly by super-ferries and Ro/Pax ships, with daily round trip to
the peninsula part from an HSC that leaves the berth at 8:00 and comes back at 22:30,
where the ship remains up to the next day.
Commercial berths receive pure Ro/Ro ships every two days and Ro/Pax ships every
day. There is a 71.800 m2 platform in the West berth with six positions in between 130
to 361 meters and drafts bigger than 13 meters, could act as a freight hub for SSS routes
not only for N-S but also W-E, routes.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
The port of Palma, is part of the Western Mediterranean scenario in terms of climatic
conditions, and it is not an exception. The pressure, temperature and raining, conditions
are similar to the ones in this area but the local winds regime is a little bit different.
Pressure has no major variations during the year and this value is relatively high. So we
can confirm that there is stability during the year round and in general terms there are
very stable conditions due to its situation in the 40º of latitude.
23
24
Regarding the wind conditions, we can observe that the most common wind during the
year is SW in the Palma bay. The W and NW winds are common in autumn and winter
time and even very cold N and NE. Southerlies are typical in summer time which can
affect the ships’ maneuvers from midday to the afternoon.
Also in summertime it is possible to register very strong SE winds but those are not so
common and can join to coastal breezes.
Temperatures are not so cold in winter but not so hot in summer, this last because of the
medium size of the island that does not afford a very high warming of the air during the
summer. Because of this mentioned slight warming of the air on the island surface, it
elevates leaving pass to the sea breeze and giving a certain degree of humidity in the
environment.
Precipitations are most common in autumn, being spring the other season with some
rain levels, but in general terms the situation is very similar to the one in the Iberian
Peninsula.
CLIMATIC DATA IN PALMA OF MALLORCA
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
YEAR
Pressure
in
hPa
1021.1
1018.4
1016.5
1014.9
1016.2
1017.1
1017.5
1017.6
1017.6
1016.9
1016.9
1018.3
1017.5
Mean
Daily
temp.
Rel.
Hum.
in %
10.0
10.5
12.2
14.2
17.7
21.4
24.5
25.1
22.6
18.6
14.2
11.4
16.9
71
70
69
67
67
66
66
68
71
72
72
72
69
N
16
17
8
10
2
3
3
1
5
15
16
25
10
Wind
frequency in direction %
NE E
SE S
SW W
17
5
2
9
26 10
6
11
2
10 37 14
9
7
3
8
39 18
17
8
3
10 37
6
7
8
6
20 52
5
12
5
1
20 54
4
5
5
0
28 57
0
7
6
1
32 50
1
12
6
6
24 38
5
14
4
2
10 35 13
14
6
0
7
26 13
8
1
0
7
34 14
10
6
2
17 40
8
NW
15
9
8
6
4
1
2
2
4
7
18
11
7
Mean
Int.
Km/h
Rain
in
m/m
9.1
10.5
9.7
9.8
8.8
8.9
9.1
7.8
8.9
8.6
9.9
9.4
9.2
36
38
39
37
43
21
8
14
67
67
58
53
481
Table 5. Climatic data in Palma of Mallorca. Source: Derrotero de las Islas Baleares.
1983 nº 3 Tomo II. Edited by the Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina. Cádiz.
SSS COMMERCIAL FLUXES BETWEEN SW EUROPE AND THE NORTH
AFRICAN COAST
The services between Morocco and the EU covered by SSS traffics, is mainly
developed by Ro/Pax ships, mainly from Italy, calling at Barcelona and arriving by
Tanger-Med, apart from the services crossing the Gibraltar strait.
Different companies are serving these traffics even several ship owners have
disappeared like COMANAV or COMARIT. Grandi Navi Velocci is using 4 ships in
this service and Grimaldi Group with one ship; both cover the area from genoa, Sète
and Livorno calling also in Barcelona.
From Sète, Grandi Navi Velocci covers the route with Nador weekly with a ship, being
most of them the same modern, big capacity and high speed units.
The authors have been studied the traffics and they are of the opinion that W-E lines
crossing the Western Mediterranean could feed the N-S lines, transboarding part of their
cargo in Palma
For example Grimaldi Group has important routes linking Italian Ports like Salerno and
Civitavecchia with the Port of Valencia in Spain. Part of the freight could be discharged
in Palma and taken by the lines that link Genoa, Sète and Livorno with Tangier-Med.
S.S.S. in service ships particulars. Western Mediterranean
Particulars
LOA
Consumption
Kw.
G.T.
44480
29968
200
31
Excellent
25950
39777
202
24
86.4
2230
Majestic
23040
32777
188
22
90
1790
Splendid
23040
39139
214
22
Fantastic
25920
35222
188
22
Average
28486
35376
Ikarus
Palace
Speed
Freight
T/day
Passengers
1500
2200
90
2033
Cars
Lineal
/Freight
meters
820
2130
610
163/1800
610
163/1500
2350
2050
1010
630
160/1700
2150
Table 6. Cargo and technical particulars of ships covering S.S.S services. Source: GNV
and Grimaldi Group, data. 2014.
SHIPS USED IN THE COMMERCIAL LINES
Several companies are giving sevice between peninsula and Balearic Islands, deploying
also different type of ships depending on the frequencies, speed and type of cargo,
required. The nowadays offer affords to adjust prices but they are still high because
there is no cargo for return to peninsula voyages.
The chance to use teh Port of Palma as a hub, could improve the emtioned situation, so
as combining the SSS services with the simple sevice to peninsula. But shipping
companies usually has used vessels for carrying rolling cargo with or without pasenger
capacity and iduringthe last years it has been possible to confirm an increase in the size
and speed of the newer ships [2]. As a general trend we can confirm that the vertical
cargo has been slowly disappearing and the only freight Ro/Ro ships also are being
removed by Ro/Pax units.
Nowadays the avergae ship used in the studied traffics, is mainly a vessel with a good
cargo capacity, with a speed of around 20 knots or more and acertain capactiy for
passengers and their vehicles.
Owner
Itinerary
Acciona Trasmediterránea
Acciona Trasmediterránea
Acciona Trasmediterránea
Acciona Trasmediterránea
Acciona Trasmediterránea
Acciona Trasmediterránea
Balearia
Balearia
Balearia
Barcelona
Barcelona
Valencia
Valencia
Ibiza
Mahón
Barcelona
Valencia
Ibiza-Denia
Frequencies
Summer
1 daily
1 weekly
6 weekly
2 weekly
1 weekly
1 weekly
7 weekly
7 weekly
1 daily
Winter
1 dailyo
1 weekly
6 weekly
2 weekly
1 weekly
1 weekly
6 weekly
6 weekly
4 weekly
Type of
vessel
Ferry
Ro-Ro
Ferry
Ro-Ro
Ferry
Ferry
Ro-Pax
Ro-Pax
Fast-ferry
Tabla 7. Regular line services calling at Palma Port. Source own: based on Palma pilots
information, 2013.
Podemos clasificar este tipo de embarcaciones en función de su velocidad, dividiéndose
en buque convencional, cuando su velocidad es inferior a 23 nudos, buque convencional
rápido siendo su velocidad entre 23 y 30 nudos y buques de alta velocidad con
velocidades de servicio superiores a 30 nudos; y tipo de carga, siendo ferries las
embarcaciones de pasajeros con capacidad limitada de carga, ropax buques con gran
capacidad de carga y transporte de pasajeros, super-fast-ferries embarcaciones con gran
velocidad, gran capacidad de carga y transporte de viajeros y fast-ferries a las que
desarrollan velocidades superiores, pudiendo ser monocascos o catamaranes, que son
capaces de transportar viajeros con una capacidad limitada de carga rodada.
En la tabla 34 hemos incluido las embarcaciones que en estos momentos las navieras
están explotando en el tráfico insular con el Puerto de Palma, los datos referenciados
son las características más indicativas siendo el porte indicado en toneladas de registro
bruto, eslora, calado, potencia de propulsión y velocidad.
BUQUES EN LINEA REGULAR QUE RECALAN EN EL PUERTO DE PALMA
COMPAÑÍA
BALEARIA
BALEARIA
BALEARIA
TRASMEDITERRANEA
TRASMEDITERRANEA
TRASMEDITERRANEA
TRASMEDITERRANEA
BUQUE
T.R.B.
LOA
CAL.
H.P.
VEL.
LINEA
TIPO
VISEMAR ONE
ABEL MATUTES
F. GARCIA LORCA
TENACIA
ZURBARAN
ALBAYZIN
MIRANDA
26375
29670
5637
25993
22152
26302
10471
186,4
190,5
115.2
199,1
180.0
186
153,45
6,3
5,5
5.0
6.5
6.5
6.2
6,9
20700
19800
4X7200
25200
2X16116
21600
12600
25
21
38,0
22,5
22,5
21
20
PMI-BCN
PMI-VCA
PMI-I-DN
PMI-BCN
PMI-BCN
PMI-VCA
PMI-V-B
CONV. RAPIDO
CONVENCIONAL
ALTA VELOCIDA
CONVENCIONAL
CONVENCIONAL
CONVENCIONAL
RO-RO
Tabla 34. Relación y características técnicas de los buques con escala en el puerto de Palma
de Mallorca. Fuente: Prácticos de Palma, año 2.013. Elaboración propia.
Una vez analizadas las tablas anteriores podemos comprobar la tendencia de las
navieras en ir aumentando el tamaño de los buques y su velocidad, alternado buques de
gran tamaño con embarcaciones menores de alta velocidad, de forma que cubren las
necesidades del tráfico, alternando los dos tipos de barcos, dando preferencia a la carga
en los super-fast-ferries y al pasaje con las embarcaciones de alta velocidad.
El umbral óptimo en velocidad está sobre los 23 nudos ya que la distancia entre la
península y la isla está alrededor de 130 millas, por lo tanto la travesía puede hacerse en
seis horas fácilmente, y en el caso de mal tiempo siempre quedaría una reserva para
ajustarse al horario preestablecido.
En la tabla 35 destacamos las características comerciales de las mismas embarcaciones
indicadas anteriormente, número de pasajeros, unidades de automóviles y metros
lineales para carga rodada.
Es muy importante en la actualidad dotar a las embarcaciones de transporte de pasajeros
la posibilidad del embarque de sus vehículos, es un servicio muy utilizado por los
visitantes a la isla.
Los metros lineales de carga es la característica que sufre mayores incrementos, no
siendo tan importante el número de pasajeros.
REGULAR LINES SHIPS CALLING IN THE PORT OF PALMA
SHIP
F. GARCIA LORCA
ABEL MATUTES
VISEMAR ONE
ZURBARAN
TENACIA
ALBAYZIN
MIRANDA
Nº of PASSENGERS
876
900
600
589
900
967
-
CARS
210
250
74
120
172
-
LINEAL M.
300
2000
2700
1800
2500
2247
1440
TYPE
FAST FERRY
RO-PAX
RO-PAX
RO-PAX
RO-PAX
RO-PAX
RO-RO
Tabla 35. Relación y características comerciales de los buques con escala en el
puerto de Palma de Mallorca. Fuente: Prácticos de Palma. Elaboración propia, año
2.013.
Las embarcaciones de alta velocidad en su lucha con el transporte aéreo deben realizar
la travesía en menos de cuatro horas, para que al usuario le compense en costes y
tiempo.
En cuanto al tamaño observamos que la mayoría están sobre los 1.900 metros lineales
de carga, tendiendo al alza con las nuevas incorporaciones del Borja y Borja Dos de
Balearia en el 2.007; para las embarcaciones de alta velocidad el baremo más adecuado
oscila sobre las 250 unidades de coches y los 900 pasajeros.
El barco convencional Ro-Ro sigue presente en todas las líneas y navieras, utilizándose
principalmente por su alta rentabilidad, ya que los costes de explotación son muy bajos
en comparación al resto de embarcaciones, y sirven para transportar la mercancía con
menor valor añadido y no perecedera que puede demorarse su entrega, y a la vez para
limpiar las campas portuarias de las sobrecargas que tienen algunas líneas en varios
periodos anuales.
PARAMETERS TO ASSESS THE VIABILITY OF PALMA DE MALLORCA AS
A Ro/Ro HUB.
CONCLUSIONS
The.
REFERENCES
[1] EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Trans european Transport networks. Directive
2001/12/EC. Brussels.
[2] Moreno Trobat, C. Análisis de la evolución del tráfico de transporte rodado en el
transporte marítimo de corta distancia en el Mediterráneo Occidental. Thesis Mater
degree. Facultat de Náutica de Barcelona, 2008
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ANALYSIS OF VIABILITY TO PROMOTE A HUB RO/RO TERMINAL