Directive 2008/99/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 November 2008 on the Protection of the Environment through Criminal Law by Member
States
Country:
Person(s) completing Table:
Spain
Date Table Completed:
February 2012
List of transposing national legislation (including legal reference and abbreviations used in TOC)

Organic Law 5/2010 of 22 June, amending Organic Law 10/1995, of 23 November (the Spanish Criminal Code)
Other abbreviations
 CA: competent authorities
 SC : Spanish Constitution
 SCC : Spanish Criminal Code
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Directive 2008/99/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 November 2008 on the Protection of the Environment through Criminal Law by Member
States
Table I
Main Table of Correspondence
Art.
EU Obligation
Article 1 Subject-matter
This Directive establishes measures relating
to criminal law in order to protect the
environment more effectively.
Article 2 Definitions
2
For the purpose of this Directive:
(a) ‘unlawful’ means infringing:
(i) the legislation adopted pursuant to the
EC Treaty and listed in Annex A; or
(ii) with regard to activities covered by the
Euratom Treaty, the legislation adopted
pursuant to the Euratom Treaty and listed in
Annex B; or
(iii) a law, an administrative regulation of a
Member State or a decision taken by a
competent authority of a Member State that
gives effect to the Community legislation
referred to in (i) or (ii);
(b) ‘protected wild fauna and flora species’
are:
(i) for the purposes of Article 3(f), those
listed in:
— Annex IV to Council Directive
92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the
conservation of natural habitats and of
wild fauna and flora,
— Annex I to, and referred to in Article
4(2) of Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2
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National
provision (legal
ref. & art.)
Complete text of national provision (in
language of Member State)
Translation into English of national provision
Article 5 SCC
No hay pena sin dolo o imprudencia
There is no criminal sanction without intent or
negligence.
Article 10 SCC
Son delitos o faltas las acciones y omisiones
dolosas o imprudentes penadas por la Ley.
Crimes or offenses are those acts and omissions
that are intentional or reckless and that are
punished by laws.
Será castigado con las penas de prisión de dos a
cinco años, multa de ocho a veinticuatro meses
e inhabilitación especial para profesión u oficio
por tiempo de uno a tres años el que,
contraviniendo las leyes u otras disposiciones
de carácter general protectoras del medio
ambiente, provoque o realice directa o
indirectamente […] que puedan perjudicar
gravemente el equilibrio de los sistemas
naturales […].
El que cace o pesque especies amenazadas,
realice actividades que impidan o dificulten su
reproducción o migración, o destruya o altere
gravemente su hábitat, contraviniendo las
leyes o disposiciones de carácter general
protectoras de las especies de fauna silvestre,
o comercie o trafique con ellas o con sus restos
[…]
Imprisonment for a period from two to five years, a
fine of eight to twenty four months and
inhabilitation for the exercise of a profession or
occupation for a time between one to three years
shall be imposed upon those whom, in
contravention of laws or other dispositions of
general character that are protective of the
environment, [...] that might seriously endanger the
balance of natural systems [...].
Article 325 SCC
Article 334.1
SCC
Whoever hunts or fishes threatened species,
perform activities that prevent or hinder
reproduction or migration, or destroy or severely
alter their habitats, contrary to law or general
regulations protecting wildlife species, or trades or
traffics with them or with their remains, […]
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Art.
EU Obligation
April 1979 on the conservation of wild
birds;
(ii) for the purposes of Article 3(g), those
listed in Annex A or B to Council
Regulation (EC) No 338/97 of 9 December
1996 on the protection of species of wild
fauna and flora by regulating trade therein;
National
provision (legal
ref. & art.)
Article 334.1
SCC
Article 332 SCC
(c) ‘habitat within a protected site’ means
any habitat of species for which an area is
classified as a special protection area
pursuant to Article 4(1) or (2) of Directive
79/409/EEC, or any natural habitat or a
habitat of species for which a site is
designated as a special area of conservation
pursuant to Article 4(4) of Directive
92/43/EEC;
d) ‘legal person’ means any legal entity
having such status under the applicable
national law, except for States or public
bodies exercising State authority and for
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Article 334.1
SCC
Article 338 SCC
Article 35
Spanish Civil
Code
Complete text of national provision (in
language of Member State)
El que cace o pesque especies amenazadas,
realice actividades que impidan o dificulten su
reproducción o migración, o destruya o altere
gravemente su hábitat, contraviniendo las
leyes o disposiciones de carácter general
protectoras de las especies de fauna silvestre,
o comercie o trafique con ellas o con sus restos
[…]
El que con grave perjuicio para el medio
ambiente corte, tale, queme, arranque, recolecte
o efectúe tráfico ilegal de alguna especie o
subespecie de flora amenazada o de sus
propágulos, o destruya o altere gravemente su
hábitat, será castigado con la pena de prisión de
cuatro meses a dos años o multa de ocho a 24
meses.
Translation into English of national provision
Whoever hunts or fishes threatened species,
perform activities that prevent or hinder
reproduction or migration, or destroy or severely
alter their habitats, contrary to law or general
regulations protecting wildlife species, or trades or
traffics with them or with their remains […]
Whoever cuts, fells, burn, boot, gather, or traffick
illegally with of any kind of species or sub-species
of threatened flora or with their propagules, or
destroys or severely alter their habitat, shall be
punished with the penalty of imprisonment for six
months to two years or a fine of eight to twenty
four months.
1. El que […] destruya o altere gravemente su
hábitat, contraviniendo las leyes o
disposiciones de carácter général protectoras
de las especies de fauna silvestre […]
1. Whoever [...] destroys or severely alter their
habitat, contrary to law or general regulations
protecting wildlife species [...]
Cuando las conductas definidas en este Título
afecten a algún espacio natural protegido, se
impondrán las penas superiores en grado a las
respectivamente previstas.
Son personas jurídicas:
1.
Las corporaciones, asociaciones y
fundaciones de interés público reconocidas por
la Ley.
When the conducts foreseen in this title affect a
habitat within a protected site, the sanctions
imposed will be one degree higher than those
originally foreseen.
Legal persons are:
1. Corporations, associations and foundations of
public
interest
recognized
by
law
Their personality begins from the very moment in
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Art.
EU Obligation
National
provision (legal
ref. & art.)
public international organisations.
Su personalidad empieza desde el instante
mismo en que, con arreglo a derecho, hubiesen
quedado válidamente constituidas.
2.
Las asociaciones de interés particular,
sean civiles, mercantiles o industriales, a las
que la ley conceda personalidad propia,
independiente de la de cada uno de los
asociados.
Article 31bis.5
SCC
Article 3 Offences
3
Member States shall ensure that the
following conduct constitutes a criminal
offence, when unlawful and committed
intentionally or with at least serious
negligence:
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Complete text of national provision (in
language of Member State)
Articles 5 and
10 SCC +
Title XVI SCC
Las disposiciones relativas a la responsabilidad
penal de las personas jurídicas no serán
aplicables al Estado, a las Administraciones
Públicas territoriales e institucionales, a los
Organismos Reguladores, las Agencias y
Entidades Públicas Empresariales, a las
organizaciones internacionales de derecho
público, ni a aquellas otras que ejerzan
potestades
públicas
de
soberanía,
administrativas o cuando se trate de Sociedades
mercantiles Estatales que ejecuten políticas
públicas o presten servicios de interés
económico general.
En estos supuestos, los órganos jurisdiccionales
podrán efectuar declaración de responsabilidad
penal en el caso de que aprecien que se trata de
una forma jurídica creada por sus promotores,
fundadores, administradores o representantes
con el propósito de eludir una eventual
responsabilidad penal.
Translation into English of national provision
which, according to law, they are validly
constituted.
2. The associations of particular interest, whether
civil, commercial or industrial, to which the law
accords its own personality, independent of each of
those natural persons associated to it.
The provisions on criminal liability applicable to
legal persons shall not apply to the State, the
territorial government and institutional, the
Regulatory Bodies, Agencies and public
enterprises, international organisations of law
public or to those which exercise public powers of
sovereignty, administrative or in the case of State
trading Companies running public policies or
providing services of general economic interest.
In those cases, the courts can declare criminal
responsibility when they come to the conclusion
that the legal person has been established by their
promoters, founders, managers or representatives,
with the purpose of eventually avoiding criminal
responsibility.
See text in relation to Article 2 Directive
2008/99/EC above
Los hechos previstos en este capítulo séran
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Art.
EU Obligation
National
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ref. & art.)
Article 331 SCC
Complete text of national provision (in
language of Member State)
sancionados, en su caso, con la pena inferior en
grado, en sus respectivos supuestos, cuando se
hayan cometido por imprudencia grave.
Los hechos previstos en los artículos anteriores
serán sancionados con la pena inferior en grado,
en sus respectivos supuestos, cuando se hayan
cometido por imprudencia grave.
3(a)
(a) the discharge, emission or introduction
of a quantity of materials or ionising
radiation into air, soil or water, which
causes or is likely to cause death or serious
injury to any person or substantial damage
to the quality of air, the quality of soil or
the quality of water, or to animals or plants;
Article 344 SCC
Article 343.1
SCC
1. El que mediante el vertido, la emisión o la
introducción en el aire, el suelo o las aguas de
una cantidad de materiales o de radiaciones
ionizantes, o la exposición por cualquier otro
medio a dichas radiaciones ponga en peligro la
vida, integridad, salud o bienes de una o varias
personas, será sancionado con la pena de prisión
de seis a doce años e inhabilitación especial
para empleo o cargo público, profesión u oficio
por tiempo de seis a diez años. La misma pena
se impondrá cuando mediante esta conducta se
ponga en peligro la calidad del aire, del suelo o
de las aguas o animales o plantas.
2. Cuando con ocasión de la conducta descrita
en el apartado anterior se produjere, además del
riesgo prevenido, un resultado lesivo
constitutivo de delito, cualquiera que sea su
gravedad, los jueces o tribunales apreciarán tan
sólo la infracción más gravemente penada,
aplicando la pena en su mitad superior.
3. Cuando de acuerdo con lo establecido en el
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Translation into English of national provision
The facts foreseen in this chapter shall be punished
with a penalty that shall be one degree lower than
the one that should in principle apply, taking into
account each criminal event, when they are
committed with recklessness.
The offenses referred to in the preceding articles
shall be liable to the penalty lower grade in their
respective situations, when it is committed with
recklessness.
1. Whoever discharges, emits or introduces into the
air, soil or water, a quantity of materials or ionizing
radiation, or causes the exposure, by any other
means, to levels of radiation that endangers the life,
integrity, health or assets of a person or persons,
shall be punished by imprisonment of six to twelve
years and specific disqualification from public
office, profession or trade for a period of six to ten
years. The same penalty shall be imposed when this
behavior endangers the quality of air, soil or water,
animals or plants.
2. When the conduct described in the previous
section produces, in addition to the risk prevented
an outcome of harm constituting a crime, whatever
its severity, courts or tribunals will appreciate only
the most severely punishable offense, and will
apply the penalty in its upper half.
3. When, in accordance with the provisions of
Article 31bis a legal person is responsible for the
offenses covered by this article, it shall be liable to
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Art.
3(b)
EU Obligation
(b) the collection, transport, recovery or
disposal of waste, including the supervision
of such operations and the aftercare of
disposal sites, and including action taken as
a dealer or a broker (waste management),
which causes or is likely to cause death or
serious injury to any person or substantial
damage to the quality of air, the quality of
soil or the quality of water, or to animals or
plants;
National
provision (legal
ref. & art.)
Article 343.2
SCC
Article 328.3
SCC
Complete text of national provision (in
language of Member State)
artículo 31 bis una persona jurídica sea I de los
delitos recogidos en este artículo, se le
impondrá la pena de multa de dos a cinco años.
pay a fine of two to five years.
3. Serán castigados con la pena de prisión de
uno a dos años los que en la recogida, el
transporte, la valorización, la eliminación o el
aprovechamiento de residuos, incluida la
omisión de los deberes de vigilancia sobre tales
procedimientos, pongan en grave peligro la
vida, integridad o la salud de las personas, o la
calidad del aire, del suelo o de las aguas, o a
animales o plantas.
3. Those who, through the collection, transport,
recovery, disposal or recycling of waste, including
the omission of the duties of supervision over such
procedures, seriously endanger the life, integrity or
health of persons, or air quality, soil or water,
animals or plants, shall be punished with
imprisonment of one to two years.
5. Cuando con ocasión de la conducta descrita
en el apartado anterior se produjere, además del
riesgo prevenido, un resultado lesivo
constitutivo de delito, cualquiera que sea su
gravedad, los jueces o tribunales apreciarán tan
sólo la infracción más gravemente penada,
aplicando la pena en su mitad superior.
3(c)
The shipment of waste, where this activity
falls within the scope of Article 2(35) of
Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the
European Parliament and of the Council of
14 June 2006 on shipments of waste and is
undertaken in a non-negligible quantity,
whether executed in a single shipment or in
several shipments which appear to be
linked;
Article 328.5
SCC
Article 328.4
SCC
Article 328.5
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Translation into English of national provision
4. El que contraviniendo las leyes u otras
disposiciones de carácter general traslade una
cantidad importante de residuos, tanto en el
caso de uno como en el de varios traslados que
aparezcan vinculados, será castigado con la
pena de prisión de uno a dos años.
5. Cuando con ocasión de la conducta descrita
en el apartado anterior se produjere, además del
riesgo prevenido, un resultado lesivo
constitutivo de delito, cualquiera que sea su
gravedad, los jueces o tribunales apreciarán tan
5. When the conduct described in the previous
section produces, in addition to the risk prevented
an outcome of harm constituting a crime, whatever
its severity, courts or tribunals will appreciate only
the most severely punishable offense, and will
apply the penalty in its upper half.
4. Those whom, in breach of law or other general
provisions move a significant amount of waste,
whether in one shipment or in several that appear to
be connected, shall be punished with imprisonment
of one to two years.
5. When the conduct described in the previous
section produces, in addition to the risk prevented
an outcome of harm constituting a crime, whatever
its severity, courts or tribunals will appreciate only
the most severely punishable offense, and will
apply the penalty in its upper half.
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States
Art.
3(d)
EU Obligation
(d) the operation of a plant in which a
dangerous activity is carried out or in which
dangerous substances or preparations are
stored or used and which, outside the plant,
causes or is likely to cause death or serious
injury to any person or substantial damage
to the quality of air, the quality of soil or
the quality of water, or to animals or plants;
National
provision (legal
ref. & art.)
SCC
Article 328.2
SCC
Complete text of national provision (in
language of Member State)
Translation into English of national provision
sólo la infracción más gravemente penada,
aplicando la pena en su mitad superior.
2. Con las mismas penas previstas en el
apartado anterior serán castigados quienes,
contraviniendo las leyes u otras disposiciones
de carácter general, lleven a cabo la explotación
de instalaciones en las que se realice una
actividad peligrosa o en las que se almacenen o
utilicen sustancias o preparados peligrosos y
que causen o puedan causar la muerte o lesiones
graves a personas, o daños sustanciales a la
calidad del aire, la calidad del suelo o la calidad
de las aguas, o a animales o plantas.
5. Cuando con ocasión de la conducta descrita
en el apartado anterior se produjere, además del
riesgo prevenido, un resultado lesivo
constitutivo de delito, cualquiera que sea su
gravedad, los jueces o tribunales apreciarán tan
sólo la infracción más gravemente penada,
aplicando la pena en su mitad superior.
2. The same penalties provided for in the previous
paragraph shall apply to those who, contrary to law
or other general provisions, carry out the operation
of facilities in which dangerous activities are
performed or in which hazardous substances or
dangerous preparations are stored or used, and
which either cause or are likely to cause death or
serious injury to persons or substantial damage to
air quality, soil quality or water quality, animals or
plants.
5. When the conduct described in the previous
section produces, in addition to the risk prevented
an outcome of harm constituting a crime, whatever
its severity, courts or tribunals will appreciate only
the most severely punishable offense, and will
apply the penalty in its upper half.
Article 328.5
SC
3(e)
(e) the production, processing, handling,
use, holding, storage, transport, import,
export or disposal of nuclear materials or
other hazardous radioactive substances
which causes or is likely to cause death or
serious injury to any person or substantial
damage to the quality of air, the quality of
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Article 345 SCC
1. El que se apodere de materiales nucleares o
elementos radiactivos, aun sin ánimo de lucro,
será sancionado con la pena de prisión de uno a
cinco años. La misma pena se impondrá al que
sin la debida autorización posea, trafique,
facilite, trate, transforme, utilice, almacene,
transporte o elimine materiales nucleares u otras
1. Whoever enters in possession of nuclear
materials or radioactive elements, even without an
intention to make a profit, shall be punished with
imprisonment of one to five years. The same
penalty shall be imposed upon whom, without
proper authorisation, posseses, trades, provide,
treat, process, use, store, transport or dispose of
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Art.
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National
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soil or the quality of water, or to animals or
plants;
Complete text of national provision (in
language of Member State)
sustancias radiactivas peligrosas que causen o
puedan causar la muerte o lesiones graves a
personas, o daños sustanciales a la calidad del
aire, la calidad del suelo o la calidad de las
aguas o a animales o plantas.
Translation into English of national provision
nuclear or other hazardous radioactive substances
which causes or may cause death or serious injury
to persons or subtantial damage to air quality, soil
quality or water quality, animals or plants.
2. If the conduct is executed by using force upon
things, the penalty will be imposed in the upper
half.
2. Si el hecho se ejecutara empleando fuerza en
las cosas, se impondrá la pena en su mitad
superior.
3. Si el hecho se cometiera con violencia o
intimidación en las personas, el culpable será
castigado con la pena superior en grado.
3. If the conduct is committed with violence or
intimidation against persons, the offender shall be
punished with the penalty inmediately higher in
grade.
4. Whoever, without authorisation, produces such
materials or substances shall be punished with the
penalty higher in grade.
4. El que sin la debida autorización produjere
tales materiales o sustancias será castigado con
la pena Superior en grado.
3(f)
(f) the killing, destruction, possession or
taking of specimens of protected wild fauna
or flora species, except for cases where the
conduct concerns a negligible quantity of
such specimens and has a negligible impact
on the conservation status of the species;
Article 334.1
SCC
1. El que cace o pesque especies amenazadas,
realice actividades que impidan o dificulten
su reproducción o migración, o destruya o
altere gravemente su hábitat, contraviniendo
las leyes o disposiciones de carácter général
protectoras de las especies de fauna silvestre,
o comercie o trafique con ellas o con sus restos,
sera castigado con la pena de prisión de cuatro
meses a dos años o multa de ocho a veinticuatro
meses y, en cualquier caso, la de inhabilitación
especial para profesion u oficio e inhabilitación
especial para el ejercicio del derecho de cazar o
pescar por tiempo de dos a cuatro años.
Whoever hunts or fishes threatened species,
perform activities that prevent or hinder
reproduction or migration, or destroy or severely
alter their habitats, contrary to law or general
regulations protecting wildlife species, or trades or
traffics with them or with their remains, shall be
punished with imprisonment of four months to two
years or a fine of eight to twenty four months and
in any case, with special inhabilitation to exercise a
a profession or occupation as well as to exercise the
right to hunt or fish for a period of two to four
years.
2. The penalty will be applied in its upper half in
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National
provision (legal
ref. & art.)
Complete text of national provision (in
language of Member State)
2. La pena se impondrá en su mitad superior si
se trata de especies o subespecies catalogadas
en peligro de extinción.
El que corte, tale, queme, arranque, recolecte,
efectue tráfico ilegal de alguna especie o
subespeeie de flora amenazada o de sus
propagulos, o destruya o altere gravemente su
habitat, será castigado con la pena de prisión de
seis meses a dos años o multa de ocho a
veinticuatro meses.
Translation into English of national provision
case of species of subspecies classified as
endangered species.
Whoever cuts, fells, burn, boot, gather, or traffick
illegally any kind of species or sub-species of
threatened flora or with their propagules, or
destroys or severely alter their habitat, shall be
punished with the penalty of imprisonment for six
months to two years or a fine of eight to twenty
four months.
Article 334.2
SSC
Article 332 Law
SCC
3(g)
(g) trading in specimens of protected wild
fauna or flora species or parts or derivatives
thereof, except for cases where the conduct
concerns a negligible quantity of such
specimens and has a negligible impact on
the conservation status of the species;
Article 334.1
SCC
1. El que […] comercie o trafique con ellas o
con sus restos, será castigado con la pena de
prisión de cuatro meses a dos años o multa de
ocho a veinticuatro meses y, en cualquier caso,
la de inhabilitación especial para profession u
oficio e inhabilitación especial para el ejercicio
del derecho de cazar o pescar por tiempo de dos
a cuatro años.
El que corte, tale, queme, arranque, recolecte,
efectue tráfico ilegal de alguna especie o
subespeeie de flora amenazada o de sus
propagulos, o destruya o altere gravemente su
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1. Whoever [...] trades or trafficks with them or
their parts or remains, shall be punished with
imprisonment of four months to two years or a fine
of eight to twenty four months and in any case,
with the special inhabilitation to exercise a a
profession or occupation and with the inhabilitation
to hunt or fish for a period of two to four years.
Whoever cuts, fells, burn, boot, gather, or traffick
illegally any kind of species or sub-species of
threatened flora or with their propagules, or
destroys or severely alter their habitat, shall be
punished with the penalty of imprisonment for six
months to two years or a fine of eight to twenty
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Art.
EU Obligation
National
provision (legal
ref. & art.)
Article 332
3(h)
3(i)
(h) any conduct which causes the
significant deterioration of a habitat within
a protected site;
(i) the production, importation, exportation,
placing on the market or use of ozonedepleting substances.
Article 4 Inciting, aiding and abetting
Member States shall ensure that inciting,
aiding and abetting the intentional conduct
referred to in Article 3 is punishable as a
criminal offence.
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Article 334.1
SCC
Article 338 SCC
Article 348.1
SCC
Article 28 SCC
Complete text of national provision (in
language of Member State)
Translation into English of national provision
habitat, será castigado con la pena de prisión de
seis meses a dos años o multa de ocho a
veinticuatro meses.
four months.
1. El que […] destruya o altere gravemente su
hábitat, contraviniendo las leyes o
disposiciones de carácter general protectoras
de las especies de fauna silvestre […]
1. Whoever [...] destroys or severely alter their
habitat, contrary to law or general regulations
protecting wildlife species [...]
Cuando las conductas definidas en este Título
afecten a algún espacio natural protegido, se
impondrán las penas superiores en grado a las
respectivamente previstas.
«1. Los que en la fabricación, manipulación,
transporte, tenencia o comercialización de
explosivos, sustancias inflamables o corrosivas,
tóxicas y asfixiantes, o cualesquiera otras
materias, aparatos o artificios que puedan causar
estragos, contravinieran las normas de
seguridad establecidas, poniendo en concreto
peligro la vida, la integridad física o la salud de
las personas, o el medio ambiente, serán
castigados con la pena de prisión de seis meses
a dos años, multa de doce a veinticuatro meses e
inhabilitación especial para empleo o cargo
público, u oficio por tiempo de seis a doce años.
Las mismas penas se impondrán a quien, de
forma ilegal, produzca, importe, exporte,
comercialice o utilice sustancias destructoras
del ozono.
When the conducts foreseen in this title affect a
habitat within a protected site, the sanctions
imposed will be one degree higher than those
originally foreseen.
Those who in the manufacture, handling, transport,
possession or sale of explosives, flammable or
corrosive, toxic, asphyxiating, or any other
materials, tools or devices or that can cause
damage, in contravention of established safety
standards, putting at concrete danger human life,
physical integrity or health or the environment,
shall be punished with imprisonment from six
months to three years, a fine of twelve to twenty
four months and disqualification for public office,
profession or occupation for a duration of six to
twelve years. The same penalties are imposed on
anyone who, illegally, produces, imports,
exports, sells or uses ozone-depleting substances.
Son autores quienes realizan el hecho por sí
solos, conjuntamente o por medio de otro del
que se sirven como instrumento.
Actors are those who make the criminal act alone,
jointly or through another person who serves as an
instrument.
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También serán considerados autores:
a) Los que inducen directamente a otro u otros a
ejecutarlo.
b) Los que cooperan a su ejecución con un acto
sin el cual no se habría efectuado.
Son cómplices los que, no hallándose
comprendidos en el artículo anterior, cooperan a
la ejecución del hecho con actos anteriores o
simultáneos.
Article 29 SCC
Articles 63 SCC
A los cómplices de un delito consumado o
intentado se les impondrá la pena inferior en
grado a la fijada por la Ley para los autores del
mismo delito.
Translation into English of national provision
Authors will also be considered:
a) those directly inducing another or others to
run it.
b) Those who cooperate in its implementation
with an act without which it would not have
happened.
Accomplices are those who, not being included in
the previous article, cooperate in the execution of
the act with previous or simultaneous acts.
The accomplices of a crime or an attempted crime
will be punished with a penalty lower in one degree
than that imposed by the Act to the authors on the
same crime.
The above rules will not be of aplication where the
attempt and conspiracy are especially punished by
law.
Las reglas anteriores no serán de aplicaci6n en
los casos en que la tentatıva y la complicidad se
hallen especıalmente penadas por la Ley.
Article 64 SCC
Article 5 Penalties
Member States shall take the necessary
measures to ensure that the offences
referred to in Articles 3 and 4 are
punishable by effective, proportionate and
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dissuasive criminal penalties.
Article 6 Liability of legal persons
1. Member States shall ensure that legal
persons can be held liable for offences
referred to in Articles 3 and 4 where such
offences have been committed for their
benefit by any person who has a leading
position within the legal person, acting
either individually or as part of an organ of
the legal person, based on:
(a) a power of representation of the legal
person;
(b) an authority to take decisions on behalf
of the legal person; or
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Translation into English of national provision
Article 31bis
SCC
1. En los supuestos previstos en este Código, las
personas
jurídicas
serán
penalmente
responsables de los delitos cometidos en
nombre o por cuenta de las mismas, y en su
provecho, por sus representantes legales y
administradores de hecho o de derecho.
In the situations foreseen in this code, legal persons
will be responsible for the crimes committed in
their name or on their behalf, and in their benefit,
by the legal representatives and administrators,
whether they were acting de iure or de facto.
Article 31bis
SCC
1. En los supuestos previstos en este Código, las
personas
jurídicas
serán
penalmente
responsables de los delitos cometidos en
nombre o por cuenta de las mismas, y en su
provecho, por sus representantes legales y
administradores de hecho o de derecho.
In the situations foreseen in this code, legal persons
will be responsible for the crimes committed in
their name or on their behalf, and in their benefit,
by the legal representatives and administrators,
whether they were acting de iure or de facto.
(c) an authority to exercise control within
the legal person.
Article 31bis
SCC
In the situations foreseen in this code, legal persons
will be responsible for the crimes committed in
their name or on their behalf, and in their benefit,
by the legal representatives and administrators,
whether they were acting de iure or de facto.
2. Member States shall also ensure that
legal persons can be held liable where the
lack of supervision or control, by a person
referred to in paragraph 1, has made
possible the commission of an offence
referred to in Articles 3 and 4 for the
benefit of the legal person by a person
under its authority.
Article 31 bis in
fine SCC
1. En los supuestos previstos en este Código, las
personas
jurídicas
serán
penalmente
responsables de los delitos cometidos en
nombre o por cuenta de las mismas, y en su
provecho, por sus representantes legales y
administradores de hecho o de derecho.
En los mismos supuestos, las personas jurídicas
serán también penalmente responsables de los
delitos cometidos, en el ejercicio de actividades
sociales y por cuenta y en provecho de las
mismas, por quienes, estando sometidos a la
autoridad de las personas físicas mencionadas
en el párrafo anterior, han podido realizar los
hechos por no haberse ejercido sobre ellos el
debido control atendidas las concretas
circunstancias del caso.
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In the same situations mentioned in the previous
paragraph, legal persons will also be responsible of
the criminal conduct carried out during the exercise
of the activities of the company, on its behalf and
for its benefit, by those whom, being under the
authority of the natural persons mentioned in the
previous paragraph, have been able to carry out
those criminal conducts by virtue of not having
been adequately supervised, taking into account the
particularities of each case.
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3. Liability of legal persons under
paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not exclude
criminal proceedings against natural
persons who are perpetrators, inciters or
accessories in the offences referred to in
Articles 3 and 4
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Article 31bis
SCC
Complete text of national provision (in
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2. La responsabilidad penal de las personas
jurídicas será exigible siempre que se constate
la comisión de un delito que haya tenido que
cometerse por quien ostente los cargos o
funciones aludidas en el apartado anterior, aun
cuando la concreta persona física responsable
no haya sido individualizada o no haya sido
posible dirigir el procedimiento contra ella.
Cuando como consecuencia de los mismos
hechos se impusiere a ambas la pena de multa,
los jueces o tribunales modularán las
respectivas cuantías, de modo que la suma
resultante no sea desproporcionada en relación
con la gravedad de aquéllos.
3. La concurrencia, en las personas que
materialmente hayan realizado los hechos o en
las que los hubiesen hecho posibles por no
haber ejercido el debido control, de
circunstancias que afecten a la culpabilidad del
acusado o agraven su responsabilidad, o el
hecho de que dichas personas hayan fallecido o
se hubieren sustraído a la acción de la justicia,
no excluirá ni modificará la responsabilidad
penal de las personas jurídicas, sin perjuicio de
lo que se dispone en el apartado siguiente.
Article 7 Penalties for legal persons
Member States shall take the necessary
measures to ensure that legal persons held
liable pursuant to Article 6 are punishable
by effective, proportionate and dissuasive
penalties.
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Article 33.7
SCC
7. Las penas aplicables a las personas jurídicas,
que tienen todas la consideración de graves, son
las siguientes :
a) Multa por cuotas o proporcional.
b) Disolución de la persona jurídica. La
disolución producirá la pérdida definitiva de su
Translation into English of national provision
Liability of legal persons will be actionable
whenever a criminal conduct has been carried out
by he who holds a position of auhority or carries
out functions of representation or management, [as
described in paragraph 1 of Article 31bis], even if it
is not possible to identify the natural person
responsible for the act or when that person cannot
be hold liable. When, as a consequence of the
criminal conduct, fines are imposed upon both the
natural and legal person, the courts will modulate
the amounts of the fines in order to enure that the
total amount is not out of proportion with the
gravity of the conduct.
3. The existence of circumstances reducing or
aggravating the criminal responsibility of those that
have either carried out the criminal conduct or
allowed others to carry it by not exercising
appropriate supervision over them—or even the
impossibility of making them responsible due to
their death or evasion of justice—will not exclude
or modify the criminal responsibility of the legal
persons, without prejudice to what is said in the
next paragraph.
7. The penalties incurred by legal persons, which
are all considered as serious are the following:
a) monetary fine,, imposed through quotas or in a
proportionate fashion.
b) Dissolution of the legal person. The dissolution
ultimately results in the loss of legal personality
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personalidad jurídica, así como la de su
capacidad de actuar de cualquier modo en el
tráfico jurídico, o llevar a cabo cualquier clase
de actividad, aunque sea licita.
c) Suspensión de sus actividades por un plazo
que no podrá exceder de cinco años.
d) Clausura de sus locales y establecimientos
por un plazo que no podrá exceder de cinco
años.
e) Prohibición de realizar en el futuro las
actividades en cuyo ejercicio se haya cometido,
favorecido o encubierto el delito. Esta
prohibición podrá ser temporal o definitiva. Si
fuere temporal, el plazo no podrá exceder de
quince años.
f) Inhabilitación para obtener subvenciones y
ayudas públicas, para contratar con el sector
público y para gozar de beneficios e incentivos
fiscales o de la Seguridad Social, por un plazo
que no podrá exceder de quince años.
g) Intervención judicial para salvaguardar los
derechos de los trabajadores o de los acreedores
por el tiempo que se estime necesario, que no
podrá excéder de cinco años.
La intervención podrá afectar a la totalidad de la
organización o limitarse a alguna de sus
instalaciones, secciones o unidades de negocio.
El Juez o Tribunal, en la sentencia o,
posteriormente, mediante auto, determinará
exactamente el contenido de la intervención y
determinará quién se hará cargo de la
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and of the capacity to conduct any business, or to
carry out any other class of conduct, even conducts
that are in themselves legally acceptable, .
c) suspension of its activities for a period not
exceeding five years.
d) Closure of premises and establishments for a
period
not
exceeding
five
years.
e) Prohibition of undertaking in the future those
activities in the exercise of which the crime has
been committed, encouraged or covered up. This
ban may be temporary or permanent. Should it be
temporary, the period may not exceed fifteen years.
f) prohibition to obtain public subsidies and aids, to
work with the public sector and to benefit from
fiscal benefits and incentives, as well as benefits
from the social security. The prohibition cannot
extend beyond a 15 years period ;
g) put the company in receivership, in order to
protect the rights of employees and creditors for as
long as it is deemeed necessary, but with a time
limit of 5 years.
The intervention may affect the entire organisation
or only some of its facilities, sections or business
units. The judge or court shall, in the judgment or
later, by order, determine the exact content of the
intervention and determine who will be responsible
for the intervention and in what time frame must
make progress reports to the court. The intervention
may be modified or suspended at any time after a
report of the auditor and the Public Prosecutor. The
auditor shall be entitled to access all facilities and
premises of the company or legal person and to
receive any information deemed necessary for the
exercise of their functions. Regulations shall define
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intervención y en qué plazos deberá realizar
informes de seguimiento para el órgano judicial.
La intervención se podrá modificar o suspender
en todo momento previo informe del interventor
y del Ministerio Fiscal. El interventor tendrá
derecho a acceder a todas las instalaciones y
locales de la empresa o persona jurídica y a
recibir cuanta información estime necesaria para
el
ejercicio
de
sus
funciones.
Reglamentariamente se determinarán los
aspectos relacionados con el ejercicio de la
función de interventor, como la retribución o la
cualificación necesaria.
La clausura temporal de los locales o
establecimientos, la suspensión de las
actividades sociales y la intervención judicial
podrán ser acordadas también por el Juez
Instructor como medida cautelar durante la
instrucción de la causa.
1. La pena de multa consistira en la imposición
al condenado de una sanción pecuniaria.
2. La pena de multa se impondrá, salvo que la
Ley disponga otra cosa, por et sistema de diasmulta.
3. Su extensión mínima será de diez días y la
máxima de dos años. Las penas de multa
imponibles a personas jurídicas tendrán una
extensión máxima de cinco años.
4. La cuota diaria tendrá un mínimo de dos y un
máximo de 400 euros, excepto en el caso de las
multas imponibles a las personas jurídicas, en
las que la cuota diaria tendrá un mínimo de 30 y
un máximo de 5.000 euros. A efectos de
cómputo, cuando se fije la duración por meses o
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the financial aspects of the role of controller, such
as compensation and the necessary qualifications.
The temporary closure of the premises or facilities,
suspension of the social and judicial intervention
also may be granted by the trial judge as a
precautionary measure during the investigation of
the cause.
1. The fine will consist in imposing on the
convicted
person
a
monetary
sanction.
2. The fine will be imposed, unless the law
provides otherwise, through the system of finedays.
3. Its minimum extension is ten days and the
maximum two years. The fines imposed to legal
persons will have a maximum extension of five
years.
4. The daily quota will have a minimum of two and
a maximum of 400 euros, except in the case of
fines imposed upon legal persons, in which case the
daily rate shall be at least 30 and at most 5,000
euros. For the purposes of calculation, when setting
the time for months or years, months are considered
to have thirty days and years to have three hundred
and sixty days.
1. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, and
when the Code so provides, the fine will be set in
proportion to the damage caused, the value of the
crime or the benefit generated by it.
2. In these cases, in the application of fines the
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por años, se entenderá que los meses son de
treinta días y los años de trescientos sesenta.
1. No obstante lo dispuesto en los articulos
anteriores y cuando el Código así lo determine,
la multa se establecerá en proporción al dano
causado, el valor del objeto del delito o el
beneficio reportado por el mismo.
2. En estos casos, en la aplicación de las multas,
los Jueces y Tribunales podran recorrer toda la
extensión en que la Ley permita imponerlas,
considerando para determinar en cada caso su
cuantia, no sólo las circunstancias atenuantes y
agravantes del hecho, sino principalmente la
situación económica del culpable.
3. Si, después de la sentencia, empeorase la
situación económica del penado, el juez o
tribunal, excepcionalmente y tras la debida
indagación de dicha situación, podrá reducir el
importe de la multa dentro de los límites
señalados por la ley para el delito de que se
trate, o autorizar su pago en los plazos que se
determinen.
Article 50 SCC
4. En los casos en los que este Código prevé
una pena de multa para las personas jurídicas en
proporción al beneficio obtenido o facilitado, al
perjuicio causado, al valor del objeto, o a la
cantidad defraudada o indebidamente obtenida,
de no ser posible el cálculo en base a tales
conceptos, el Juez o Tribunal motivará la
imposibilidad de proceder a tal cálculo y las
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Courts will be able to impose the fine at any level
within the range foreseen in the Code, taking into
account not only mitigating and aggravating
circumstances, but mainly the economic situation
of the offender.
3. If, after the judgment, the economic situation of
the offender worsens, the judge or court,
exceptionally and after due inquiry of the situation,
may reduce the amount of the fine within the limits
prescribed by law for the offence in question, or
authorise its payment in installements to be
determined.
4. In those cases where this Code provides for a
fine for legal persons in proportion to the benefit
received or provided, the damage caused, the value
of the object, or the amount defrauded or
wrongfully obtained, if it is not possible to
calculate the fine on the basis of those concepts, the
judge or court will motivate the impossibility of
carrying out such a calculation and the fines
provided will be replaced by the following:
a) A fine of two to five years if the offence
committed by the individual carries with it a prison
sentence of more than five years.
b) A fine of one to three years if the offence
committed by the natural person carries a prison
sentence of more than two years not included in the
preceding paragraph.
c) a fine of six months to two years in the other
cases.
5. The payment of the fine imposed upon a legal
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multas previstas se sustituirán por las
siguientes:
a) Multa de dos a cinco años, si el delito
cometido por la persona física tiene prevista una
pena de prisión de más de cinco años.
b) Multa de uno a tres años, si el delito
cometido por la personafísica tiene prevista una
pena de prisión de más de dos años no incluida
en el inciso anterior.
c) Multa de seis meses a dos años, en el resto de
los casos.
Article 52 SCC
5. Podrá ser fraccionado el pago de la multa
impuesta a una persona jurídica, durante un
período de hasta cinco años, cuando su cuantía
ponga probadamente en peligro la supervivencia
de aquélla o el mantenimiento de los puestos de
trabajo existentes en la misma, o cuando lo
aconseje el interés general. Si la persona
jurídica
condenada
no
satisficiere,
voluntariamente o por vía de apremio, la multa
impuesta en el plazo que se hubiere señalado, el
Tribunal podrá acordar su intervención hasta el
pago total de la misma.
Sólo podrán considerarse circunstancias
atténuantes de la responsabilidad penal de las
personas jurídicas haber realizado, con
posterioridad a la comisión del delito y a través
de sus representantes legales, las siguientes
actividades:
a) Haber procedido, antes de conocer que el
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person may be split for a period of five years,
where it is proven that paying the fine at once
would put at risk the survival of the legal person or
the maintenance of existing jobs in it, or when it is
necessary to protect the public interest. If the legal
person failed to pay, voluntarily or otherwise, the
fine imposed within which the time frame
established by the court, the Court may order that
the firm is subject under supervision until full
payment is made thereof.
The only circumstances that can mitigate the
liability of legal persons are having undertaken,
after the commission of the crime and through their
legal representatives, the following activities:
a) to confess to the public authorities the crime
before knowing that legal proceedings have been
brought
against
it.
b) to collaborate in the investigation of the facts by
providing, at any stage of the process, new and
decisive evidence to clarify the criminal liabilities
arising from the facts.
c) to have undertaken, at any time during the
procedure and prior to the trial, actions conducive
to repair or reduce the harm caused by crime.
d) to have established, before the start of the trial,
effective measures to prevent and detect crimes in
the future that could be committed with the means
or under the cover of the legal person.
In the application of the penalty, the judges or
courts shall observe, depending on the existence of
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procedimiento judicial se dirige contra ella, a
confesar la infracción a las autoridades.
b) Haber colaborado en la investigación del
hecho aportando pruebas, en cualquier
momento del proceso, que fueran nuevas y
decisivas para esclarecer las responsabilidades
penales dimanantes de los hechos.
c) Haber procedido en cualquier momento del
procedimiento y con anterioridad al juicio oral a
reparar o disminuir el daño causado por el
delito.
d) Haber establecido, antes del comienzo del
juicio oral, medidas eficaces para prevenir y
descubrir los delitos que en el futuro pudieran
cometerse con los medios o bajo la cobertura de
la persona jurídica.
En la aplicación de la pena, los Jueces o
Tribunales observarán, segun haya o no
circunstancias atenuantes
o agravantes, las siguientes reglas:
1. Cuando no concurrieren circunstancias
atenuantes ni agravantes o cuando concurran
unas y otras, los
Jueces o Tribunales individualizaran la pena
imponiendo la senalada por la Ley en la
extensión adecuada a las
circunstancias personales del delincuente y a la
mavor o menor gravedad del hecho,
razonándolo en la sentencia.
2. Cuando concurra, solo alguna circunstancia
atenuante, los Jueces o Tribunales no podrán
rebasar en la aplicación de la pena la mitad
inferior de laque fije la Ley para el delito.
3. Cuando concurran una o varias circunstancias
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mitigating
circumstances
or
aggravating
circumstances, the following rules:
1. When there are no mitigating or aggravating
circumstances or where there are both mitigating
and aggravating circumstances, the judges or courts
shall impose the penalty prescribed by law to the
extent appropriate to the personal circumstances of
the offender and the seriousness of the crime, and
shall motivate the decision in the judgment.
2. When there is only one mitigating circumstance,
the judges or courts may only impose the penalty
within the lower half established by the law.
3. If there are one or more aggravating
circumstances, judges or courts shall impose the
penalty within the upper half established by the
law.
4. When there are two or more mitigating
circumstances or a single, very qualified one, the
court or tribunal, may, with proper motivation,
impose the penalty lower by one or two degrees
than the one prescribed by the law, applied to the
extent they are deemed appropriate in accordance
to the entity and number of such circumstances.
In the application of penalties to legal persons, the
rules established in Article 66.1 to 66.4 and Article
66.6 to 66.8, shall be observed, as well as the
following ones:
1.ª In cases where those who come established by
the provisions of Book II, to decide on the
imposition and extension of the penalties provided
in Article 33.7 subparagraphs b) to g) the following
shall
be
taken
into
account:
a) The need to prevent the continuation of the
criminal
activity
or
its
effects.
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agravantes, los jueces o Tribunales impondran
la pena en la mitad superior de la establecida
por la Ley.
4. Cuando sean dos o mas las circunstancias
atenuantes o una sola, muv cualificada. los
Jueces o Tribunales, razonándolo
en la
sentencia, podran imponer la pena ınferior en
uno o dos grados a la senalada por la Ley,
aplicándola en la extensión que estimen
pertinente, segun la entidad y número de dichas
circunstancias.
En la aplicación de las penas impuestas a las
personas jurídicas se estará a lo dispuesto en las
reglas 1.ª a 4.ª y 6.ª a 8.ª del primer número del
artículo 66, así como a las siguientes:
1.ª En los supuestos en los que vengan
establecidas por las disposiciones del Libro II,
para decidir sobre la imposición y la extensión
de las penas previstas en las letras b) a g) del
apartado 7 del artículo 33 habrá de tenerse en
cuenta:
a) Su necesidad para prevenir la continuidad de
la actividad delictiva o de sus efectos.
b) Sus consecuencias económicas y sociales, y
especialmente los efectos para los trabajadores.
c) El puesto que en la estructura de la persona
jurídica ocupa la persona física u órgano que
incumplió el deber de control.
2.ª Cuando las penas previstas en las letras c) a
g) del apartado 7 del artículo 33 se impongan
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b) The economic and social consequences of the
fines, and especially their impacts on employees.
c) The position that the natural person holds within
structure of the legal person or of the organ that
breached the duty of control.
2. ª When the penalties provided for in Article 33.7
subparagraphs c) to g) are imposed for a limited
duration, the latter can not exceed the maximum
period of imprisonment provided for the case where
the offense was committed by an individual.
For the imposition of sanctions provided for in
subparagraphs c) to g) for a period exceeding two
years it will be necessary under any of the
following two circumstances:
a) The legal person is a repeat offender.
b) The legal person is used instrumentally to
commit criminal acts. It is understood that this is
the case when the legal activity of the legal person
is less relevant than its illegal activity.
For the permanent imposition of the sanctions
provided for in Article 33.7 subparagraphs b) and
e), and for the imposition, for a term exceeding five
years, of the sanctions provided for in Article 33.7
subparagraphs e) and f), one of the following two
circumstances must apply:
a) That the situation considered in Article 66.5
applies.
b) The legal person is used instrumentally to
commit criminal acts. This is considered to be the
case when the legal activity of the legal person is
less relevant than its illegal activity.
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con una duración limitada, ésta no podrá
exceder la duración máxima de la pena privativa
de libertad prevista para el caso de que el delito
fuera cometido por persona física.
Article 31.4
SCC
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Para la imposición de las sanciones previstas en
las letras c) a g) por un plazo superior a dos
años será necesario que se dé alguna de las dos
circunstancias siguientes:
a) Que la persona jurídica sea reincidente.
b) Que la persona jurídica se utilice
instrumentalmente para la comisión de ilícitos
penales. Se entenderá que se está ante este
último supuesto siempre que la actividad legal
de la persona jurídica sea menos relevante que
su actividad ilegal.
Para la imposición con carácter permanente de
las sanciones previstas en las letras b) y e), y
para la imposición por un plazo superior a cinco
años de las previstas en las letras e) y f) del
apartado 7 del artículo 33, será necesario que se
dé alguna de las dos circunstancias siguientes:
a) Que se esté ante el supuesto de hecho
previsto en la regla 5.ª del primer número del
artículo 66.
b) Que la persona jurídica se utilice
instrumentalmente para la comisión de ilícitos
penales. Se entenderá que se está ante este
último supuesto siempre que la actividad legal
de la persona jurídica sea menos relevante que
su actividad ilegal.
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Article 66 SCC
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Article 66 bis
SCC
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Article 8 Transposition
Art.8(1) 1. Member States shall bring into force the
laws, regulations and administrative
provisions necessary to comply with this
Directive before 26 December 2010.
When Member States adopt these measures,
they shall contain a reference to this
Directive or be accompanied by such a
reference on the occasion of their official
publication. Member States shall determine
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Final
Disposition
No.7
Law 5/2010
Preamble,
Section
XXI,
Law 5/2010
Complete text of national provision (in
language of Member State)
Disposición final séptima. Entrada en vigor.
La presente Ley Orgánica entrará en vigor a los
seis meses de su completa publicación en el
«Boletín Oficial del Estado.
Las modificaciones en los delitos contra el
medio ambiente responden a la necesidad de
acoger elementos de armonización normativa de
la Unión Europea en este ámbito. De
conformidad con las obligaciones asumidas, se
Translation into English of national provision
This organic law will enter into force six months
after its publication in the Official Journal
The amendments [hereby made] to the
environmental criminal acts [mentioned in this
code] are made in order to transpose [into domestic
law] the harmonizing provisions from EU law. In
conformity with the obligatinos under EU law, this
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States
Art.
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how such reference is to be made.
National
provision (legal
ref. & art.)
Complete text of national provision (in
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produce una agravación de las penas y se
incorporan a la legislación penal española los
supuestos previstos en la Directiva 2008/99/CE
de 19 de noviembre, relativa a la protección del
medio ambiente mediante el Derecho penal.
code is amended to aggravate the criminal
sanctions included in it and to incorporate into
Spanish criminal law the conducts included in
Directive 2008/99/EC, relative to the protection of
the environment through criminal law.
Art.8(2)
2. Member States shall communicate to the
Commission the text of the main provisions
of national law which they adopt in the
field covered by this Directive and a table
indicating the correlation between those
provisions and this Directive.
Article 9 Entry into force
This Directive shall enter into force on the
20th day following
its publication in the Official Journal of the
European Union.
Article 10 Addressees
This Directive is addressed to the Member
States.
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February 2012 Person(s) completing Table