INTERNATIONAL PANORAMA
EVENT
YEAR STEPS
ACTORS
Revolution
Depression
*
17−45
Wartime
Comrades
Alliances
Anticommunist forces,
Germany, Russia
Stalin, Roosevelt, Hitler,
Churchill
Summits
CAUSES
EFFECTS
Joseph Stalin rises to
Lenin's death,
power, make the Great
intent to oust the
Purge
Bolsheviks
Soviet Union's five−year
Great depression
plans for economic
of 29
development by Stalin.
New Deal by Roosevelt
The
non−aggression
Start the Second World
pact with Berlin.
War
German troops
Stalingrad´s battle
storm into Poland,
invade Russia
Soviets will attack Japan
once Germany is defeated.
"Big Three"
Soviet and U.S. troops
meeting in Yalta
meet cutting Germany in
two.
Roosevelt's death
US drops an
atomic bomb on
Hiroshima and
Nagasaki
* Iron
curtain
45−47 Homecomings
Conquered
divided
Allies, Germany
End of the war
Truman rises to power in
US
Japan is destroyed. End of
the World War II.
American economy and
government was
revitalized. Troops come
home
Stalin, Truman, Churchill Germany is
divided in Four
occupation zones
Soviet control
by Allies setting Germans are expelled
from Allies countries
up a sector in
Berlin
Warnings
Soviets created a series of
Truman's doctrine
Communist and satellite states.
capitalist looks
US was alert. Declaration
for control
of Churchill, and Truman
Stalin commented in college in Fulton that
said that the political and
that capitalism
and imperialism ideological divide between
made future wars the Soviets and the West
inevitable.
as the Cold War began.
Churchill's "Iron The tensions grow
Curtain" speech between the Soviet Union
and former allies
1
Truman shows his new
Truman Doctrine
* Marshall 47−52 Post War Europe Truman, Europe, George Europe was in
Many in Western Europe
Marshall, Russia
chaos, national
plan
considered communism as
Truman Doctrine
economies remain an end to the hard life and
in ruin
injustices
George Marshall
Britain informs to US authorize $400 million
The Plan
that London is
in aid for Turkey and
ending aid to
Greece. Truman establish
Coup
Greece and
a clear distinction between
Turkey
the capitalist and
Aid to Europe
communist
George Marshall
Fear and
gone whit the
The talks in Moscow go
Response
other allies in
nowhere.
Moscow, in an
attempt to
Russia accuses the West of
determine the
working to divide Europe
future of
into two hostile camps
then−occupied
Germany.
A communist coup topples
the government of
The Marshall
Czechoslovakia
Plan offers
billions of dollars Many dollars back into the
in U.S. aid to
American economy
European
countries
The Soviet Union put its
including those eyes on Italy and France.
under Soviet
US was afraid that Italy
occupation.
could change to the
communism and started a
Soviets
campaign of covert
established
operations from the newly
COMECON, the formed CIA. Democracy
Warsaw Pact's
won in Italy
version of an
economic trading
bloc.
The Marshall
agency spends
$13.5 billion in
16 countries. In
turn, Europe's
purchase of U.S.
goods and
machinery brings
The Soviet Union
urges its
2
communist
colleagues in
Western Europe
to take action
against the
Marshall Plan.
The Nazis'
once−proud
capital, reduced to
a pile of rubble by
Allied anger, is
down to its bare
essentials.
* Berlin
48−49
The Western
Allies impose a
counter−blockade
on the Soviet
zone. The Soviets
hope to starve the
West out of Berlin
* Korea
49−53 Both North
Korean leader
Kim Il Sung and
his South Korean
counterpart,
Syngman Rhee,
dreamed of
reunifying the
peninsula under
their respective
Soviet troops harass West
Berliners who go to the
eastern zone. And in
September, a communist
attempt to take over the
The Berlin airlift
Divided germany
city council sparks mass
brings a new
protests −− which end in
Currency reform
mindset to the
violence.
Western Allies,
Airlift
who start thinking
At least 79 people,
of West Germany
including 31 Americans,
New allies west east
as an ally, rather
39 British and nine
than an occupied
Germans, had lost their
Blockade ends
territory.
lives, mostly in plane
crashes. But the
confrontation proved to be
only the opening act in the
decades−long Cold War.
The surrender of The United States took
The conflict on the
Korean peninsula with the Japan at the end advantage of a Soviet
of World War II boycott of the United
interview of Germany,
also meant an end
Nations to have the U.N.
China, U.S.S.R. and
Security Council condemn
to 35 years of
U.S.A.
North Korean aggression
Japanese
occupation in
−− and create a U.N.
Korea. As they
had in Germany, military force that would
defend South Korea.
Soviet
governments. But
Kim acted first.
He pleaded with
Stalin, who −−
after first
and U.S. troops
liberated Korea
−− and agreed to
divide the nation
along
rejecting the idea
−− helped North
Korean forces
plan for the
invasion of
the 38th parallel
as a temporary
measure.
the South.
In November
1950, after
But as both sides
withdrew their
troops, they also
set up rival
governments,
Stalin also was heartened
by the communist victory
in China in 1949 and
believed it was time to
open an Asian front
against capitalism. On
June
25, 1950, the North
Korean army rolled south
in a surprise assault.
By the summer of 1951
armistice talks began. It
wasn't until July 1953,
3
repeated warnings
through
diplomatic
channels, China
creating the
Democratic
People's Republic
of Korea in the
North, and the
attacked −−
sending the
surprised U.N.
forces reeling
southward.
Republic of
Korea in the
South.
Hollywood
Whitch hunts
USSR and USA
47−53
Rosenbergs
Conformity
Stalin
* After
Stalin
53−56 Stalin
East Germany,
nato/polan,
Hungary
crackdown.
Stalin, that a cease−fire
was finally agreed to.
Despite the armistice,
the Korean peninsula
remains divided to this day
−− and a potential global
flashpoint.
Dead or dissapeer of
important people of the
countries.
Fear
* Reds
after months of pointless
fighting and the death of
Soviet dictator Joseph
Nikita Khrushchev,
Walter Ulbricht, Konrad
Adenauer, Britain and
France, Imre Nagy.
To influence the
USSR erected walls in the
nations about the
cities to close theirs limits.
communism by
massive
Dead of Stalin
campaigns.
USSR obtained the secrets
to make nuclear weapons
and guns.
In 1953, the death Nikita Khrushchev, would
of Soviet dictator soon rise to the top of the
Soviet hierarchy. Anger
Joseph Stalin
creates a power over strict production
quotas boiled over in June
vacuum in the
1953. In September 1953,
Kremlin's
leadership. It also Konrad.
unleashes a wave
Adenauer was re−elected
of unrest in
Eastern Europe, chancellor of West
Germany. With U.S.
as some Soviet
satellites test the backing, Adenauer
persuaded Britain and
limits of
France to allow West
Moscow's
tolerance. DEAD Germany into NATO, the
Western military alliance.
OF STALIN
Students in Hungary's
AND A
capital of Budapest
VACUUM OF
launched a more serious
POWER.
challenge to Soviet rule,
Hungarians believed they
had won their revolution.
Thousands were killed in
the crackdown. Nagy was
arrested and eventually
executed. Two hundred
4
thousand Hungarians fled
the country. Khrushchev
had re−enforced the Iron
Curtain.
The start of the nuclear
arms race between the
Cold War rivals. U−2 was
shot down by the Soviet
military.
Duck−Cover,
Sputnik
Catch−Up,
* Sputnik 49−61
U−2,
Disaster/
United States, USSR,
Dwight Eisenhower,
Werner von Braun,
United States,
Sovietic Union,
Dwight
Eisenhower,
Werner von
Braun,
On April 12, 1961,
Gagarin achieved
international acclaim when
he became the first human
to be launched into space.
They tested the world's
first intercontinental
ballistic missile in May
1957.
Triumph
And on October 4 of that
year they surprised the
world by launching
Sputnik −− the world's
first satellite.
For years, West Khrushchev issued a new
United States, West
* The wall 58−63 Berlin
demand, calling on the
Berlin was an
Berlin, East Germany,
escape route for Western powers to
Khrushche,
Khrushchev,
withdraw from Berlin, he
Eisenhower−Khrushchev, East Germans
met with President
seeking to flee
German leader Walter
East Germany
communism. But Eisenhower.
Ulbricht, John F.
growing Cold
The Wall Divided. Kennedy,
A second
War tensions
forced the Soviet Eisenhower−Khrushchev
summit collapsed, Every
bloc to erect a
deadly blockade month, thousands of East
across the city −− Germans fled across the
open Berlin border and
a Wall that
divided Berlin for took refuge in the West. ,
nearly three
Kennedy's attempted
decades.
invasion of Castro's Cuba,
at the Bay of Pigs, failed
miserably. On the morning
of August 13, 1961, East
German and Soviet troops
sealed the East Berlin side
of the border, closing
crossing points and
erecting barricades.
5
Berlin was divided. the
Wall remained a symbol of
the Cold War's cruelty and
Europe's division.
Complete trade embargo
against Cuba.
* Cuba
Revolution
Defeat Batista.
Nationalization
Nationalized the
U.S.−owned
refineries
Bay Of Pigs
USA,Cuba, USSR,
Missile Crisis
Batista, JFK, Castro
59−62
Castro takes
government.
At The Brink
Cuba decides buy
oil to USSR
A Way Out
* Vietnam 54−68 Divided
Iron fists
Overthrow
Gulf of ton kin
Escalation
Quagmire
Vietnam
USA
Cubans leave their
country.
USA invades cuba.
Cuba resists and attack
Usa army. Cuba wins.
USSR helps Cuba giving
missiles that are
discovered.
USA promises not attack
Cuba, they make a deal
and panic is over. Missiles
are retired from Cuba and
peace come back.
Kennedy sent American
The nationalist
movement led by military advisers to South
Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh
While the people of
Saigon initially responded
with enthusiasm to Diem's
overthrow, the coup left
the country with no clear
President John F. leader.
Kennedy, after
The incident prompted
suffering a
Johnson to push the Gulf
setback against
the communists in of Ton kin Resolution
Cuba and trying through Congress. The
measure allowed LBJ to
to control the
crisis in Berlin, wage war in Vietnam. The
wanted to show war cost thousand
morelifes.
U.S. resolve in
Asia. the
primitive but
highly effective
supply line that
linked North
Vietnam with its
fighters and
supporters in the
South. But the
Groups such as
the Viet Cong
were encouraged
by Moscow. U.S.
6
* Mad
* Make
love, not
war
tactic failed.
With Cold War
tensions
heightening at the
The consecuences in this
start of the 1960s,
period, final with the
the superpowers
creation of anti−missils
are drawn into an
On alert, buildup,
between the two nations
escalating arms
close call,
The United States and the
EUA and USSR, because
60−72
race.
deterrence,
USSR (John f. Kennedy)
they need a protection
anti−missiles
after the desarmy in Cuba,
The world's safety
they want to maintain the
depends on a
peace in his own nations
nuclear paradox
with the anti−missils
known as "mutual
assured
destruction."
Young men of draft age
Kennedy was
John F. Kennedy
60´S Kennedy's
were turning on, tuning in
assassinated in
Election
November 1963. and dropping out.
George Wallace
Economic
American ideals Protests against the war
Edgar Hoover
depression
were growing, some black
of political
activists trained as
freedom were
Discrimination
paramilitaries in what they
now being
extended into the saw as a civil war against a
Kennedy's death
racist police force
personal realm
The Cold War, and the war
While some
Americans went in Vietnam
off to war in
Vietnam, others
were challenging
what was termed
"the
Establishment."
The protesters
gathered in city
parks in
preparation for a
march on the
convention hall.
But Chicago
Mayor Richard
Daley had no
intention of
allowing them to
take over the
convention . On
the day the
Democrats were
due to nominate
7
* Red
spring
* China
60´S
49−72
their presidential
candidate, the
demonstrators
battled with
police.
In the 1960s, as
dissent and
protest swept
through the West,
nations of the
Warsaw Pact
were
experimenting
with reforms. But
khrushchev,
hopes for change
Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet
Catching up,
were crushed by
people, Leonid Brezhnev,
Ouster/Unrest,
palace coups and,
Czechoslovak, Alexander
Red Spring, Bear
in the case of
Dubcek.
Claw.
Czechoslovakia,
outright invasion.
China's new rulers
embarked on
radical land
reforms
China
One million
people lost their
lives.
* Détente 69−75
* Good
and bad
guys
SLOW DOWN
COMP
67−78 NIXON
PRESIDENT
All the world
Richard Nixon
: Khrushchev boasted the
U.S.S.R. would overtake
America in production of
meat, milk and grain.
More and more Russians,
meanwhile, were getting a
taste of such amenities as
the company picnic −−
and paid vacations at
resorts run by the
Communist Party and
trade unions. In October
1964, Khrushchev was
deposed. Stability was
restored in the Soviet
Union. One of the first
Actors: Nikita
changes in Czechoslovakia
Khrushchev,
that year was an end to
Soviet people,
censorship. The
Leonid Brezhnev, Czechoslovak experiment,
Czechoslovak,
the most daring attempt to
Alexander
marry communism with
Dubcek.
democracy, had failed.
China feared an attack on
Led by Mao
its own territory. In
Tse−tung, the
conclusion what we can
communists
say is that the war between
establish the
People's Republic oriental countries and the
Americans and Europe
of China.
countries was a terrible
success
Actors:
Soviet leaders
The most public symbol of
hoped to
the new relationship
guarantee the
U.S.S.R.'s security between the rival
and world−power superpowers was the
Apollo−Soyuz project. In
status with a
treaty that would space, cooperation was
recognize the
replacing years of Cold
postwar division War confrontation.
of Europe
The Cold War
The Arab threat from
takes on a new
Egypt against Israel had
dimension as the become intense, Nasser
Soviet Union, the and the Arab states wanted
United States and to destroy Israel but the
8
their allies
become involved
in wars between
rivals in Africa
and the Middle
East.
Soviet Union did
not.(1967)
For the Soviets, better ties
with America outweighed
Moscow's commitments to
the Arabs.
Against Moscow's advice,
Somalia prepared for war
with Ethiopia.
*
54−90 ANTI−WAR
Backyard
* Freeze
Nixon
77−81 DÉTENTE
Communist Party
RECOGNITION
After World War
II, growing
nationalism in
Central and South
America led to
greater
resentment
against the United
States.
Che Guevara −− who went
to Mexico, where he met
Cuban rebel leader Fidel
Castro. Arbenz wasn't a
communist, but some of
his allies were. The
superpower struggle in
Central America had given
In 1950, Jacobo way to a quiet revolution
Arbenz was voted at the ballot box.
Guatemala's
president.
Arms Talks: The
Looking for a
governors of the two
Panacea that
nations made a meet for
could stops the
Cold War, USA solve all the frictions
between the countries in
and the Soviet
Union promised order to protect the human
rights establish the limits
to reduce the
tensions reducing of the arsenals.
and controling the
Human Rights: A reason
arms.
for the aparent relax was
the brutal break of the
human rights, like in
mental hospitals, where
mind−control drugs were
used to make them recant.
Salt II: The Salt II was the
negotiation for a new arms
limitation that paid special
atention to the new
medium−range nuclear
missile.
Malaise: The people from
the two sides feel bad with
the desicion, especially
9
because it didn't do what
was promised.
Solidarity: As support for
Solidarity spread
throughout the world, the
movement became
increasingly defiant.
Moscow watched with
growing alarm.
* Soldiers 75−88 DIPLOMATIC
of god
GAMES
Henry Kissinger, were the In the 1970s,
architects of the new U.S. Afghanistan
became a focus of
superpower
rivalry.
Geographically
strategic −− near
Persian Gulf oil
and Indian Ocean
ports, and
bordering the
Soviet Central
Asian republics
−− a friendly
Afghanistan was
vital to Moscow's
interests.
Martial law: On December
2, 1981, in a warning to
Solidarity, riot police
crushed a firemen's strike.
Ten days later, Solidarity
met to plan a nationwide
strike. But that night, the
Polish government sent in
the army, arrested
Solidarity's leaders and
banned the trade
movement. Jaruzelski
declared martial law,
suspending civil rights.
Moscow had reimposed its
will. East−West relations
were fractured once more.
Coup: The Soviet Union
sent hundreds of advisers
to Kabul following an
April 1978 military coup
that brought a left−wing
regime to power. But a
group of rebels called
themselves the
Mujahedeen, or Soldiers of
God were mostly peasants,
organized by village
mullahs and landowners,
with weapons captured
from the communists. But
a lot of musulmans
deserted each month.
Invasion: Hafizullah
Amin, launched a
campaign of terror, then
flew to Moscow to talk
with Soviet leader Leonid
Brezhnev about how to
curb Amin's excesses, but
10
he was discovered and the
executed. And with the
coperation of some
leaders, Urss invede
Afghanistan.
Response: In a secret way,
Us sent its money and
troops to help Afghanistan
and make a real resistance,
but that was always in a
secret way sending the
supplies trough other
countries.
Civil War: The real fight
was released, the Soviets
took the control and
bombed all the territory,
always trying to cut the
Mujahedeen's escape
routes.
* Spies
45−90 VIETMAN
AGREE
Hanoi had presented
Kissinger with a draft
The Cold War
was fought on
Withdrawal: The war in
Afghanistan was taking its
toll on the Soviets. With
increasing ruthlessness and
daring, the Mujahedeen
attacked Soviet convoys
bringing oil and weapons
to their army. As many as
2,000 Soviets were killed
each year. In March 1985,
an energetic new leader
took power in the Kremlin.
As Mikhail Gorbachev
met crowds around the
country, opposition to the
war could finally be
expressed. Gorbachev told
the United Nations that the
Soviets would consider
withdrawing from
Afghanistan under a U.N.
agreement. Afghanistan
was to endure more years
of bloodshed. Although
the Soviet troop
withdrawal was completed
by February 1989.
Unknown to one another,
scientists Klaus Fuchs and
11
agreement
* Star
wars
80−88 A NEW
As Vietnam came under
RELATIONSHIP communist control
two fronts. In
Ted Hall both passed on
public, it was a
details of how to detonate
series of
nuclear weapons by
confrontations
"implosion" −− a principle
and crises. But
so new to Soviet science
the East and West that there was no
also battled in the equivalent word in
shadows, as
Russian. The intelligence
intelligence
war was lopsided. The
agents risked their CIA dug a long tunnel
lives to steal
under the Soviet sector to
secrets.
tap telephone cables.
Penkovsky revealed the
Soviets' lack of atomic
warheads and their
problems with guidance
systems. He provided
information that proved
critical to the United States
during the 1962 Cuban
Missile Crisis. On
February 21, 1994, nearly
five years after the fall of
the Berlin Wall, Ames was
arrested for spying, along
with his wife, Rosario,
after years of high living.
During his nearly nine
years on the KGB payroll,
Ames was paid $2.7
million. He identified 25
CIA agents in the Soviet
Union, 10 of whom were
executed
In 1981, Ronald First with the decision of
Reagan for make a new
Reagan −− a
army with more power for
strident Cold
Warrior −− enters his country, he try to make
the White House a deal with the urss. With
on a platform of the war and the fight in the
"making America iron curtain appear the
strong again."
human rights and this
contributed for stopped the
Convinced the
United States is creation of more arm, the
name of the deal was
lagging in the
arms race, Reagan saltII.
increases defense
The "Star Wars" plan said
spending and
proposes a "Star "All attempts at achieving
military superiority over
Wars"
the U.S.S.R. are futile,".
anti−missile
system −−
12
* The wall
comes
89
down
Economic reforms
had met with
George Bush
disaster, and the
Communist Party
USSR
was losing
control.
alarming leaders The meeting ended
in Moscow.
without an agreement −−
but each delegation
realized the discussions
had crossed a historic line.
In 1987, Reagan and
Gorbachev in Washington
to sign the
Intermediate−range
Nuclear Forces Treaty
eliminating an entire class
of U.S. and Soviet nuclear
arms . Reagan's defense of
"Star Wars" prevented
further progress in arms
talks for the remainder of
his presidency.
Economic reforms had met
with disaster, and the
Communist Party was
losing control. The Poles,
like the Hungarians, were
breaking with the
communist system, In
June, elections were held,
The economy was running
down, The refugees could
go to West Germany, but
For nearly three
only if their train crossed
decades, the
East German territory
Berlin Wall
first., Weekly
symbolized the
demonstrations in Leipzig
Iron Curtain that
soon swelled into mass
separated East
protests.
from West. But
by 1989, the Wall
Gorbachev suggested to
was starting to
Honecker that the way to
crumble −− and
stop public protest
by the end of the
engulfing his government
year it would
would be to introduce a
collapse.
German version of
perestroika. West
Berliners arrived from the
other direction and began
to demolish the Wall in
front of the Brandenburg
Gate.
Across the Wall, two
worlds had faced each
other in arms.
•
13
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